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A Contribution of Emchi D. Yendonov in the development of the Tibetan Medicine at the Ashagat Manba Datsan by Natalia Bolsokhoeva
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Life of Dondub Yendonov
His farther was Yendon Munkuyev, the name of his mother is unknown.
His destiny is unknown. It is possible that he became a victim of repression.
Probably, D. Yendonov has got his primary education in the Atsagat Buddhist monastery Tubten Dargye ling (thub brtan dar rgya gling), the great center of Buddhist learning, education, Enlightenment, culture and book-printing.
He made a great contribution to research and identification of medicinal plants and herbs of the Transbaikalia region and its comparative studying with the original Tibetan and Mongolian and even Indian analogues.
He followed strictly the ethics of Tibetan Doctors described in detail in the Root text “Gyushi“(rGyud bzhi, “Four Medical Tantras”) and feeling a deep Compassion, he treated the poor and orphans free of charge.
It is important to underline that firstly in an ancient India the fundamental principals on social services were worked out and the highly qualified physicians provided medical care without reference to the social group that a patient belonged to and the poor were treated free of charge.
D. Yendonov was very kind to seriously ill patients, visited them on his horse through a long distance having a pharmacy with him. It was consisted of high quality, fresh and hand made medicines effective even in extremely occasions.
Since 1925 the activity of D. Yendonov has been closely connected with the Atsagat manba datsan, its development and transformation of a global medical education within of this prestigious institution.
D. Yendonov worked out a course based on studying of classical Tibetan sources which were recognized as compulsory in the medical college situated on Chagpori Hill (lcags po ri sman ba’i grwa tshang, lit.
In the Museum’s documents there are the facts that from the 21st November until the 21st December 1915 Tibetan doctor has attended a special course on a number of disciplines on Western medicine under the supervising of a well-known at that time doctor Michael Tanskii in a Verkhneudnsk’s hospital (since 1934 Ulan-Ude).
Thanks to his talented abilities the physician has got for a short time a profound knowledge on anatomy, physiology and therapy learned some principals of treatment and pharmacopoeia of Western medicine.
This experience was as a good supplementary knowledge in the practice of traditional Tibetan physician for the composition of Russian-Mongolian dictionary of medical terms in the thirties years of XXth century.
The works of D. Yendonov
The new program of D. Yendonov focused on the composition of the adaptive guidance on Tibetan medicine attracted a number of written sources on Tibetan medical culture and information of modern Western medicine.
The volume textbook consists of four Books (452 pages), for each of them there is its pagination, only right sides of pages are numbered, and reverse sides are not numbered.
These chapters include 84 pages (42 sheets).
In the third book – 106 pages (53 sheets).
The forth book consists of 126 pages (63 sheets) with the descriptions of heart and small intestine in 6 chapters, kidneys and urine - genital system – 13 chapters, liver and gallbladder - 2 chapters - circulation and gas exchange – 2 chapters.
There are 126 illustrations in this work.
The analysis of illustrations was not made; it will be possible likely on the next stage of our research.
Not excluded that D. Yendonov worked hardly on it’s composition after training on Western medicine and experience’s exchange in the hospitals of Saratov during his two successful but short - term study trips.
It should be noticed, that there was not endeavor for the creation of this kind of textbook before D. Yendonov, by content it represents a successful synthesis of Tibetan and Western (allopathic) medicine.
We can say he was a pioneer in this interesting field.
However D. Yendonov having described the illnesses used the classification on solid and hollow organs which are considered as the key classification in Tibetan applied medicine. Solid and hollow organs are connected to each other and form a united organism providing a constancy of inner environment.
An important document is consisting of the first part conventionally called as a dictionary and the second part as a guidance on pharmacology of modern Western medicine is kept in the Museum’s collection of rare Books and manuscripts.
It should be noted that among all terms there are only seven names (№ 16, 23, 32, 44, 61, 74 and 104) without translation.
We have no even the suppositions what was the cause of a limited number of illustrations.
The composer did not give any explanations.
Unfortunately, the text work and illustrated part were not ended.
It may suppose that known repressions didn’t give a possibility to Buryat scholar to continue and complete his important work.
It could be the author supposed to create a lexicographical guidance for adequate translation of special medical terminologies in old Mongolian not only for students, but for the specialists in the area of Tibetan medical science.
Not excluded that Buryat lexicographer had the idea of the creation of the lexical guidance for the translation of needed medical literature from Russian into old Mongolian language and its implement in a basic educational program in medical school in Atsagat.
D. Yendonov made a great contribution to the composing of the visual aids on Tibetan medicine and he was an initiator and author of the many years project on the creation of medical illustrations by Buryat artists and physicians.
Besides he formed a creative group for making copy of a number of plates of the “Atlas of Tibetan medicine”.
In the collection of the Museum there are 65 plates of different formats of medical contain with a separated chapters on Tibetan medicine depicting by director and students of the Atsagat manba datsan on separated album sheets, on whatman paper and primed canvas
They represented an illustrated material, subordinated mainly to the subject and structure of some paragraphs, chapters, and volumes of classical Tibetan medical treatise “Gyushi”, its scientific commentary ‘Lapis Lazuli’ (vaidurya sngon po, Vaidurya - onbo, writing between 1687-1688), text on pharmacology and pharmacognozy “Shelpren” (shel ‘phreng, composing in 1727).
In conclusion it is necessary to underline that highly educated Buryat scholar, skilled teacher, professional emchi and artist D. Yendonov made a great contribution to the development Tibetan medical culture and education at the Atsagat manba datsan.
- Bris cha (“The Atlas of Tibetan Medicine”), consisting of 76 plates. The History Museum of Buryatia named after M.N. Khangalov. Ulan-Ude: Inv. No. 15. A. 18-79. Sizes of the plates 65x88.
- Bris cha (Illustrations on Tibetan Medicine of the Atsagat Medical School). The History Museum of Buryatia, named after M.N. Khangalov. Ulan-Ude: OF 8281.
- Tenzin Phuntsog Shel ‘phren. Aginsk Edition, the end of the XIX c. 223 f.
- Yendonov D. Textbook on anatomy and physiology, manuscript. The History Museum of Buryatia, named after M.N. Khangalov. Ulan-Ude: OF14824 (12) (in old- Mongolian).
- Yendonov D. [[Russian-Mongolian Dictionary of Wiki|medicalterminology}}. The History Museum of Buryatia, named after M.N. Khangalov. Ulan-Ude: OF 18405.
- «Атлас тибетской медицины». Свод иллюстраций к тибетскому медицинскому трактату XVII века «Голубой берилл». 1994. Вступительные статьи Н.Д. Болсохоевой, Д.Б. Дашиева, В.С. Дылыковой - Парфионович, К.М. Герасимовой, Л.Э. Мялля, Т.В. Сергеевой. Перевод текста атласа Т.А. Асеевой, Н.Д. Болсохоевой, Т.Г. Бухашеевой, Д.Б. Дашиева. Пояснительный текст к листам атласа составил на основании исследования тибетских медицинских трактатов «Четверокнижие» и «Голубой берилл» Ю.М. Парфионович, из-во «Галарт», М.,592 P..
- Bolsokhoeva N.D., Gerasimova K.M. the “Atlas of Tibetan Medicine”. Treasures from the History Museum of Buryatia in ‘The Buddha’s Art of Healing. Tibetan Painting Rediscovered. Foreword by His Holiness of the Dalai-Lama XIV. New York: Rizzoli, 1998, pp. 33-60.
- Bolsokhoeva N.D, Tibetan Medical Illustrations from the History Museum of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude in Asian Medicine. Tradition and Modernity. Leiden. Brill Academic Publishers, vol. 3, No. 2. 2007, pp. 347-367.
- Bolsokhoeva Natalia, Lama Agvan Nyima (1907-1990) – The Buddhist Master from Buryat-Mongolia //Biographies of Eminent Mongol Buddhists [PIATS] 2006: Proceedings of the Eleventh Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies. Konigswinter 2006. Halle. 2008, pp. 138-147.
- Bolsokhoeva N.D, Education at the manba datshans of ethnic Buryatia // Buddhist Culture. History, Source Study, Science of Language and Art. The Second Dorzhiev’s Readings. Materials of Conference. St.-Petersburg: 9-11 November, 2006. St.-Petersburg, 2008, pp. 164-168 (in Russian).
- Heittzmann C., Anatomical Atlas. Kiev, 1902, 590 P.
- Ochirova Ts.-Kh.V. Reconstruction of Biography of Dondub Yendonov the Head of Tibetan Nedical school of the Ashagat Arshan (based on the Meterials of the History Museum of Buryatia // Culture of Central Asia^ Written Sources. Publising-House of Buryat Scientific Centre. Ulan-Ude, 2004, pp. 126-136 (in Russian).
- Ochirova., 2004, p. 129
- Bolsokhoeva,2008, p.140.
- Ibid, p. 140
- Ochirova, 2004, pp. 127-128
- Ochirova, 2004. p.. 127
- This medical college founded by the most eminent Tibetan scholar, regent of the Fifth Dalai Lama Nawang Lobsang Gyatso (1617-1682) and skilled politician Desi Sangye Gyatso (1653 – 1705). It was the first state educational Institution through out Tibet, where traditional Tibetan physicians were trained within the framework of united medical school. Unfortunately during ‘cultural revolution’ in China this college was completely destroyed.
- Ochirova, 2004, p. 132.
- The drawings have been copied on canvas by the group of professional Tibetan artists and physicians and traveled quite far. At the beginning of the XX th century they reached ethnic Buryatia. For more detail see: the Atlas of Tibetan Medicine, 1994, pp 26-32; Bolsokhoeva and Gerasimova, 1998, pp. 33-60. Bolsokhoeva, 2007 c, pp. 347-367.
- Solid (in some Tibetan texts they call main organs) organs: heart, lungs, liver, spleen and kidneys.
- Hollow organs: stomach, gall-bladder, small intestines and large intestine, urinary bladder and testicle ? (Tib. samseu)
- Bolsokhoevz, 2008 , pp 164-168
- Heittzmann, 1902, 590 р.
Author: Natalia Bolsokhoeva