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四魔 (Jpn shi-ma )
Four evil or debilitating functions described in Buddhist scriptures as afflicting practitioners and obstructing their practice.
(1) the devil of the five components (Skt skandha-mara ), or hindrances arising from the five components of life;
(2) the devil of earthly desires (klesha-mara), hindrances arising from earthly desires;
(3) the devil of death (also called the devil death, mrityu-mara ), the hindrance arising from the death of oneself or another practitioner; and
(4) the heavenly devil (devaputra-mara), hindrances attributed to the workings of the devil king of the sixth heaven.
The Sanskrit word mara means devil, obstacle, killing, death, or pestilence. Together with the three obstacles of earthly desires, karma, and retribution, the four devils are referred to as the "three obstacles and four devils." See also three obstacles and four devils.