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A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms-002

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<poem> (7) 優婆夷upāsikā, female ditto. The first five have left home, the last two remain at home. Tiantai makes nine groups by dividing the last two into four, two remaining at home, two leaving home and keeping the eight commandments.

Others make four groups, i.e. (1), (2), (6), and (7) of the above. Tiantai also has a four-group.

七衆溺水 The seven types who fall into the waters of this life—the first is drowned, the seventh is a Buddha; the seven are icchantika, men amd devas, ordinary believers, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and

Buddhas; also ca11ed 七衆人.

七見 The seven heretical views, v. 見. They are 邪見 , 我見 , 常見 , 斷見 , 戒盜見, 果盜見, and 疑見.

七覺分 or 支, v. 七菩提分.

七證 (師) v. 三師七證.

七識住v. 九有情層.

七識十名 The ten names of the seventh vijñāna, v. manas 未那識.

七財 v. 七法財.

七賢 (七賢位) Also七方便位, 七加行位 The seven grades or steps in virtue preceding the entry into 見道 faultless wisdom, or faultlessness in its first realization. These seven are preliminary to the 七聖 (七聖位). Both are grades of the 倶舍

Kośa school of Hīnayāna.

七賢七聖 The 七聖 are the seven developments of holiness, which follow the 七賢. In the Huayan 華嚴school they are called 七士夫, 七大夫 or七聖人. Cf. 倶舍論25.

七趣 The seven gati or states of sentient beings- nārakagati, in hell; preta, hungry ghost; tiryagyoni, animal; manuṣya, man; ṛṣi, a genius or higher spiritual being; deva, god; asura,

demon of the higher order.

七躬醫王 v. 七佛藥師.

七轉九例The seven Sanskrit cases and nine conjugations. The former are also styled 七聲 and 七例 subanta 蘇漫 (or 盤多); sometimes with the Vocative called 八轉彈. The 九例 or tiṅanta 丁彦多 are also styled 二九韻, i.e. nine parasmai and

nine ātmane.

七逆 (七逆罪) The seven rebellious acts, or deadly sins — shedding a Buddha's blood, killing father, mother, monk, teacher, subverting or disrupting monks, killing an arhat. V. 梵綱經下.

七遮罪 concealing, or non-confession of, any one of the seven deadly sins 七逆, for which it is also used.

七重行樹 The seven avenues of gem trees in Paradise.

七金山 The seven concentric mountain ranges around Sumeru, the central mountain of a universe, each range separated from the others by a sea; see 九山八海. Their names are 持隻, 持軸, 雙木 (雙木樹), 擔見, 馬耳 , 障礙 (or 象鼻), 持地 (or 遠) 山.

七難 The seven calamities in the仁王經, 受持品 during which that sūtra should be recited: sun and moon losing their order (eclipses), conste11ations, irregular, fire, flood, wind-storms, drought, brigands Another set is —

pestilence, invasion, rebe11ion, unlucky stars, eclipses, too early monsoon, too late monsoon. Another is — fire, flood, rakṣas, misrule, evil spirits, cangue and prison, and robbers.

七顚倒 v. 顛倒; viparyaya, the seven inversions, or upside-downs, i.e. contrary or false positions — 想, 見, 心, 常無常, 苦築, 淨不淨, 我無我.

乃至 (1) A translation of antaśas meaning "at least"; and (2) of yāvat, as far as.

乃至一念 Even, or at least, a thought.

乃往 As far as the past (is concerned).

Navan; nava. Nine.

九上緣惑 The nine kinds of error or illusion 見, i.e. views or mental processes, found also in higher conditions of development.

九世 In past, present, and future worlds, each has its own past, present, and future, hence nine worlds or ages.


九世間 The nine lower of the ten worlds, the highest or tenth being the Buddha-world; the nine are always subject to illusion, confused by the senses.

九住心 Nine stages of mental concentration when in dhyāna meditation, viz, 安, 攝 , 解, 轉, 伏, 息, 滅, 性, and 持 (住心).

九條衣 九條袈裟 The lowest rank of the patch-robe, v. 九品大衣.

九儀 The nine "Indian" ways of showing respect, according to Xuanzang — asking about welfare; bowing the head; holding high the hands; bowing with folded hands; bending the knee; kneeling; hands and knees on the ground;

elbows and knees ditto; the whole body prostrate.

九人 v. 九孔.

九劫 The nine kalpas; though Śākyamuni and Maitreya started together, the zeal of the first enabled him to become Buddha nine kalpas sooner; see 大賓積經 111.

九十六術 Also 九十六種外道. Ninety-six classes of non-Buddhists or heretics and their practices, i.e. their six founders and each of them with fifteen schools of disciples; some say 九十五種外道.

九十八使 Also 九十八隨眠 The Hīnayāna ninety-eight tempters, or temptations, that follow men with all subtlety to induce laxity. They are the ninety-eight kleśas, or moral temptations in the realm of 見思 view and

thought, or external and internal ideas.

九句因 A term in Buddhist logic; the nine possible combinations of like and unlike examples in a syllogism.

九品 Nine classes, or grades, i.e. 上上, 上中, 上下 upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, and so on with 中 and 下. They are applied in many ways, e.g. 上品上生 the highest type of incarnate being, to 下品下生, the lowest, with

corresponding karma; see 九品淨土. Each grade may also be subdivided into nine, thus making a list of eighty-one grades, with similar further subdivision ad infinitum.

九品上 An abbreviation for 上品上生 the highest grade in the Pure Land, see 九品淨土.

九品大衣 The 僧伽梨 saṇghāṭī. There are nine grades of the monk's patch robe; the three lowest ranks have 9, 11, and 13 patches, two long patches to one short one; the three middle 15, 17, 19, three long to one short; and the three

superior 21, 23, 25, four long to one short.

九品安養之化生 Those born by transformation from the (heavenly) lotus into the ninefold 安養 Paradise, idem 九品淨土.

九品彌陀 The nine forms of Amitābha, corresponding to the nine departments of the Pure Land; chiefly used with reference to the manual signs of his images.

九品往生 The ninefold future life, in the Pure Land, v. 九品淨土. It is detailed in the sutra of this name whose full title is 阿彌陀三摩地集陀羅尼經.

九品惑 Also九品煩惱 The four 修惑, i.e. illusions or trials in the practice of religion, i.e. desire, anger, pride, ignorance; these are divided each into 九品 q.v.; hence desire has all the nine grades, and so on

with the other three.

九品淨土, also 九品淨刹 , 九品安養, 九品蓮臺, 九品往生 The nine grades, or rewards, of the Pure Land, corresponding to the nine grades of development in the previous life, upon which depends, in the next life, one's distance from

Amitābha, the consequent aeons that are needed to approach him, and whether one's lotus will open early or late.

九品行業 The nine karma to be attained by the conduct or practice through which one may be born into the above Pure Land.

九品覺王 The king or lord of the bodhi of the Pure Land, Amitābha.

九喩 The nine similes: stars, eye-film, lamp, prestidigitation, dew, bubble, dream, lightning, cloud. There is also another group.

九因一果 Nine of the 十界 ten dhātu or regions are causative, the tenth is the effect or resultant.

九地 The nine lands, i.e. the 欲界 realm of desire or sensuous realm the four 色界 realms of form or material forms; and the four 無色界 formless realms, or realms beyond form; v. 九有, 九有情居, 禪 and 定. The

nine realms are:—(1) 欲界五趣地; the desire realm with its five gati, i.e. hells, hungry ghosts, animals, men, and devas. In the four form-realms are:— (2) 離生喜樂地 Paradise after earthly life,

this is also the first dhyāna, or subject of meditation, 初禪. (3) 定生喜樂地 Paradise of cessation of rebirth, 二禪. (4) 離喜妙樂地 Land of wondrous joy after the previous joys, 三禪. (5) 捨念淸淨地 The Pure Land of

abandonment of thought, or recollection (of past delights), 四禪. The four formless, or infinite realms, catur arūpa dhātu, are:—(6) 空無邊處地 ākāśānantyā-yatanam, the land of infinite space; also the

first samādhi, 第一定. (7) 識無邊處地 vijñānānamtyāyatanam, the land of omniscience, or infinite perception, 二定. (8) 無所有處地 ākiñcanyāyatana, the land of nothingness, 三定. (9) 非想非非想處地 [[naivasaṁjñānā-

saṁjñāyatana]], the land (of knowledge) without thinking or not thinking, or where there is neither consciousness nor unconsciousness, i.e. above either; this is the 四定. Eitel says that in the last four,

"Life lasts 20,000 great kalpas in the 1st, 40,000 in the 2nd, 60,000 in the 3rd, and 80,000 great kalpas in the 4th of these heavens."


九地九品思惑 v. 八十一品思惑.

九域 idem 九地 and 九界.

九執 The nine graha, i.e. "seizers" or upholders, i.e. luminaries or planets, idem 九曜.

九士生地 idem Kuśinagara; v. 拘.

九孔 Also 九入, 九竅, 九漏, 九流, 九瘡 the nine orifices, cavities, entrances, leakages, or suppurations, i.e. the two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, mouth, and two lower organs.

九字 The nine magical characters 臨兵鬪者皆陳列在前 implying that the armed forces are arrayed against the powers of evil. After reciting these words, four vertical and five horizontal lines, forming a grid, are drawn in the air to show

that the forces are arrayed. It was used among Taoists and soldiers, and is still used in Japan, especially when going into the mountains.

九字曼荼羅 The nine character maṇḍala, i.e. the lotus, with its eight petals and its centre; Avalokiteśvara may be placed in the heart and Amitābha on each petal, generally in the shape of the Sanskrit "seed"

letter, or alphabetic letter.

九宗 The eight sects 八宗 (q.v.) plus the 禪宗 Chan or Zen, or the Pure-land or Jōdo sect.

九尊 The nine honoured ones in the eight-petalled hall of the Garbhadhātu, i.e. Vairocana in the centre of the lotus, with four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the petals, the lotus representing the human

heart; v. 五佛.

九居 v. 九有情居.

九山八海 The nine cakravāla, or concentric mountain ranges or continents, separated by eight seas, of a universe. The central mountain of the nine is Sumeru 須彌 and around it are the ranges Khadiraka 佶提羅, Īṣādhara 伊沙陀羅,

Yugaṃdhara 遊乾陀羅, Sudarśaṇa 蘇達梨舍那, Aśvakarṇa 安濕縛竭拏, Nemiṃdhara 尼民陀羅, Vinataka 毘那多迦, Cakravāda 斫迦羅; v. 七金山. The Abhidharma Kośa gives a different order: Sumeru, Yugaṃdhara, Īṣādhara,

Khadiraka, Sudarśana, Aśvakarṇa, Vinataka, Nemiṃdhara, with an "iron-wheel" mountain encompassing all; there are also differences in the detail.

九參上堂 The nine monthly visits or ascents to the hall for worship, every third day.

九徧知 The nine forms of complete knowledge of the four axioms and the cutting off of passion, delusion, etc., in the processes of 見 and 修, as distinct from 無學.

九徹 The nine penetrating fames of the sword of Acala, 不動明王, emblem of the destruction of illusions and hindrances in the nine realms, v. 九地; also used for the 九尊 q.v.

九心輪 The nine evolutions, or movements of the mind in perception.

九想 (九想觀) or 九相 navasaṃjñā. Meditation on a corpse in order to curb desire; one of the meditations on the unclean: vyādhmātakasaṃjñā, its tumefaction; vinīlakas., its blue, mottled colour; vipadumakas.,

its decay; vilohitakas., its mess of blood,etc.; vipūyakas., its discharges and rotten flesh; vikhāditakas., its being devoured by birds and beasts; vikṣiptakas., its dismembering; asthis., its bones;

vidagdhakas., their being burnt and returning to dust.

九惱 also 九難, 九橫, 九罪報 The nine distresses borne by the Buddha while in the flesh, i.e. the two women Sundarā and Cañcā; others from Devadatta, Ajātaśatru, etc.; v. 智度論 9.

九慢 The nine forms of pride: that I surpass, am equal to, not so bad as others; that others surpass, are as bad as, are inferior to me; that none surpass, are equal to, or worse than me.


九方便 The nine suitable stages in religious service; cf. 大日經, 7; 作禮 salutation to the universal Triratna; 出罪 repentance and confession; 歸依 trust (in the Triratna); 施身 giving of self (to the Tathāgata); 發

菩提心 vowing to devote the mind to bodhi; 隨喜 rejoicing (in all good); 勸請 beseeching (all Tathāgatas to rain down the saving law); 奉請法身 praying for the Buddha-nature in self and others for entry in the [[Pure

Land]]; 迴向 demitting the good produced by the above eight methods, to others, universally, past, present, and future. This form of service is generally performed before engaging in esoteric observances. The verses in which these

nine stages are presented are of a commendably devotional character.

九方便十波羅蜜菩薩 Of the ten pāramitā bodhisattvas, q.v., in the tenth or empyrean court of the Garbhadhātu, the first nine are associated with the above nine progressive steps, the tenth is associated with the last four of the


九會 (九會曼陀羅) The nine groups in the diamond-realm maṇḍala.

九會說 The Huayan sutra 華嚴經 in its older sixty chuan version is said to have been delivered at eight assemblies in seven places; the newer eighty chuan at nine assemblies in seven places; cf. 九處.

九曜 九執 q.v. Navagraha. The nine luminaries: 日 Āditya, the sun; 月 Sōma, the moon; the five planets, i.e. 火星 Aṅgāraka, Mars; 水 Budha, Mercury; 木 Bṛhaspati, Jupiter; 金

Sukra, Venus; and 土 Śanaiścara, Saturn; also 羅睺 Rāhu, the spirit that causes eclipses; and 計都 Ketu, a comet. Each is associated with a region of the sky and also with a bodhisattva, etc.,

e.g. the sun with Guanyin, Venus with Amitābha, etc.

九有 The nine realities, states, or conditions in which sentient beings enjoy to dwell, v. next.

九有情居 (or 九有情處), 九衆生居, 九居, 九門, see also 九有, 九地, 九禪 and 九定; the nine happy abodes or states of sentient beings of the 長阿含經 9; they are the 七識住seven abodes or stages of perception or consciousness to which are added

the fifth and ninth below: (1) 欲界之人天 the world and the six deva-heavens of desire in which there is variety of bodies (or personalities) and thinking (or ideas); (2) 梵衆天the three brahma heavens where

bodies differ but thinking is the same, the first dhyāna heaven; (3) 極光淨天 the three bright and pure heavens where bodies are identical but thinking diners, the second dhyāna heaven; (4) 遍淨天the three

universally pure heavens where bodies and thinking are the same, the third dhyāna heaven; (5) 無想天 the no-thinking or no-thought heaven, the highest of the four dhyāna heavens; (6) 空無邊處 limitless

space, the first of the formless realms; (7) 識無邊處 limitless percepton, the second ditto; (8) 無所有處 nothingness, the place beyond things, the third ditto; and (9) 非想非非想beyond thought or non-thought, the fourth ditto.

九梵 The nine heavens of the fourth dhyāna heaven.

九業 The nine kinds of karma, i.e. the desire realm and the form realm each has conduct that causes karma, does not cause karma, or is neutral, making 6; in the formless realm there are non-causative

deeds, neutrality, and immortality, making 9; 成實論 8.

九橫 See also 九惱.

九橫死 The nine kinds of irregular death; there are two groups, one connected with improper food or meals, another with improper medical treatment, law‐breaking, drowning, etc. .

九橫經 A sūtra translated in the later Han dynasty by 安世高 An Shigao.

九次第定 The samādhi of the nine degrees, i.e. the four dhyānas 四禪, the four realms beyond form 四無色, and the samādhi beyond sensation and thought 滅受想定; see 九有情居 and 九地.

九流 九漏 idem | 孔.

九無學 The nine grades (of arhats) who are no longer learning, having attained their goal.

九無爲 The nine kinds of, and meditations on, 無爲 q.v. There are two somewhat different groups; one has 擇滅, 非擇滅, 虛空, 空無邊處, 識無邊處, 無所有處, 非想非非想處 (v. 九有情處), 緣起支性, and 聖道支性.

九無間道 In every universe there are nine realms, in every realm there are nine illusions in practice 修, and nine ways of relief; hence the nine ways of overcoming hindrances; also there are nine uninterrupted ways

of advance from one stage to another of the nine stages of the 三界 trailokya, by the wisdom of overcoming delusion in each stage; also 九無礙道 ; and cf. 九解脫道.

九界 (九界情執) The nine realms of error, or subjection to the passions, i.e. all the realms of the living except the tenth and highest, the Buddha-realm.


九瘡 idem 九孔.

九祖 (相承) The succession of nine founders of the Tiantai School; v. 天台九宗.

九種大禪 The nine kinds of Mahāyāna dhyāna for bodhisattvas, given in the 菩薩地持經 6 and in other works; they are associated with the patience 忍 pāramitā and with the dhyāna of the super-realms. The nine are meditations: (1)

自性禪 on the original nature of things, or mind as the real nature, from which all things derive; (2) 一切禪 on achieving the development of self and all others to the utmost; (3) 難禪 on the difficulties of certain dhyāna

conditions; (4) 一切禪 on the entrance to all the (superior) dhyāna conditions; (5) 善人禪 on the good; (6) 一切行禪 on all Mahāyāna practices and actions; (7) 除煩惱禪 on ridding all sufferers from the miseries of passion and

delusion; (8) 此世他世樂禪 on the way to bring joy to all people both in this life and hereafter; (9) 淸淨淨禪 on perfect purity in the termination of all delusion and distress and the obtaining of perfect enlightenment.

九竅 v. 九孔.

九結 The nine bonds that bind men to mortality: love, hate, pride, ignorance, (wrong)views, possessions (or grasping), doubt, envy, meanness (or selfishness). They are the 六隨眠 plus [[Wikipedia:


grasping]], envy, and meanness.

九經 idem 九部經.

九縛一脫 The nine states of bondage and the one state of liberation. The nine states are the hells of fire, of blood, of swords; asuras, men, devas, māras, nirgranthas, form and formless states; these are all

saṃsāra states, i.e. of reincarnation. The one state of freedom, or for obtaining freedom, is nirvāṇa.

九罪報 v. 九惱.

九蓮 The paradise of Amitābha, i.e. 九品蓮臺.

九華山 Formerly called 九子山, which was changed by the Tang poet Li Bai to the above; it is one of the four sacred mountains of Buddhism, situated in Anhui, and its patron Bodhisattva is Dizang 地藏.

九衆 The 七衆 q.v. plus junior monks and nuns, i.e. novices who have received the eight commandments.

九衆生居 v. 九有情居.

九解脫道 In the nine stages trailokya三界 each has its possible delusions and erroneous performances; the latter are overcome by the九無間道q.v.

九道 The nine truths, or postulates: impermanence; suffering; voidness (or unreality of things); no permanent ego, or soul; love of existence or possessions, resulting in suffering; the opposite (or

fear of being without them), also resulting in suffering; the cutting off of suffering and its cause; nirvāṇa with remainder still to be worked out; complete nirvāṇa.

九識 The kinds of cognition or consciousness (vijñāna); those of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, mind, mānas (or阿陁那識 ādāna), i.e. mental perception; 阿賴耶 ālāya, bodhi-consciousness,

and 阿摩羅識 amala, purified or Buddha-consciousness. There is considerable difference as to the meaning of the last three.

九輪 The nine wheels or circles on the top of a pagoda, also called 空輪the wheels of space; the nine should only be on the stūpa of a Buddha, others are entitled to as many as eight and a few as one.

九轍 Kumārajīva's nine divisions of the meaning of the Lotus Sūtra, whence he was styled the 九轍法師.

九道 idem 九有情居.

九部 (九部經) Nine of the Hīnayāna twelve classes of sūtras, that is, all except the 方廣, 授記 and 無門自說. Generally the term is thus interpreted, but there is also a Mahāyāna division of nine of the twelve sūtras, i.e. all except the 緣起, 譬喩,

論議. These are: sūtras, the Buddha's sermons; geyas, metrical pieces; vyākaraṇas, prophecies; gāthās, chants or poems; udāṇas, impromptu or unsolicited addresses; ityuktas, or itivṛttakas, marratives; jātakas, stories of former

lives of Buddha, etc.; vaipulyas, expanded sūtras, etc.; adbhutadharmas, miracles, etc.; v. 十二部經.


九門 v. 九有情居.

九難 v 九惱.

九類生 The nine kinds of birth; the four from the womb, egg, moisture, transformation are common to devas, earth, and the hells; the five others are birth into the heavens of form, of non-form, of

thought, of non-thought, and of neither (i.e. beyond either).

九鬼 The nine classes of ghosts are of three kinds: without means, small means, rich. The first group have 炬口 burning torch-like mouths, or 鍼口 narrow needle mouths, or 臭口 stinking mouths; the second group have hair like needles,

or stinking hair, or tumours; the rich ghosts haunt sacrifices to the dead, or eat human leavings, or live truculently.

九陰 The five elements together with time, space, mind (manas), and soul (ātman) according to the teaching of the "heretical" Vaiśeṣika sect; v. 鞞.

九齋日 the nine kinds of days of abstinence on which no food is eaten after twelve o'clock: noon and the commands are observed. They are: Every day of the first month, of the fifth month, of the ninth month, and the following six days

of each month, 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th. On these days Indra and the four deva-kings investigate the conduct of men.

了 To end, see through, understand, thoroughly, know, make clear, thoroughly, completely, final.

了了見 The complete vision obtained when the body is in complete rest and the mind freed from phenomenal disturbance.

了因 A revealing cause, v. 二因 , i.e. 生因 a producing or direct cause, e.g. a seed; and 了因 a revealing "cause", e.g. a light, as indicating the effect; knowledge or wisdom.

了因佛性 The second of the three Buddha-nature "causes", i.e. 正因佛性 is the 眞如 as direct cause of attaining the perfect Buddha-nature, associated with the 法身; 了因佛性 is the revealing or enlightening cause, associated with

the Buddha-wisdom; 緣因佛性 is the environing cause, e.g. his goodness and merits which result in deliverance, or salvation.

了徹禪定 The mastery of abstract contemplation.

了悟 Complete enlightenment, or clear apprehension.

了教 A noted disciple named Ajñāta-Kauṇḍinya, v. 阿, also known as拘鄰鄰,了本際 and 知本際. He is described as "a prince of Magadha, maternal uncle of Śākyamuni, whose first disciple he became". He is "to be reborn as Buddha

under the name of Samanṭa-Prabhāsa". Eitel.

了知 Parijñā, thorough knowledge.

了義 Revelation of the whole meaning, or truth, as 不了義 is partial revelation adapted (方便) to the capacity of the hearers.

了義教 Teaching of the whole truth.

了義經 The sūtras containing it. Mahāyāna counts all Hīnayāna sutras as 不了義經; Mahāyāna sūtras are divided into both kinds according to different schools.

了達 Thorough penetration, clear understanding.

二 Dvā, dvau. Two; dvitīya, second.

二三 The six non-Buddhist philosophers, 二三邪徒.

二世 This life and the hereafter.

二世尊 Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna, the Buddha 多賓 in the eleventh chapter of the Lotus Sūtra; see also 二尊.

二世間 The two realms of conscious or sentient beings 有情世間, and unconscious or material things 器世間.

二乘 dviyāna. The two vehicles conveying to the final goal. There are several definitions: (1) Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna. (2) 聲聞 and 緣覺 or 聲覺二乘 . Śrāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. (3) 二乘作佛 The Lotus Sūtra teaches that śrāvakas and

pratyekas also become Buddhas. (4) 三一二乘 The "two vehicles" of "three" and "one", the three being the pre-Lotus ideas of śrāvaka, pratyeka, and bodhsattva, the one being the doctrine of the Lotus Sūtra which

combined all three in one.

二九五部 The eighteen Hīnayāna sects and the five Vinaya 律sects.

二九韻 The eighteen 丁岸哆 tiṇanta, personal endings of the Sanskrit verb.


二二合緣 A method of meditation by coupling 法 with 身, 受, 心, respectively. Cf. 四念處觀.

二五食 The two groups of food, each of five kinds: bhojanīya, v. 蒲 cereals, fish, and flesh; and khādanīya, v. 佉fruits and sweetmeats.

二佛並坐 The two Buddhas sitting together, v. 二世尊.

二佛中門 The period between the nirvāṇa of Śākyamuni and the future advent of Maitreya, i.e. the present period.

二佛性 Dual aspects of the Buddha-nature, i.e., 理佛性 the Buddha-nature which is fundamentally in all sentient beings, and 行佛性 the functioning Buddha-nature active and effective in some, but not in others, a doctrine of

the 法相 school.

二佛身 v. 二身.

二修 Two kinds of devotion or practice, 專修 and 雜修 sole or single-minded, and miscellaneous or varied, defined as (1) chief or sole duty, and (2) aids thereto or adjunctive observances. Also 緣修 causative devotion of a bodhisattva in

former life, and 眞修 its actual manifestation here.

二倶犯過 or 二人倶犯 A term applied by Tiantai in criticism of Huayan, which while it is a 圓敎 perfect or complete doctrine, yet has the "crudities" of the 別敎 and comes short of the really perfect Lotus doctrine.

二假 Two hypotheses in the 唯識論1:— (1) 無體隨情假the non-substantial hypothesis, that there is no substantial entity or individuality, i.e. no 見分 and 相分, no 實我 and 實法, no real subject and object but that all is

transient subject and object, but that all is transient emotion; (2) 有體施設假 the factual hypothesis, that there is entity or individuality, subject and object, etc.

二光 The dual lights, i.e. 色光 the halo from a Buddha's body and 心光 the light from his mind. Also 常光 the constant halo from the bodies of Buddhas and 神通光 the supernatural light sent out by a

Buddha (e.g. from between his eyebrows) to illuminate a distant world.

二入 The two ways of entering the truth:— 理入 by conviction intellectually, 行入 by (proving it in) practice.

二八 The sixteen meditations. V. 十六觀.

二六 Twelve.

二六之緣 idem 十二因緣.

二六之願 the twelve vows of 藥師.

二六時中 during the twelve (=twenty-four) hours of the day.

二凡 The two external and internal, or ordinary ranks, 外凡 and 内凡, in the first forty of the fifty-two stages 位; the 外凡 are ordinary believers who pursue the stages of 十信; the 内凡 are the zealous, who are advancing through the next three

groups of stages up to the fortieth.

二出 The two modes of escape from mortality, 堅出 the long way called the 聖道門 or 自力敎, i.e. working out one's own salvation; and 橫出 the across or short way of the Pure-land sect or 他力敎 faith in or invocation of another, i.e. Amitābha.

二利 The dual benefits, or profits: benefiting or developing oneself and others; 自利 in seeking enlightenment in bodhisattvahood, 利他 in saving the multitude. Hīnayāna "seeks only one's own benefit"; the bodhisattva rule seeks both

one's own benefit and that of others, or personal improvement for the improving of others.

二力 Dual powers; there are three definitions: (1) 自力 one's own strength, or endeavours, i.e. salvation by cultivating 戒, 定, and 慧; 他カ another's strength, e.g. the saving power of Amitābha. (2) 思擇力 Power of thought

in choosing (right principles); 修習力 power of practice and performance. (3) 有力 and 無力 positive and negative forces: dominant and subordinate; active and inert energy.

二加 The dual aid bestowed by the Buddha, 顯加 manifest or external aid bestowed by the Buddha, in the blessings and powers of this life; 冥加 invisible aid bestowed by the Buddha, in getting rid of sins, increasing

virtue, etc.

二勝果 The two surpassing fruits, or rewards given by Buddha, i.e. final nirvāṇa and perfect enlightenment.

二十 viṃśati. Twenty.

二十二品 Twenty-two of the 三十七道品 q.v.; they are 四念處, 四正勤、四如意, 足五根 and 五力.


二十二根 The twenty-two roots, organs, or powers, v. 根. They are: (1) 眼根 eye, cakṣurindriya; (2) 耳 根 ear, śrotrendriya; (3) 鼻根 nose, ghrāṇendriya; (4) 舌根 tongue, jihvendriya; (5) 身根 body,

kāyendriya; (6) 意根 mind, manaīndriya (the above are the 六根); (7) 女根 female organ, strīndriya; (8) 男根 male organ, puruṣendriya; (9) 命根 life, jīvitendriya; (10) 苦根 suffering (or pain), duḥkhendriya; (11) 樂根 pleasure,

sukhendriya; (12) 憂根 sorrow, daurmanasyendriya; (13) 喜根 joy, saumanas-yendriya; (14) 捨根 abandoning, upekṣendriya (from 10 to 14 they are the 五受); (15) 信根 faith, śraddhendriya; (16) 精進根 zeal, vīryendriya; (17) 念根

memory, smṛtīndriya; (18) 定根 meditation, or trance, samādhīndriya; (19) 慧根 wisdom, prajñendriya (these are the 信等之五根); (20) 未知當知根 the power for learning (the Four Noble Truths)

anājñātamājñāsyāmīndriya; (21) 巳知根 the power of having learned (them), ājñendriya; (22) 具知根 the power of perfect knowledge (of them), ājñātādvīndriya (these three are called the 無漏根) .

二十二門 The Abhidharma-kośa divides the eighteen realms 十八界 into twenty-two categories. Also, there are twenty-two modes or processes in the perfect development of a Buddha and his works.

二十五條 The monk's twenty-five-patch garment, v. 袈.

二十五圓通 The twenty-five kinds of perfect understanding of the truth; they refer to the 六塵, 六根, 六識, and 七大; disciples of the Buddha are said each to have acquired a special knowledge of one of these twenty-five and to

have been recognized as its authority, e. g. Guanyin of the ear, Dignāga of sound, etc.

二十五方便 Tiantai's twenty-five aids to meditation, v. 止觀.

二十五有 The twenty-five forms of existence, fourteen in the desire realms 欲界, seven in the realms of form 色界, and four in the formless realms 無色界, v. 有.

二十五神 The twenty-five guardian deities who protect any keeper of the commandments, i.e. five for each of the commandments against killing, robbing, adultery, lying, and drinking.

二十五菩薩 The twenty-five bodhisattvas who protect all who call on Amitābha i. e. 觀音, 大勢至, 藥王, 藥上, 普賢, 法自在, 師子吼, 陀羅尼, 虛空藏, 佛藏, 菩藏, 金藏, 金剛藏, 山海慧, 光明王, 華嚴王, 衆賓王, 月光王, 日照王, 三昧王, 定自在王, 大自在王, 自象王, 大威德王 and 無邊身菩薩.

二十五點 Each of the five 更 night watches is divided into five making twenty-five dian.

二十億耳 Sroṇakoṭīviṁśa. Defined as the most zealous of Śākyamuni's disciples, who became an arhat. Having lived in a heaven for ninety-one kalpas, where his feet did not touch the ground, he was born with hair on his

soles two inches long, an omen which led his father and brothers to endow him with twenty kotis of ounces of gold, hence this name. v. 智度論 22.

二十八天 The twenty-eight heavens, or devalokas: six of the desire-world 欲界, eighteen of the form-world 色界, and four arūpa or formless heavens 無色界. The heavens of the world of form are sixteen

according to the 薩婆多部 Sarvāstivāda School, seventeen according to 經部 Sūtra School, and eighteen according to the 上座 Sthavirāḥ.

二十八宿 The twenty-eight nakṣatras or constellations, divided into four mansions of seven each, referred to East, or Spring; South, Summer; West, Autumn; and North, Winter. The month-names derived from them differ slightly in form.

E.: 角 Citrā, 亢 Niṣṭyā (or Svāti), 氏 Viśākhā, 房 Anurādhā, 心Rohiṇī, Jyeṣṭhaghnī (or Jyesthā), 尾 Mūlabarhaṇī (or Mūla), 箕 Pūrva-Aṣādha. N.: 斗 Uttara-Aṣāḍhā, 牛 Abhijit, 女Śravaṇā, 盧Śraviṣṭha (or Dhaniṣṭhā) 危Śatabhiṣā, 室 Pūrva-Proṣṭhapada, 壁

Uttara-Proṣṭhapada. W.: 奎 Revatī, 婁 Aśvayuj (or Aśvinī), 胃 Apabharaṇī (or Bharaṇī), 昴 Kṛttikā, 畢 Rohiṇī, 觜 Invakā (or Mṛgaśiras), 參 Bāhu (or Ārdrā). S.: 井 Punarvasu, 鬼 Tiṣya (or Puṣya), 柳 Aśleṣā, 星 Maghā, 張 Pūrva-Phalgunī, 翼

Uttara-Phalgunī, 軫 Hastā.

二十八有 or 生The twenty-eight forms of existence, or birth. 二十九有 the twenty-ninth is the non-existent; v. 有.

二十八祖 The twenty-eight Buddhist patriarchs as stated by the Mahāyānists. The Tiantai school reckons twenty-three, or twenty-four, with the addition of Śaṇakavāsa, contemporary with his predecessors, but the Chan school

reckons twenty-eight: (1) Mahākāśyapa, 摩訶迦葉 (摩訶迦葉波); (2) Ānanda, 阿難; (3) Śāṇakavāsa, 商那和修; 4) Upagupta, 優婆毱多; (5) Dhṛṭaka, 提多迦; (6) Mikkaka, or Miccaka, or Micchaka, 彌遮迦; (7) Vasumitra, 婆須蜜; (8) Buddhanandi, 佛陀難提; (9)

Buddhamitra, 伏駄蜜多; (10) Pārśva, or Pārśvika, 波栗溼縛or 脇尊者; (11) Puṇyayaśas 那尊耶舍; (12) Aśvaghoṣa, 馬鳴大士; (13) Kapimala, 迦毘摩羅; (14) Nāgārjuna, 龍樹; (15) Kāṇadeva, 迦那提婆; (16) Rāhulata, 羅睺羅多; (17) Saṅghanandi, 僧伽難提; (18) Gayāśata, 伽耶

舍多; (19) Kumārata, 鳩摩羅多; (20) Jayata, 闍夜多; (21) Vasubandhu, 婆修盤頭; (22) Manorhita, 摩撃羅; (23) Haklena, 鶴輸勒; (24) Ārasiṁha, 師子尊者; (25) Basiasita, 婆舍新多; (26) Puṇyamitra, 不如密多; (27) Prajñātāra, 般若多羅; (28) Bodhidharma, 菩提達磨.

二十八藥叉 The twenty-eight yakṣas.


二十八部衆 The thousand-hand Guanyin has twenty-eight groups of 大仙衆great ṛṣis or genii, under the direction of the 孔雀王 Peacock king, Mayūrarāja; also each of the 四天王 mahārājas, or guardians of the four regions, has the same

provision of demons, known as 鬼神衆 company of spirits.

二十唯識 The name of the 唯識二十論.

二十天 The twenty devas. (1) 大梵天王 (Mahābrahman), (2) 帝釋尊天(Śakra devānām Indra), (3) 多聞天王 (Vaiśravana, 毘沙門, or Dhanada), (4) 持國天王(Dhṛtarāṣṭra), (5) 增長天王 (Virūḍhaka), (6) 廣目天王 (Virūpākṣa), (7) 金剛密迹(?Gunyapati), (8) 摩醯首羅

(Maheśvara), (9) 散脂 (迦) 大將 (Pañcika), (10) 大辯才天 (Sarasvatī), (11) 大功德天 (Lakṣmī), (12) 韋驛天神 (Skanda), (13) 堅牢地神 (Pṛthivī), (14) 善提樹神 (Bodhidruma, or Bodhi-vṛkṣa), (15) 鬼子母神 (Hāritī), (16) 摩利支天 (Marīci), (17) 日宮天子 (Sūrya),

(18) 月宮天子 (Candra, etc. There are many different names), (19) 裟竭龍王(Sāgara), (20) 閣摩羅王 (Yama-rāja).

二十智 The twenty kinds of wisdom or knowledge as denied by Tiantai i.e. the Hīnayāna (or三藏) with seven kinds, 通教 five, 別教four, and 圓教 four; cf. 智.

二十犍度 The twenty skandhas intp. as 章篇 sections or chapters, i.e. the thirty-one to the fifty-three chuan of the 四分律, beginning with受戒犍度 and ending with 雜犍度; they are twenty sections containing rules for the monastic life

and intercourse.

二十部 The eighteen Hīnayāna sects, together with the two original assemblies of elders.

二受 The dual receptivity or karma of pleasure and pain, the physical and the mental, i.e. 身 and 心.

二吉羅 The two duṣkṛta, doing evil and speaking evil; v. 突吉羅 .

二和 The double harmony or unity, i. e. 理 and 事, indicating those who are united in doctrine and practice, or the saṅgha.

二善 The two good things, 定善 the good character that arises from meditation or contemplation mdash especially of the Pure Land; 散善 the good character attainable when, though not in meditation, one controls oneself in

thought, word, and deed;. Also 未生善 the good character not yet evolved; and 已生善 the good character already evolved;. Also 事理善 goodness in theory and practice.

二因 Two causes, of which there are various definitions: (1) 生因 The producing cause (of all good things); and 了因 the revealing or illuminating cause i.e. knowledge, or wisdom. (2) 能生因 The 8th 識 q. v.: the cause

that is able to produce all sense and perceptions, also all good and evil; and 方便因 the environmental or adaptive cause, which aids the 8th 識, as water or earth does the seed, etc. (3) 習因 or 同類因 Practice or habit

as cause e. g. desire causing desire; and 報因 or 果熟因 the rewarding cause, or fruit-ripening cause, e. g. pleasure or pain caused by good or evil deeds. (4) 正因 Correct or direct cause i.e. the

Buddha-nature of all beings; and 緣因 the contributory cause, or enlightenment (see 了因 above) which evolves the 正因 or Buddha-nature by good works. (5) 近因 Immediate or direct cause and 遠因 distant or indirect cause

or causes.

二圓 The two perfect doctrines, a term of the Tiantai School, called 今圓 (also 開顯圓 and 絶待圓) and 昔圓 (also 相待圓 ). 今圓 is the present really perfect 一實 doctrine arising from the Lotus Sūtra; 昔圓 is the older, or 相待

comparatively speaking perfect doctrine of the pre-Lotus teaching, that of the 藏, 通, and 別 schools; but the older was for limited salvation and not universal like the 今圓; these two are also termed 部圓 and 教圓 . The Huayan

school has a division of the two perfections into 漸圓 gradual perfection and 頓圓 immediate perfection.

二嚴 The dual adornment, that of 智慧 wisdom and that of 福德; good deeds, 涅槃經 27.

二土 There are three groups: 性土 and 相土 : the former is the ubiquitous, unadulterated or innocent 法性之理 dharma-name, or essence of things; the latter is the form-nature, or formal existence of the dharma, pure or

impure according to the mind and action of the living. The 淨土 and 穢土 are Pure-land or Paradise; and impure land, e.g. the present world. In the Pure-land there are also 報土 , the land in which a Buddha

himself dwells and 化土 in which all beings are transformed. There are other definitions, e. g. the former is Buddha's Paradise, the latter the world in which he dwells and which he is transforming, e. g. this Sahā-world.

二執 The two (erroneous) tenets, or attachments: (1) 我執 or 人執 that of the reality of the ego, permanent personality, the ātman, soul or self. (2) 法執 that of the reality of dharma, things or phenomena. Both

are illusions. "All illusion arises from holding to the reality of the ego and of things."


二報 The dual reward. (1) 依報 or 依果 The material environment on which a person depends, resulting from former karma, e.g. country, house, property, etc. (2) 正報 or 正果 his direct reward, i. e. his body, or person.

二增菩薩 The two superior kinds of bodhisattvas, 智增菩薩 bodhisattva superior in wisdom (chiefly beneficial to self); 悲增菩薩 bodhisattva superior in pity for others and devotion to their salvation.

二天 The two devas. (1) 日天 and 月天Sun-deva and Moon-deva. (2) 同生天A deva born simultaneously with the individual and 同名天 a deva with the same name as the individual; both devas have the

duty of watching over the individual. (3) 梵天 and 帝釋天 Brahma and Indra.

二天三仙 The two devas are Maheśvara and Viṣṇu; the three ṛṣi are Kapila, Ulūka, and Ṛṣabha; v. 迦, 優, and 勒.

二女 The two sisters, one the deva 功德女 "merit" or "achieving", who causes people to acquire wealth; the other, 黑闇女 the "dark" one, who causes them to spend and waste; these sisters always accompany each other.

二如 There are various definitions of the two aspects of the 眞如 bhūtatathatā. (1) (a) 不變眞如 The changeless essence or substance, e.g. the sea; (b) 隨緣眞如 its conditioned or ever-changing forms, as in the phenomenal world,

e.g. the waves. (2) (a) 離言眞如 The inexpressible absolute, only mentally conceivable; (6) 依言眞如 aspects of it expressible in words, its ideal reflex. (3) (a) 空眞如 The absolute as the void, e.g. as space, the sky, a clear

mirror; (b) 不空眞如 the absolute in manifestation, or phenomenal, e. g. images in the mirror: the womb of the universe in which are all potentialities. (4) (a) 在纏眞如The Buddha-nature in bonds, i.e. all beings

in suffering; (b) 出纏真如the Buddha-nature set free by the manifestation of the Buddha and bodhisattvas. (5) (a) 有垢眞如The Buddha-nature defiled, as in unenlightened man, etc., e.g. the water-lily with its roots

in the mud; (b) 無垢眞如 the pure Buddha-nature, purifed or bright as the full moon. (6) 安立 and 非安立眞如 similar to the first definition given above.

二妙 The dual "marvel" of the Lotus sūtra, the 相待妙 or comparative view, i.e. compared with all previous teaching, which is the rough groundwork; and the 絕待妙 or view of it as the perfection of teaching; hence it is

"wonderful" in comparison with all previous doctrine, and absolutely 'wonderful' in itself; cf. 二圓.

二始 The two beginnings, i.e. of Hīnayāna, by the preaching of the 阿含 Āgama sūtras; and of Mahāyāna by the preaching of the 華嚴 Avataṁsaka sūtra.

二字 Double-letters, i.e. a monk-because a monk's name consists of two characters.

二字文殊 The two-character Mañjuśrī.

二學 The two kinds of study or learning: (a) reading and reciting, (b) meditation and thought.

二宗 Two theories or schools stated by the Huayan (Kegon) school as 法相宗 and 法性宗 q.v., known also as 相宗 and 性宗. There are ten point of difference between them. Another division is the 空宗 and 性宗 q. v.

二密 The two esoteric aspects, i.e. 理密 and 事密 , the former referring to the doctrine, the latter to the esoteric acts of a Tathāgata.

二尊 The two honoured ones, Śākyamuni and Amitābha.

二尊一教 (or 致) The two honored ones (Śākyamuni and Amitābha) as one in teaching.

二尊二教 The two honored ones (Śākyamuni and Amitābha) as teacher and saviour, with reference to the teaching of the way of salvation of the first, and the consequent saving vows of the second.

二世尊二師 The two sages, or preceptors in the Lotus Sūtra, Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna. Also sages and ordinary preceptors.

二序 The two kinds of introductory phrase: (a) the ordinary opening phrase of a sutra— "Thus have I heard"; and (b) specific openings referring to the circumstances in which the sūtra was produced.

二往 再往 Twice over, a second time.

二德 The two kinds of power or virtue are 智德 and 斷德; also 悲德 and 智德; also 性德 and 修德; q.v. and v. 德.


二心 The two minds, 眞心 the original, simple, pure, natural mind of all creatures, the Buddha-mind, i.e. 如來藏心; and 妄心 the illusion-mind, which results in complexity and confusion. Also, 定心 the meditative

mind, or mind fixed on goodness; and the 散心 the scattered, inattentive mind, or mind that is only good at intervals.

二忍 The two patiences or endurances: 衆生忍 patience towards all under all circumstances; 無生(法)忍 calm rest, as a bodhisattva、in the assurance of no (re-) birth, i.e. in immortality. Also 安受苦忍 patience under

suffering, and 觀察法忍 imperturbable examination of or meditation in the law or of all things. Also, physical and mental patience, or endurance.

二悟 The two awakenings, or kinds of entry into bodhisattvahood, i.e. 頓悟 immediate and 漸悟 gradual.

二惑 The two aspects of illusion: 見惑 perplexities or illusions and temptations arise from false views or theories. 思惑 or 修惑, ditto from thoughts arising through contact with the world, or by habit, such as

desire, anger, infatuation, etc. They are also styled 理惑 illusions connected with principles and 事惑 illusions arising, in practice; v. 見思.

二愛 The two kinds of love, 欲愛 ordinary human love springing from desire; 法愛 bodhisattva or religious love, i.e. desiring to save all creatures.

二應身 The two kinds of transformation-body of a Buddha, i.e. 勝應身 the Buddha's surpassing body as seen by bodhisattvas, and 劣應身 the Buddha's inferior human body as seen by ordinary people.

二戒 The two grades of commandments, or prohibitions, e. g. 十戒 and 具足戒 for monks; 五戒 and 八戒 for the laity; 邪戒 and 正戒 heretical rules and correct rules; and numerous other pairs.

二我 (二我見) The two erroneous views of individualism: (a) 人我見 The erroneous view that there is an independent human personality or soul, and (b) 法我見 the like view that anything exists with an independent


二我執 The two reasons for clinging to the idea of the self: (a) 具生我執 the natural, or instinctive cleaving to the idea of a self, or soul; (b) 分別我執 the same idea developed as the result of (erroneous) [[Wikipedia:


reasoning]]. Cf. 二法執.

二持 The two values of the commandments: (a) 止持 prohibitive, restraining from evil; (b) 作持 constructive, constraining to goodness.

二教 Dual division of the Buddha's teaching. There are various definitions: (1) Tiantai has (a) 顯教 exoteric or public teaching to the visible audience, and (b) 密教 at the same time esoteric teaching to an audience

invisible to the other assembly. (2) The 眞言 Shingon School by "exoteric" means all the Buddha's preaching, save that of the 大日經 which it counts esoteric. (3) (a) 漸教 and (b) 頓教 graduated and immediate teaching, terms

with various uses, e.g. salvation by works Hīnayāna, and by faith, Mahāyāna, etc.; they are applied to the Buddha's method, to the receptivity of hearers and to the teaching itself. (4) Tiantai has (a) 界内教 and (b) 界外教

teachings relating to the 三界 or realms of mortality and teachings relating to immortal realms. (5) (a) 半字教 and (b) 滿字教 Terms used in the Nirvāṇa sūtra, meaning incomplete word, or letter, teaching and complete word

teaching, i.e. partial and complete, likened to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. (6) (a) 捃收教 and (b) 扶律談常教 of the Nirvāṇa sūtra, (a) completing those who failed to hear the Lotus; (b) "supporting the law, while discoursing on

immortality," i.e. that the keeping of the law is also necessary to salvation. (7) Tiantai's division of (a) 偏教 and (b) 圓教 the partial teaching of the 藏, 通, and schools as contrasted with the perfect teaching of the 圓 school.

(8) Tiantai's division of (a) 構教 and (6) 實教 temporary and permanent, similar to the last two. (9) (a) 世間教 The ordinary teaching of a moral life here; (b) 出世間教 the teaching of Buddha-truth of other-worldly

happiness in escape from mortality. (10) (a) 了義教 the Mahāyāna perfect or complete teaching, and (b) 不了義教 Hīnayāna incompleteness. (11) The Huayan division of (a) 屈曲教 indirect or uneven teaching as in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa

sūtras, and (b) 平道教 direct or levelled up teaching as in the Huayan sūtra. (12) The Huayan division of (a) 化教 all the Buddha's teaching for conversion and general instruction, and (b) 制教 his rules and commandments for

the control and development of his order.

二時 The two times or periods— morning and evening. Also 迦羅 kāla, a regular or fixed hour for meals, and 三昧耶 samaya, irregular or unfxed hours or times.


二智 The two kinds of wisdom; there are various pairs. The Huayan school uses 如理智 and 如量智; the Faxiang (法相) uses 根本智 and 後得智; the Tiantai uses 權智 and 實智. (1) (a) 如理智 or 根本智, 無分別智, 正體智, 眞智, 實智 is Buddha-wisdom,

or Bodhisattva real wisdom; (b) 如量智 or 後得智, the same wisdom in its limitation and relation to ordinary human affairs. (2) (a) 實智 Absolute wisdom and (b) 權智 or 方便智 | relative or temporal wisdom. (3) (a) 

一切智 wisdom of the all, (b) 一切種智 wisdom of all the particulars.

二智圓滿 The two kinds of Tathāgata-wisdom, 實 and 權 absolute and functional (or relative), both perfect and complete.

二果 Sakṛdāgāmin; v. 裟 and 斯. The second "fruit" of the four kinds of Hīnayāna arhats, who have only once more to return to mortality. Also the two kinds of fruit or karma: (a) 習氣果 The good or evil characteristics resulting

from habit or practice in a former existence; (b) 報果the pain or pleasure resulting (in this life) from the practices of a previous life.

二根 The two "roots" or natural powers. (1) (a) 利根 keen, able (in the religion); (b) 鈍根 dull. (2) (a) 正根; 勝義根The power or ability which uses the sense organs to discern the truth; (b) 扶根; 扶 (or浮) 塵根the [[sense

organs]] 五根 as aids. (3) The male and female sexual organs.

二業 Two classes of karma. (1) (a) 引業 leads to the 總報, i.e. the award as to the species into which one is to be born, e.g. men, gods, etc.; (6) 滿業 is the 別報 or fulfillment in detail, i.e. the kind or quality of being e.g.

clever or stupid, happy or unhappy, etc. (2) (a) 善業 and (b) 惡業 Good and evil karma, resulting in happiness or misery. (3) (a) 助業 Aids to the karma of being reborn in Amitābha's Pure—land e. g.

offerings, chantings, etc.; (b) 正業 thought and invocation of Amitābha with undivided mind, as the direct method.

二檀 The two dāna 檀那, i. e, kinds of donating, or almsgiving: (a) 世間檀 ordinary alms, and (b) 出世間檀 spiritual, or other-worldly gifts.

二求 The two kinds of seeking: 得求 seeking to get (e.g. pleasure) and 命求 seeking long life.

二法執 The two tenets in regard to things; of. 二我執, i.e. 倶生法執 the common or natural tendency to consider things as real; 分別法執 the tenet of the reality of things as the result of false reasoning and teaching.

二法身 Contrasted types of the Dharmakāya; five pairs are given, 理法身 and 智法身; 果極 and 應化法身 ; 自性法身 and 應化法身 ; 法性法身 and 方便法身 ; 理法身 and 事法身 ; cf. 法身.

二河白道 The two rivers and the white path, i.e. the path leading to life between the rivers of desire and hatred, which are compared to water and fire.

二流 The two ways in the current of transmigration: 順流 to flow with it in continual re-incarnation; 逆流 resist it and seek a way of escape by getting rid of life's delusions, as in the case of the saints.

二涅槃 Two Nirvanas, v. 二種涅槃.

二漏 The two conditions relating to the passions and delusions: 有漏 the condition in which they can prevail; 無漏 that in which they cannot prevail.

二無常 Two kinds of impermanence, immediate and delayed. 念念無常 things in motion, manifestly transient; 相續無常 things that have the semblance of continuity, but are also transient, as life ending in death, or a candle in


二無我 The two categories of anātman: — 人無我 no (permanent) human ego, or soul; 法無我 no (permanent) individuality in or independence of self or of things.

二無我智 The wisdom that recognizes the two categories of anātman, v. 四諦.

二無記 The two neutrals, or indeterminates which cannot be noted as good or evil.

二煩惱 The two kinds of kleśa, i.e. passions, delusions, temptations, or trials. (1) (a) 根本煩惱 The six fundamental kleśas arising from the six senses; (b) 隨煩惱 the twenty consequent kleśas arising out of the six. (2) (a) 分別起煩惱

Kleśa arising from false reasoning; (b) 倶生起煩惱 that which is natural to all. (3) (a) 大煩惱地法The six great, e.g. extravagance, and (b) 小煩惱地法 ten minor afflictions, e.g. irritability. (4) (a) 數行煩惱 Ordinary passions, or

temptations; (b) 猛利煩惱fierce, sudden, or violent passions, or temptations.

二犯 The two kinds of sin, 止犯 and 作犯.


二王 The two guardian spirits represented on the temple gates, styled Vajrayakṣa 金剛夜叉 or 神 or 夜叉神.

二現 The two kinds of manifestation, or appearance, 須現 the necessary appearance in the flesh of the Buddha for ordinary people, and 不須現 the non-necessity for this to those of spiritual vision.

二百五十戒 The 250 commandments, or 具足戒 perfect or complete commandments, which are obligatory on monks and nuns. They are 四波羅夷 or 四根本極惡the four pārājika; 十三殘 thirteen saṅghāvaseṣa; 二不定法 two aniyata; 三十捨隨 thirty naiḥsargikāḥ-

pāyattikāḥ; 九十波逸提ninety prāyaścittikāḥ; 四提舍尼four pratideśanīya; 百衆學 hundred śikṣākaraṇīya, and 七滅諍 seven kinds of vinaya for ending disputes.

二益 The dual advantages or benefits: profitable to the life which now is, and that which is to come.

二相 The two forms, or characteristics, of the bhutatathata, universal and particular. The 起信論 gives (a) 淨智相 pure wisdom, cf. ālaya-vijñāna, out of whose primary condition arise (b) 不思議用相 inconceivable, beneficial

functions and uses. The same śāstra gives also a definition of the 眞如 as (a) 同相 that all things, pure or impure, are fundamentally of the same universal, e.g. clay which is made into tiles; (b) 異相 but display particular

qualities, as affected by pure or impure causes, e.g. the tiles. Another definition, of the 智度論 31, is (a) 總相 universals, as impermanence; (b) 別相 particulars, for though all things have the universal basis of

impermanence they have particular qualities, e.g. earth-solidity, heat of fire, etc.

二眞如 v. 二如 and 眞如.

二礙 idem 二障.

二祖 The second patriarch of the Chan school, Huike 慧可.

二祖斷臂 the second patriarch in China 慧可 of the Chan school, who, to induce bodhidharma to receive him, is said to have cut of his left arm in the snow in order to prove his firmness and determination.

二福 The bliss of the gods, and the bliss of the saints 聖; v. also 福.

二福田 The two fields for the cultivation of happiness: (a) 學人田 the eighteen Hīnayāna classes of those under training in religion; (b) 無學人田 the nine divisions of those no longer in training, i.e. who have completed their course.

Also (a) 悲田 the pitable or poor and needy, as the field or opportunity for charity; (b) 敬田the field of religion and reverence of the Buddhas, the saints, the priesthood.

二種 Two kinds or classes For those not given below see under二, etc., as for instance 二種世間 see under二世間.

二種佛境 The two Buddha-domains: (a) 證境 the Buddha's domain or state of absolute enlightenment; (b) 化境 the domain that the Buddha is transforming.

二種供養 The two forms of service, or offerings: (1) (a) 出纏供養 to those who have escaped from the toils, e.g. Buddhas; (b) 在纏供養 to those still living in the toils. (2) (a) 財供養 offerings of goods; (b) 法供養 of the Buddha-


二種光明 The two kinds of light: (1) (a) 色光明 physical light; (b) 智慧光明 or 心光明 wisdom or mental light. (2) (a) 魔光 Māra's delusive light; (b) 佛光 the true light of the Buddha. (3) (a) 常光The constant or

eternal light; (b) 現起光 the light in temporary manifestations.

二種因果 Two aspects of cause and effect, a division of the 四諦 "four noble truths" (a) 世間因果 in the present life, the 苦諦 being the effect, and the 集諦 the cause; (b) 出世間因果 in the future life, the 滅諦, extinction (of

passion, or mortality) being the fruit, and the 道諦 the " eightfold noble path " the cause.

二種子 Two kinds of seed: (1) (a) 本有種子 the seed or latent undivided (moral) force immanent in the highest of the eight 識, i.e. the ālaya-vijñāna; (b) 新薰種子the newly influenced, or active seed when acted upon by the seven other 識, thus

becoming productive. (2) (a) 名言種子 The so-called seed which causes moral action similar to 本有種子, e.g. good or evil seed producing good or evil deeds; (b) 業種子 karma seed, the sixth 識 acting with the



二種寂靜 Two kinds of seclusion, or retirement from the world: Bodily withdrawal into seclusion. Spiritual withdrawal from all evil, and into meditation.

二種布施 Two kinds of charity: (1) (a) goods; (b) the saving truth. (2) (a) 淨施 Pure charity, expecting no return; (b) the opposite.

二種心相 Two kinds of mind: mind in its inner character and influence; in its outer manifestations.

二種忍辱 Two kinds of patience, or endurance: (a) of the assaults of nature, heat, cold, etc.; (b) of human assaults and insults.

二種性 Two kinds of seed-nature, the character of the ālaya seed and its development: (1) (a) 性種子 The original good seed-nature; (b) 習種子 the seed-nature in practice or development. (2) (a) 本性住種性 The immanent abiding original good seed-

nature; (b) 習所成種性 the seed productive according to its ground. (3) (a) 聖種性 The seed-nature of the saints, by which they attain nirvana; (b) 愚夫種性 the seed-nature in the foolish and ignorant.

二種授記 Two classes of Buddha's predictions of a disciple's destiny, 無餘授記prediction in finality, or complete detail; 有餘授記 partial, or incomplete prediction.

二種施 v. 二種布施.

二種死 The two kinds of death, 命盡死 natural death, and 外緣死 violent death, or death from external cause.

二種比丘 Two classes of monks: 多聞比丘 monks who hear and repeat many sūtras, but are not devoted doers; 寡淺比丘 monks who read and repeat few sutras but are devoted in their lives.

二種淸淨 Two kinds of purity, according to the Huayan sūtra; 自性淸淨 natural purity, i.e. the natural 眞如 purity; and 離垢淸淨 acquired purity through avoiding pollution.

二種涅槃 Two nirvanas: (1) 有餘涅槃 also 有餘依 That with a remnant; the cause 因 has been annihilated, but the remnant of the effect 果 still remains, so that a saint may enter this nirvana during life, but have to continue to

live in this mortal realm till the death of his body. (2) 無餘涅槃 or 無餘依 Remnantless nirvāṇa, without cause and effect, the connection with the chain of mortal life being ended, so that the saint enters upon

perfect nirvāṇa on the death of the body; cf. 智度論 31. Another definition is that Hīnayāna has further transmigration, while Mahāyāna maintains final nirvana. "Nothing remnaining" is differently interpreted in different

schools, by some literally, but in Mahāyāna generally, as meaning no further mortal suffering, i.e. final nirvāṇa.

二種灌頂 Two forms of esoteric baptism, v. 灌.

二種舍利 Two kinds of relics— the whole body, or parts of it. Also, the Buddha's physical remains or relics, and the sutras, which form his spiritual (dharmakāya) remains.

二種菩薩 Monastic and lay bodhisattvas.

二種菩薩身 A bodhisattva's mortal and immortal bodies.

二種病 Two kinds of sickness: physical and mental or spiritual.

二種聖 Two classes of saints or, preachers: those who preach and those who preach without words.

二種資糧 The two kinds of (spiritual) provender: charity and wisdom.

二種邪見 The two false views, one that of a nihilistic school which denied that earthly happiness is dependent on a moral life; the other a materialistic school which maintained the moral life in the interests of

self, sought earthly happiness, and failed to apprehend nirvāṇa.

二種闡提 (二種一闡提) Two kinds of icchantika, q.v.: (a) the utterly depraved, abandoned, and blasphemers of Buddha-truth; (b) bodhisattvas who refuse to enter upon their Buddhahood in order to save all beings.


二空 The two voids, unrealities, or immaterialities; v. 空. There are several antitheses: (1) (a) 人空; 我空 The non-reality of the atman, the soul, the person; (6) 法空 the non-reality of things. (2) (a) 性空 The Tiantai

division that nothing has a nature of its own; (b) 相空 therefore its form is unreal, i.e. forms are temporary names. (3) (a) 但空 Tiantai says the 藏 and 通 know only the 空; (b) 不但空 the 別 and 圓 have 空, 假, and 中 q.v. (4) (a) 如實

空 The division of the 起信論 that the 眞如 is devoid of all impurity; (b) 如實不空 and full of all merit, or achievement.

二空觀 Two kinds of meditation on the 'void', or unreality: (a) 無生觀 the meditation that things are unproduced, having no individual or separate natures, i.e. that all things are void and unreal; cf. 性空; (b) 無相觀 that they

are therefore formless, cf. 相空. Also 人 and 法空觀 see above.

二答 Two kinds of reply, one by words, the other by signs.

二經體 The two bodies or elements in a sūtra: 文 and 義 the words and the meaning, or ideas.

二罪 The two classes of offence: (a) 性罪 crime which is wrong in itself, e.g. murder, etc.; (b) 遮罪 crime not wrong in itself, e.g. taking alcohol, but forbidden by the Buddha for the sake of the other commandments;

transgression of this is therefore a sin against the Buddha.

二美 Two excellent things, i.e. meditation and wisdom.

二義 The two meanings or teachings, partial and complete; v. 二教.

二翼 A pair of wings: charity and wisdom.

二聖 Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna 多寶.

二脇士 二挾侍 The two attendants by the side of Amitābha, i.e. 觀音 Guanyin and 大勢至 Mahāsthāmaprāpta; also the two by Yaoshi, the Master of Medicine, i.e. 日光 sunlight and 月光 moonlight; also the two by Śākyamuni, i.e. 文殊 Mañjuśrī

and 普賢 Samantabhadra.

二般若 Two kinds of prajñā, or wisdom. (1) (a) 共般若 The prajñā of the three stages of śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and imperfect Bodhisattva schools; (b) 不共般若 the prajñā of the perfect Bodhisattva teaching—a Tiantai

division. (2) (a) 世間般若 temporal prajñā; (b) 出世間般若 supernatural. (3) (a) 實相般若 The first part of the Prajñāpāramitā; (b) 觀照般若 the second part.

二色身 The two rūpakāya or incantation-bodies of a Buddha, his 報身 and 應身 or saṁbhogakāya and nirmāṇakāya, as distinguished from 法身 the dharmakāya.

二處三會 The two places from which the Buddha is supposed to have preached the Lotus Sūtra, i.e. the Vulture Peak, the sky, and again the Vulture Peak; the three assemblies are (1) those he addressed from the Peak, chapters

1 to the middle of the eleventh chapter; (2) those addressed from the sky, to the end of the twenty-second chapter; and (3) again those on the Vulture Peak, from the twenty-third chapter to the end.

二苦 Two kinds of suffering: within, e.g. sickness, sorrow; from without, e.g. calamities.

二藏 The two piṭakas or tripiṭakas, i.e. the Buddhist canon: (a) 聲聞藏 the Śrāvaka, or Hīnayāna canon: (b) 菩薩藏 the Bodhisattva, or Mahāyanā canon.

二衆 The two groups: the monks, or clergy; the laity who observe the five and the eight commands.

二行 Two classes of conduct: following wrong views; following wrong desires, or emotions. There are other pairs.

二衣 The two kinds of clothing: (a) 制衣 the regulation three robes for monks and five for nuns, which must be worn; (b) 聽衣optional garments.

二見 Two (wrong) views: (1) Looking on people grudgingly with regard to almsgiving and preaching the Buddha-truth. (2) (a) 有見 Holding to the real existence of (material) things; (b) 無見 holding to their

entire unreality. (3) (a) 斷見 Holding to the view of total annihilation; (b) 常見 to that of permanence or immortality.

二覺 The two enlightenments: (1) The 起信論 has two—(a) 本覺 the immanent mind in all things, e.g. "which lighteth every man that cometh into the world", also defined as the 法身 dharmakāya; (b) 始覺 initial enlightenment or

beginning of illumination; this initiation leads on to Buddhahood, or full enlightenment. (2) (a) 等覺 The fifty-first stage of a bodhisattva's 行 位 practice; (b) 妙覺 the fifty-second stage, or enlightenment of

Buddhahood.(3) (a)自覺 A Buddha's own or natural enlightenment; (b) 覺他 his enlightening of all others.


二觀 The two universal bases of meditation: 事觀 the external forms, or the phenomenal, and 理觀 the real or underlying nature, i. e. practice and theory.

二解脫 Two kinds of deliverance, mukti or mokṣa: (1) (a) 有爲解脫 Active or earthly deliverance to arhatship; (b) 無爲解脫 nirvana-deliverance. (2) (a) 性淨解脫 The pure, original freedom or innocence; (b) 障盡解脫

deliverance acquired by the ending of all hindrances (to salvation). (3) (a) 慧解脫 The arhat's deliverance from hindrances to wisdom; (b) 具解脫 his complete deliverance in regard to both wisdom and

vision 慧 and 定. (4) (a) 時解脫 The dull who take time or are slow in attaining to 定 vision; (b) 不時解脫 the quick or clever who take "no time". (5) (a) 心解脫 A heart or mind delivered from desires; (b) 慧解脫 a mind

delivered from ignorance by wisdom.

詮 Two kinds of statement, or definition: 遮 latent or negative and 表 patent or positive; e. g. 不生不滅 is a negative statement, 知見覺照 is a positive statement.

二語 Double-tongued; also 二舌.

諦 Two forms of statement: (a) 俗諦 saṃvṛti-satya, also called 世諦, 世俗諦, 覆俗諦, 覆諦, meaning common or ordinary statement, as if phenomena were real; (b) 眞諦 paramartha-satya, also called 第一諦, 勝義諦, meaning the correct dogma

or averment of the enlightened. Another definition is 王法 and 佛法, royal law and Buddha law.

識 Ālaya-vijñāna and mano-vijñāna; i. e. 阿梨耶 | and 分別事 |; v. 識.

護 The two protectors: the inner, oneself, by studying and following the Law; the outer, those who supply what is needful for one's body and mind, e. g. supporters.

貧 The two kinds of poverty: of goods, and of the religion.

超 Two ways of passing over (to bliss): 豎 the lengthwise, or long way (of Hīnayāna); and 橫 the crosswise, or short way of Mahāyāna.

足 A man's two legs, compared to goodness and wisdom, 福 being counted as the first five of the pāramitās, 智 as the sixth; v. 六度. 二足尊 The honoured one among bipeds or men, i. e. a Buddha; cf. 兩足.

身 Two forms of body; there are numerous pairs, e. g. (1) (a) 分段身 The varied forms of the karmic or ordinary mortal body, or being; (b) 變易身 the transformable, or spiritual body. (2) (a) 生身 The earthly

body of the Buddha; (b) 化身 his nirmāṇakāya, which may take any form at will. (3) (a) 生身 his earthly body; (b) 法身 his moral and mental nature—a Hīnayāna definition, but Mahāyāna takes his earthly

nirmāṇakāya as the 生身 and his dharmakāya or that and his saṃbhogakāya as 法身. (4) 眞應二身 The dharmakāya and nirmāṇakāya. (5) (a) 實相身 The absolute truth, or light, of the Buddha, i. e. the dharmakāya; (b) 爲物身 the functioning

or temporal body. (6) (a) 眞身 the dharmakāya and saṃbhogakāya; (b) 化身 the nirmāṇakāya. (7) (a) 常身 his permanent or eternal body; (b) 無常身 his temporal body. (8) (a) 實身 and 化身 idem 二色身.

輪 The two wheels of a cart compared by the Tiantai school to 定 (or to its Tiantai form 止觀) and 慧 meditation and wisdom; see 止觀 5. Also 食 food and 法 the doctrine, i. e. food physical and


道 The two Ways: (1) (a) 無礙道 or 無間道 The open or unhindered way, or the way of removing all obstacles or intervention, i. e. all delusion; (b) 解脫道 the way of release, by realization of truth. (2) (a) 難行道 The hard way of

"works", i. e. by the six pāramitā and the disciplines. (b) 易行道 the easy way salvation, by the invocation of Amitābha. (3) (a) 有漏道 The way of reincarnation or mortality; (b) 無漏 the enlightened way of escape from the

miseries of transmigration. (4) (a) 教道 The way of instruction; (b) 證道 the way of realization. (5) The two lower excretory organs.

邊 The two sides, extremes, or antitheses.


二邊(1) (a) 有邊 That things exist; (6) 無邊 that since nothing is self-existent, things cannot be said to exist. (2) (a) 增益邊 The plus side, the common belief in a soul and permanence; (b) 損減邊 the minus side,

that nothing exists even of karma. (3) (a) 斷邊見 and (b) 常邊見 annihilation and immortality; v. 見.

二部五部 The two are the divisions which took place immediately after the Buddha's death into (a) the elder monks or intimate disciples, and (b) the general body of disciples, styled respectively 上座 and 大衆 q.v.; the

five are the divisions, which are said to have occurred a century later, into Dharma-guptah 曇無德, Mulasarvastivadah 薩婆多, Mahisasakah 彌沙塞, Kasyapiyah迦葉遣 and Vatsiputriya 姿麤富羅.

二量 The two "measurings," or parts of a syllogism : (a) 現量 appearance, e.g. smoke; (b) 比量 inference, e.g. fire from smoke.

二門 Two doors, entrances, schools, etc. There are many such pairs.

二際 The two borders, or states: according to Hīnayāna, nirvana and mortality; according to Mahāyāna the two are one.

二障 The two hindrances:(1) (a) 煩惱障 The passions and delusion which aid rebirth and hinder entrance into nirvana; (b) 智障 or所知障, worldly wisdom e.g. accounting the seeming as real, a hindrance to true

wisdom. (2) (a) 煩惱障 as above; (b) 解脱障 hindrances to deliverance. (3) (a)理障 hindrances to truth; (b) 事障 hindrances of the passions, etc.

二頓 The two immediate or direct ways to perfection, as defined by Jingxi 荊溪 of the Huayan school; the gradual direct way of the Lotus; the direct way of the Huayan sutra, which is called the 頓頓頓圓, while that of the

Lotus is called the 漸頓漸圓.

二類各生 The Pure Land will not be limited to those who repeat the name of Amitābha according to his eighteenth vow; but includes those who adopt other ways (as shown in his nineteenth and twentieth vows).

二類種子 v. 二種子.

二食 The two kinds of food: (1) (a) The joy of the Law; (b) the bliss of meditation. (2) (a)The right kind of monk's livelihood - by mendicancy; (b) the wrong kind - by any other means.

二餘 see 餘.

二鳥 The drake and the hen of the mandarin duck who are always together, typifying various contrasted theories and ideas, e.g. permanence and impermanence, joy and sorrow, emptiness and non-emptiness, etc.

二鼠 The black and white rats - night and day.

人 manuṣya; nara; puruṣa; pudgala. Man, the sentient thinking being in the desire-realm, whose past deeds affect his present condition.

人尊 The Honoured One among or of men, the Buddha.

人分陀利華 A Lotus among men, a Buddha, also applied to all who invoke Amitābha. 人師子; 人師(or 獅)子.

人雄師子 A Lion among men, a Buddha.

人樹 The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha.

人尊牛王 The Lord of the herd. These and other similar terms are applied to the Buddha.

人尊三惡 The three most wicked among men: the Icchantika; v. 一闡提: the slanderers of Mahayana, and those who break the four great commandments.

人中尊 The Honoured One among or of men, the Buddha.

人中分陀利華 A Lotus among men, a Buddha, also applied to all who invoke Amitabha.

人中師子 人師(or 獅)子; 人雄師子 A Lion among men, a Buddha.

人中樹 The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha.

人乘 One of the five vehicles, v. 五乘, that of the five commandments, the keeping of which ensures rebirth in the world of men.

人人本具 Every man has by origin the perfect Buddha-nature.

人仙 The ṛṣi jina, or immortal among men, i.e. the Buddha; also a name for Bimbisāra in his reincarnation.

人伽藍 This is given by Eitel as 'Narasaṃghārāma of Kapisa,' But this is doubtful.

人吉庶 mānuṣa-kṛtya; demons shaped like men; domestic slaves, introduced into Kashmir by Madhyāntika; also intp. as "work to be done by men."

人因 The causative influences for being reborn as a human being, i.e. a good life. Those in positions of honour have obtained them by former deeds of benevolence, reverence to Buddhas and monks, patience,

humility, devotion to the sutras, charity, morality, zeal and exhortation, obedience, loyalty - hence they have obtained affluence, long life, and are held in high regard. Those in mean condition are thus born because

of the opposite characteristics in previous incarnation.


人執 The (false) tenet of a soul, or ego, or permanent individual, i.e. that the individual is real, the ego an independent unit and not a mere combination of the five skandhas produced by cause and

in effect disintegrating; v. 我執.

人天 Men and devas.

人天乘 Two of the 五乘 q.v.

人天教 Two of the 五教 q.v.

人天眼目 A summary of the teaching of the 禪 Chan sect by Zhizhao 智照 of the Song dynasty.

人天勝妙善果 The highest forms of reincarnation、i.e. those of devas and men.

人定 The third beat of the first watch, 9-11 p.m., when men are settled for the night.

人寳 The treasure of men, Buddha.

人尊 idem 人中尊.

人師 A leader or teacher of men.

人師子 nṛsiṃha. The Lion of men, Buddha as leader and commander.

人獅子 Same as 人師子.

人我 Personality, the human soul, i.e. the false view, 人我見 that every man has a permanent lord within 常一生宰, which he calls the ātman, soul, or permanent self, a view which forms the basis of all

erroneous doctrine. Also styled 人見; 我見; 人執; cf. 二我.

人有 Human bhāva or existence, one of the 七有.

人法 Men and things; also, men and the Buddha's law, or teaching.

人無我 Man as without ego or permanent soul; cf. 人我 and 二無我. Other similar terms are 衆生無我; 生空; 人空 and我空.

人無我智 The knowledge, or wisdom, of anātman, cf. 人無我.

人空 Man is only a temporary combination formed by the five skandhas and the twelve nidānas, being the product of previous causes, and without a real self or permanent soul. Hīnayāna is said to end these causes and

consequent reincarnation by discipline in subjection of the passions and entry into nirvana by the emptying of the self. Mahāyāna fills the "void" with the Absolute, declaring that when man has emptied himself of

the ego he realizes his nature to be that of the absolute, bhūtatathatā; v. 二空.

人空觀 The meditation on, or insight into the selflessness of person 人空.

人莽娑 Human māṃsa or flesh.

人摩娑 Human māṃsa or flesh.

人藥王 Human-touch healing prince, i.e. Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation, whose touch healed all diseases, as did the application of his powdered bones after his decease in that incarnation.

人趣 人道 The human stage of the six gati, or states of existence.

人身 The human body, or person.

人身牛Cattle in human shape, stupid ignorant, heedless.

人雄師子 idem 人中師子.

人非人 A being resembling but not a human being, i.e. a kinnara.

人頭幢 A human head at the top of a daṇḍa or flagpole, used as one of Yama's symbols; v. 檀茶 (or 檀拏).

人鬼 Men and disembodied spirits, or demons; disembodied ghosts.

入 To enter, entry, entrance; come, bring or take in; at home; awaken to the truth; begin to understand; to relate the mind to reality and thus evolve knowledge.

六入 The "six entries" ṣaḍāyatana, which form one of the links in the chain of causaton, v. 十二因緣 the preceding link being觸contact, and the succeeding link 識 perception. The six are the qualities and effects of the six organs

of sense producing sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought (or mental presentations). v. also 二入.

入不二門 To enter the school of monism, i.e. that the 一實one great reality is universal and absolute without differentiation.


入住出三心 Entrance, stay, exit; v. 入心.

入佛 The bringing in of an image of a Buddha.

入佛供養 The ceremony of bringing in a Buddha's image.

入佛平等戒 The Buddha-law by which all may attain to Buddhahood.

入信 To believe, or enter into belief.

入出二門 The two doors of ingress and egress, i.e. enter the gate of self-purification and adornment, then go forth 出 to benefit and save others.

入嚩羅 . Flaming, blazing, glowing (jvālā).

入堂 v. 入衆.

入堂五法 v. 入衆.

入塔 To inter the bones or body of a monk in a dagoba; v. 入骨.

入壇 To go to the altar (for baptism, in the esoteric sect).

入定 To enter into meditation by tranquillizing the body, mouth (i.e. lips), and mind, 身口意.

入室 To enter the master's study for examination or instruction; to enter the status of a disciple, but strictly of an advanced disciple. To receive consecration.

入寂 To inter into rest, or nirvana; also, to die. Also 入滅 or 入寂滅.

入唐八家 The eight Japanese who came to China in the Tang dynasty and studied the 密教esoteric doctrine.

入心 To enter the heart, or mind; also used for 入地 entering a particular state, its three stages being 入住出 entry, stay, and exit.

入我我入 He in me and I in him, i.e. the indwelling of the Buddha, any Buddha, or the Buddhas.

入文解釋 The method in expounding scriptures of giving the main idea before proceeding to detailed exposition.

入流 Srota-apama, v. 須陀洹.

入滅 idem 入寂.

入王宮聚落衣 The monk's robe, worn equally for a palace, or for begging in town or hamlet.

入重玄門 To enter again through the dark gate into mortality, e.g. as a bodhisattva does, even into the hells, to save the suffering. Another interpretation is the return of a bodhisattva to common life for further


入聖 To become an arhat.

入衆 To enter the assembly (of monks); also 交衆.

入衆五法 Five rules for the entrant - submission, kindness, respect, recognition of rank or order, and none but religious conversation.

入觀 To enter into meditation; it differs from 入定 as 定 means 自心之寂靜 complete stillness of the mind, while 觀 means 自觀照理 thought and study for enlightenment in regard to truth.

入道 To become a monk, 出家入道; to leave home and enter the Way.

入骨 To inter the bones (of a monk) in a stūpa, or a grave.

入龕 Entering, or putting into the casket (for cremation); i.e. encoffining a dead monk.

八 aṣṭa, eight.

八不 The eight negations of Nagarjuna, founder of the Mādhyamika or Middle School 三論宗. The four pairs are "neither birth nor death, neither end nor permanence, neither identity nor difference, neither coming nor going."

These are the eight negations; add "neither cause nor effect"and there are the 十不 ten negations; v. 八迷.

八不中觀 See 八不正觀.

八不正觀 Meditation on the eight negations 八不. These eight, birth, death, etc., are the 八迷 eight misleading ideas, or 八計 eight wrong calculations. No objection is made to the terms in the apparent, or relative, sense

諦, but in the real or absolute sense 眞諦 these eight ideas are incorrect, and the truth lies between them ; in the relative, mortality need not be denied, but in the absolute we cannot speak of mortality or

immortality. In regard to the relative view, beings have apparent birth and apparent death from various causes, but are not really born and do not really die, i.e. there is the difference of appearance and

reality. In the absolute there is no apparent birth and apparent death. The other three pairs are similarly studied.


八不可越 idem 八敬戒.

八不思議 The eight inexpressibles, or things surpassing thought, i.e. eight qualities of the ocean (depth, extent, etc.) in illustration of nirvāṇa; v. 大海.

八不正見 The teaching of the 大集經 26, on the eight incorrect views in regard to (1) 我見 the existence of a permanent ego; (2) 衆生見 the five skandhas as not the constituents of the living; (3)壽命見 fate, or

determination of length of life; (4) 士夫見a creator; (5)常見 permanence; (6) 斷見 annihilation; (7) 有見 the reality of things; (8) 無見 their unreality.

八不淨 The eight things "unclean" to monks, of which there are different groups. 0ne group is - to keep gold, silver, male slaves, female slaves, cattle, stores, or to trade or farm. Another is - to own cultivated lands, to farm, keep

supplies of grain and silk, servants, animals or birds, money, cushions and pans, and furniture and gilded beds.

八不顯實 By the eight negations of the Mādhyamika doctrine, the true reality of things is shown.

八中洲 Each of the "four continents" has two other continents, i.e. Jambudvīpa has Cāmara and Varacāmara; Pūrvavideha has Deha and Videha; Aparagodānīya has Śaṭhā and Uttaramantriṇaḥ; and Uttarakuru has Kuravaḥ and Kaurava; v. 四


八乾 The eight skandhas, or sections of the Abhidharma, v. 八犍度.

八事隨身 The eight appurtenances of a monk - three garments, bowl, stool, filter, needle and thread, and chopper.

八五三二 The four special characteristics of the 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect, i.e. 八識, 五法, 三性, and 二無我 q.v.

八交道 The eight roads in the eight directions, bounded with golden cords, mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra as in certain Buddha-realms.

八佛 Eight Buddhas of the eastern quarter.

八位 The classification or grades of disciples according to the Tiantai 圓教 perfect teaching, i.e. (1) 觀行卽 grade of the five classes, or stages, of lay disciples; (2) 相似卽 grade of the ten classes of or ordinary [[monks and

nuns]]; above these are the 分眞卽bodhisattva stages of those progressing towards Buddhahood i.e. (3) 十住, (4) 十行, (5) 十廻向, (6) 十地, (7) 等覺, and (8) the perfect or Buddha stage 究竟卽, i.e. 妙覺. Cf. 六卽.

八位胎藏 The eight stages of the human foetus: 羯羅藍 kalala, the appearance after the first week from conception; 額部曇 arbuda, at end of second week; 閉尸 peśī, third; 健南 ghana, fourth; 鉢羅奢法 praśākhā, limbs formed during fifth week;

sixth, hair, nails, and teeth; seventh, the organs of sense, eyes, ears, nose, and tongue; and eighth, complete formation.

八倒 v. 八顚倒.

八億四千萬念 The myriads of "thoughts", or moments in a single day and night, each with its consequences of good and evil; probably 8,400,000,000 is meant.

八勝處 The eight victorious stages, or degrees, in meditation for overcoming desire, or attachment to the world of sense; v. 八解脫.

八十 aśīti, eighty.

八十一品思惑 The eighty-one kinds of illusion, or misleading thoughts, arising out of desire, anger, foolishness, and pride - nine grades in each of the nine realms of desire, of form and beyond form.

八十一法 The eighty-one divisions in the Prajñā-pāramitā sūtra 大般若經 comprising form 色; mind 心; the five skandhas 五陰; twelve means of sensation 入; eighteen realms 界; four axioms 諦; twelve nidānas因緣; eighteen śūnya 空;

six pāramitā 度, and four jñāna 智. Also 八十一科.

八十種好 八十隨形好 The eighty notable physical characteristics of Buddha; cf. 三十二相.

八十華嚴經 The translation of the Hua-yen 華嚴經 in eighty chüan, made by Śikṣānanda in the T'ang dynasty.

八十誦律 The original Vinaya recited by the Buddha's disciple Upāli eighty times during the summer retreat, while the Tripiṭaka was being composed after the Buddha's death.

八句義 The eight fundamental principles, intuitional or relating to direct mental vision, of the Ch'an (Zen) School, 禪宗 q.v.; they are 正法眼藏; 涅槃妙心; 實相無情;微妙法門; 不立文字; 教外別傳; 直指人心; 見性成佛.


八味 The eight savours (or pleasures) of the Buddha's nirvāṇa: 常住 perpetual abode, 寂滅extinction (of distress, etc.), 不老 eternal youth, 不死 immortality, 淸淨 purity, 虛通 absolute freedom (as space), 不動

imperturbility, and 快樂 joy.

八囀聲 (八囀) The eight cases of nouns in Sanskrit, termed Subanta, 蘇漫多, i.e. nirdeśa, upadeśana, kartṛkaraṇa, sampradāna, apādāna, svāmivacana, saṁnidhānārtha, āmahtraṇa.

八圓 Eight fundamental characteristics of a 圓教 complete or perfect school of teaching, which must perfectly express 教, 理, 智, 斷, 行, 位, 因, and 果.

八塔 idem 八大靈塔.

八墮 idem 八波羅夷.

八多羅樹 As high as eight tāla (palmyra) trees, very high.

八大地獄 (八大) The eight great naraka, or hot hells: (1) sañjīva 等活 hell of rebirth into (2) kāla-sūtra 黑繩, i.e. the hell of black cords or chains; (3) saṅghāta 衆合, in which all are squeezed into a mass between two

mountains falling together; (4) raurava 號呌; hell of crying and wailing; (5) mahāraurava 大號呌 hell of great crying; (6) tapana 炎熱 hell of burning; (7) pratāpana 大熱 hell of fierce heat; (8) avīci 無間 unintermitted

rebirth into its sufferings with no respite. v. 地獄 and 八寒地獄.

八大明王 The eight diamond-kings, or bodhisattvas, in their representations as fierce guardians of Vairocana 大日; 金剛手 is represented as 降三世; 妙吉祥; as 大威德;虛空藏as大笑; 慈氏 as 大輪; 觀自在 as 馬頭; 地藏 as 無能勝明; 除蓋障 as 不動尊 and 普賢as歩擲.

八大在我 The eight great powers of personality or sovereign independence, as one of the four qualities 常樂我淨 of nirvāṇa: powers of self-manifolding, infinite expansion, levitation and transportation, manifesting

countless forms permanently in one and the same place, use of one physical organ in place of another, obtaining all things as if nothing, expounding a stanza through countless kalpas, ability to traverse the solid as

space. v. 涅槃經 23.

八大菩薩 see 八大明王. Another group is given in the 八大菩薩曼荼羅經; another in the 樂師經 translated by Yijing; another in the 八大菩薩經 translated by Faxian; and there are other groups.

八大觀音 The eight Shingon representations of Guanyin: as one of the above 八大明王, as the white-robed one, as a rākṣasī, as with four faces, as with a horse's head, as Mahāsthāmaprāpta 大勢至, and as Tārā 陀羅.

八大辛苦 idem 八苦.

八大童子 The eight messengers of 不動明王, also known as 八大金剛童子; Mañjuśrī also has eight.

八大金剛明王 or 八大金剛童子The eight attendants on 不動明王 (cf. 八大明王). They are 慧光, 慧喜, 阿耨達多, 指德, 烏倶婆迦, 淸德, 矜羯羅, and制吒迦.

八大靈塔 The eight great "spirit", or sacred stūpas erected at (1) Kapilavastu, Buddha's birthplace; (2) Magadha, where he was first enlightened; (3) the deer-park Benares, where he first preached; (4)

Jetavana, where he revealed his supernatural powers; (5) Kanyākubja (Kanauj), where he descended from Indra's heavens; (6) Rājagṛha, where Devadatta was destroyed and the Saṅgha purifed; (7) Vaiśāli, where he announced

his speedy nirvana; (8) Kuśinagara, where he entered nirvāṇa. There is another slightly variant list.

八字 The eight leading characters of the 聖行 chapter in the Nirvāṇa sūtra 生滅滅巳寂滅爲樂, the teaching of the sūtra is death, or nirvāṇa, as entry into joy.

八字布字 The eight magic words to be placed on eight parts of the body.

八字文殊法 The eight-word dhāraṇī, esoteric methods connected with Vairocana and Mañjuśrī.

八天 The eight devalokas, i.e. four dhyāna devalokas of the region of form, and four arūpalokas; 四禪天 and 四空處.


八定 The eight degrees of fixed abstraction, i.e. the four dhyānas corresponding to the four divisions in the heavens of form, and the four degrees of absolute fixed abstraction on the 空 or immaterial, corresponding to the

arūpadhātu, i.e. heavens of formlessness.

八宗 or 八家 Eight of the early Japanese sects: 倶舍 Kusha, 成實 Jōjitsu, 律 Ritsu, 法相Hossō, 三論 Sanron, 華嚴 Kegon, 天台 Tendai, 眞言 Shingon.

八宗九宗 八家九宗 The eight Japanese schools 八宗 with the Zen 禪 school added. The first four are almost or entirely extinct.

八寒八熱 The eight cold and eight hot hells.

八寒地獄 Also written 八寒冰地獄. The eight cold narakas, or hells: (1) 頞浮陀 arbuda, tumours, blains; (2) 泥羅浮陀 nirarbuda, enlarged tumors; 疱裂bursting blains; (3) 阿叱叱 aṭaṭa, chattering (teeth); (4) 阿波波 hahava, or ababa, the only

sound possible to frozen tongues; (5) 嘔侯侯ahaha, or hahava, ditto to frozen throats; (6) 優鉢羅 utpala, blue lotus flower, the flesh being covered with sores resembling it; (7) 波頭摩padma, red lotus flower, ditto; (8)

分陀利puṇḍarīka, the great lotus, ditto. v. 地獄 and大地獄.

八尊重法 idem 八敬戒.

八師 The eight teachers―murder, robbery, adultery, lying, drinking, age, sickness, and death; v. 八師經.

八忍 The eight kṣānti, or powers of patient endurance, in the desire-realm and the two realms above it, necessary to acquire the full realization of the truth of the Four Axioms, 四諦; these four give rise to the

四法忍, i.e. 苦, 集, 滅, 道法忍, the endurance or patient pursuit that results in their realization. In the realm of form and the formless, they are called the 四類忍. By patient meditation the 見惑 false or perplexed

views will cease, and the八智 eight kinds of jñāna or gnosis be acquired; therefore 智 results from忍 and the sixteen, 八忍八智 (or 觀), are called the 十六心, i.e. the sixteen mental conditions during the stage of 見道, when 惑

illusions or perplexities of view are destroyed. Such is the teaching of the 唯識宗. The 八智 are 苦, 集, 滅,道法智 and 苦, etc. 類智.

八念法 Or 八念門. Eight lines of thought, in the智度論 21 , for resisting Māra-attacks and evil promptings during the meditation on impurity, etc.; i.e. thought of the Buddha, of the Law (or Truth), the fraternity,

the commandments, alms-giving, the devas, breathing, and death. There are also the 大人八念 , i.e. that truth 道 is obtained through absence of desire, contentment, aloneness, zeal, correct thinking,

a fixed mind, wisdom, and inner joy. v. 八念經.