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A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms-003

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八思巴 Also 發思巴 Bashpa, Phagspa, Baghcheba, Blo-gros-rgyal-mtshah, Chos-rgyal-ḥphags-pa. A śramaṇa of Tibet, teacher and confidential adviser of Kublai Khan, who appointed him head of the Buddhist church of Tibet A.D. 1260.

He is the author of a manual of Buddhist terminology彰所知論 and translated another work into Chinese. In A.D. 1269 he constructed an alphabet for the Mongol language, "adapted from the Tibetan and written

vertically," and a syllabary borrowed from Tibetan, known by the name of Hkhor-yig, for which, however, the Lama Chos-kyi-hod-zer 1307-1311 substituted another alphabet based on that of Śākya-paṇḍita.

八慢 The eight kinds of pride, māna, arrogance, or self-conceit, 如慢 though inferior, to think oneself equal to others (in religion); 慢慢 to think oneself superior among manifest superiors; 不如慢 to think oneself not so

much inferior among manifest superiors; 增上慢 to think one has attained more than is the fact, or when it is not the fact; 我慢 self-superiority, or self-sufficiency; 邪慢 pride in false views, or doings; 憍慢 arrogance; 大

慢 extreme arrogance.

八憍 The eight kinds of pride, or arrogance, resulting in domineering: because of strength; of clan, or name; of wealth; of independence, or position; of years, or age; of cleverness, or wisdom; of good or charitable

deeds; of good looks. Of these, eight birds are named as types: 鴟梟 two kinds of owl, eagle, vulture, crow, magpie, pigeon, wagtail.

八成 idem 八相成道. 八成立因 The eight factors of a Buddhist syllogism.

八戒 (八戒齋) The first eight of the ten commandments, see 戒; not to kill; not to take things not given; no ignoble (i.e. sexual) conduct; not to speak falsely; not to drink wine; not to indulge in cosmetics, personal adornments,

dancing, or music; not to sleep on fine beds, but on a mat on the ground; and not to eat out of regulation hours, i.e. after noon. Another group divides the sixth into two―against cosmetics and adornments and against dancing

and music; the first eight are then called the eight prohibitory commands and the last the 齋 or fasting commandment. Also 八齋戒; 八關齋 (八支齋) ; cf. 八種勝法.


八教 The eight Tiantai classifications of Śākyamuni's teaching, from the Avataṁsaka to the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, divided into the two sections (1) 化法四教 his four kinds of teaching of the content of the Truth accommodated to

the capacity of his disciples; (2) 化儀四教 his four modes of instruction. (1) The four 化法教 are: (a) 三藏教 The Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching, for śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattva doctrine being subordinate;

it also included the primitive śūnya doctrine as developed in the Satyasiddhi śāstra. (b) 教通His later "intermediate" teaching which contained Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna doctrine for śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva,

to which are attributed the doctrines of the Dharmalakṣaṇa or Yogācārya and Mādhyamika schools. (c) 別教 His differentiated , or separated, bodhisattva teaching, definitely Mahāyāna. (d) 圓教 His final, perfect, bodhisattva,

universal teaching as preached, e.g. in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras. (2) The four methods of instruction 化儀 are: (a) 頓教 Direct teaching without reserve of the whole truth, e.g. the 華嚴 sūtra. (b) 漸教 Gradual or graded, e.g.

the 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; all the four 化法 are also included under this heading. (c) 祕密教 Esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly. (d) 不定教 General or indeterminate teaching, from which each hearer

would derive benefit according to his interpretation.

八敬戒 The eight commands given by the Buddha to his foster-mother, i.e. aunt, when she was admitted to the order, and which remain as commands to nuns: (1) even though a hundred years old a nun must pay respect to a

monk, however young, and offer her seat to him; (2) must never scold a monk; (3) never accuse, or speak of his misdeeds; but a monk may speak of hers; (4) at his hands obtain reception into the order; (5) confess sin

(sexual or other) before the assembly of monks and nuns; (6) ask the fraternity for a monk as preceptor; (7) never share the same summer resort with monks; (8) after the summer retreat she must report and ask for a

responsible confessor. Also 八敬法; 八不可越法 (or 八不可過法) ; 八尊重法; v. 四分律 48.

八支 idem 八正道 also the eight sections of the 八支 śāstra; also a term for the first eight commandments.

八方上下 The four quarters, the four 維 half-quarters and above and below, i.e. the universe in all directions.

八方天 The eight heavens and devas at the eight points of the compass: E., the Indra, or Śakra heaven; S., the Yama heaven; W., the {{Wiki|Varuna]], or water heaven; N., the Vaiśramana, or Pluto heaven; N.E., the

Īśāna, or Śiva heaven; S.E., the Homa, or fire heaven; S.W., the Nirṛti, or Rakṣa heaven; N.W., the Vāyu, or wind heaven. All these may be considered as devalokas or heavens.

八時 An Indian division of the day into eight "hours", four for day and four for night.

八智 The 四法智 and 四類智; see 八忍.

八會 The 華嚴經 Hua-yen sūtra, as delivered at eight assemblies.

八棄 idem 八波羅夷.

八正道 (八正道分) Āryamārga. The eight right or correct ways, the "eightfold noble path" for the arhat to nirvāṇa; also styled 八道船, 八正門, 八由行, 八游行, 八聖道支, 八道行, 八直行, 八直道. The eight are: (1) 正見Samyag-dṛṣṭi, correct views in

regard to the Four Axioms, and freedom from the common delusion. (2) 正思 Samyak-saṁkalpa, correct thought and purpose. (3) 正語 Samyag-vāc, correct speech, avoidance of false and idle talk. (4) 正業 Samyak-karmānta,

correct deed, or conduct, getting rid of all improper action so as to dwell in purity. (5) 正命 Smnyag-ājīva, correct livelihood or occupation, avoiding the five immoral occupations. (6) 正精進 Samyag-vyāyāma, correct zeal,

or energy in uninterrupted progress in the way of nirvāṇa. (7) 正念 Samyak-smṛti, correct remembrance, or memory, which retains the true and excludes the false. (8) 正定 Samyak-samadhi, correct meditation, absorption, or

abstraction. The 正 means of course Buddhist orthodoxy, anything contrary to this being 邪 or heterodox, and wrong.

八正道經 Buddha-bhāṣita-aṣṭaṅga-samyaṅ-mārga-sūtra. Tr. by An Shigao of the Eastern Han B.N.659; being an earlier translation of the Samyuktāgama 雜阿含經.


八水 Eight rivers of India—Ganges, Jumna, 薩羅? Sarasvatī, Hiraṇyavatī or Ajiravatī, 魔河? Mahī, Indus, Oxus, and Sītā.

八法 The eight dharmas, things, or methods. There are three groups: (1) idem 八風 q.v. (2) 四大and 四微 q.v. (3) The eight essential things, i.e. 教 instruction, 理 doctrine, 智 knowledge or wisdom attained, 斷 cutting away of

delusion, 行 practice of the religious life, 位 progressive status, 因 producing 果 the fruit of saintliness. Of these 教理行果 are known as the 四法.

八波羅夷 or 八重罪 The eight pārājika, in relation to the sins of a nun; for the first four see 四波羅夷; (5) libidinous contact with a male; (6) any sort of improper association (leading to adultery); (7) concealing the misbehaviour

(of an equal, or inferior); (8) improper dealings with a monk.

八海 v. 九山八海.

八無暇 The eight conditions of no leisure or time to hear a Buddha or his truth, idem 八難.

八無礙 The eight universalized powers of the六識 six senses, 意根 the mind and the 法界 dharmadhātu.

八熱地獄 v. 八大地獄.

八犍度 The eight skandhas or sections of the Abhidharma, i.e. miscellaneous; concerning bondage to the passions, etc.; wisdom; practice; the four fundamentals, or elements; the roots, or organs; meditation; and

views. The 八犍論 in thirty sections, attributed to Kātyāyana, is in the Abhidharma.

八王子 The eight sons of the last of the 20,000 shining Buddhas 燈明佛 born before he left home to become a monk; their names are given in the first chapter of the Lotus sūtra. In Japan there are also eight sons of a

Shinto deity, reincarnated as one of the six Guanyin.

八王日 The eight royal days, i.e. the solstices, the equinoxes, and the first day of each of the four seasons.

八由行 also 八直行 (or 道) idem 八正道.

八相成道 (八相) also 八相示現 Eight aspects of the Buddha's life, which the 起信論 gives as: (1) descent into and abode in the Tuṣita heaven; (2) entry into his mother's womb; (3) abode there visibly preaching to the devas;

(4) birth from mother's side in Lumbinī; (5) leaving home at 19 (or 25) as a hermit; (6) after six years' suffering attaining enlightenment; (7) rolling the Law-wheel, or preaching; (8) at 80 entering nirvāṇa. The 四教

義 group of Tiantai is slightly different — descent from Tuṣita, entry into womb, birth, leaving home, subjection of Māra, attaining perfect wisdom, preaching, nirvana. See also the two 四相, i.e. 四本相 and 四隨相.

八神變 idem 八變化.

八祖相承 The succession of the eight founders of the esoteric sect, 眞言 or Shingon, i.e. 大日, 金剛, 龍猛, 龍智, 金剛智, 不空, 惠果 and the Japanese 弘法.

八禁 idem 八戒.

八福生處 The eight happy conditions in which he may be reborn who keeps the five commands and the ten good ways and bestows alms: (1) rich and honourable among men; (2) in the heavens of the four deva kings; (3) the

Indra heavens; (4) Suyāma heavens; (5) Tuṣita heaven; (6) 化樂nirmāṇarati heaven, i.e. the fifth devaloka; (7) 他化 Paranirmita-vaśavartin, i.e. the sixth devaloka heaven; (8) the brahma-heavens.

八福田 The eight fields for cultivating blessedness: Buddhas; arhats (or saints); preaching monks (upādhyāya); teachers (ācārya); friars; father; mother; the sick. Buddhas, arhats, and friars (or monks in

general) are termed 敬田 reverence-fields; the sick are 悲田 compassion-fields; the rest are 恩田grace- or gratitude- fields. Another group is: to make roads and wells; canals and bridges; repair dangerous roads; be dutiful to

parents; support monks; tend the sick; save from disaster or distress; provide for a quinquennial assembly. Another: serving the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha; the Law; the Order; parents; the monks as

teachers; the poor; the sick; animals.


八種別解脫戒 Differentiated rules of liberation for the eight orders—monks; nuns; mendicants; novices male; and female; disciples male; and female; and the laity who observe the first eight commandments.

八種勝法 The eight kinds of surpassing things, i.e. those who keep the first eight commandments receive the eight kinds of reward―they escape from falling into the hells; becoming pretas; or animals; or asuras; they will

be born among men, become monks, and obtain the truth; in the heavens of desire; in the brahma-heaven, or meet a Buddha; and obtain perfect enlightenment.

八種粥 The eight kinds of congee, or gruel, served by the citizens to the Buddha and his disciples when in retreat in the bamboo grove of Kāśī; they were of butter, or fats, or hempseed, milk, peas, beans, sesamum, or plain


八種 (布) 施 Eight causes of giving―convenience; fear; gratitude; reward-seeking; traditional (or customary); hoping for heaven; name and fame; personal virtue.

八種授記 The eight kinds of prediction―made known to self, not to others; to others not to self; to self and others; unknown to self or others; the near made known but the remote not; the remote made known but not the

intermediate steps; near and remote both made known; near and remote both not made known.

八種法 idem 八戒; also eight divisions of the 五十法 q.v. | | 清風 Pleasant breezes from the eight directions of the compass.

八穢 Eight things unclean to a monk: buying land for self, not for Buddha or the fraternity; ditto cultivating; ditto laying by or storing up; ditto keeping servants (or slaves); keeping animals (for slaughter); treasuring

up gold, etc.; ivory and ornaments; utensils for private use.

八童子 idem 八大金剛童子.

八筏 The eight rafts, idem 八正道 The eightfold noble path.

八纏The eight entanglements, or evils: to be without shame; without a blush; envious; mean; unregretful; sleepy (or indolent); ambitious; stupid (or depressed).

八聖 The 四向 and 四果 of śrāvakas.

八聖 (道支) idem 八正道.

八背捨 idem 八解脫.

八臂天 The eight-arm deva; an epithet of Brahma as Nārāyaṇadeva 那羅延天 creator of men.

八自在 idem 八變化 and 八大自在.

八色幡 The Amitābha eight pennons of various colours, indicating the eight directions of space.

八苦 The eight distresses―birth, age, sickness, death, parting with what we love, meeting with what we hate, unattained aims, and all the ills of the five skandhas.

八菩薩 idem 八大菩薩.

八萬 An abbreviation for 八萬四 (八萬四千) The number of atoms in the human body is supposed to be 84,000. Hence the term is used for a number of things, often in the general sense of a great number. It is also the age apex

of life in each human world. There are the 84,000 stūpas erected by Aśoka, each to accommodate one of the 84.000 relics of the Buddha's body; also the 84,000 forms of illumination shed by Amitābha; the 84,000

excellent physical signs of a Buddha; the 84,000 mortal distresses, i.e. 84,000 煩惱 or 塵勞; also the cure found in the 84,000 methods, i.e. 法藏, 法蘊, 法門, or教門.

八萬十二 An abbreviation for 八萬四千法藏 the 84,000 teachings or lessons credited to the Buddha for the cure of all sufferings, and the二部經 12 sūtras in which they are contained.

八萬威儀 The bodhisattva's 80,000 duties.

八葉 The eight lotus-petals, a name for Sumeru.

八葉院 is the central court of the 胎藏界with Vairocana as its central figure, also termed 八葉蓮臺 or 八葉座 An esoteric name for the heart is the eight-petal fleshly heart, and being the seat of meditation it gives rise

to the term eight-leaf lotus meditation.

八覺 The eight (wrong) perceptions or thoughts, i.e. desire; hate; vexation (with others); 親里 home-sickness; patriotism (or thoughts of the country's welfare); dislike of death; ambition for one's clan or

family; slighting or being rude to others. 華嚴經 13.

八解脫 aṣṭa-vimokṣa, mokṣa, vimukti, mukti. Liberation, deliverance, freedom, emancipation, escape, release―in eight forms; also 八背捨 and cf. 解脫 and 八勝處. The eight are stages of mental concentration: (1) 内有色想觀外色解脱

Liberation, when subjective desire arises, by examination of the object, or of all things and realization of their filthiness. (2) 内無色想觀外色解脫 Liberation, when no subjective desire arises, by still meditating

as above. These two are deliverance by meditation on impurity, the next on purity. (3) 淨身作證具足住解脫 Liberation by concentration on the pure to the realization of a permanent state of freedom from all desire.

The above three "correspond to the four Dhyānas". (Eitel.) (4) 空無邊處解脫 Liberation in realization of the infinity of space, or the immaterial. (5) 識無邊處解脫 Liberation in realization of infinite knowledge. (6) 無

所有處解脫Liberation in realization of nothingness, or nowhereness. (7) 非想非非想處解脫 Liberation in the state of mind where there is neither thought nor absence of thought. These four arise out of abstract

meditation in regard to desire and form, and are associated with the 四空天. (8) 滅受 想定解脫 Liberation by means of a state of mind in which there is final extinction, nirvāṇa, of both sensation, vedanā, and

consciousness, saṁjñā.


八觸 Eight physical sensations which hinder meditation in its early stages: restlessness, itching, buoyancy, heaviness, coldness, heat, roughness, smoothness. 止觀 8.

八論 The eight śāstras ; there are three lists of eight; one non-Buddhist; one by 無着 Asaṅga, founder of the Yoga School; a third by 陳那 Jina Dinnāga. Details are given in the 寄歸傳 4 and 解纜鈔 4.

八諦 The eight truths, postulates, or judgments of the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school, i.e. four common or mundane, and four of higher meaning. The first four are (1) common postulates on reality, considering the nominal as real,

e.g. a pot; (2) common doctrinal postulates, e.g. the five skandhas; (3) abstract postulates, e.g. the four noble truths 四諦; and (4) temporal postulates in regard to the spiritual in the material. The second abstract or

philosophical four are (5) postulates on constitution and function, e.g. of the skandhas; (6) on cause and effect, e.g. the 四諦; (7) on the void, the immaterial, or reality; and (8) on the pure inexpressible ultimate

or absolute.

八識 The eight parijñāna, or kinds of cognition, perception, or consciousness. They are the five senses of cakṣur-vijñāna, śrotra-v., ghrāna-v., jihvā-v., and kāya-v., i.e. seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting,

and touch. The sixth is mano-vijñāna, the mental sense, or intellect, v. 末那. It is defined as 意 mentality, apprehension, or by some as will. The seventh is styled kliṣṭa-mano-vijñāna 末那識 discriminated from

the last as 思量 pondering, calculating; it is the discriminating and constructive sense, more than the intellectually perceptive; as infected by the ālaya-vijñāna., or receiving "seeds" from it, it is considered as the cause of

all egoism and individualizing, i.e. of men and things, therefore of all illusion arising from assuming the seeming as the real. The eighth is the ālaya-vijñāna, 阿頼耶識 which is the storehouse, or basis from which come all

"seeds"of consciousness. The seventh is also defined as the ādāna 阿陀那識 or "laying hold of" or "holding on to" consciousness.

八識心王 The eight fundamental powers of the 八識 and 八識心所 the eight powers functioning, or the concomitant sensations.

八識體一 The eight perceptions are fundamentally unity, opposed by the 唯識 school with the doctrine 八識體別 that they are fundamentally discrete.

八辯 Eight characteristics of a Buddha's speaking: never hectoring; never misleading or confused; fearless; never haughty; perfect in meaning; and in flavour; free from harshness; seasonable (or, suited to the occasion).

八變化 Eight supernatural powers of transformation, characteristics of every Buddha: (1) to shrink self or others, or the world and all things to an atom; (2) to enlarge ditto to fill all space; (3) to make the same

light as a feather; (4) to make the same any size or anywhere at will; (5) everywhere and in everything to be omnipotent; (6) to be anywhere at will, either by self-transportation, or bringing the destination to himself, etc; (7)

to shake all things (in the six, or eighteen ways); (8) to be one or many and at will pass through the solid or through space, or through fire or water, or transform the four elements at will, e.g. turn earth into water.

Also 八神變; 八自在.

八輪 The eight (spoke) wheel, idem 八正道.

八輩 The eight grades, i.e. those who have attained the 四向 and 四果.

八迷 The eight misleading terms, which form the basis of the logic of the 中論, i.e. 生 birth, 滅 death, 去 past, 來 future, 一 identity, 異 difference, 斷 annihilation, 常 perpetuity (or eternity). The 三論宗 regards

these as unreal; v. 八不中道.

八游行 idem 八正道.

八道 (八支 or 八船 or 八行) idem 八正道.


八遮 A 三論 term for 八不中道 q.v.

八邪 The eight heterodox or improper practices, the opposite of the eight correct paths八正道.

八部 (八部衆) The eight classes of supernatural beings in the Lotus sūtra: 天 deva, 龍 nāga, 夜叉yakṣa, 乾闥婆 gandharva, 阿修羅 asura, 迦樓羅 garuḍa, 緊那羅 kinnara, 摩喉羅迦 mahoraga. Also called 天龍八部 and 龍神八部.

八部鬼衆 The eight groups of demon-followers of the four mahārājas, i.e. gandharvas, piśācas, kumbhāṇḍas, pretas, nāgas, pūtanas, yakṣas, and rākṣasas.

八重眞寶 The eight weighty and truly precious things, i.e. the eight metals, which depend for evaluation on gold, the highest and greatest, used to illustrate the Buddha as supreme and the other classes in grades beneath him.

Also 八重無價, i.e. the eight priceless things.

八門 (八門二悟 or 八門兩益) Eight kinds of syllogisms in Buddhist logic; v. 因明八正理諭. (1) 能立a valid proposition; (2) 能破 an invalid proposition; (3) 似能立 doubtful, or seemingly valid but faulty; (4) 似能破 seemingly invalid, and

assailable; (5) 現量manifest, or evidential; (6) 比量 inferential; (7) 似現量 seemingly evidential; (8) 似比量 seemingly inferential.

八關齊 idem 八戒齊.

八難 The eight conditions in which it is difficult to see a Buddha or hear his dharma: in the hells: as hungry ghosts; as animals; in Uttarakuru (the northern continent where all is pleasant); in the long-

life heavens (where life is long and easy); as deaf, blind, and dumb; as a worldly philosopher; in the intermediate period between a Buddha and his successor. Also 八無暇.

八音 The eight tones of a Buddha's voice―beautiful, flexible, harmonious, respect-producing, not effeminate (i.e. manly), unerring, deep and resonant.

八顚倒 The eight upside-down views: heretics believe in 常樂我淨 permanence, pleasure, personality, and purity; the two Hīnayāna vehicles deny these both now and in nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna denies them now, but asserts them in nirvāṇa.

Also 八倒.

八風 The eight winds, or influences which fan the passions, i.e. gain, loss; defamation, eulogy; praise, ridicule; sorrow, joy. Also 八法.

八魔 The eight Māras, or destroyers: 煩惱魔 the māras of the passions; 陰魔 the skandha-māras, v. 五陰; 死魔 death-māra ; 他化自在天魔 the māra-king. The above four are ordinarily termed the four māras: the other four are the four

Hīnayāna delusions of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, i.e. 無常 impermanence; 無樂 joylessness; 無我 impersonality; 無淨 impurity; cf. 八顚倒 .

八齋 (八齋戒) idem 八戒齋.

刀山 The hill of swords in one of the hells.

刀途 The gati or path of rebirth as an animal, so called because animals are subjects of the butcher's knife.

刀風 The wind that cuts all living beings to pieces—at the approach of a world-kalpa's end; also described as the disintegrating force at death.

bala; power, strength, of which there are several categories: 二力 power of choice and of practice; 三力 the power of Buddha; of meditation (samādhi) and of practice. 五力 pañcabala, the five powers of

faith, zeal, memory (or remembering), meditation, and wisdom. 六力 A child's power is in crying; a woman's in resentment; a king's in domineering; an arhat's in zeal (or progress); a Buddha's in

mercy; and a bhikṣu's in endurance (of despite) . 十力 q.v. The ten powers of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

力士 力者 vīra. A strong or mighty man, hero, demigod. Used for the Licchavi, also 離車; 梨車 (or 黎車); 栗呫媻. The terms 力士城 and 力士生地 are defined as Kuśinagara.

力者法師 A monk who degrades himself by becoming a fighter (e.g. boxer), or a slave.

力波羅蜜 The vīrya-pāramitā.

力波羅蜜菩薩 The bodhisattva vīrya-pāramitā. One of the twenty-eight honoured ones in the Garbhadhātu group.


力無畏 (力無所畏) The 力 is intp. as the ten powers of a Buddha, the 無所畏 are his four qualities of fearlessness.

力生 Power-born; one who is born from the Truth, a monk.

十 Daśa, ten, the perfect number.

十一 ekādaśa, eleven.

十一切處 Ten universals, or modes of contemplating the universe from ten aspects, i.e. from the viewpoint of earth, water, fire, wind blue, yellow, red, white, space, or mind. For example, contemplated under the aspect

of water, then the universe is regarded as in flux and change. Also called 十禪支, 十遍處定. It is one of the 三法.

十一面觀音 The eleven-faced Guanyin, especially connected with tantric performances, ekādaśamukha; there are three or more sūtras on the subject.

十三 Trayodasa; thirteen.

十三佛 The thirteen Shingon rulers of the dead during the forty-nine days and until the thirty-third commemoration. The thirteen are 不動明王, 釋迦文殊, 普賢, 地藏, 彌勤, 藥師, 觀音, 勢至, 阿彌陀, 阿閦/, 大日and 虛空藏; each has his place, duties,

magical letter, signs, etc.

十三力 The thirteen powers or bodhisattva balas of the Pure land school: 因力, 緣力, 意力, 願力, 方力, 常力, 善力, 定力, 慧力, 多聞力, 持戒忍辱精進禪定力, 正念正觀諸通明力, and如法調伏諸衆生力.

十三宗 The thirteen Buddhist schools of China v. 宗派.

十不二門 The school of the ten pairs of unified opposites founded by Jingxi 荊溪 on the teaching of the Lotus sūtra. There are several books bearing the name. The unifying principle is that of the identity of contraries, and the ten

apparent contraries are matter and mind, internal and external, 修證 practice and proof (or realization), cause and effect, impurity and purity, objective and subjective, self and other, 三業 action, speech,

and thought, 權實 relative and absolute, the fertilized and the fertilizer (i.e. receiver and giver). There are several treatises on the subject in the Canon.

十不善業 (or 十不善道) idem 十惡 (十惡業).

十不悔戒 The ten rules which produce no regrets—not to kill, steal, fornicate, lie, tall of a fellow -Buddhist's sins, deal in wine, praise oneself and discredit others, be mean, be angry, defame the Triratna (Buddha, Law,


十乘 (十乘觀) A T'ien-t'ai mode of meditation in ten "vehicles" or stages, for the attainment of bodhi.

十乘床 The comfort or ease of progress produced by the ten vehicle meditation 十乘觀 is compared to a couch or divan.

十乘風 The ten vehicle meditation 十乘觀 like a breeze blows away error and falsity as dust.

十事功德 The bodhisattva-merit resulting from the attainment of the ten groups of excellences in the southern version of the Nirvāṇa Sūtra 南本涅盤經 19-24. There is an unimportant 十事經 not connected with the above.

十事非法 Ten unlawful things said to have been advocated by the Vaiśālī monks, which led to the calling of the second Council.

十二 dvādaśa, twelve.

十二不律儀 idem 十二惡律儀.

十二佛 The twelve Buddhas of the esoteric sect placed three on the east, one in each of the other seven directions, and one each for zenith and nadir.

十二光佛 Amitābha's twelve titles of light. The無量壽經上 gives them as 無量光佛, etc., i.e. the Buddha of light that is immeasurable boundless, irresistible, incomparable, yama (or flaming), pure, joy, wisdom,

unceasing, surpassing thought, ineffable, surpassing sun and moon. Another list is given in the 九品往生阿彌陀...經.

十二分經 (or 十二分教) idem 十二部經.

十二因緣 Dvādaśaṅga pratītyasamutpāda; the twelve nidānas; v. 尼 and 因; also 十二緣起; 因緣有支; 因緣率連; 因緣棘園; 因緣輪; 因緣重城; 因緣觀; 支佛觀. They are the twelve links in the chain of existence: (1) 無明avidyā, ignorance, or unenlightenment; (2) 行

saṃskāra, action, activity, conception, "dispositions," Keith; (3) 識 vijñāna, consciousness; (4) 名色 nāmarūpa, name and form; (5) 六入 ṣaḍāyatana, the six sense organs, i.e. eye, ear, nose,

tongue, body, and mind; (6) 觸 sparśa, contact, touch; (7) 受 vedanā, sensation, feeling; (8) 愛 tṛṣṇā, thirst, desire, craving; (9) 取 upādāna, laying hold of, grasping; (10) 有 bhava,

being, existing; (11) 生 jāti, birth; (12) 老死 jarāmaraṇa, old age, death. The "classical formula" reads "By reason of ignorance dispositions; by reason of dispositions consciousness", etc. A further

application of the twelve nidānas is made in regard to their causaton of rebirth: (1) ignorance, as inherited passion from the beginningless past ; (2) karma, good and evil, of past lives; (3) conception as a

form of perception; (4) nāmarūpa, or body and mind evolving (in the womb); (5) the six organs on the verge of birth; (6) childhood whose intelligence is limited to sparśa, contact or touch; (7)

receptivity or budding intelligence and discrimination from 6 or 7 years; (8) thirst, desire, or love, age of puberty; (9) the urge of sensuous existence; (10) forming the substance, bhava,

of future karma; (11) the completed karma ready for rebirth; (12) old age and death. The two first are associated with the previous life, the other ten with the present. The theory is equally applicable to all

realms of reincarnation. The twelve links are also represented in a chart, at the centre of which are the serpent (anger), boar (ignorance, or stupidity), and dove (lust) representing the fundamental sins.

Each catches the other by the tail, typifying the train of sins producing the wheel of life. In another circle the twelve links are represented as follows: (1) ignorance, a blind woman; (2) action, a potter at work, or man

gathering fruit; (3) consciousness, a restless monkey; (4) name and form, a boat; (5) sense organs, a house; (6) contact, a man and woman sitting together; (7) sensation, a man pierced by an arrow; (8) desire, a

man drinking wine; (9) craving, a couple in union; (10) existence through childbirth; (11) birth, a man carrying a corpse; (12) disease, old age, death, an old woman leaning on a stick. v. 十二因緣論 Pratītya-samutpāda



十二地 To the 十地 add 等覺 and妙覺 q.v.

十二願 (十二大願 or 十二上願) The twelve vows of the Master of Healing; v. 藥師.

十二天 The twelve devas (especially of the Shingon sect): Brahmā; the deva of earth; of the moon; of the sun; Indra; of fire; Yama; of the rakṣas (or demons); of water; of wind; Vaiśramaṇa

(wealth); and Maheśvara (Śiva). Also 十二大天衆.

十二宮 The twelve zodiacal mansions: east-gemini 夫婦 or 雙女; aries 羊; taurus 牛; west-libra 秤; scorpio 蝎; Sagittarius 弓 or人馬; south―aquarius 甁; pisces 魚; capri-cornus 密牛; north―cancer螃蟹; leo 獅子; virgo (or twin maidens 雙女). They are used

in the vajradhātu group of the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, E.W.S.N.

十二惡律儀 The twelve bad occupations: sheep-butcher; poulterer (or hen-breeder); pork butcher; fowler; fisherman; hunter; thief; executioner; jailer; juggler; dog-butcher; beater (i.e. hunt servant).

十二法人 Those who follow the twelve practices of the ascetics: (1) live in a hermitage; (2) always beg for food; (3) take turns at begging food; (4) one meal a day; (5) reduce amount of food; (6) do not take a drink

made of fruit or honey after midday; (7) wear dust-heap garments; (8) wear only the three clerical garments; (9) dwell among graves; (10) stay under a tree; (11) on the dewy ground; (12) sit and never lie.

十二火天 The homa-, or fire-spirits; Whose representations, colours, magic words, signs, symbols, and mode of worship are given in the 大日經疏20. Also 十二火尊; 十二種火法. The twelve fire-spirits are: (1) Indra or

Vairocana, the discoverer or source of fire, symbolizingknowledge; (2) the moon 行滿 which progresses to fullness, with mercy as root and enlightenment as fruit, i,e. Buddha; (3) the wind, represented as

a half-moon, fanner of fame, of zeal, and by driving away dark clouds, of enlightenment; (4) the red rays of the rising sun, rohitaka, his swords (or rays) indicating 議 wisdom; (5) 沒M004101拏 a form half

stern, half smiling, sternly driving away the passions and trials; (6) 忿怒 irate, bellowing with open mouth, showing four teeth, flowing locks, one eye closed; (7) 闍吒羅 fire burning within, i.e. the inner witness, or

realization; (8) 迄灑耶 the waster, or destroyer of waste and injurious products within, i.e. inner purification; (9) 意生 the producer at will, capable of all variety, resembling Viśvakarman, the Brahmanic Vulcan; (10) 羯羅微

the fire-eater; (11) untraceable; (12) 謨賀那 the completer, also the subduer of demons.

十二無爲 v. 十二眞如.

十二燈 The twelve lamps used in the cult of the Master of Healing 藥師.

十二獸 The twelve animals for the "twelve horary branches" with their names, hours, and the Chinese transliterations of their Sanskrit equivalents; v. 大集經 23 and 56. There are also the thirty-six animals, three for

each hour. The twelve are: Serpent 蛇 巳, 9-11 a.m. 迦若; Horse 馬午, 11-1 noon 兜羅; Sheep 羊未, 1―3 p.m. 毘梨支迦; Monkey 猴申, 3-5 p.m. 檀尼毘; Cock 鶏酉, 5-7 p.m. 摩迦羅; Dog 大戌, 7-9 p.m. 鳩槃; Boar 豕亥, 9-11 p.m.彌那; Rat 鼠子, 11-1 midnight 彌沙; Ox 牛

丑 1-3 a.m. 毘利沙; Tiger (or Lion) 虎寅, 3―5 a.m. 彌倫那; Hare 兎卯, 5-7 a.m. 羯迦吒迦; Dragon 龍辰, 7-9 a.m 絲阿.


十二眞如 The twelve aspects of the bhūtatathhatā or the ultimate, which is also styled the 十二無為 "inactive" or nirvana-like: and the 十二空 "void" or immaterial: (1) The chen ju itself; (2) 法界 as the medium of all things; (3) 法性 as

the nature of all things; (4) 不虛妄性 its reality contra the unreality of phenomena; (5) 不變異性 its immutability contra mortality and phenomenal variation; (6) 平等性 as universal or undifferentiated; (7) 離生性 as

immortal, i.e. apart from birth and death, or creation and destruction; (8) 法定 as eternal, its nature ever sure; (9) 法住 as the abode of all things; (10) 實際 as the bounds of all reality; (11) 虛空界 as the realm of

space, the void, or immateriality; (12)不思議界 as the realm beyond thought or expression.

十二神(十二神明王) The twelve spirits connected with the cult of 藥師 the Master of Healing. Also 十二神將. They are associated with the twelve hours of the day, of which they are guardian spirits. Their names are as follows: 宮

(or 金) 毘羅 Kumbhīra; 伐折羅 Vajra; 迷企羅 Mihira; 安底羅 Aṇḍīra; 頞儞羅 Anila; 珊底羅 Śaṇḍila; 因陀羅 Indra; 波夷羅Pajra; 摩虎羅 Mahoraga; 眞達羅 Kinnara; 招杜羅 Catura; and 毘羯羅 Vikarāla.

十二禽 idem 十二獸.

十二種火法 v. 十二火天.

十二空 v. 十二眞如.

十二緣起;十二輪 十二門; idem十二因緣.

十二藥叉大將 idem 十二神.

十二部經 Twelve divisions of the Mahāyāna canon: (1) 修多羅 sūtra; (2) 祇夜 geya; (3) 伽陀 gāthā; (4) 尼陀那 nidāna, also 因緣; (5) 伊帝目多 itivṛttaka; (6) 闍多伽 jātaka; (7) 阿浮達摩 adbhuta-dharma, i.e. the 阿毘達摩 abhidhama; (8) 阿波陀那 avadāna;

(9) 優婆提舍 upadeśa; (10) 優陀那udāna; (11) 毘佛略 vaipulya; (12) 和 伽羅 vyākaraṇa. Cf. 九部經.

十二遊經 Dvādaśaviharaṇa sūtra. The life of Śākyamuni to his twelfth year, translated by Kālodaka A.D. 392.

十二門 idem 十二因緣.

十二門論 Dvāda-śanikāya Śastra. One of the 三論, composed by Nāgārjuna, translated by Kumārajīva A.D. 408. There are several works on it.

十二願王 The twelve-vow king, i.e. Yao Shih 藥師, the Master of Healing.

十五 Pañcadaśa, fifteen.

十五尊 The fifteen honoured ones, with whom certain 眞言 Shingon devotees seek by yoga to become united; of the fifteen, each represents a part of the whole, e.g. the eyes, ears, mouth, hands, feet, etc. v. 瑜祇經 in its 金剛薩埵 ,

etc., chapter.

十五尊觀音 The fifteen kinds of Guanyin's images—normal face, with thousand hands, horse's head, eleven faces, as Cundā (Marīci), with the 如意 talismanic wheel, net, white robe, leaf robe, moon, willow, fruit, as Tārā, with azure

neck, and as Gandharāja.

十五智斷 The fifteen days of the waxing moon are likened to the fifteen kinds of increasing wisdom 智, and the fifteen waning days to the fifteen kinds of deliverance from evil 斷.

十住 The ten stages, or periods, in bodhisattva-wisdom, prajñā 般若, are the 十住; the merits or character attained are the 十地 q.v. Two interpretations may be given. In the first of these, the first four stages are likened to

entry into the holy womb, the next four to the period of gestation, the ninth to birth, and the tenth to the washing or baptism with the water of wisdom, e.g. the baptism of a Kṣatriya prince. The ten stages are (1) 發心住 the

purposive stage, the mind set upon Buddhahood; (2) 治地住 clear understanding and mental control; (3) 修行住 unhampered liberty in every direction; (4) 生貴住 acquiring the Tathāgata nature or seed; (5) 方便具足住 perfect

adaptability and resemblance in self-development and development of others; (6) 正心住 the whole mind becoming Buddha-like; (7) 不退住 no retrogression, perfect unity and constant progress; (8) 童眞住 as a Buddha-son now

complete; (9) 法王子住 as prince of the law; (10) 灌頂住 baptism as such, e.g. the consecration of kings. Another interpretation of the above is: (1) spiritual resolve, stage of śrota-āpanna; (2) submission to rule,

preparation for Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (3) cultivation of virtue, attainment of Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (4) noble birth, preparation for the anāgāmin stage; (5) perfect means, attainment of anāgāmin stage; (6) right mind,

preparation for arhatship; (7) no-retrogradation, the attainment of arhatship; (8) immortal youth, pratyekabuddhahood; (9) son of the law-king, the conception of bodhisattvahood; (10) baptism as the summit of attainment,

the conception of Buddhahood.


十住心 Ten stages of mental or spiritual development in the 眞言 Shingon sect, beginning with the human animal and ending with perfect enlightenment; a category by the Japanese monk 弘法 Kōbō, founded on the 大


十住毘婆沙論 Daśabhūmivibhāsā śāstra. A commentary by Nāgārjuna on the 十住經 and the 十地經, said to contain the earliest teaching regarding Amitābha; translated by Kumārajīva circa A.D. 405.

十佛 There are several, groups; that of the Huayan sūtra is Kāśyapa, Kanakamuni, Krakucchanda, Viśvabhū, Śikhin, Vipaśyi, Tiśya (or Puṣya), Tissa, ? Padma, and Dīpaṅkara. Another group is that of the Amitābha cult,

one for each of the ten directions. There are other groups.

十來 (十來偈) The ten rhymes in "lai", a verse which expresses the Buddhist doctrine of moral determinism, i.e. that the position anyone now occupies is solely the result of his character in past lives; heredity and

environment having nothing to do with his present condition, for, whether in prince or beggar, it is the reward of past deeds.

' The upright from the forbearing come,

The poor from the mean and greedy come,

Those of high rank from worshippers come,

The low and common from the Prideful come,

Those who are dumb from slanderers come,

The blind and deaf from unbelievers come,

The long-lived from the merciful come,

The short-lived from life, takers come,

The deficient in faculties from command-breakers come,

The complete in faculties from command-keepers come.












十使 十大惑; 十根本煩惱 The ten messengers, deluders, fundamental passions; they are divided into five sharp and five dull; the five 鈍使 dull ones are desire, hate, stupidity, pride, and doubt; the five sharp 利使 are 身見,

邊見, 邪見, 見取見, 戒禁見, v. 見.

十信 The ten grades of bodhisattva faith, i.e. the first ten 位 in the fifty-two bodhisattva positions: (1) 信 faith (which destroys illusion and results in); (2) 念 remembrance, or unforgetfulness; (3) 精進 zealous

progress; (4) 慧 wisdom; (5) 定 settled firmness in concentration; (6) 不退 non-retrogression; (7) 護法 protection of the Truth; (8) 廻向 reflexive powers, e.g. for reflecting the Truth; (9) 戒 the nirvāṇa mind in 無為

effortlessness; (10) 願 action at will in anything and everywhere.

十八 aṣṭādaśa, eighteen.

十八不共法 āveṇikadharma, or buddhadharma, the eighteen different characteristics of a Buddha as compared with bodhisattvas, i.e. his perfection of body (or person), mouth (or speech), memory, impartiality to

all, serenity, self-sacrifice, unceasing desire to save, unfagging zeal therein unfailing thought thereto, wisdom in it, powers of deliverance, the principles of it, revealing perfect wisdom in

deed, in word, in thought, perfect knowledge of past, future, and present, v. 智度論 26.

十八圓淨 The eighteen perfections of a buddha's sambhogakāya, v. 三身. Also 十八圓滿.

十八天 Brahmaloka, the eighteen heavens of form, rūpadhātu, three of the first dhyāna, 梵衆天; 梵輔天; 大梵天; three of the second, 少光天; 無量光天; 光音; three of the third, 少淨天; 無量淨天; 徧淨天; and nine of the fourth, 無雲天; 福生天; 廣果天; 無想天;

無煩天; 無熱天; 善見天; 善現,天; 色究竟天 ."Southern Buddhism knows only sixteen. Those two which Northern Buddhists added are Punya-prasava 福生 and Anabhraka 無雲." Eitel.

十八宗 The eighteen Japanese Buddhist sects, i.e. 三論; 法相; 華嚴; 律; 倶舍; 成實; 天台; 眞言; 融通念佛; 淨土; 眞; 日蓮; 時; 臨濟; 曹洞; 黃檗; 普化; and 修驗宗.

十八應眞 The eighteen arhats.

十八物 The eighteen things a monk should carry in the performance of his duties—willow twigs, soap, the three garments, a water-bottle, a begging-bowl, mat, staff, censer, filter, handkerchief, knife, fire-producer, pincers

hammock, sutra, the vinaya, the Buddha's image, and bodhisattva image or images; cf. 梵綱經 37.

十八生處 The eighteen Brahmalokas, where rebirth is necessary, i.e. where mortality still exists.

十八界 The eighteen dhātu, or realms of sense, i.e. 六根, 六境, 六識 the six organs, their objects or conditions, and their perceptions.


十八經 (十八大經); 十八明處 The eighteen Indian non-Buddhist classics, i.e. the four vedas, six śāstras, and eight śāstras.

十八賢 (十八聖 or 十八衆); 十八境界; 十八有學 v. 有學.

十八部 The eighteen schools of Hīnayāna as formerly existing in India; v. 小乘.

十八重地獄 The eighteen layers of hells, which are described by one writer as the conditions in which the six sense organs, their six objects, and the six perceptions do not harmonize. Another says the eighteen are the

hell of knives, the boiling sands, the boiling excrement, the fiery carriage, the boiling cauldron, the iron bed, etc.

十八道 In the two maṇḍalas, Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu, each has nine central objects of worship. The Shingon disciple devotes himself to meditation on one of these eighteen each day.

十六 ṣoḍaśa Sixteen is the esoteric (Shingon) perfect number, just as ten is the perfect number in the Huayan sūtra and generally, see 大日經疏 5.

十六心 i.e. the 八忍 and 八智.

十六天 (十六大天) The sixteen devas are E. Indra and his wife; S.E. the fire deva and his wife; S. Yama and his wife; S.W. Yakṣa-rāja (Kuvera) and wife; W. the water deva and his nāga wife (Śakti); N.W. the wind

deva and wife; N. Vaiśramaṇa and wife; N.E. Īśāna and wife.

十六師 The sixteen non-Buddhist "heretical" Indian philosophers.

十六曾 The sixteen lessons of the Prajñā-pāramitā.

十六行 (十六心行) ; 十六諦觀 idem 十六行相. The sixteen行相 of the Four Axioms 四諦, i.e. four forms of considering each of the axioms, associated with 見道.

十六善神 Two lists are given, one of sixteen 大將 mahārājas; another of sixteen 善神 good spirits or gods; all of them are guardians of the good and enemies of evil.

十六國王 十六大國 The sixteen ancient kingdoms of India whose kings are addressed in the 仁王經 2; i.e. Vaiśālī, Kośala, Śrāvastī, Magadha, Bārāṇasi, Kapilavastu, Kuśinagara, Kauśāmbī, Pañcāla, Pāṭaliputra, Mathurā, Uṣa (Uśīra),

Puṇyavardhana, Devāvatāra, Kāśī, and Campā.

十六大力 The sixteen great powers obtainable by a bodhisattva, i.e. of will, mind, action, shame (to do evil), energy, firmness, wisdom, virtue, reasoning, personal appearance, physical

powers, wealth, spirit, magic, spreading the truth, subduing demons.

十六想觀 idem 十六觀.

十六王子 (十六王子佛); 十六沙彌 The sixteen princes in the Lotus Sūtra who became Buddhas after hearing their father preach it.

十六知見 十六神我 The sixteen heretical views on me and mine, i.e. the ego in self and others, determinism or fate, immortality, etc.; v. 智度論 25.

十六菩薩 十六大士 (or 十六正士) The sixteen bodhisattvas; there are two groups, one of the 顯教 exoteric, one of the 密教 esoteric cults; the exoteric list is indefinite; the esoteric has two lists, one is of [[four

bodhisattvas]] to each of the Buddhas of the four quarters of the Diamond Realm; the other is of the sixteen who represent the body of bodhisattvas in a 賢 kalpa, such as the present: E. 彌勒, 不空, 除憂, 除惡; S. 香象, 大精進,

虛 空藏智幢; W. 無量光, 賢護, 網明, 月光; N. 無量意 (文殊), 辨積, 金剛藏普賢.

十六觀 The sixteen meditations of Amitābha on the setting sun, water (as ice, crystal, etc. ), the earth, and so on.

十六資具 Sixteen necessaries of a strict observer of ascetic rules, ranging from garments made of rags collected from the dust heap to sleeping among graves.

十利 There are many groups of ten profitable things or advantages, e.g. ten in regard to edibles, ten to congee, to learning, to study of the scriptures, to wisdom, to zeal, etc.

十力 Daśabala. The ten powers of Buddha, giving complete knowledge of: (1) what is right or wrong in every condition; (2) what is the karma of every being, past, present, and future; (3) all stages of dhyāna

liberation, and samādhi; (4) the powers and faculties of all beings; (5) the desires, or moral direction of every being; (6) the actual condition of every individual; (7) the direction and

consequence of all laws; (8) all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality; (9) the end of all beings and nirvāṇa; (10) the destruction of all illusion of every kind. See the 智度論 25 and the 倶舍論 29.

十力教 The religion of Him who has the ten powers, i.e. Buddhism.

十力尊 (十力無等) The honoured (unequalled) possessor of the ten powers, Buddha.

十力迦葉 Daśabala-Kāśyupa, one of the first five disciples.

十力明 The ten powers and ten understandings of a Buddha.

十功德 (十功德論) Ten merits (or powers) commended by the Buddha to his bhikṣus—zealous progress, contentment with few desires, courage, learning (so as to teach), fearlessness, perfect observance of

the commands and the fraternity, regulations, perfect meditation, perfect wisdom, perfect liberation, and perfect understanding of it.

十劫 The ten kalpas that have expired since Amitābha made his forty-eight vows, or 十劫正覺attained complete bodhi, hence he is styled 十劫彌陀. These ten kalpas as seen by Puxian are十劫須臾 but as a moment.


十勝行 The ten pāramitās observed by bodhisattvas, see 十地 and 十住. Hīnayāna has another group, adding to the four 梵福 q. v. the six of sacrificing one's life to save mother; or father; or a Buddha; to become a monk: to

induce another to become a monk; to obtain authority to preach.

十名 idem 十號.

十問 The ten questions to the Buddha, put into the mouth of Vajrapāṇi, which, with the answers given, form the basis of the 大日經. What is (or are) (1) the nature of the bodhi-mind? (2) its form or forms? (3) the

mental stages requisite to attainment? (4) the difference between them? (5) the time required? (6) the character of the merits attained? (7) the activities or practices necessary? (8) the way of such practices? (9) the

condition of the uncultivated and cultivated mind? (10) the difference between it and that of the follower of Yoga?

十善正法 (十善) The ten good characteristics, or virtues, defined as the non-committal of the 十惡 ten evils, q. v. Tiantai has two groups, one of ceasing 止 to do evil, the other of learning to do well 行.

十善位 十善戒力; 十善王 The position, or power, attained in the next life by observing the ten commandments here, to be born in the heavens, or as rulers of men.

十善巧 The ten good crafts, or meditations of pratyeka-buddhas, i. e. on the five skandhas, twelve 處, eighteen 界, twelve 因緣, etc.

十善戒 The ten commandments (as observed by the laity).

十善業 (十善業道) The excellent karma resulting from practice of the ten commandments.

十善菩薩 The bodhisattvas of the 十信位 q. v.

十四 caturdaśa, fourteen.

十四佛國往生 The fourteen other-world realms of fourteen Buddhas, i. e. this realm of Śākyamuni and thirteen others.

十四神九王 The fourteen devas and nine dragon and other kings, who went in the train of Mañjuśrī to thank the Buddha at the last of his Huayan addresses; for list see 唐華嚴經 61.

十四變化 The fourteen transformations that are connected with the four dhyāna heavens.

十四難 The fourteen difficult questions of the "heretics" to which the Buddha made no reply, for, as it is said, the questions were no more properly put than if one asked " How much milk can you get from cow's horn?" They are forms of:

All is permanent, impermanent, both or neither; all changes, changes not, both, neither; at death a spirit departs, does not, both, neither; after death we have the same body (or personality) and spirit, or

body and spirit are different.

十地 daśabhūmi; v. 十住. The "ten stages" in the fifty-two sections of the development of a bodhisattva into a Buddha. After completing the十四向 he proceeds to the 十地. There are several groups. I. The ten stages common to the Three

Vehicles 三乘 are: (1) 乾慧地 dry wisdom stage, i. e. unfertilized by Buddha-truth, worldly wisdom; (2) 性地 the embryo-stage of the nature of Buddha-truth, the 四善根; (3) 八人地 (八忍地), the stage of the eight

patient endurances; (4) 見地 of freedom from wrong views; (5) 薄地 of freedom from the first six of the nine delusions in practice; (6) 離欲地 of freedom from the remaining three; (7) 巳辨地 complete discrimination in regard to

wrong views and thoughts, the stage of an arhat; (8) 辟支佛地 pratyeka-buddhahood, only the dead ashes of the past left to sift; (9) 菩薩地 bodhisattvahood; (10) 佛地 Buddhahood. v. 智度論 78. II. 大乘菩薩十地 The ten stages

of Mahāyāna bodhisattva development are: (1) 歡喜地 Pramuditā, joy at having overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood; (2) 離垢地 Vimalā, freedom from all possible defilement, the stage

of purity; (3) 發光地 Prabhākarī, stage of further enlightenment; (4) 焰慧地 Arciṣmatī, of glowing wisdom; (5) 極難勝地 Sudurjayā, mastery of utmost or final difficulties; (6) 現前地 Abhimukhī, the open way of wisdom above

definitions of impurity and purity; (7) 遠行地 Dūraṁgamā, proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in order to save others; (8) 不動地 Acalā, attainment of calm unperturbedness; (9) 善慧地 Sādhumatī, of the finest

discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the 十力 ten powers; (10) 法雲地 Dharmamegha, attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the

ten pāramitās, v. 波. Each of the 四乘 or four vehicles has a division of ten. III. The 聲聞乘十地 ten Śrāvaka stages are: (1) 受三歸地 initiation as a disciple by receiving the three refuges, in the Buddha, Dharma, and Saṅgha;

(2) 信地 belief, or the faith-root; (3) 信法地 belief in the four truths; (4) 内凡夫地 ordinary disciples who observe the 五停心觀, etc.; (5) 學信戒 those who pursue the 三學 three studies; (6) 八人忍地 the stage of 見道 seeing

the true Way; (7) 須陀洹地 śrota-āpanna, now definitely in the stream and assured of nirvāṇa; (8) 斯陀含地 sakrdāgāmin, only one more rebirth; (9) 阿那含地 anāgāmin, no rebirth; and (10) 阿羅漢地 arhatship. IV. The ten stages of the

pratyekabuddha 緣覺乘十地 are (1) perfect asceticism; (2) mastery of the twelve links of causation; (3) of the four noble truths; (4) of the deeper knowledge; (5) of the eightfold noble path; (6) of the [[three

realms]] 三法界; (7) of the nirvāṇa state; (8) of the six supernatural powers; (9) arrival at the intuitive stage; (10) mastery of the remaining influence of former habits. V. 佛乘十地 The ten stages, or characteristics of a

Buddha, are those of the sovereign or perfect attainment of wisdom, exposition, discrimination, māra-subjugation, suppression of evil, the six transcendent faculties, manifestation of all bodhisattva

enlightenment, powers of prediction, of adaptability, of powers to reveal the bodhisattva Truth. VI. The Shingon has its own elaborate ten stages, and also a group 十地十心, see 十心; and there are other groups.


十地品 The twenty-second chapter of the sixty-chapter version of the 華嚴經, the twenty-sixth of the eighty-chapter version.

十地願行 The vow of bodhisattvas to attain the十地 by fulfilling the ten pāramitās, v. 十波.

十地心 Ten stages of mind, or mental development, i.e. (1) 四無量心 the four kinds of boundless mind; (2) 十善心 the mind of the ten good qualities; (3) 明光心 the illuminated mind; (4) 焰慧心 the mind of glowing wisdom;

(5) 大勝心 the mind of mastery; (6) 現前心 the mind of the open way (above normal definitions); (7) 無生心 the mind of no rebirth; (8) 不思議心 the mind of the inexpressible; (9) 慧光心 the mind of wisdom-radiance;

(10) 受位心 the mind of perfect receptivity. v. also 十心.

十境 Ten objects of or stages in meditation觀 in the Tiantai school, i.e. 陰境 the five skandhas; 煩惱境 life's distresses and delusion; 病患境 sickness, or duḥkha, its cause and cure; 業相境 age-long karmaic influences;

魔事境 Māra affairs, how to overthrow their rule; 禪定境 the conditions of dhyāna and samādhi; 諸見境 various views and doubts that arise; 慢境 pride in progress and the delusion that one has attained nirvāṇa; 二乘境 temptation

to be content with the lower nirvāṇa, instead of going on to the greater reward; 菩薩境 bodhisattvahood; see the 止觀 5.

十夜念佛 (十夜) The ten nights (and days) from the sixth to the fifteenth of the tenth moon, when the Pure-land sect intones sūtras.

十大弟子 The ten chief discip1es of Śākyamuni, each of whom was master of one power or gift. Śāriputra of wisdom; Maudgalyāyana of supernatural powers; Mahākāśyapa of discipline; Aniruddha of 天眼 deva

vision; Subhūti of explaining the void or immaterial; Pūrṇa of expounding the law; Kātyāyana of its fundamental principles; Upāli of maintaining the rules; Rāhula of the esoteric; and Ānanda of hearing and


十大惑 idem 十使.

十大願 The ten vows of Puxian 普賢, or Samantabhadra.

十如是 The ten essential qualities, or characteristics, of thing, according to the 方便chapter of the Lotus sūtra: 相如是 form; 性如是 nature; 體如是 corpus or embodiment; 力如是 powers; 作如是 function; 因如是 primary cause; 果如是

environmental cause; 果如是 effect; 報如是 karmic reward; 本末究竟等 the inseparability, or inevitability of them all.

十如來地 v. 十地.

十妙 The ten wonders, or incomprehensibles; there are two groups, the 迹v traceable or manifested and 本門妙 the fundamental. The 迹門十妙 are the wonder of: (1) 境妙 the universe, sphere, or whole, embracing mind, Buddha, and all

things as a unity; (2) 智妙 a Buddha's all-embracing knowledge arising from such universe; (3) 行妙 his deeds, expressive of his wisdom; (4) 位妙 his attainment of all the various Buddha stages, i.e. 十住 and十地; (5) 三法

妙 his three laws of 理, 慧, and truth, wisdom, and vision; (6) 感應妙 his response to appeal, i.e. his (spiritual) response or relation to humanity, for "all beings are my children"; (7) 神通妙 his supernatural powers;

(8) 說法妙 his preaching; (9) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (10) 利益妙 the blessings derived through universal elevation into Buddhahood. The 本門十妙 are the wonder of (1) 本因妙 the initial impulse or causative stage of

Buddhahood; (2) 本果妙 its fruit or result in eternity, joy, and purity; (3) 國土妙 his (Buddha) realm; (4) 感應妙 his response (to human needs); (5) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (6) 說法妙 his preaching; (7) 眷屬妙 his

supernatural retinue; (8) 涅槃妙 his nirvāṇa; (9) 壽命妙 his (eternal) life; (10) his blessings as above. Both groups are further defined as progressive stages in a Buddha's career. These "wonders" are derived from the

Lotus sūtra.

十宗 The ten schools of Chinese Buddhism: I. The (1) 律宗 Vinaya-discipline, or 南山|; (2) 倶舍 Kośa, Abhidharma, or Reality (Sarvāstivādin) 有宗; (3) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect founded on this śāstra by Harivarman; (4) 三論宗

Mādhyamika or 性空宗; (5) 法華宗 Lotus, "Law-flower" or Tiantai 天台宗; (6) 華嚴Huayan or法性 or賢首宗; ( 7) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana or 慈恩宗 founded on the唯識論 (8) 心宗 Ch'an or Zen, mind-only or intuitive, v. 禪宗 ; (9) 眞言宗 (Jap.

Shingon) or esoteric 密宗 ; (10) 蓮宗 Amitābha-lotus or Pure Land (Jap. Jōdo) 淨士宗. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 9th are found in Japan rather than in China, where they have ceased to be of importance. II. The [[Hua-

yen]] has also ten divisions into ten schools of thought: (1) 我法倶有 the reality of self (or soul) and things, e.g. mind and matter; (2) 法有我無 the reality of things but not of soul; (3) 法無去來 things have

neither creation nor destruction; (4) 現通假實 present things are both apparent and real; (5) 俗妄眞實 common or phenomenal ideas are wrong, fundamental reality is the only truth; (6) things are merely names; (7) all things

are unreal 空; (8) the bhūtatathatā is not unreal; (9) phenomena and their perception are to be got rid of; (10) the perfect, all-inclusive, and complete teaching of the One Vehicle. III. There are two old Japanese

divisions: 大乘律宗, 倶舎宗 , 成實 宗 , 法和宗 , 三論宗 , 天台宗 , 華嚴宗 , 眞言宗 , 小乘律宗 , and 淨土宗 ; the second list adds 禪宗 and omits 大乘律宗. They are the Ritsu, Kusha, Jōjitsu, Hossō, Sanron, Tendai, Kegon, Shingon, (Hīnayāna)

Ritsu, and Jōdo; the addition being Zen.


十寶 The ten precious things; 十寶山 the ten precious mountains, or mountain of ten precious things; v. 十善 and 十善王.

十山王 The spirit king of each of the ten mountains―Himālaya, Gandhamādana, Vaidharī, 神仙山, Yugaṅdhara, Aśvakarṇa, Nemindhara, Cakravāḍa, Ketumatī, and Sumeru.

十師 The ten monks necessary for a full ordination of a monk, i.e. 三師七證 three leaders and seven witnesses.

十度 The ten pāramitās or virtues transporting to nirvāṇa; idem 十波羅蜜 q.v.

十度三行 each of the pāramitās has three forms of observance, e.g. the first, 施 dāna or giving has 財施 almsgiving, 法施 truth-giving, and 無畏施 courage-giving. The three forms differ with each pāramitā.

十弟子 The ten acolytes or attendants on an ācārya, or superior religious teacher, in his ceremonial offices, following the pattern of the ten principal disciples of Śākyamuni.

十德 The ten virtues, powers, or qualities, of which there are several groups, e.g. in the 華嚴經,十地品 there are 法師十德 the ten virtues of a teacher of the Law, i.e. he should be well versed in its meaning; able widely to

publish it; not be nervous before an audience; be untiring in argument; adaptable; orderly so that his teaching can be easily followed; serious and dignified; bold and zealous; unwearied; and enduring (able to bear insult, etc.). The 弟子

十德 ten virtues or qualities of a disciple according to the 大日經疏 4, are faith; sincerity; devotion to the trikāya; (seeking the) adornment of true wisdom; perseverance; moral purity; patience (or bearing

shame); generosity in giving; courage; resoluteness.

十心 The ten kinds of heart or mind; there are three groups. One is from the 止觀 4, minds ignorant and dark; affected by evil companions; not following the good; doing evil in thought, word, deed; spreading

evil abroad; unceasingly wicked; secret sin; open crime; utterly shameless; denying cause and effect (retribution)―all such must remain in the flow 流 of reincarnation. The second group (from the same book) is the 逆流

the mind striving against the stream of perpetual reincarnation; it shows itself in devout faith, shame (for sin), fear (of wrong-doing), repentance and confession, reform, bodhi (i.e. the

bodhisattva mind), doing good, maintaining the right law, thinking on all the Buddhas, meditation on the void (or, the unreality of sin). The third is the 眞言 group from the 大日經疏 3; the "seed" heart (i.e. the

original good desire), the sprout (under Buddhist religious influence), the bud, leaf, flower, fruit, its serviceableness; the child-heart, the discriminating heart, the heart of settled judgment (or


十快 The ten inexpressible joys of the Pure-land; also 十樂.

十念 The ten repetitions of an invocation, e.g. namo Amitābha.

十念往生 These ten invocations will carry a dying man with an evil karma into the Pure-land.

十念成就 See 十念往生, but cf. 十聲.

十念處 A bodhisattva's ten objects of thought or meditation, i.e. body, the senses, mind, things, environment, monastery, city (or district), good name, Buddha-learning, riddance of all

passion and delusion.

十念血脉 The arteries of the "ten invocations", i.e. the teacher's giving and the disciple's receiving of the law.

十忿怒明王 The ten irate rājas, or protectors, whose huge images with many heads and limbs are seen in temples; perhaps the ten krodha gods of the Tibetans (Khro-bo); their names are 焰鬘得迦 Yamāntaka; 無能勝 Ajita; 鉢納 鬘

得迦 ? Padmāhtaka; 尾覲那得迦 Vighnāntaka; 不動尊 Acala; 吒枳 ? Dākinī; 儞羅難拏 ? Nīladaṇḍa; 大力, 送婆 Sambara; and縛日羅播多羅 Vīrabhadra.


十恩 Ten kinds of the Buddha's grace: his (1) initial resolve to universalize (his salvation); (2) self-sacrifice (in previous lives); (3) complete altruism; (4) his descent into all the six states of existence for

their salvation; (5) relief of the living from distress and mortality; (6) profound pity; (7) revelation of himself in human and glorified form; (8) teaching in accordance with the capacity of his hearers, first hīnayāna,

then māhayāna doctrine; (9) revealing his nirvāṇa to stimulate his disciples; (10) pitying thought for all creatures, in that dying at 80 instead of at 100 he left twenty years of his own happiness to his disciples;

and also the tripiṭaka for universal salvation.

十惑 idem 十使.

十惡 Daśākuśala. The ten "not right" or evil things are killing, stealing, adultery, lying, double-tongue, coarse language, filthy language, covetousness, anger, perverted views; these produce the ten

resultant evils 十惡業 (道) Cf. 十善; 十戒.

十惱亂 The ten disturbers of the religious life: a domineering (spirit); heretical ways; dangerous amusements; a butcher's or other low occupation; asceticism (or selfish hīnayāna salvation); (the condition of a)

eunuch; lust; endangering (the character by improper intimacy); contempt; breeding animals, etc. (for slaughter).

十成 Entirely completed, perfect.

十戒 Śikṣāpada. The ten prohibitions (in Pāli form) consist of five commandments for the layman: (1) not to destroy life 不殺生 pāṇātipātāveramaṇi; (2) not to steal 不倫盜 adinnādānāver; (3) not to commit adultery 不婬慾

abrahmacaryaver.; (4) not to lie 不妄語musāvādāver.; (5) not to take intoxicating liquor 不飮酒 suramereyya-majjapamādaṭṭhānāver. Eight special commandments for laymen consist of the preceding five plus: (6) not to eat food out of

regulated hours 不非時食 vikāla-bhojanāver.; (7) not to use garlands or perfumes 不著華鬘好香塗身 mālā- gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana-vibhūṣanaṭṭhānā; (8) not to sleep on high or broad beds (chastity) 不坐高廣大牀 uccāsayanā-mahāsayanā.

The ten commandments for the monk are the preceding eight plus: (9) not to take part in singing, dancing, musical or theatrical performances, not to see or listen to such 不歌舞倡伎不往觀聽 nacca-gīta-vādita-visūkadassanāver.; (10) to

refrain from acquiring uncoined or coined gold, or silver, or jewels 不得捉錢金銀寶物 jātarūpa-rajata-paṭīggahaṇāver. Under the Māhayāna these ten commands for the monk were changed, to accord with the new environment of the monk, to

the following: not to kill, not to steal, to avoid all unchastity, not to lie, not to slander, not to insult, not to chatter, not to covet, not to give way to anger, to harbour no scepticism.

十支論 The ten Yoga books, the foundation work being the 瑜伽論, the other ten are 百法論, 五蘊論, 顯揚論, 攝大乘論, 雜集論, 辨中邊論, 二十唯識論, 三十唯識論, 大莊嚴論, and 分別瑜伽論 .

十教 v. 十宗.

十方 The ten directions of space, i.e. the eight points of the compass and the nadir and zenith. There is a Buddha for each direction 十方十佛.

十方世界 The worlds in all directions.

十方佛土 A Buddha-realm, idem 大千世界.

十方常住僧物 十方現前僧物 see 四種僧物.

十普門 The ten universals of a bodhisattva: 慈悲普 universal pity; 弘誓門 vow of universal salvation; 修行門 accordant action; 斷惑門 universal cutting off of delusions; 入法門門 freedom of entry into all forms of

truth; 神通門 universal superhuman powers; 方便門 universal accordance with conditions of the receptivity of others; 說法門 powers of universal explication of the truth; 供養諸佛門 power of universal service

of all Buddhas; 成就衆生門 the perfecting of all beings universally.

十智 The ten forms of understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto, applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6),

(7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智; (8) 他心智 understanding of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or

for self, i.e. 自信智; (10) 無生智 nirvāṇa wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26. II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界

無礙智 unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6) 普照一切世間智 understanding of

universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) 知一 切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) 知一切法智 understanding of omniscience re the laws of

universal salvation; (10) 知無邊 諸佛智 understanding of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings, karma, passions, and



十根本煩惱 idem 十使.

十樂 v. 十快.

十殊勝語 The ten rare or surpassing terms connected with the ten surpassing laws; they are given in Xuanzang's translation of Vasubandhu's 攝論釋.

十殿閻王 The ten Yama courts, cf. 十王.

十法 The ten 成就 perfect or perfecting Mahāyāna rules; i.e. in (1) right belief; (2) conduct; (3) spirit; (4) the joy of the bodhi mind; (5) joy in the dharma; (6) joy in meditation in it; (7) pursuing

the correct dharma; (8) obedience to, or accordance with it; (9) departing from pride, etc.; (10) comprehending the inner teaching of Buddha and taking no pleasure in that of the śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha order.

十法界 The ten dharma-worlds, or states of existence, i.e. the hells (or purgatories), pretas, animals, asmas, men, devas, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, Buddhas. In the esoteric

teaching there is a series of hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, devas, śrāvakas, bodhisattvas, 權佛 relative Buddhas, 實佛 absolute Buddhas.

十法行 Ten ways of devotion to the Buddhist sutras: to copy them; serve the places where they are kept, as if serving the Buddha's shrine; preach or give them to others; listen attentively to their exposition; read;

maintain; discourse on them to others; intone them; ponder over them; observe their lessons.

十波羅夷 The ten pārājikas, or sins unpardonable in a monk involving his exclusion from the community; v. 十重禁戒.

十波羅蜜 (or 密多) The ten are the six pārāmitas with four added. The six are charity (or almsgiving), purity (or morality), patience, zealous progress, meditation, wisdom; i.e. 施, 戒, 忍, 辱, 精進, 禪, 慧. The four additions

are 方便; 願; 力 and 智 upāya, adaptability (or, teaching as suited to the occasion and hearer): praṇidhāna, vows; bala, force of purpose; and jñāna, knowledge. Also 十度.

十無二 Ten powers only possessed by Buddhas: (1) prediction; (2) knowing and fulfilling the desires of the living; (3)-(10) are various forms of omniscience, i.e. (3) of all Buddha-realms and their inhabitants;

(4) their natures; (5) good roots; (6) laws; (7) wisdom; (8) every moment; (9) evolving domains, or conditions; (10) language, words, and discussions. v. 宗鏡錄 99.

十無盡戒 idem 十重禁戒.

十無盡藏 The ten boundless treasuries of a bodhisattva: (1) 信 belief and faith; (2) 戒 the commandments; (3) 慚 shame of past misdeeds; (4) 愧blushing over the misdeeds of others; (5) hearing and knowledge of the

truth; (6) giving; (7) wisdom; (8) memory; (9) keeping and guarding the sūtras; (10) powers of expounding them. 華 嚴經 20.

十無礙 The ten unhindered transformations and ubiquitous powers of a Buddha.

十牛圖 (十牛圖序) The ten ox-pictures, the first, a man looking for an ox, then seeing its tracks, then seeing the ox, catching it, feeding it, riding it home, ox dies man lives, both dead, return whence they came and

enter the dust.

十玄 ; 十玄門 (十玄緣起) The ten philosophic ideas expressed in two metrical versions, each line ending with 門. v. 玄門.

十王 The ten kings presiding over the ten departments of purgatory.

十甘露王 The king of the ten sweet dews, i.e. Amitābha.

十界 idem 十法界.

十界皆成佛 The teaching of the Lotus sūtra of universalism, that all become Buddha.

十界能化菩薩 Bodhisattvas, above the 初地, who have reached the stage of transforming beings in all the ten kinds of realms.

十發趣心 The ten directional decisions: (1) renouncement of the world; (2) observance of the commandments; (3) patience or endurance; (4) zealous progress; (5) meditation; (6) wisdom or understanding; (7) 願心 the will

for good for oneself and others; (8) 護心 protection (of Buddha, Dharma, Sangha); (9) 喜心 joy; (10) 頂心 highest wisdom. v. 梵綱經, 心地品.


十眞如 The ten aspects of the bhūtatathatā or reality attained by a bodhisattva during his fifty-two stages of development, cf. 十地 and 十障, each of which is associated with one of these zhenru: (1) 遍行眞如 the universality of the

zhenru; (2) 最勝眞如 its superiority over all else; (3) 流眞如 its ubiquity; (4) 無攝受眞如 its independence or self-containedness; (5) 無別眞如 subjective indifferentiation; (6) 無染淨眞如 above differences of impurity and purity; (7)

法無別眞如 objective indifferentiation; (8) 不增減眞如 invariable, i.e. can be neither added to nor taken from; (9) 智自在所依 the basis of all wisdom; (10) 業自在等所依眞如 and all power. The above are the 別教 group from the 唯識論 10.

Another group, of the 圓教, is the same as the 十如是 q.v.

十眼 The ten kinds of eyes: (1) 肉眼 eyes of flesh; (2) 天眼 deva eyes; (3) 慧眼 wisdom eyes; (4) 法眼 dharma eyes; (5) 佛眼 Buddha eyes; (6) 智眼 eyes of judgment; (7) 光明眼 eyes shining with Buddha-

light; (8) 出生死眼 immortal eyes; (9) 無碍眼 unhindered eyes; (10) 一切智眼 omniscient eyes.

十禪支 v. 十一切處.

十科 十條 The ten rules for translation. v. 翻譯名義集 3.

十種不淨 The deluded, e.g. the hīnayānists, because of their refusal to follow the higher truth, remain in the condition of reincarnation and are impure in ten ways: in body, mouth, mind, deed, state, sitting,

sleeping, practice, converting others, their expectations.

十種所觀法 Ten meditations on each of the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地 and 等覺.

十種方便 Ten kinds of suitable aids to religious success: almsgiving (or self-sacrifice); keeping the commandments; forbearance; zealous progress; meditation; wisdom; great kindness; great pity; awaking and

stimulating others; preaching (or revolving) the never receding wheel of the Law.

十種智力 The ten kinds of wisdom and power, v. 十智 and 十力.

十種智明 Ten kinds of bodhisattva wisdom, or omniscience, for the understanding of all things relating to all beings, in order, to save them from the sufferings of mortality and bring them to true bodhi. The ten are

detailed in the Hua-yen 華嚴 sūtra in two groups, one in the 十明品 and one in the 離世間品.

十種行願 The ten vows of Puxian 普賢.

十種觀法 idem 十乘觀法.

十種魔軍 idem 十軍.

十緣生句 Ten illusions arising from environmental conditions: sleight of hand; mirage; dreams; reflections or shadows; gandharva cities (or cities of the sirens, seen in the sea-mist); echoes; the moon reflected in

water; floating bubbles; motes (muscae volitantes); fire-wheel (made by revolving a flare).

十緣觀 十喩觀 A meditation or reflection on the ten illusions 十緣生句.

十纒 The ten bonds that bind men to mortality — to be shameless, unblushing, envious, mean, regretful, torpid, busy, absorbed, angry, secretive (of sin).

十羅刹女 The ten rākṣasī, or demonesses mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra 陀羅尼品. They are now represented in the temples, each as an attendant on a Buddha or bodhisattva, and are chiefly connected with sorcery. They are said to

be previous incarnations of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas with whom they are associated. In their evil state they were enemies of the living, converted they are enemies of evil. There are other definitions. Their names

are: (1) 藍婆 Lambā, who is associated with Śākyamuni; (2) 毘藍婆 Vilambā, who is associated with Amitābha; (3) 曲齒 Kūṭadantī, who is associated with 藥師 Bhaiṣajya; (4) 華齒 Puṣpadanti, who is associated with 多賓 Prabhūtaratna; (5) 黑齒

Makuṭadantī, who is associated with 大日 Vairocana; (6) 多髮 Keśinī, who is associated with 普賢 Samantabhadra; (7) 無厭足 ? Acalā, who is associated with 文殊 Mañjuśrī; (8) 持瓔珞 Mālādharī, who is associated with 彌勒Maitreya; (9) 皐帝

Kuntī, who is associated with 觀音 Avalokiteśvara; (10) 奪一切衆生精氣 Sarvasattvaujohārī, who is associated with 地 藏 Kṣitigarbha.

十萬 A lakh, i.e. an 億 or 洛叉.

十萬億佛土 The Happy Land, i.e. Amitābha's Paradise in the West, beyond ten thousand million Buddha-realms.

十號 Ten titles of a Buddha: 如來 Tathāgata; 應供 Arhat; 正徧知 Samyak‐sambuddha; 明行足 Vidyācaraṇa-saṁpanna; 善逝 Sugata; 世間解 Lokavid.; 無上士 Anuttara; 調御丈夫 Puruṣa-damya-sārathi; 天人師 Śāstā deva-manuṣyāṇām; 佛世尊

Buddha-lokanātha, or Bhagavān.


十行 The ten necessary activities in the fifty-two stages of a bodhisattva, following on the 十信and 十住; the two latter indicate personal development 自利. These ten lines of action are for the universal welfare of others 利他.

They are: joyful service; beneficial service; never resenting; without limit; never out of order; appearing in any form at will; unimpeded; exalting the pāramitās amongst all beings; perfecting the Buddha-law by complete

virtue; manifesting in all things the pure, final, true reality.

十見 The ten (wrong) views; see 五見and add 貪, 恚 , 慢 , 無明 and 疑見 desire, hate, pride, ignorance, and doubt.

十誡 idem 十戒.

十護 The ten guardians of the law, assistants to the 十大明王.

十身 Ten aspects of the Buddhakaya 佛身 q.v.

十軍 The ten armies of Māra, which the Buddha attacks and destroys; the armies are desire, anxiety, hunger and thirst, longing, torpidity, fear, doubt, poison, gain, haughtiness (i.e. disdaining


十輪 idem 十種智力; v. 十力.

十通 Ten supernatural powers, e.g. of seeing, hearing, appearance, etc.; cf. 五神通.

十進九退 The Buddha's teaching is so difficult that of ten who enter it nine fall away.

十道 The ten (good) ways for deliverance from mortality- not to kill, steal, act wrongly, lie, be double-tongued, be of evil speech, slander, covet, be angry, look wrongly (or wrong views).

十過 Ten faults in eating flesh, and ten in drinking intoxicants.

十處定 v. 十一切處.

十重禁戒 The ten pārājika, or a monk's most serious sins; also 十波羅夷; 波羅闍巳迦. They are killing, stealing, adultery, lying, selling wine, talking of a monk's misdeeds, self-praise for degrading others, meanness, anger

at rebuke, vilifying the Triratna. The esoteric sect has a group in regard to giving up the mind of enlightenment, renouncing the Triratna and going to heretical sects, slandering the Triratna, etc. Another group

of ten is in the 大日經 9 and 17; cf. 十波羅夷.

十重罪 idem 十惡, 十不善.

十重障 The ten weighty bodhisattva hindrances, according to the 別教, which are respectively overcome by entry into the 十地; v. 成唯識論 9; the first is 異生性 the natural heart hindering the 聖性 holy heart, etc.; v. 十障.

十金剛心 Ten characteristics of the "diamond heart" as developed by bodhisattva: (1) complete insight into all truth; (2) saving of all creatures; (3) the glorifying of all Buddha-worlds; (4) supererogation of his

good deeds; (5) service of all Buddhas; (6) realization of the truth of all Buddha-laws; (7) manifestation of all patience and endurance; (8) unflagging devotion to his vocation; (9) perfection of his

work; (10) aiding all to fulfill their vows and accomplish their spiritual ends. 華嚴經 55.

十金剛心向果 Ten "fruits" that accrue to the resolute "diamond-heart" of a bodhisattva: faith; meditation; refection on the doctrine; thoroughness in contemplation; straight-forward progress to Buddhahood; no

retrogression; the Mahāyāna spirit (of universal salvation); freedom from externals (or impressions); wisdom; firm establishment; v. 梵網經, 心地品.

十長養心 The ten kinds of well-nourished heart, essential to entry into the cult of the higher patience and endurance: a heart of kindness; of pity; of joy (in progress toward salvation of others);

renunciation; almsgiving; delight in telling the doctrine; benefiting or aiding others to salvation; unity, or amity; concentration in meditation; wisdom; v. 梵綱經,心地品.

十門 The ten "doors" or connections between事 and 理; 事 is defined as 現象 form and 理 as 本體 substance; the common illustration of wave and water indicates the idea thus expressed. The 理事無礎十門 means that in ten ways form and

substance are not separate, unconnected entities. (1) li the substance is always present with shih the phenomena; (2) shih is always present with li; (3) shih depends on li for its existence; (4) the shih can reveal the li; (5)

the shih (mere form, which is unreal) can disappear in the li;(6) the shih can conceal the li; (7) the true li is the shih; (8) the shih is li; (9) the true li (or reality) is not the shih; (10) the shih is not the (whole) li; v.

華嚴大疏 2. 周遍含容觀十門 The fifth of the five 觀 meditations of the 華嚴宗, i.e. on li and shih, e.g. (1) the li is as the shih; (2) the shih is as the li; 理如事, 事如理 and so on. The 止觀十門 in the 宗鏡録35, also deals with li and shih chiefly for

purposes of meditation. Another group, the 華嚴釋經十門, treats of the Canon and the schools.


十障 Ten hindrances; bodhisattvas in the stage of 十地 overcome these ten hindrances and realize the十眞如 q.v. The hindrances are: (1) 異生性障 the hindrance of the common illusions of the unenlightened, taking the

seeming for real; (2) 邪行障 the hindrance of common unenlightened conduct; (3) 暗鈍障 the hindrance of ignorant and dull ideas; (4) 細惑現行障 the hindrance of the illusion that things are real and have independent

existence; (5)下乘涅槃障 the hindrance of the lower ideals in Hīnayāna of nirvāṇa; (6) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the ordinary ideas of the pure and impure; (7) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the idea of reincarnation; (8) 無相加

行障 the hindrance of the continuance of activity even in the formless world; (9) 不欲行障 the hindrance of no desire to act for the salvation of others; (10) 法未自在障 the hindrance of non- attainment of complete

mastery of all things. v. 唯識論 10.

十願王 The king of the ten vows, Puxian普賢, or Samantabhadra.

十齋日 (十齋) The ten 'fast' days of a month are 1, 8, 14, 15, 18, 23, 24, 28, 29, and 30. In certain periods flesh was forbidden on these days, also all killing, hunting, fishing, executions, etc.

十齋佛 (十齋日佛) The ten Buddhas or bodhisattvas connected with the ten days of fasting days who in turn are 定光, 藥師, 普賢, 阿彌陀, 觀音, 勢至, 地藏毘慮遮那, 藥王, 釋迦.

卜 To divine, foretell.

卜羯姿 pukkaśa; also 補羯姿 A degraded caste of sweepers, or scavengers, and bearers of corpses.


丈 Ten feet; an elder; a wife's parents; a husband.

丈六 Sixteen "feet", the normal height of a Buddha in his "transformation body" 化 身 nirmāṇa-kāya; said to be the height of the Buddha when he was on earth.

丈六金身 sixteen-foot diamond-body; also a metal or golden image of the Buddha 16 feet high mentioned in the 北史 Northern History.

丈夫 A virile, zealous disciple, a man who presses forward unceasingly.

丈夫志幹 A firm-willed man, especially used of a bodhisattva who dauntlessly presses forward.

丈夫國 The country of virile men, Puruṣapura 富婁沙富羅, ancient capital of Gandhāra, the modern Peshawar; birthplace of 天親 Vasubandhu.

下 hīna, adhara. Below, lower, inferior, low; to descend, let down, put down.

下三途 The three lower paths of the six destinations (gati) 六道, i.e. beings in hell, pretas, and animals.

下乘 The lower yāna, i.e. Hīnayāna; likened to an old worn-out horse. To alight from (a vehicle, horse, etc.).

下八地 The regions in the nine divisions of the trailokya below the 無所有處地 of the arūpadhātu, v. 九地.

下劣乘 The inferior, mean yāna, a scornful term for Hīnayāna.

下化 (下化衆生) Below, to transform all beings, one of the great vows of a bodhisattva. 上求菩提 above, to seek bodhi. Also 下濟衆生.

下口食 one of the 四邪命食 four heterodox means of living, i.e. for a monk to earn his livelihood by bending down to cultivate the land, collect herbs, etc.; opposite of 仰口食, i.e. making a heterodox living by looking up, as in

astrology, fortune-telling, etc. 智度論 3.

下品 The three lowest of the nine classes born in the Amitābha Pure Land, v. 無量壽經. These three lowest grades are (1) 下品上生 The highest of the three lowest classes who enter the Pure Land of Amitābha, i.e. those who have committed

all sins except dishonouring the sūtras. If at the end of life the sinner clasps hands and says "Namo Amitābha", such a one will be born in His precious lake. (2) 下品中生 The middle class consists of those who have broken all the

commandments, even stolen from monks and abused the law. If at death such a one hears of the great power of Amitābha, and assents with but a thought, he will be received into paradise. (3) 下品下生 The lowest class,

because of their sins, should have fallen into the lowest gati, but by invoking the name of Amitābha, they can escape countless ages of reincarnation and suffering and on dying will behold a lotus flower like the [[Wikipedia:


sun]], and, by the response of a single thought, will enter the Pure Land of Amitābha.


下地 The lower regions of the 九地 q. v.; also the lower half of the 十地 in the fifty-two grades of bodhisattva development.

下地麤苦障 To see the lower grade out of which one has migrated, as rough, wretched, and a hindrance; a Brahman form of meditation.

下堂 To descend from the hall, especially after the morning congee.

下塵 The lower gati, the hells, hungry ghosts, animals.

下根 Those (born) with base character, or of low capacity.

下棒 To lay on the cudgel, beat; syn. for the 德山 Te Shan monastery, whose Chan sect abbot instilled intelligence with his staff.

下火 下炬 To apply the torch; syn. for setting alight the funeral pyre of a monk.

下生經 idem 彌勤下生經.

下界 The lower, or human world 人界.

下種 To sow the seed; to preach, or teach. Tiantai defines three periods: (1) 種 when the seed of Buddha's teaching is sown in the heart; (2) 熟 when it ripens; (3) 脫 when it is stripped or harvested, i. e when one abandons all


下蠟 Inferior candles. The 上蠟 and 下蠟 superior and inferior candles are senior and junior monks; those of longer and shorter service; but see 上臈.

下衆 The seven lower orders of disciples, who with the monks and nuns in full orders make the 九衆.

下衣 The lowest order of a monk's robes, that of five patches; lower garments.

下語 To give instruction; to state a case (as at law).

下輩觀 A meditation of the Amitābha sect on the 下品 q. v.; it is the last of sixteen contemplations, and deals with those who have committed the five rebellious acts 五逆 and the ten evils 十惡, but who still can obtain salvation; v.

無量壽經. 下輩下生觀 idem.

下轉 The downward turn, in transmigration. Primal ignorance or unenlightenment 無明acting against the primal, true, or Buddha-nature causes transmigration. The opposite is上轉 when the good prevails over the evil. 下轉is

sometimes used for 下化 to save those below.

下間 The inferior rooms of a monastery, on the left as one enters.

上 uttarā 嗢呾羅; above upper, superior; on; former. To ascend, offer to a superior.

上中下法 The three dharmas, systems, or vehicles, 菩薩, 緣覺, and 聲聞 bodhisattva, pratyeka-buddha, and śrāvaka.

上乘 Mahāyāna; also 上衍, 大乘 q. v.

上乘密宗 The Mahāyāna esoteric school, especially the 眞言 Shingon.

上乘瑜伽 Mahāyāna-yoga, chiefy associated with 上乘密宗.

上乘禪 The Mahāyāna Ch'an (Zen) School, which considers that it alone attains the highest realization of Mahāyāna truth. Hīnayāna philosophy is said only to realize the unreality of the ego and not the unreality of

all things. The Mahāyāna realizes the unreality of the ego and of all things. But the Ch'an school is pure idealism, all being mind. This mind is Buddha, and is the universal fundamental mind.


上元燒燈 The lantern festival at the first full moon of the year.

上人 A man of superior wisdom, virtue, and conduct, a term applied to monks during the Tang dynasty.

上上人 A term used in the Pure Land sect for a worshipper of Amitābha.

上供 To offer up an offering to Buddha, or to ancestors.

上品 Superior order, grade, or class.

上品上生 上品中生; 上品下生 The three highest of the nine stages of birth in the Pure Land, v. 九品淨土.

上品蓮臺 The highest stages in the Pure Land where the best appear as lotus flowers on the pool of the seven precious things; when the lotuses open they are transformed into beings of the Pure Land.

上堂 To go into the hall to expound the doctrine; to go to a temple for the purpose of worship, or bearing presents to the monks; to go to the refectory for meals.

上堂牌 The tablet announcing the time of worship at a temple or monastery.

上士 The superior disciple, who becomes perfect in (spiritually) profiting himself and others. The 中士 profits self but not others; the 下士 neither.

上座 Sthavira; or Mahāsthavira. Old man, or elder; head monk, president, or abbot; the first Buddhist fathers; a title of Mahākāśyapa; also of monks of twenty to forty-nine years standing, as 中座 are from ten to

nineteen and 下座 under ten. The 釋氏要覽 divides presiding elders into four classes, those presiding over monasteries, over assemblies of monks, over sects, and laymen presiding over feasts to monks.

上座部 他毘梨典部; 他鞞羅部 Sthavirāḥ; Sthaviranikāya; or Āryasthāvirāḥ. The school of the presiding elder, or elders. The two earliest sections of Buddhism were this (which developed into the Mahāsthavirāḥ) and the Mahāsānghikāḥ or 大衆部. At

first they were not considered to be different schools, the 上座部 merely representing the intimate and older disciples of Śākyamuni and the 大衆 being the rest. It is said that a century later under Mahādeva 大天 a difference

of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions are named as resulting, viz. Mahāvihāravāsinaḥ, Jetavanīyāḥ, and Abhayagiri-vāsinaḥ. These were in Ceylon. In course of time the eighteen Hīnayāna sects were developed. From

the time of Aśoka four principal schools are counted as prevailing: Mahāsāṅghika, Sthavira, Mūlasarvāstivda, and Saṁmitīya. The following is a list of the eleven sects reckoned as of the 上座部: 說一切有部; 雪山; 犢子; 法上; 賢冑; 正量; 密林山; 化地;

法藏; 飮光; and 經量部. The Sthaviravādin is reputed as nearest to early Buddhism in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from an agnostic system to a realistic philosophy.

上方 上手 An abbot 上方 originally meant a mountain monastery.

上根 A man of superior character or capacity, e.g. with superior organs of sight, hearing, etc.

上求本來 Similar to the first half of 上求菩提下化衆生 Above to seek bodhi, below to save all. 本來 means the original or Buddha-nature, which is the real nature of all beings.

上流 (上流般) ūrdhvasrotas. The flow upwards, or to go upwards against the stream of transmigration to parinirvāṇa. Also 上流般涅槃.

上煩惱 The severe fundamental trials arising out of the ten great delusions; also the trials or distresses of present delusions.

上界天 The devas of the regions of form and formlessness. v. 色.

上祭 To place offerings on an altar; also 下祭.

上綱 The 'higher bond' or superior, the 上座 or Sthavira, among the three directors of a monastery. v. 三綱.

上著衣 A monk's outer robe, uttarā-samghāṭī, worn over the shirt or antara-vāsaka.

上肩 Upper shoulder, i.e. the left or superior; one worthy of respect.

上肩順轉 Circumambulation with the superior shoulder to the image; the left was formerly considered the superior side; but this is uncertain.

上臈 The "la" is the end of a summer's retreat, which ends the monastic year, hence 上臈 are senior, 下臈 junior monks.


上茅城 (上茅宮城) Kuśāgrapura, 矩奢揭羅補羅 city of Kuśa-grass palaces, or山城 the mountain city. v. 吉祥茅國.

上行菩薩 Viśiṣṭa-cāritra Bodhisattva, who suddenly rose out of the earth as Buddha was concluding one of his Lotus sermons; v. Lotus sūtra 15 and 21. He is supposed to have been a convert of the Buddha in long past

ages and to come to the world in its days of evil. Nichiren in Japan believed himself to be this Bodhisattva's reincarnation, and the Nichiren trinity is the Buddha, i.e. the eternal Śākyamuni

Buddha; the Law, i.e. the Lotus Truth; and the Saṅgha, i.e. this Bodhisattva, in other words Nichiren himself as the head of all living beings, or eldest son of the Buddha.

上衍 Mahāyāna, 上乘; v. 大乘.

上衣 The superior or outer robe described as of twenty-five patches, and styled the uttarā saṁghātī.

上趣 The higher gati, directions, or transmigrations.

上足 A superior disciple or follower.

上輩 Superior, or highest class, idem 上品.

上輩觀 The fourteenth of the sixteen contemplations of the Amitābha school, with reference to those who seek the Pure Land with sincere, profound, and altruistic hearts.

上轉 The upward turn: (1) progress upward, especially in transmigration; (2) increase in enlightenment for self, while下轉 q.v. is for others.

上間 The superior rooms, i.e. on the right as one enters a monastery, the 下間 are on the left.

上首 President, or presiding elders.

三 Tri, trayas; three.

三一 Trinity; also 31.

三七日思惟 The twenty-one days spent by the Buddha, after his enlightenment, in walking round the bo-tree and considering how to carry his Mahāyāna way of salvation to the world; v. 法華經,方便品.

三三昧 (三三昧地) The three samādhis, or the samādhi on three subjects; 三三摩 (三三摩地); 三定, 三等持; 三空; 三治; 三解脫門; 三重三昧; 三重等持. There are two forms of such meditation, that of 有漏 reincarnational, or temporal, called 三三昧; and that of 無

liberation, or nirvāṇa, called 三解脫. The three subjects and objects of the meditation are (1) 空 to empty the mind of the ideas of me and mine and suffering, which are unreal; (2) 無相to get rid of the idea of

form, or externals, i.e. the 十相 which are the five senses, and male and female, and the three 有; (3) 無願 to get rid of all wish or desire, also termed無作 and 無起. A more advanced meditation is called the Double Three

Samādhi 重三三昧 in which each term is doubled 空空, 無相無相, 無願無願. The esoteric sect has also a group of its own.

三不三信 This refers to the state of faith in the worshipper; the three 不 are impure, not single, not constant; the three 信 are the opposite.

三不善根 Three bad roots, or qualities — desire, anger, and stupidity 貪, 瞋, 痴, v. 三毒.

三不堅法 Three unstable things — the body, length of life, wealth.

三不失 The three never lost, idem 三不護.

三不淨肉 The three kinds of flesh unclean to a monk killed, or has doubt about it; v. 三淨肉.

三不能 v. 三能.

三不護 The three that need no guarding i.e. the 三業 of a Buddha, his body, mouth (or lips), and mind, which he does not need to guard as they are above error.

三不退 The three non-backslidings, i.e. from position attained, from line of action pursued, and in dhyāna.

三世 The three periods, 過去, 現在, 未來or 過, 現, 未, past, present, and future. The universe is described as eternally in motion, like flowing stream. Also 未生, 巳生,後滅, or 未, 現, 過 unborn, born, dead The 華嚴經 Hua-yen sūtra has a

division of ten kinds of past, present, and future i.e. the past spoken of as past, present, and future, the present spoken of in like manner, the future also, with the addition of the present as the three periods in one instant. Also 三


三世三千佛 The thousand Buddhas of each of the three kalpas — of the past, called 莊嚴 kalpa, the present 賢, and the future 星宿. Their names are variously given in several sutra, with a complete list in the 三手佛名經.

三世不可得 Everything past, present, future, whether mental or material, is intangible, fleeting, and cannot be held; v. 三世心.

三世了達 A Buddha's perfect knowledge of past, present, and future.


三世佛 The Buddhas of the past, present, and future, i.e. Kāsyapa, Śākyamuni, and Maitreya.

三世假實 The reality or otherwise of things or events past, present, and future. Some Hīnayāna schools admit the reality of the present but dispute the reality of the past 已有and the future 當有. Others take different views,

all of which have been exhaustively discussed. See Vibhāśā śāstra 婆沙論 77 or 俱舍論 20.

三世實有法體恒有 The Sarvāstivadah school maintains that as the three states (past, present, future) are real, so the substance of all things is permanent; i.e. time is real, matter is eternal.

三世心 Mind, or thought, past, present or future, is momentary, always moving, unreal and cannot be laid hold of.

三世成佛 idem 三生.

三世智 One of a Tathāgata's ten kinds of wisdom, i.e. knowledge of past, present, and future.

三世無障礙智戒 The wisdom-law or moral law that frees from all impediments, past, present, and future. Also styled 三昧耶戒; 自性本源戒; 三平等戒; 菩提心戒; 無爲戒 and 眞法戒.

三世覺母 A name for Mañjuśrī 文殊; as guardian of the wisdom of Vairocana he is the bodhi-mother of all Buddhas past, present, and future.

三世間 There are two definitions: (1) The realms of 器 matter, of 衆生 life, and 智正覺 mind, especially the Buddha's mind. (2) The 五陰 psychological realm (mind), 衆生 realm of life, and 國土 or 器material


三乘 Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞

Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩

Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One

Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by

different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a

Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2)

Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or

perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant

asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as

expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the

pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats

the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.

三乘家 The Dharmalakṣaṇa School of the Three Vehicles, led by the 法相宗.

三乘眞實一乘方便 The 三乘家 consider the Triyāna as real, and the "one vehicle" of the Lotus School as merely tactical, or an expedient form of expression.

事戒 The commands relating to body, speech, and mind 身, 口, 意.

三事練磨 v. 三退屈.

三事衲 (or 三事衣) A term for a monk's robe of five, seven, or nine patches.

三仙二天 The three ṛṣis or wise men and the two devas, i.e. 迦毘羅 Kapila, founder of the Sāṁkhya philosophy; 鵂鶹 or 優樓佉 Ulūka or Kaṇāda, founder of the 勝論宗 or Vaiśeṣika philosophy; and 勒沙婆 Ṛṣabha, founder of the

Nirgranthas; with Śiva and Viṣṇu as the two deities.

三伐持 Saṃvaji; the heretical people of Vṛji, an ancient kingdom north of the Ganges, south-east of Nepal. (Eitel.).

三佛 Trikāya, v. 三身. Also the三岐 or founders of the 楊岐 branch of the Chan (Zen) School, i.e. Huiqin 慧勤, Qingyuan 淸遠, and Keqin 克勤.


三佛土 The three Buddha-lands, realms, or environment, corresponding to the Trikāya; v. 三身 and 佛土.

三佛子 All the living are Buddha-sons, but they are of three kinds—the commonalty are 外子 external sons; the followers of the two inferior Buddhist vehicles, 小and 中 乘, are 庶子 secondary sons (i.e. of concubines); the

bodhisattvas, i.e. mahāyānists) are 子 true sons, or sons in the truth.

三佛性 The three kinds of Buddha-nature: (1) 自性住佛性 the Buddha-nature which is in all living beings, even those in the three evil paths (gati). (2) 引出佛性 the Buddha-nature developed by the right discipline. (3) 至得果

佛性 the final or perfected Buddha-nature resulting from the development of the original potentiality.

三佛栗底 saṃvṛti, which means concealed, not apparent, is intp. as common ideas世俗諦 or phenomenal truth; it is also intp. as that which hides reality, or seems to be real, the seeming.

三佛菩提 The bodhi, or wisdom, of each of the Trikāya, 三身, i.e. that under the bodhi tree, that of parinirvāṇa, that of tathāgatagarbha in its eternal nirvāṇa aspect.

三佛語 The Buddha's three modes of discourse—unqualifed, i.e. out of the fullness of his nature; qualified to suit the intelligence of his hearers; and both.

三佛身idem 三身.

三佛陀 saṃbuddha; the truly enlightened one, or correct enlightenment.

三使 The three (divine) messengers—birth, sickness, death; v. 使. Also 三天使 .

三修 The three ways of discipline, i.e. three śrāvaka and three bodhisattva ways. The three śrāvaka ways are 無常修 no realization of the eternal, seeing everything as transient; 非樂修 joyless, through only contemplating

misery and not realizing the ultimate nirvāṇa-joy; 無我修 non-ego discipline, seeing only the perishing self and not realizing the immortal self. The bodhisattva three are the opposite of


三倒 idem 三顚倒.

三條椽下 Under three rafters—the regulation space for a monk's bed or seat; in meditation.

三假 prajñāpti. The word 假 q.v. in Buddhist terminology means that everything is merely phenomenal, and consists of derived elements; nothing therefore has real existeme, but all is empty and unreal, 虛妄不實. The

three 假 are 法 things, 受 sensations, and 名 names.

三假施設 三攝提The three fallacious postulates in regard to 法, 受, and 名.

三假觀 The meditations on the three false assumptions 三假.

三僧祇 idem 三阿僧祇劫.

三M067874 The three misleading things: 貪 desire, 瞋 ire, and 邪 perverted views. M067874= 愆.

三僞一眞 The three half-true, or partial revelations of the 小乘, 中乘 and 大乘, and the true one of the Lotus Sūtra.

三憶家 The 300,000 families of Śrāvastī city who had never heard of the Buddha's epiphany— though he was often among them.

三光 (三光天) Sun, moon, and stars. Also, in the second dhyāna of the form-world there are the two deva regions 少光天, 無量光天, and 光音天q.v. Also 觀音 Avalokiteśvara is styled 日天子sun-prince, or divine son of the [[Wikipedia:


sun]], 大勢至 Mahāsthāmaprapta is styled 月天子 divine son of the moon, and 虛空藏菩薩 the bodhisattva of the empyrean, is styled 明星天子 divine son of the bright stars.

三八日 The eighth, eighteenth, and twenty-eighth days of a moon.

三六 Eighteen, especially referring to the eighteen sects of Hīnayāna.

三六九 An esoteric objection to three, six, or nine persons worshipping together.

三具足 The three essential articles for worship: flower-vase, candlestick, and censer.

三力 The three powers, of which there are various groups: (1) (a) personal power; (6) tathāgata-power; (c) power of the Buddha-nature within. (2) (a) power of a wise eye to see the Buddha-medicine (for

evil); (b) of diagnosis of the ailment; (c) of suiting and applying the medicine to the disease. (3) (a) the power of Buddha; (b) of samādhi; (c) of personal achievement or merit.

三力偈 The triple-power verse: 以我功德力 In the power of my virtue, 如來加持力. And the aiding power of the Tathāgata, 及與法界力 And the power of the spiritual realm, 周遍衆生界 I can go anywhere in the land of the living.


三分科經 The three divisions of a treatise on a sūtra, i. e. 序分introduction, 正宗分discussion of the subject, 流通分application.

劫 The three asaṃkhyeya kalpas, the three countless aeons, the period of a bodhisattva's development; also the past 莊嚴劫, the present 賢劫, and the future 星宿劫 kalpas. There are other groups. 三劫三千佛 The thousand Buddhas

in each of the three kalpas.

十 tridaśa. Thirty; abbreviation for the thirty-three deities, heavens, etc.

十二 dvātriṃśa. Thirty-two. 三十二應 (or 三十二身) The thirty-two forms of Guanyin, and of Puxian, ranging from that of a Buddha to that of a man, a maid, a rakṣas; similar to the thirty-three forms named in the Lotus Sūtra. 三十二

相三十二大人相 dvātriṃśadvaralakṣaṇa. The thirty-two lakṣaṇas, or physical marks of a cakravartī, or 'wheel-king', especially of the Buddha, i. e. level feet, thousand-spoke wheel-sign on feet, long slender fingers, pliant hands

and feet, toes and fingers finely webbed, full-sized heels, arched insteps, thighs like a royal stag, hands reaching below the knees well-retracted male organ, height and stretch of arms equal, every hair-root dark coloured,

body hair graceful and curly, golden-hued body, a 10 ft. halo around him, soft smooth skin, the 七處, i. e. two soles, two palms, two shoulders, and crown well rounded, below the armpits well-filled, lion-shaped

body, erect, full shoulders, forty teeth, teeth white even and close, the four canine teeth pure white, lion-jawed, saliva improving the taste of all food, tongue long and broad, voice deep and

resonant, eyes deep blue, eyelashes like a royal bull, a white ūrnā or curl between the eyebrows emitting light, an uṣṇīṣa or fleshy protuberance on the crown. These are from the 三藏法數 48, with which the 智度論 4, 涅盤經 28, 中阿含經, 三十

ニ相經 generally agree. The 無量義經 has a different list. 三十二相經 The eleventh chapter of the 阿含經. 三十二相經願 The twenty-first of Amitābha's vows, v. 無量壽經. 三十三 trayastriṃśat. Thirty-three. 三十三天忉利天; 憺梨天, 多羅夜登陵舍; 憺利夜登陵奢; 憺利耶憺利奢

Trayastriṃśas. The Indra heaven, the second of the six heavens of form. Its capital is situated on the summit of Mt. Sumeru, where Indra rules over his thirty-two devas, who reside on thirty-two peaks of

Sumeru, eight in each of the four directons. Indra's capital is called 殊勝 Sudarśana, 喜見城 Joy-view city. Its people are a yojana in height, each one's clothing weighs 六鐵 (1/4 oz. ), and they live 1, 000

years, a day and night being equal to 100 earthly years. Eitel says Indra's heaven 'tallies in all its details with the Svarga of Brahminic mythology' and suggests that 'the whole myth may have an astronomical

meaning', or be connected, with 'the atmosphere with its phenomena, which strengthens Koeppen's hypothesis explaining the number thirty-three as referring to the eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Ādityas, and two

Aśvins of Vedic mythology'. In his palace called Vaijayanta 'Indra is enthroned with 1, 000 eyes with four arms grasping the vajra. There he revels in numberless sensual pleasures together with his

wife Śacī... and with 119, 000 concubines with whom he associates by means of transformation'.

十三觀音 (三十三尊觀音) The thirty-three forms in which Guanyin is represented: with willow, dragon, sutra, halo, as strolling, with white robe, as lotus-sleeping, with fishing-creel, as medicine-bestowing, with

folded hands, holding a lotus, pouring water, etc. 三十三過 The thirty-three possible fallacies in the statement of a syllogism, nine in the proposition 宗 pratijñā, fourteen in the reasonhetu, and ten in the example 喩


十三身 The thirty-three forms in which Avalokiteśvara (Guanyin) is said to have presented himself, from that of a Buddha to that of a woman or a rakṣas. Cf. Lotus Sūtra 普門 chapter.

十五佛 The thirty-five Buddhas before whom those who have committed sins involving interminable suffering should heartily repent. There are different lists.

十六物 The thirty-six physical parts and excretions of the human body, all being unclean, i. e. the vile body.

三十六神 (三十六部神) The thirty-six departmental guardian divinities given in the 灌頂三歸五戒帶佩護身咒經. Each is styled 彌栗頭 mṛdu, benign, kindly, for which 善 is used. Their Sanskrit and Chinese names are given in Chinese

as follows: (1) 不羅婆 or 善光 kindly light, has to do with attacks of disease; (2) 婆呵婆 or 善明 headaches; (3) 婆邏婆 or 善力 fevers; (4) 抗陀羅 or 善月 disorders of the stomach; (5) 陀利奢 or 善見 tumours; (6) 阿婁呵 or 善供 madness; (7) 伽婆帝 or 善捨

stupidity; (8) 悉抵哆 or 善寂 irascibility; (9) 菩堤薩 or善覺 lust; (10) 提婆羅 or 善天 devils; (11) 阿婆帝 or 善住 deadly injuries; (12) 不若羅 of 善福 graves; (13) 苾闍伽 or 善術 the four quarters; (14) 迦隸婆 or 善帝 enemies; (15) 羅闍遮 or 善主 robbers;

(16) 須乾陀 or 善香 creditors; (17) 檀那波 or 善施 thieves; (18) 支多那 or 善意 pestilence; (19) 羅婆那 or 善吉 the five plagues (? typhoid); (20) 鉢婆馱 or 善山 corpse worms; (21) 三摩提 or 善調 continuous concentration; (22) 戾禘馱 or 善備 restlessness;

(23) 波利陀 or 善敬 attraction; (24) 波利那 or 善淨 evil cabals; (25) 度伽地 or 善品 deadly poison; (26) 毘梨馱 or 善結 fear; (27) 支陀那 or 善壽 calamities; (28) 伽林摩 or 善逝 childbirth and nursing; (29) 阿留伽 or 善願 the district magistracy;

(30) 闍利馱 or 善固 altercations; (31) 阿伽駄 or 善照 anxieties and distresses; (32) 阿訶婆 or 善生 uneasiness; (33) 婆和邏 or 善思 supernatural manifestations; (34) 波利那 or 善藏 jealousy; (35) 固陀那 or 善音 curses; (36) 韋陀羅 or 善妙 exorcism. They

have innumerable assistants. He who writes their names and carries them with him can be free from all fear.


三十七道品 三十七分法, 三十七菩提分法, 三十七品 The thirty-seven conditions leading to bodhi, or Buddhahood, i. e. 四念處 smṛtyupasthāna, four states of memory, or subjects of reflection; 四正勤 samyakprahāṇa, four proper lines of

exertion; 四如意足 ṛddhipāda, four steps towards supernatural power; 五根 pañca indriyāṇi, five spiritual faculties; 五力pañca balāni, their five powers; 七覺支 sapta bodhyaṅga, seven degrees of enlightenment, or [[Wikipedia:


intelligence]]; and 八正道 aṣṭa-mārga, the eightfold noble path.

三十七尊 The thirty-seven heads in the Vajradhātu or Diamond-realm maṇḍala.

三十七尊四大輪 The four large circles in each of which the thirty-seven are represented, in one all hold the diamond-realm symbol, the vajra; in another, the symbol relating to the triple realm of time, past, present,

future; in another, the Guanyin symbol; and in another, the symbol of infinite space.

三十捨墮 idem 尼薩耆波逸提.

三十生 In each of the 十地 ten states there are three conditions, 入, 住, 出, entry, stay, exit, hence the 'thirty lives'.

三千 trisahasra, three thousand; a term used by the Tiantai School for 一切諸法, i. e. all things, everything in a chiliocosm, or Buddhaworld; v. 三千大千世界.

三千佛 idem 三世.

三千塵點劫 The kalpa of the ancient Buddha Mahābhijñābhibhū (大通智; 勝佛), mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra, i. e. a kalpa of incalculable antiquity, e. g. surpassing the number of the particles of a chiliocosm which has been

ground to powder, turned into ink, and dropped, drop by drop, at vast distances throughout boundless space.

三千大千世界 tri-sahasra-mahā-sahasra-loka-dhātu, a great chiliocosm; 三千; 三千界, 三千世界. Mt. Sumeru and its seven surrounding continents, eight seas and ring of iron mountains form one small world; 1, 000 of these form a

small chiliocosm 小千世界; 1, 000 of these small chiliocosms form a medium chiliocosm 中千世界; a thousand of these form a great chiliocosm 大千世界, which thus consists of 1, 000, 000, 000 small worlds. The 三千 indicates the above

three kinds of thousands, therefore 三千大千世界 is the same as 大千世界, which is one Buddha-world.

三千實相 The reality at the basis of all things, a Tiantai doctrine, i. e. the 眞如 or 法性 idem 諸法實相.

三千年一現 The udumbara flower which flowers but once in 3, 000 years; v. 優.

三千威儀 A bhikṣu's regulations amount to about 250; these are multiplied by four for the conditions of walking, standing, sitting, and sleeping and thus make 1, 000; again multiplied by three for past, present, and future, they

become 3, 000 regulations.

三千威儀經 The sūtra of the three thousand regulations.

三印 The three signs or proofs of a Hīnayāna sutra— non-permanence, non-personality, nirvāṇa; without these the sūtra is spurious and the doctrine is of Māra; the proof of a Mahāyāna sūtra is the doctrine of 一實 [[ultimate

reality]], q. v. Also 三法印.

三卽一 The three vehicles (Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna) are one, i. e. the three lead to bodhisattvaship and Buddhahood for all.

三受 The three states of Vedanā, i. e. sensation, are divided into painful, pleasurable, and freedom from both 苦, 樂, 捨. When things are opposed to desire, pain arises; when accordant, there is pleasure and a

desire for their continuance; when neither, one is detached or free. 倶舍論 1.

三受業 The karma or results arising from the pursuit of courses that produce pain, pleasure, or freedom from both.

三句 Three cryptic questions of 雲門 Yunmen, founder of the Yunmen Chan School. They are: (1) 截斷衆流 What is it that stops all flow (of reincarnation) ? The reply from the 起信論 is 一心, i. e. the realization of the oneness of

mind, or that all is mind. (2) 函蓋乾坤 What contains and includes the universe? The 眞如. (3) 隨波逐浪 One wave following another— what is this? Birth and death 生死, or transmigration, phenomenal existence.


三味 The three flavours, or pleasant savours: the monastic life, reading the scriptures, meditation.

三和 The union of the three, i.e. 根 indriya, 境 ālambana, and 識 vijñāna, i.e. organ, object, and cognition.

三品 The general meaning is 上, 中, 下 superior, medium, inferior.

三品悉地 The three esoteric kinds of siddhi, i.e. complete attainment, supreme felicity. They are 上 superior, to be born in the 密嚴國 Vairocana Pure-land; 中 in one of the other Pure-lands among which is the Western

Paradise; and 下 in the 修羅宮 Sun Palaces among the devas. Also styled 三品成就.

三品沙彌 The three grades of śrāmaṇera, i.e. 7-13 years old styled 駈鳥沙彌; 14-19 應法沙彌; and 20 and upwards 名字沙彌.

三品聽法 The three grades of hearers, i.e. 上 with the 神 spirit; 中 with the 心 mind; 下 with the 耳 ear.

三善 idem 三時敎 and 三善根.

三善根 The three good "roots", the foundation of all moral development, i.e. 無貪, 無瞋, 無痴 no lust (or selfish desire), no ire, no stupidity (or unwillingness to learn). Also, 施, 慈, 慧 giving, kindness, moral

wisdom; v. 三毒 the three poisons for which these are a cure.

三善知識 The three types of friends with whom to be intimate, i.e. a teacher (of the Way), a fellow-endeavourer and encourager, and a patron who supports by gifts (dānapati).

三善道 (or 三善趣) The three good or upward directions or states of existence: 天 the highest class of goodness rewarded with the deva life, or heaven; 人 the middle class of goodness with a return to human life; 阿

修羅 the inferior class of goodness with the asura state. Cf. 三惡道; v. 智度論 30.

三因 The six "causes" of the Abhidharma Kośa 倶舍論 as reduced to three in the Satyasiddhi śāstra 成實論, i.e. 生因 producing cause, as good or evil deeds cause good or evil karma; 習因 habit cause, e.g.

lust breeding lust; 依因 dependent or hypostatic cause, e.g. the six organs 六根 and their objects 六境 causing the cognitions 六識.

三因三果 The three causes produce their three effects: (1) 異熟因異熟果 differently ripening causes produce differently ripening effects, i.e. every developed cause produces its developed effect, especially the effect of the present

causes in the next transmigration; (2) 福因福報 blessed deeds produce blessed rewards, now and hereafter; (3) 智因智果 wisdom (now) produces wisdom-fruit (hereafter).

三國土 idem 四土 omitting 寂光土.

三土 idem 三佛土.

三垢 The three defilers—desire, hate, stupidity (or ignorance), idem 三毒.

三堅 The three sure or certain things are 身, 命 and 財, i.e. the reward of the true disciple is an infinite body or personality, an endless life, and boundless (spiritual) possessions, 無極之身, 無窮之命, 無盡之財, v. 能摩


三報 The three recompenses, i.e. 現報 in the present life for deeds now done; 生報 in the next rebirth for deeds now done; and 後報 in subsequent lives.

三境 v. 三類境.

三塗 The 塗 mire is interpreted by 途 a road, i.e. the three unhappy gati or ways; (a) 火塗 to the fires of hell; (b) 血塗 to the hell of blood, where as animals they devour each other; (c) 刀塗 the asipattra hell of swords,

where the leaves and grasses are sharp-edged swords. Cf. 三惡趣.

三多 Much intercourse with good friends, much hearing of the Law, much meditation on the impure. Also, much worship, much service of good friends, much inquiry on important doctrines. There are other groups.

三大 The three great characteristics of the 眞如 in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (1) 體大 The greatness of the bhūtatathatā in its essence or substance; it is 衆生心之體性 the embodied nature of the mind of all the living,

universal, immortal, immutable, eternal; (2) 相大 the greatness of its attributes or manifestations, perfect in wisdom and mercy, and every achievement; (3) 用大 the greatness of its functions and operations within and

without, perfectly transforming all the living to good works and good karma now and hereafter. There are other groups, e.g. 體, 宗, and 用.


三大部 Three authoritative works of the Tiantai School, i.e. the 玄義, 文句, and 止觀, each of ten juan.

三天 The trimūrti— Śiva, Viṣṇu, and Brahmā.

三天使 v. 三使.

三天四仙 v. 二天三仙 and add 鳩摩羅 Kuveradeva and 若提子 Nirgrahtha, son of Jñātṛ, i.e. of the Jñātṛ clan.

三契 Three repetitions (of a verse).

三妙行 A muni, recluse, or monk, who controls his body, mouth, and mind 身, 口, 意. Also 三牟尼.

三子 The three sons, one filial, wise, and competent; one unfilial but clever and competent; one unfilial stupid, and incompetent; types respectively of bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, and icchahtikas, 涅槃經 33.

三季 The "three seasons" of an Indian year— spring, summer, and winter; a year.

三學 The "three studies" or vehicles of learning— discipline, meditation, wisdom: (a) 戒學 learning by the commandments, or prohibitions, so as to guard against the evil consequences of error by mouth, body, or

mind, i.e. word, deed, or thought; (b) 定學 learning by dhyāna, or quietist meditation; (c) 慧學 learning by philosophy, i.e. study of principles and solving of doubts. Also the Tripiṭaka; the 戒

being referred to the 律 vinaya, the 定 to the 經 sūtras, and the to the 論 śāstras.

三安居 The three months of summer retreat, varṣāḥ; v. 跋.

三字 The "three characters", a term for 阿彌陀 Amitābha.

三宗 The three Schools of 法相宗, 破相宗 , and 法性宗 q.v., representing the ideas of 空, 假, and 不空假, i.e. unreality, temporary reality, and neither; or absolute, relative, and neither.

三定聚 idem 三聚.

三密 The three mystic things: the body, mouth (i.e. voice), and mind of the Tathāgata, which are universal, all things being this mystic body, all sound this mystic [[Wikipedia:


voice]], and all thought this mystic mind. All creatures in body, voice, and mind are only individualized parts of the Tathāgata, but illusion hides their Tathāgata nature from them. The esoterics

seek to realize their Tathāgata nature by physical signs and postures, by voicing of 眞言 dhāraṇī and by meditations, so that 入我我入 He may enter me and I Him, which is the perfection of siddhi 悉地; v. 大日經疏 1. 菩提心論.

三密六大 The three mystic things associated with the six elements, i.e. the mystic body is associated with earth, water, and fire; the mystic words with wind and space; the mystic

mind with 識 cognition.

三密栗底尼迦耶 v. 三彌底 sammitīyanikāya.

三密相應 The three mystic things, body, mouth, and mind, of the Tathāgata are identical with those of all the living, so that even the fleshly body born of parents is the dharmakāya, or body of Buddha: 父母所生之肉身


三寳 Triratna, or Ratnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones: 佛 Buddha, 法 Dharma, 儈 Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel suggests this trinity may be adapted from the Trimūrti, i.e, Brahma,

Viṣṇu, and Sīva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikāya 三身 q.v. There is also the Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Buddha as a Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Dhyāni-Buddha, and Mānuṣi-Buddha; also the

Tantric trinity of Vairocana as Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel "existing in reflex in the world of forms", and the human Buddha, Śākyamuni. There are other elaborated details known as the four and the

six kinds of triratna 四 and 六種三寳, e.g. that the Triratna exists in each member of the trinity. The term has also been applied to the 三仙 q.v. Popularly the 三寳 are referred to the three images in the main hall of

monasteries. The centre one is Śākyamuni, on his left Bhaiṣajya 藥師 and on his right Amitābha. There are other explanations, e.g. in some temples Amitābha is in the centre, Avalokiteśvara on his left, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta or

Mañjuśrī on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikāya, and Trailokya: — DHARMASAṄGHABUDDHA Essential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical Bodhi Dhyāni BuddhaDhyāni BodhisattvaMānuṣī Buddha DharmakāyaSambhogakāyaNirmāṇakāya

PurityCompletenessTransformations 4th Buddha-kṣetra3rd Buddha-kṣetra1st and 2nd Buddha kṣetra ArūpadhātuRūpadhātuKāmadhātu.


三寶物 The things appertaining to the triratna, i.e. to the Buddha— temples and images, etc.; to the dharma— the scriptures; to the saṅgha— cassock, bowl, etc.

三寶藏 The tritratna as the treasury of all virtue and merit; also the tripiṭaka, sūtras 經 vinaya 律, abhidharma 論; also śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas.

三寶衣 idem 三衣.

三寶身 v. 三身.

三尊 The three honoured ones: Buddha, the Law, the Ecclesia or Order. Others are: Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta, who, according to the Pure-land sect, come to welcome the dying invoker. Another group is Bhaiṣajya,

Vairocana, and Candraprabha; and another, Śākyamunī, Mañjuśrī, and Samantabhadra.

三尊佛 The three honoured Buddhas of the West: Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta. Though bodhisattvas, the two latter are called Buddhas when thus associated with Amitābha.

三尊來迎 Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta, receive into the western paradise the believer who calls on Amitābha.

三帀 The thrice repeated procession around an image; there is dispute as to which shoulder should be next to the image, v. 右繞.

三師七證 The three superior monks and a minimum of seven witnesses required for an ordination to full orders; except in outlandish places, when two witnesses are valid.

三平等 The esoteric doctrine that the three— body, mouth, and mind— are one and universal. Thus in samādhi the Buddha "body" is found everywhere and in everything (pan-Buddha), every sound becomes a "[[true

word]]", dhāraṇī or potent phrase, and these are summed up in mind, which being universal is my mind and my mind it, 入我我入 it in me and I in it. Other definitions of the three are 佛, 法, 儈 the triratna; and 心, 佛,

衆生 mind, Buddha, and the living. Also 三三昧. Cf. 三密. v. 大日經 1.

三平等地 The three universal positions or stages, i.e. the three states expressed by 空, 無相, and 無願; v. 三三昧地.

三平等戒 idem 三昧耶戒 and 世無障礙智戒.

三平等觀 idem 三三昧觀.

三平等護摩壇 The three equal essentials of the fire sacrifice, i.e. the individual as offerer, the object of worship, and the altar.

三彌叉 Samīkṣā, 觀察 investigation, i.e. the Sāṃkhya, a system of philosophy, wrongly ascribed by Buddhists to 闍提首那 Jātisena, or 闍耶犀那 Jayasena, who debated the twenty-five Sāṃkhya principles (tattvas) with Śākyamuni but succumbed,

shaved his head and became a disciple, according to the 涅槃經 39.

三彌底 彌底; 彌離底; 三密 (or 蜜) 栗底尼迦耶; 三眉底與量弟子 Saṃmatīyanikāya, Saṃmata, or Saṃmitīyas. A Hīnayāna sect the 正量部 correctly commensurate or logical school, very numerous and widely spread during the early centuries of our era. The 三彌底部論

is in the Tripiṭaka. It taught "that a soul exists in the highest and truest sense", "that an arhat can fall from arhatship, that a god can enter the paths of the Order, and that even an unconverted man

can get rid of all lust and ill-will" (Eliot, i, 260). It split into the three branches of Kaurukullakāḥ Āvantikāh, and Vātsīputrīyāḥ.

三彌提 Saṃmiti is a saint mentioned in the 阿含經.

三形 idem 三昧耶形.

三從 A woman's three subordinations, to father, husband, and son; stated in several sūtras, e.g. 四十華嚴經28.

三德 The three virtues or powers, of which three groups are given below. (1) (a) 法身德 The virtue or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, the dharmakāya; (b) 般若德 of his prājñā, or wisdom,

knowing all things in their reality; (c) 解脫德 of his freedom from all bonds and his sovereign Iiberty. Each of these has the four qualities of 常, 樂我, 淨eternity, joy, personality, and purity; v. 漫涅槃經 (2) (a) 智德 The

potency of his perfect knowledge; (b) 斷德 of his cutting off all illusion and perfecting of supreme nirvāṇa; the above two are 自利 for his own advantage; (c) 恩德 of his universal grace and salvation, which 利他 bestows the

benefits he has acquired on others. (3) (a) 因圓德 The perfection of his causative or karmic works during his three great kalpas of preparation; (b) 果圓德 the perfection of the fruit, or results in his own character and

wisdom; (c) 恩圓德 the perfection of his grace in the salvation of others.

三心 The three minds, or hearts; various groups are given: (1) Three assured ways of reaching the Pure Land, by (a) 至誠心 perfect sincerity; (b) 深 profound resolve for it; (c) 廻向接發願心 resolve on demitting one's merits to

others. (2) (a) 根本心 The 8th or ālaya-vijñāna mind, the storehouse, or source of all seeds of good or evil; (b) 依本 the 7th or mano-vijñāna mind, the mediating cause of all taint; (c) 起事心 the ṣaḍāyatana-vijñāna

mind, the immediate influence of the six senses. (3) (a) 入心 (b) 住心 (c) 出心 The mind entering into a condition, staying there, departing. (4) A pure, a single, and an undistracted mind. There are other groups.


三忍 The tree forms of kṣānti, i.e. patience (or endurance, tolerance). One of the groups is patience under hatred, under physical hardship, and in pursuit of the faith. Another is patience of the

blessed in the Pure Land in understanding the truth they hear, patience in obeying the truth, patience in attaining absolute reality; v. 無量壽經. Another is patience in the joy of remembering Amitābha,

patience in meditation on his truth, and patience in constant faith in him. Another is the patience of submission, of faith, and of obedience.

三念住 (or 三念處). Whether all creatures believe, do not believe, or part believe and part do not believe, the Buddha neither rejoices, nor grieves, but rests in his proper mind and wisdom, i.e. though full of pity, his far-

seeing wisdom 正念正智 keeps him above the disturbances of joy and sorrow. 倶舍論 27.

三性 The three types of character 善, 惡, 無記 good, bad and undefinable, or neutral; v. 唯識論 5. Also, 徧依圓三性 the three aspects of the nature of a thing— partial, as when a rope is mistaken for a snake; only partly reliable, i.e.

incomplete inference, as when it is considered as mere hemp; all around, or perfect, when content, form, etc., are all considered.

三性分別 The differentiation of the three conditions of good, evil, and neutral.

三思 All action and speech have three mental conditions— reflection, judgment, decision.

三惑 A Tiantai classification of the three delusions, also styled 三煩惱; 三漏; 三垢; 三結; trials or temptations, leakages, uncleannesses, and bonds. The first of the following three is common to all disciples, the two last to

bodhisattvas. They arise from (a) 見, 思, 惑 things seen and thought, i.e. illusions from imperfect perception, with temptation to love, hate, etc.; to be rid of these false views and temptations is the

discipline and nirvāṇa of ascetic or Hīnayāna Buddhists. Mahāyāna proceeds further in and by its bodhisattva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. (b) 塵沙惑 illusion and temptation through the immense

variety of duties in saving men; and (c) 無明惑 illusions and temptations that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in their reality.

三惡 The three evil gati, or paths of transmigration; also 三惡道, 三惡趣 the hells, hungry ghosts, animals.

三惡覺 The three evil mental states: 欲 desire, 瞋 hate (or anger), 害 malevolence.

三想 The three evil thoughts are the last, desire, hate, malevolence; the three good thoughts are 怨想 thoughts of (love to) enemies, 親想 the same to family and friends, 中人想 the same to those who are neither

enemies nor friends, i.e. to all; v. 智度論 72.

三慕達羅 Samudra, the sea, an ocean; also 三母捺羅娑誐羅 samudra-sāgara. Samudra and sāgara are synonyms.

三慧 The three modes of attaining moral wisdom: 聞慧 from reading, hearing, instruction; 思慧 from reflection, etc.; 修慧 from practice (of abstract meditation).

三應供養 The three who should be served, or worshipped— a Buddha, an arhat, and a cakravartī king.

三懺 idem 三種悔法.

三戒 The three sets of commandments, i.e. the ten for the ordained who have left home, the eight for the devout at home, and the five for the ordinary laity.

三拔諦 idem 三跋致.

三摩 Sama, level, equal, same, etc.; cf. 三昧 (三昧耶) and 平等.

三摩半那 samāpanna, in the state of samādhi.

三摩呬多 samāhita; steadfast, tranquil. A degree of meditation.

三摩呾叱 Samataṭa, an ancient kingdom on the left bank of the Ganges, near its mouths, extending to the Hooghly, over 3,000 li in circuit, low and damp, with a hardy people, short and dark. Eitel says "close to the sea at the mouth

of the Brahmaputra." Eliot says: "In the east of Bengal and not far from the modern Burmese frontier."


三摩地 (or 三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底) Samādhi; idem 三昧.

三摩地念誦 Silent or meditative repetition of the name of Buddha.

三摩娑 Samāsa. 煞三摩婆 Ṣaṭ-samāsa, v. 六離合釋.

三摩婆夜 Samavāya, coming together, combination; 利合 advantageous union.

三摩皮陀 縒摩吠陀; 沙磨; 平論; 歌詠 Sāma-veda-saṃhitā. A collection of verses sung at sacrifices, etc. The third of the three Vedas, or four if Atharva Veda is counted, as it was later; the verses are taken almost wholly from the


三摩竭 Sumāgadhā, said to be a daughter of Anāthapiṇḍada of Śrāvastī, who married the ruler of 難國 and converted the ruler and people.

三摩耶 (or 三摩曳) idem 三昧耶; but 三摩耶 is also explained as a short period, a season of the year.

三摩耶道 A term among the esoterics for the 三平等 q.v.

三摩若 sāmānya, generality; in common; inclusive; v. 共.

三摩越 idem 三摩鉢底.

三摩近離 The public gathering for a festival, lay and cleric, before parting at the end of the summer retreat.

三摩鉢底 (or 三摩鉢提); 三摩拔提 (or 三摩跋提); 三摩越 samāpatti, attainment, arrival; defined by 等至 and 等持 which is intp. as complete dhyāna; similar to 三摩半那 samāpanna, attainment. Eitel says: "a degree of abstract ecstatic meditation

preparatory to the final attainment of samādhi." Clough speaks of eight samāpattis, i.e. attainments— "eight successive states induced by the ecstatic meditation." v. also 三摩越.

三摩難呾囉 samanantaram, immediately following or contiguous; 等無間緣緣 i.e. one of the four 緣q.v.; it means without interval, i.e. an immediate cause.

三攝提The three prajñapti, v. 三假施設; they are the 受 and 法 and 名假施設.

三支 (三支比量) Three members of a syllogism: pratijñā宗 the proposition, hetu 因 the reason, udāharaṇa 喩the example; cf. 因明.

三教 The three teachings, i.e. 儒, 佛 (or 釋), and 道Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism; or, 孔, 老, 釋 Confucianism, Taoism (aIso known as 神敎), and Buddhism. In Japan they are Shinto,

Confucianism, and Buddhism. In Buddhism the term is applied to the three periods of Śākyamuni's own teaching, of which there are several definitions: (1) The Jiangnan 南中 School describe his teaching as (a) 漸progressive

or gradual; (b) 頓 immediate, i.e. as one whole, especially in the 華嚴經; and (c) 不定 or indeterminate. (2) 光統 Guangtong, a writer of the Iater Wei dynasty, describes the three as (a) 漸 progressive for beginners, i.e. from impermanence

to permanence, from the void to reality, etc.; (b) 頓 immediate for the more advanced; and (c) 圓complete, to the most advanced, i.e. the Huayan as above. (3) The 三時敎q.v. (4) The 南山 Southern school deals with (a) the 性空of

Hīnayāna; (b) 相空of Mahāyāna; and (c) 唯識圓 the perfect idealism. v. 行事鈔中 4. Tiantai accepts the division of 漸, 頓, and 不定 for pre-Lotus teaching, but adopts 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 perfect, with the Lotus as

the perfect teaching; it also has the division of 三藏敎 , 通敎 , and 別敎 q.v.

三教法師 Master of the Tripiṭaka; a title of Xuanzang 玄奘.

三斷 The three cuttings off or excisions (of 惑 beguiling delusions, or perplexities). (1) (a) 見所斷 to cut off delusions of view, of which Hīnayāna has eighty-eight kinds; (b) 修所斷in practice, eighty-one kinds; (c) 非所斷

nothing left to cut off, perfect. v. 倶舍論 2. (2) (a) 自性斷 to cut off the nature or root (of delusion); (b) 緣縛斷 to cut off the external bonds, or objective causes (of delusions); (c) 不生斷 (delusion) no longer

arising, therefore nothing produced to cut off. The third stage in both groups is that of an arhat.

三方便 A term of the esoterics for body, mouth (speech), and mind, their control, and the entry into the 三密 q.v. 大日經疏 1.

三施 The three forms of giving: (1) (a) one's goods; (b) the Law or Truth; (c) courage, or confidence: 智度論 11. (2) (a) goods; (b) worship; (c) preaching. (3) (a) food; (b) valuables; (c) life.

三日齋 The third day's ceremonies after a death to gain Yama's favour as the deceased appears before him.

三明 The three insights; also 三達. Applied to Buddhas they are called 三達, to arhats 三明. (a) 宿命明 Insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives; (b) 天眼明 supernatural insight into

future mortal conditions; (c) 漏盡明 nirvāṇa insight, i.e. into present mortal sufferings so as to overcome aIl passions or temptations. In the 倶舍論 27 the three are termed 住智識證明; 死生識證明 and 漏盡識證明. For 三明經 v. 長阿含16.

三明智 trividyā. The three clear conceptions that (1) all is impermanent 無常 anitya; (2) all is sorrowful 苦 duḥkha; (3) all is devoid of a self 無我 anātman.


三昧 (三昧地) Samādhi, "putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect absorption, union of the meditator with the object of meditation." (M. W.) Also 三摩地 (三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底). Interpreted by 定 or

正定, the mind fixed and undisturbed; by 正受 correct sensation of the object contemplated; by 調直定 ordering and fixing the mind; by 正心行處 the condition when the motions of the mind are steadied and harmonized with

the object; by 息慮凝心 the cessation of distraction and the fixation of the mind; by 等持 the mind held in equilibrium; by 奢摩他, i.e. 止息 to stay the breathing. It is described as concentration

of the mind (upon an object). The aim is 解脫, mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions and reincarnations. It may pass from abstraction to ecstasy, or rapture, or trance.

Dhyāna 定 represents a simpler form of contemplation; samāpatti 三摩鉢底 a stage further advanced; and samādhi the highest stage of the Buddhist equivalent for Yoga, though Yoga is considered by some as a

Buddhist development differing from samādhi. The 翻譯名義 says: 思專 when the mind has been concentrated, then 志一不分 the will is undivided; when 想寂 active thought has been put to rest, then 氣虛神朗 the material becomes

etherealized and the spirit liberated, on which 智 knowledge, or the power to know, has free course, and there is no mystery into which it cannot probe. Cf. 智度論 5, 20, 23, 28; 止觀 2; 大乘義章 2, 9, 1 3, 20, etc. There

are numerous kinds and degrees of samādhi.

三昧佛 Samādhi Buddha, one of the ten Buddhas mentioned in the 華嚴經.

三昧月輪相 月輪三昧 The candra-maṇḍala, i.e. moon-wheel or disc samādhi; Nāgārjuna is said to have entered it and taken his departure as a cicada after delivering the Law (or patriarchate) to Kāṇadeva.

三昧火 Fire of samādhi, the fire that consumed the body of Buddha when he entered nirvāṇa.

三昧相應 The symbols or offerings should tally with the object worshipped, e.g. a white flower with a merciful or a white image.

三昧門 The different stages of a bodhisattva's samādhi; cf. 智度論 28.

三昧魔 samādhi-māra, one of the ten māras, who lurks in the heart and hinders progress in meditation, obstructs the truth and destroys wisdom.

三昧耶 samaya is variously defined as 會 coming together, meeting, convention; 時 timely; 宗 in agreement, of the same class; 平等 equal, equalized; 驚覺 aroused, warned; 除垢障 riddance of unclean hindrances. Especially it is used as

indicating the vows made by Buddhas and bodhisattvas, hence as a tally, symbol, or emblem of the spiritual quality of a Buddha or bodhisattva.

三昧耶形 The distinguishing symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva, e.g. the Lotus of Guanyin; also used for 三昧耶身 q. v.

三昧耶戒 samaya commandments: the rules to be strictly observed before full ordination in the esoteric sects.

三昧耶曼荼羅 samaya-maṇḍala. One of the four kinds of magic circles in which the saints are represented by the symbols of their power, e.g. pagoda, jewel, lotus, sword.

三昧耶智 samaya wisdom. In esoteric teaching, the characteristic of a Buddha's or bodhisattva's wisdom, as shown in the maṇḍala.

三昧耶會 The samaya assembly, i.e. the second of the nine maṇḍalas, consisting of seventy-three saints represented by the symbols of their power.

三昧耶界 Samaya world, a general name for the esoteric sect.

三昧耶身 (or 三昧耶形) The embodiment of samaya, a term of the esoteric sect; i.e. the symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva which expresses his inner nature, e.g. the stūpa as one of the symbols of Vairocana 大日; the

lotus of Guanyin, etc. 身 is used for Buddha, 形 for a bodhisattva. The exoteric sects associate the term with the 報身 saṃbhogakāya.

三時 The three divisions of the day, i.e. dawn, daylight, and sunset; or morning, noon, and evening; also the three periods, after his nirvāṇa, of every Buddha's teaching, viz., 正 correct, or the period of orthodoxy and vigour, 像

semblance, or the period of scholasticism, and 末 end, the period of decline and termination.

三時坐禪 The thrice a day meditation— about 10 a.m. and 4 and 8 p.m.

三時年限 The three periods of Buddhism— 1,000 years of 正法 pure or orthodox doctrine, 1,000 years of 像法 resemblance to purity, and 10,000 years of 末法 decay. Other definitions are 正 and 像 500 years each, or 正 1,000 and 像 500, or 正

500 and 像 1,000.

三時性 i.e. 徧依圓三性 v. 三性.

三時教 (三時教判) The three periods and characteristics of Buddha's teaching, as defined by the Dharmalakṣana school 法相宗. They are: (1) 有, when he taught the 實有 reality of the skandhas and elements, but denied the common

belief in 實我 real personality or a permanent soul; this period is represented by the four 阿含經 āgamas and other Hīnayāna sūtras. (2) 空 Śūnya, when he negatived the idea of 實法 the reality of things and advocated that all

was 空 unreal; the period of the 般若經 prajñā sūtras. (3) 中 Madhyama, the mean, that mind or spirit is real, while things are unreal; the period of this school's specific sūtra the 解深密經, also the 法華 and later sūtras. In the

two earlier periods he is said to have 方便 adapted his teaching to the development of his hearers; in the third to have delivered his complete and perfect doctrine. Another division by the 空宗 is (1) as above; (2) the early period of

the Mahāyāna represented, by the 深密經; (3) the higher Mahāyāna as in the 般若經. v. also 三敎.

三時業 The three stages of karma— in the present life because of present deeds; in the next life because of present actions; and in future lives because of present actions.


三智 The three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) 一切智 śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that all the dharma or laws are 空 void and unreal; (b) 道種智 bodhisattva-knowledge. of all things in their proper [[Wikipedia:


discrimination]]; (c) 一切種智 Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Tiantai associates the above with 室, 候, 中. (2) (a) 世間智 earthly or

ordinary wisdom; (b) 出世間智 supra-mundane, or spiritual (śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) 出世間上上智 supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas. v. 智度論 27, 止觀 3, and 概伽經 3. Cf. — 心三智.

三暮多 God of the wind, which is Vata in Sanskrit.

三曼多 samanta; tr. by 等, 普, 遍 universal, everywhere; also 三曼陀, 三滿多.

三曼陀犍陀 (or 三萬陀犍陀, or 三曼陀犍提) Samantagandha, 普熏 universally fragrant. A tree in Paradise; a title of a Buddha.

三曼陀颰陀羅 三曼颰陀, 三曼跋陀 Samantabhadra, 普賢 Puxian; v. 三滿.

三有 The three kinds of bhava, or existence; idem 三界 q. v. The three states of mortal existence in the trailokya, i. e. in the realms of desire, of form, and beyond form. Another definition is 現有 present

existence, or the present body and mind; 當有 in a future state; 中有 antara-bhava, in the intermediate state. 三有對 The three sets of limitation on freedom: (a) direct resistance or opposition; (b) environment or

condition; (c) attachment. 三有爲法 The three active) functioning dharmas: (1) pratigha, matter or form, i. e. that which has ' substantial resistance'; (2) mind; and (3) 非色非心 entities neither of matter nor

mind; cf. 七十五法. 三有爲相 The three forms of all phenomena, birth, stay (i. e. 1ife), death; utpāda, sthiti, and nirvana.

三末多 sammata, intp. as 共許 'unanimously accorded'; i. e. name of the first king (elected) at the beginning of each world-kalpa.

三果 The third of the Hīnayāna 四果 four fruits or results, i. e. non-return to mortality.

三株 The three tree-trunks, or main stems—desire, hate, stupidity; v. 三毒.

三根 The three (evil) 'roots'— desire, hate, stupidity, idem 三毒. Another group is the three grades of good roots, or abilities 上, 中, 下 superior, medium, and inferior. Another is the three grades of faultlessness 三


三梵 The three Brahma heavens of the first dhyāna: that of 梵衆 Brahma-pāriṣadya, the assembly of Brahma; 梵輔 Brahma-purohitas, his attendants; 大梵 Mahābrahmā, Great Brahma.

三極少 The three smallest things, i. e. an atom as the smallest particle of matter; a letter as the shortest possible name; a kṣaṇa, as the shortest period of time.

三業 trividha-dvāra. The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, 身, 口, 意. (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma;

(c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) 漏業 Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma of neither, independent

of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are other

groups of three.

三業供養 三業相應 To serve or worship with perfect sincerity of body, mouth and mind; the second form means that in worship an three correspond.

三樂 The three joys— the joy of being born a deva, the joy of meditation, the joy of nirvana.

三機 see 三聚.

三檀 The three kinds of dāna, i. e. charity; giving of goods, of the dharma, of abhaya, or fearlessness. Idem 三施.

三權一實 The Tiantai division of the schools of Buddhism into four, three termed 權temporary, i. e. 藏, 通 and 別 q.v. v. e fourth is the 實 or圓real or perfect School of SaIvation by faith to Buddhahood, especially as revealed

in the Lotus Sutra, see 一實.

三欲 three lusts, i. e. for 形貌 form, 姿態 carriage or beauty, and 細觸refinement, or softness to the touch.


三武 The three emperors Wu who persecuted Buddhism: 太武 of the Wei dynasty A.D. 424-452; 武帝 of the Zhou A.D. 561-578; 武宗 of the Tang A.D. 841-7.

三歸 Triśaraṇa, or Śaraṇa-gamana. The three surrenders to, or "formulas of refuge" in, the Three Precious Ones 三賓, i.e. to the Buddha 佛, the Dharma 法, the Saṅgha 僧. The three formulas are 歸依佛 Buddham śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依法

Dharmaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依僧 Saṅghaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi. It is "the most primitive formula fidei of the early Buddhists". The surrender is to the Buddha as teacher 師, the Law as medicine 藥, the Ecclesia as friends 友.

These are known as the 三歸依.

三歸受法 The receiving of the Law, or admission of a lay disciple, after recantation of his previous wrong belief and sincere repetition to the abbot or monk of the three refuges 三歸.

三歸五戒 (三歸戒) The ceremony which makes the recipient a 優婆塞 or 優婆夷 upasaka or upāsikā male or female disciple, accepting the five commandments. There are 五種三歸 five stages of sangui; the first two are as above, at the third the

eight commandments are accepted, at the fourth the ten, at the fifth an the commandments. 三歸 is also a general term for a Buddhist.

三毒 The three poisons, also styled 三根; 三株; they are 貪 concupiscence, or wrong desire, 瞋 anger, hate, or resentment, and 痴 stupidity, ignorance, unintelligence, or unwillingness to accept Buddha-truth;

these three are the source of all the passions and delusions. They represent in part the ideas of love, hate, and moral inertia. v. 智度論 19, 31.

三毒尸利 The Śrī (i.e. goddess of Fortune) of the three poisons, a title of Mañjuśrī.

三治 idem 三三昧門 v. 三解脫.

三法 The three dharma, i.e. 教法 the Buddha's teaching; 行法 the practice of it; 證法 realization or experiential proof of it in bodhi and nirvāṇa.

三法印 idem 三印.

三法忍 idem 三忍.

三法妙 v. 三軌.

三法無差 idem 三無差別 q.v.

三法輪 The three law-wheels, or periods of the Buddha's preaching, according to Paramārtha, to 嘉祥 Jiaxiang of the 三論 school, and to 玄奘 Xuanzang of the 法相 school.

三波多 samāpta; finished, ended, perfect; a term used at the conclusion of Homa or Fire-worship.

三波羅聶提 The three prajñāpti, 三假 q.v.

三波訶 Sampaha, according to Eitel, Malasa, a valley in the upper Punjab; but perhaps Śāmbī, a state north of Citral in the Hindukush.

三涅槃門 The three gates to the city of nirvāṇa, i.e. 空, 無相, and 無作 the void (or the immaterial), formlessness, and inactivity; idem 三解脫門.

三淨肉 The three kinds of "clean" flesh—when a monk has not seen the creature killed, has not heard of its being killed for him, and has no doubt thereon.

三滿多跋捺囉 Samantabhadra, interpreted 普賢 Puxian, pervading goodness, or "all gracious", Eliot; also 徧吉 universal fortune; also styled Viśvabhadra. The principal Bodhisattva of Emei shan. He is the special patron of

followers of the Lotus Sūtra. He is usually seated on a white elephant, and his abode is said to be in the East. He is one of the four Bodhisattvas of the Yoga school. v. 三曼.

三漸 The three progressive developments of the Buddha's teaching according to the Prajñā school: (a) the 鹿苑 initial stage in the Lumbinī deer park; (b) the 方等 period of the eight succeeding years; (c) the 般若 Prajñā or wisdom

period which succeeded.

三漏 The three affluents that feed the stream of mortality, or transmigration: 欲 desire; 有 (material, or phenomenal) existence; 無明 ignorance (of the way of escape). 涅槃經 22.

三火 The three fires—desire, hate, and stupidity; v. 三毒.

三災 The three calamities; they are of two kinds, minor and major. The minor, appearing during a decadent world-period, are sword, pestilence, and famine; the major, for world-destruction, are fire, water, and wind. 倶舍諭 12.

三煩惱 v. 三惑.

三熱The three distresses of which dragons and dragon-kings are afraid— fiery heat, fierce wind, and the garuḍa bird which preys on them for food.


三無差(三無差別) The three that are without (essential) difference, i.e. are of the same nature: (a) 心 The nature of mind is the same in Buddhas, and men, and all the living; (b) 佛 the nature and enlightenment of all

Buddhas is the same; (c) 衆生 the nature and enlightenment of all the living is the same. The 華嚴經 says 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別.

三無性 The three things without a nature or separate existence of their own: (a) 相無性 form, appearance or seeming, is unreal, e.g. a rope appearing like a snake; (b) 生無性 life ditto, for it is like the rope, which is derived

from constituent materials; (c) 勝義無性 the 勝義, concept of the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā, is unreal, e.g. the hemp of which the rope is made; the bhūtatathatā is perfect and eternal. Every representation of it is abstract and

unreal. The three are also known as 相無性, 無自然性, 法無性; v. 唯識論 9.

三無漏學 The three studies, or endeavours, after the passionless life and escape from transmigration: (a) 戒 Moral discipline; (b) 定 meditation, or trance; (c) 慧 the resulting wisdom.

三無漏根 The three roots for the passionless life and final escape from transmigration, i.e. the last three of the 二十二根 q.v. An older group was 未知欲知根; 知根; 如巳根 v. 倶舍論 3. 智度論 23.

三無盡莊嚴藏 The treasury of the three inexhaustible adornments or glories, i.e. the 身, 口, 意, deeds, words, and thoughts of a Buddha.

三照 The three shinings; the sun first shining on the hill-tops, then the valleys and plains. So, according to Tiantai teaching of the Huayan sūtra, the Buddha's doctrine had three periods of such shining: (a)

first, he taught the Huayan sūtra, transforming his chief disciples into bodhisattvas; (b) second, the Hīnayāna sūtras in general to śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas in the Lumbinī garden; (c) third, the 方等 sūtras down to

the 涅槃經 for all the living. See the 六十華嚴經 35, where the order is five, i.e. bodhisattvas, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, lay disciples, and all creatures.

三牟提耶 samudaya, gather together, accumulate, the 聚 or 集諦, i.e. the second of the Four Truths, the aggregation of suffering.

三猿 The three monkeys, one guarding its eyes, another its ears, a third its mouth.

三獸 The three animals— hare, horse, elephant— crossing a stream. The śrāvaka is like the hare who crosses by swimming on the surface; the pratyeka-buddha is like the horse who crosses deeper than the hare; the bodhisattva is like

the elephant who walks across on the bottom. Also likened to the triyāna. 涅槃經 23, 27.

三甜 The three sweet things— cream, honey, curd.

三生 The three births, or reincarnations, past, present, future. Tiantai has (a) 種 planting the seed; (b) 熟 ripening; (c) 脫 liberating, stripping, or harvesting, i.e. beginning, development, and reward of bodhi, a process

either gradual or instantaneous. Huayan has (a) 見聞生 a past life of seeing and hearing Buddha-truth; (b) 解行生 liberation in the present life; (c) 證入生 realization of life in Buddhahood. This is

also called 三生成佛, Buddhahood in the course of three lives. There is also a definition of three rebirths as the shortest term for arhatship, sixty kalpas being the longest. There are other definitions.

三田 The three "fields" of varying qualities of fertility, i.e. bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, and icchantis, respectively producing a hundred-fold, fifty-fold, onefold. 涅槃經 33.

三界 Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth,

atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are 欲, 色, and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of sensuous desire, of 婬

and 食 sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the

lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful一a semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天, or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界 Arūpadhātu, or

ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its

extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form;

being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. v. 倶舍論世間品.

三界九地 v. 九地.


三界唯一心 The triple world is but one mind; from a verse of the 華嚴 sūtra; it proceeds 心外無別法, 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別 "outside mind there is no other thing; mind, Buddha, and all the living, these three are not different"; in

other words, there is no differentiating between these three, for all is mind.

三界尊 The honoured one of the three worlds, i.e. Buddha.

三界慈父 The kindly father of the triple world— Buddha.

三界火宅 The burning house of the triple world, as in the Lotus Sūtra parable.

三界牀 The sick-bed of the trailokya, especially this world of suffering.

三界眼 The trailokya eye, i.e. Buddha, who sees all the realms and the way of universal escape.

三界萬靈牌 The tablet used at the annual ceremonial offerings to "all souls", v. 孟蘭.

三界藏 The trailokya-garbha, the womb or storehouse of all the transmigrational.

三界雄 The hero of the trailokya—Buddha.

三疑 The three doubts— of self, of teacher, of the dharma-truth.

三病 The three ailments: (1) (a) 貪 lust, for which the 不淨觀 meditation on uncleanness is the remedy; (b) 瞋 anger, or hate, remedy 慈悲觀 meditation on kindness and pity; (c) 癡 stupidity, or ignorance, remedy

因緣觀 meditation on causality. (2) (a) 謗 Slander of Mahāyāna; (b) 五逆罪 the five gross sins; (c) to be a "heathen" or outsider; the forms recorded seem to be icchantika, ecchantika, and aicchantika. Cf. 三毒.

三發心 The three resolves of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (a) 信成就發心 to perfect the bodhi of faith, i.e. in the stage of faith; (b) 解行發心 to understand and carry into practice this wisdom; (c) 證發心 the

realization, or proof of or union with bodhi.

三白食 The three white foods— milk, cream (or curd), and rice (especially upland rice).

三白法 is the rule of the three white foods 三白食.

三百四十八戒 (or 三百四十一戒) The 348 (or 341) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 250 and 500 such rules.

三百四十一戒 (or 三百四十八戒) The 341 (or 348) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 250 and 500 such rules.

三百六十會 The reputed and disputed number (360) of Śākyamuni's assemblies for preaching.

三百由旬 The 300 yojanas parable of the Magic City, erected by a leader who feared that his people would become weary and return; i.e. Hīnayāna nirvāṇa, a temporary rest on the way to the real land of precious things, or true

nirvāṇa; v. 法華化城品.

三皈 idem 三歸.

三監 idem 三從.

三目 The three-eyed, a term for Śiva, i.e Maheśvara; simile for the dharmakāya, or spiritual body, prajñā, or wisdom, and nirvāṇa emancipation.

三相 The three forms or positions: 解脫相 nirvāṇa; 離相 no nirvāṇa; 滅和 or 非有非無之中道 absence of both, or the "middle way" of neither.

三相續 The three links, or consequences: (a) the worlds with their kingdoms, which arise from the karma of existence; (b) all beings, who arise out of the five skandhas; (c) rewards and punishments, which arise out of

moral karma causes.

三眞如 Three aspects of the bhūtatathatā, implying that it is above the limitations of form, creation, or a soul. (1) (a) 無相眞如 without form; (b) 無生眞如 without creation; (c) 無性眞如 without anything that can be called a nature

for comparison; e.g. chaos, or primal matter. (2) (a) 善法眞如 The bhūtatathatā as good; (b) 不善法眞如 as evil; (c) 無記法眞如 as neutral, or neither good nor evil.

三眉底與部 Saṃmatiīya, v. 三彌底.

三祗百劫 (三祗百大劫) The period necessary for a bodhisattva to become a Buddha, i.e. three asaṃkhyeyas 阿僧祗 to attain the 六度, and 100 kalpas to acquire the thirty-two 相 or characteristic marks of a Buddha; cf. 三阿.

三福 The three (sources of) felicity: (1) The 無量壽經 has the felicity of (a) 世福 filial piety, regard for elders, keeping the ten commandments; (b) 戒福 of keeping the other commandments; (c) 行福 of resolve on complete bodhi and

the pursuit of the Buddha-way. (2) The 倶舍論 18, has the blessedness of (a) 施類福 almsgiving, in evoking resultant wealth; (b) 戒類福 observance of the 性戒 (against killing, stealing, adultery, lying) and the 遮戒 (against

alcohol, etc.), in obtaining a happy lot in the heavens; (c) 修類福 observance of meditation in obtaining final escape from the mortal round. Cf. 三種淨業.

三福業 The three things that bring a happy lot— almsgiving, impartial kindness and Iove, pondering over the demands of the life beyond.

三禪 The third dhyāna heaven of form, the highest paradise of form.


三禮 Worship with 身, 口, 意, body, mouth, and mind.

三科 The three categories of 五蘊, 十二處 or 入, and eighteen 界.

三祕密 The three mysteries, a term of the esoteric school for 身, 口, and 意; i.e. the symbol; the mystic word or sound; the meditation of the mind.

三祕密身 A term for the mystic letter, the mystic symbol, and the image.

三種 Three kinds, sorts, classes, categories, etc.

三種三世 Three kinds of past, present, and future as intp. according to 道理, 神通, and 唯識.

三種三觀 The three types of meditation on the principles of the 三諦 q.v., i.e. the dogmas of 空, 假, 中.

三種世間 v. 三世間.

三種供養 Three modes of serving (the Buddha, etc.): (a) offerings of incense, flowers, food, etc.; (b) of praise and reverence; (c) of right conduct.

三種光明 The three kinds of light: (a) extemal— sun, moon, stars, lamps, etc.; (b) dharma, or the light of right teaching and conduct; (c) the effulgence or bodily halo emitted by Buddhas, bodhisattvas,


三種善根 The three kinds of good roots— almsgiving, mercy, and wisdom.

三種圓融 Three kinds of unity or identity of (a) 事理 phenomena with "substance", e.g. waves and the water; (b) 事事 phenomena with phenomena, e.g. wave with wave; (c) 理理 substance with substance, e.g. water with water.

三種地獄 The three kinds of hells— hot, cold and solitary.

三種大智 The three major kinds of wisdom: (a) self-acquired, no master needed; (b) unacquired and natural; (c) universal.

三種天 Three definitions of heaven: (a) as a name or title, e.g. divine king, son of Heaven, etc.; (b) as a place for rebirth, the heavens of the gods; (c) the pure Buddha-land.

三種常 A Buddha in his three eternal qualities: (a) 本性常 in his nature or dharmakāya; (b) 不斷常 in his unbroken eternity, saṃbhogakāya; (c) 相續常 in his continuous and eternally varied forms, nirmāṇakāya.

三種心苦 The three kinds of mental distress: desire, anger, stupidity, idem 三毒.

三種忍行 Patience or forbearance of body, mouth, and mind.

三種悔法 (or 三種懺法) Three modes of repentance: (a) 無生悔 to meditate on the way to prevent wrong thoughts and delusions; (b) 取相悔 to seek the presence of the Buddha to rid one of sinful thoughts and passions; (c)

作法懺 in proper form to confess one's breach of the rules before the Buddha and seek remission.

三種慈悲 (or 三種緣慈) The three reasons of bodhisattva's pity — because all beings are like helpless infants; because of his knowledge of all laws and their consequences; without external cause, i.e. because of his own nature.

三種教相 The three modes of the Buddha's teaching of the Southern Sects: 頓 immediate, 漸 gradual or progressive, and 不定 indeterminate.

三種斷 The three kinds of uccheda— cutting-off, excision, or bringing to an end: (1) (a) 自性斷 with the incoming of wisdom, passion or illusion ceases of itself; (b) 不生斷 with realization of the doctrine that all is 空

unreal, evil karma ceases to arise; (c) 緣縛斷 illusion being ended, the causal nexus of the passions disappears and the attraction of the external ceases. (2) The three śrāvaka or ascetic stages are (a) 見所斷 ending

the condition of false views; (b) 修行斷 getting rid of desire and illusion in practice; (c) 非所斷 no more illusion or desire to be cut off.

三種智 The wisdom of common men, of the heterodox, and of Buddhism; i.e. (a) 世間智 normal, worldly knowledge or ideas; (b) 出世間智 other worldly wisdom, e.g. of Hīnayāna; (c) 出世間上上智 the highest other-worldly

wisdom, of Mahāyāna; cf. 三種波羅蜜.


三種有 Three kinds of existence: (a) 相待有 that of qualities, as of opposites, e.g. length and shortness; (b) 假名有 that of phenomenal things so-called, e.g. a jar, a man; (c) 法有 that of the noumenal, or imaginary,

understood as facts and not as illusions, such as a "hare's horns" or a "turtle's fur".

三種欲 Three kinds of desire— food, sleep, sex.

三種止觀 Three Tiantai modes of entering dhyāna: (a) 漸次 gradual, from the shallow to the deep, the simple to the complex; (b) 不定 irregular, simple, and complex mixed; (c) 圓頓 immediate and whole.

三種法輪 v. 三輪教.

三種波羅蜜 The three kinds of pāramitā ideals, or methods of perfection: (a) 世間波羅蜜 that of people in general relating to this world; (b) 出世間波羅蜜 that of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas relating to the future life for

themselves; (c) 出世間上上波羅蜜 the supreme one of bodhisattvas, relating to the future life for all; cf. 三種智.

三種淨業 The threefold way of obtaining pure karma, idem 三福.

三種淸淨 The three purities of a bodhisattva— a mind free from all impurity, a body pure because never to be reborn save by transformation, an appearance 相 perfectly pure and adorned.

三種灌頂 Three kinds of baptism: (1) (a) 摩頂灌頂 Every Buddha baptizes a disciple by laying a hand on his head; (b) 授記灌頂 by predicting Buddhahood to him; (c) 放光灌頂 by revealing his glory to him to his profit. (2) Shingon has

(a) baptism on acquiring the mystic word; (b) on remission of sin and prayer for blessing and protection; (c) on seeking for reward in the next life.

三種生 The three sources, or causes of the rise of the passions and illusions: (a) 想生 the mind, or active thought; (b) 相生 the objective world; (c) 流注生 their constant interaction, or the continuous stream of

latent predispositions.

三種相 The three kinds of appearance: (1) In logic, the three kinds of percepts: (a) 標相 inferential, as fire is inferred from smoke; (b) 形相 formal or spatial, as length, breadth, etc.; (c) 體相 qualitative, as heat is in fire,

etc. (2) (a) 假名相 names, which are merely indications of the temporal; (b) 法相 dharmas, or "things"; (c) 無相相 the formless— all three are incorrect positions.

三種示導 Three ways in which bodhisattvas manifest themselves for saving those suffering the pains of hell, i.e. 身 physically, by supernatural powers, change of form, etc.; 意 mentally, through powers of

memory and enlightenment; 口 orally, by moral exhortation.

三種色 Three kinds of rūpa, i.e. appearance or object: (1) (a) visible objects; (b) invisible objects, e.g. sound; (c) invisible, immaterial, or abstract objects. (2) (a) colour, (b) shape, (c) quality.

三種見惑 Three classes of delusive views, or illusions — those common to humanity; those of the inquiring mind; and those of the learned and settled mind.

三種身 The Tiantai School has a definition of 色身 the physical body of the Buddha; 法門身 his psychological body with its vast variety; 實相身 his real body, or dharmakāya. The esoteric sect ascribes a trikāya to

each of its honoured ones. v. 三身.

三種身苦 The three duḥkha or afflictions of the bodyold age, sickness, death.

三種闡提 The three kinds of icchantika: (a) 一闡提迦 the wicked; (b) 阿闡提迦 called 大悲闡提 bodhisattvas who become icchantika to save all beings; (c) 阿顚底迦 otherwise 無性闡提 those without a nature for final nirvāṇa. Cf. 三病.

三種香 Three kinds of scent, or incense, i.e. from root, branch, or flower.

三空 The three voids or immaterialities. The first set of three is (a) 空, (b) 無相, (c) 無願, v. 三三昧. The second, (a) 我空 , (b) 法空 , (c) 倶空 the self, things, all phenomena as "empty" or immaterial. The third relates to charity:

(a) giver, (b) receiver, (c) gift, all are "empty".

三空門 (三空觀門) idem 三解脫門.


三等 The three equal and universal characteristics of the one Tathāgata, an esoteric definition: (1) (a) his 身 body, (b) 語 discourse, (c) 意 mind. (2) (a) his life or works 修行; (b) spiritual body 法身;

(c) salvation 度生; in their equal values and universality.

三等流 Three equal or universal currents or consequences, i.e. 眞等流 the certain consequences that follow on a good, evil, or neutral kind of nature, respectively; 假等流 the temporal or particular fate derived from a previous

life's ill deeds, e.g. shortened life from taking life; 分位等流 each organ as reincarnated according to its previous deeds, hence the blind.

三篋 idem 三藏 tripiṭaka.

三節 The three divisions of the 十二因緣 twelve nidānas, q.v.: (a) past, i.e. the first two; (b) present— the next eight; (c) future— the last two.

三精氣 The three auras of earth, of the animate, and of the inanimate invoked against demon influences.

三細 The three refined, or subtle conceptions, in contrast with the 六麤 cruder or common concepts, in the Awakening of Faith 起信論. The three are 無明業相 "ignorance", or the unenlightened condition, considered as in primal

action, the stirring of the perceptive faculty; 能見相 ability to perceive phenomena; perceptive faculties; 境界相 the object perceived, or the empirical world. The first is associated with the 體corpus or

substance, the second and third with function, but both must have co-existence, e.g. water and waves. v. 六麤.

三結 The three ties: (a) 見結 , the tie of false views, e.g. of a permanent ego; (b) 戒取結 of discipline; (c) 疑結 of doubt. The three are also parts of見惑 used for it.

三經一論 The three sūtras and one śāstra on which the Pure Land sect bases its teaching: 佛說無量壽經; 佛說觀無量壽經; 佛說阿彌陀經; 天親淨土論.

三綱 The three bonds, i.e. directors of a monastery: (a) 上座 sthavira, elder, president; (b) 寺主vihārasvāmin, v. 毘 the abbot who directs the temporal affairs; (c) 維那 karmadāna, v. 羯 who directs the monks. Another meaning:

(a) 上座; (b) 維那; (c) 典座 vihārapāla, v. 毘director of worship. The three vary in different countries.

三練磨 v. 三退屈.