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A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms-004

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三縛 The three bonds— desire, anger, stupidity; idem 三毒.

三緣 The three nidānas or links with the Buddha resulting from calling upon him, a term of the Pure Land sect: (a) 親緣 that he hears those who call his name, sees their worship, knows their hearts and is one with them; (b) 近緣 that

he shows himself to those who desire to see him; (c) 增上緣 that at every invocation aeons of sin are blotted out, and he and his sacred host receive such a disciple at death.

三罰業 The three things that work for punishment — body, mouth, and mind.

三耶三佛 (檀) v. 三藐三佛陀.

三耶三菩 v. 三藐三菩提.

三聖 The three sages, or holy ones, of whom there are several groups. The 華嚴Huayan have Vairocana in the center with Mañjuśrī on his left and Samantabhadra on his right. The 彌陀 Mituo or Pure-land sect, have Amitābha in the

center, with Avalokiteśvara on his left and Mahāsthāmaprāpta on his right. The Tiantai use the term for the 藏, 別, and 圓教v. 三教.

三聚 The three groups, i.e. 正定聚 Those decided for the truth; 邪定聚 those who are decided for heresy; 不定聚 the undecided. Definitions vary in different schools.

三聚戒 (三聚淨戒) The three cumulative commandments: (a) the formal 5, 8, or 10, and the rest; (b) whatever works for goodness; (c) whatever works for the welfare or salvation of living, sentient beings. 三聚圓戒interprets the above three as

implicit in each of the ten commandments e.g. (a) not to kill implies (b) mercy and (c) protection or salvation.

三能三不能 The three things possible and impossible to a Buddha. He can (a) have perfect knowledge of all things; (b) know all the natures of all beings, and fathom the affairs of countless ages; (c) save countless beings. But he

cannot (a) annihilate causality, i.e. karma; (b) save unconditionally; (c) end the realm of the living.

三脫門 V. 三解脫 (三解脫門), but the former is only associated with無漏, or nirvāṇa.


三自 Three divisions of the eight-fold noble path, the first to the third 自調 self-control, the fourth and fifth 自淨 self-purification, the last three 自度 self-development in the religious life and in

wisdom. Also 自體, 自相, 自用 substance, form, and function.

三舉 The three exposures, i,e. the three sins of a monk each entailing his unfrocking— willful non-confession of sin, unwillingness to repent, claiming that lust is not contrary to the doctrine.

三舟觀月 v. 一月三舟.

三般若 The three prajñās, or perfect enlightenments: (a) 實相般若 wisdom in its essence or reality; (b) 觀照般若 the wisdom of perceiving the real meaning of the last; (c) 方便般若 or 文字般若 the wisdom of knowing things in

their temporary and changing condition.

三色 The three kinds of rūpa or form-realms: the five organs (of sense), their objects, and invisible perceptions, or ideas. Cf. 三種色.

三苦 The three kinds of duḥkha, pain, or suffering: 苦苦 that produced by direct causes; 壞苦 by loss or deprivation; 行苦 by the passing or impermanency of all things.

三草二木 A parable in the Lotus Sutra; the small plants representing ordinary men and devas, medium sized plants śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas, and 大草, 小樹 and 大樹 tall plants and small and large trees three

grades of bodhisattvas. Another definition applies the term to the 五乘 five "vehicles". There are also others.

三莊嚴 The three adornments, or glories, of a country: material attractions; religion and learning; men, i.e. religious men and bodhisattvas.

三菩伽 Saṃbhoga or Saṃbhūta. An ancient ṛṣi of Mathurā.

三菩伽迦耶 saṃbhogakāya. (1) The "body of enjoyment " or recompense-body of a Buddha; his 報身 or reward-body, one of the Trikāya, 三身. (2) The third of the buddhakṣetra 佛土, the domain in which all respond perfectly to

their Buddha.

三菩提 saṃbodhi, 糝帽地 intp. 正等覺. Perfect universal awareness, perfectly enlightened; v. 菩提.

三落叉 The three lakṣa; a lakṣa is a mark, sign, token, aim, object; it is also 100,000, i.e. an 億. The three lakṣa of the esoteric sects are the 字 or magic word, the 印 symbol and the 本尊 object worshipped. Other such threes

are body, mouth, and mind; morning, noon, and evening; cold, heat, and rain, etc.

三藏 v. 藏.

三藏教 A Tiantai name for Hīnayāna, whose tripiṭaka is ascribed to Mahākāśyapa.

三藏學者 A student of Hīnayāna.

三藏法師 A teacher of the Law; especially 玄奘 Xuanzang of the Tang dynasty; and cf. 般若.

三藐三佛陀 saṃyaksaṃbuddha 三耶三佛 (檀). The third of the ten titles of a Buddha, defined as 正徧知 (or 覺), or 正等覺 etc., one who has perfect universal knowledge or understanding; omniscient.

三藐三菩提 三貌糝帽地; 三耶三菩 saṃyak-saṃbodhi. Correct universal intelligence, 正徧知 (道). Correct equal or universal enlightenment (正等覺). Correct universal perfect enlightenment (正等正覺). An epithet of every

Buddha. The full term is anuttarā-saṃyak-saṃbodhi, perfect universal enlightenment, knowledge, or understanding; omniscience.

三蘊 The three kinds of skandhas, aggregations, or combinations, into which all life may be expressed according to the 化地 or Mahīśāsakāh school: 一念蘊 combination for a moment, momentary existence; 一期蘊 combination for a

period, e.g. a single human lifetime; 窮生死蘊 the total existence of all beings.

三處傳心 The three places where Śākyamuni is said to have transmitted his mind or thought direct and without speech to Kāśyapa: at the 靈山 by a smile when plucking a flower; at the 多子塔 when he shared his seat with him;

finally by putting his foot out of his coffin.

三處木叉 The mokṣa of the three places, i.e. moral control over body, mouth, and mind.

三處阿蘭若 Three classes of āraṇyakāḥ or ascetics distinguished by their three kinds of abode— those who dwell in retired places, as in forests; among tombs; in deserts; v. 阿蘭若.

三行 Three lines of action that affect karma, i.e. the ten good deeds that cause happy karma; the ten evil deeds that cause unhappy karma; 不動業 or 無動行 karma arising without activity,

e.g. meditation on error and its remedy.

三衍 The three yāna, or vehicles to nirvāṇa, i.e. śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, v. 三乘.


三術 Three devices in meditation for getting rid of Māra-hindrances: within, to get rid of passion and delusion; without, to refuse or to withdraw from external temptation.

三衣 The three regulation garments of a monk, 袈裟 kaāṣāya, i.e. 僧伽梨 saṅghāṭī, assembly robe; 鬱多羅僧 uttarāsaṅga, upper garment worn over the 安陀會 antarvāsaka, vest or shirt.

單三衣 The only proper garments of a monk.

三衰 The three deteriorators, idem 三毒.

三補吒 saṃpuṭa. One of the twelve ways of putting the hands together in worship, i.e. bringing the hands together without the palms touching.

三覆八校 The three reports 三覆 and eight investigations 八校. Two angels, 同生 and 同名, observe each individual, the first a female at his right shoulder noting the evil deeds; the second, a male, at his left shoulder noting

the good deeds; both report on high and in hades six times a month. Thus in each month there are 六齋 and in each year 三覆 and 八校.

三覆 denote a day in each of the first, fifth, and ninth months when the recording angels of the four Lokapālas report on the conduct of each individual. See also 三覆八校.

八校 are the opening days of the four seasons and the two solstices and two equinoxes during which similar investigations are made. See also 三覆八校.

三覺 The three kinds of enlightenment: (1) (a) 自覺 Enlightenment for self; (b) 覺他 for others; (c) 覺行圓 (or 窮) 滿 perfect enlightenment and accomplishment; the first is an arhat's, the first and second a

bodhisattva's, all three a Buddha's. (2) From the Awakening of Faith 起信論 (a) 本覺 inherent, potential enlightenment or intelligence of every being; (b) 始覺 , initial, or early stages of such

enlightenment, brought about through the external perfuming or influence of teaching, working on the internal perfuming of subconscious intelligence; (c) 究竟覺 completion of enlightenment, the subjective mind in

perfect accord with the subconscious (or superconscious) mind, or the inherent intelligence.

三觀 The three studies, meditations, or insights. The most general group is that of Tiantai: (a) 空觀 study of all as void, or immaterial; (b) 假觀 of all as unreal, transient, or temporal; (c) 中觀 as the via media inclusive of both.

The Huayan group is 眞空觀, 理事無礙觀 and 周遍含容觀, see 華嚴經:法界觀. The 南山 group is 性空觀, 相空觀, and 唯識觀. The 慈恩 group is 有觀, 空觀 and 中觀.

三角壇 A three-cornered altar in the fire worship of Shingon, connected with exorcism.

三解脫 (三解脫門) The three emancipations, idem 三空 and 三三昧 q.v. They are 空解脫, 無相解脫 and 無作解脫. Cf. 三涅槃門.

三語 Buddha's three modes of discourse, i.e. without reserve, or the whole truth; tactical or partial, adapting truth to the capacity of his hearers; and a combination of both.

三論 The three śāstras translated by Kumārajīva, on which the 三論宗 Three śāstra School (Mādhyamika) bases its doctrines, i.e. 中論 Madhyamaka-śāstra, on "the Mean", A.D. 409; 十二門論 Dvādaśanikāya-śāstra, on the twelve points, A.D.

408; 百論 Sata-śāstra, the hundred verses, A.D. 404.

三論宗 The Sanlun, Mādhyamika, or Middle School, founded in India by Nāgārjuna, in China by 嘉祥 Jiaxiang during the reign of 安帝 An Di, Eastern Jin, A.D. 397-419. It flourished up to the latter part of the Tang dynasty.

In 625 it was carried to Japan as Sanron. After the death of Jiaxiang, who wrote the 三論玄義, a northern and southern division took place. While the Mādhyamika denied the reality of all phenomenal

existence, and defined the noumenal world in negative terms, its aim seems not to have been nihilistic, but the advocacy of a reality beyond human conception and expression, which in our terminology may be termed a

spiritual realm.

三請 A request thrice repeated— implying earnest desire.

三諦 The three dogmas. The "middle" school of Tiantai says 卽空, 卽假. 卽中 i.e. 就是空, 假, 中; (a) by 空śūnya is meant that things causally produced are in their essential nature unreal (or immaterial) 實空無; (b) 假, though things

are unreal in their essential nature their derived forms are real; (c) 中; but both are one, being of the one 如 reality. These three dogmas are founded on a verse of Nāgārjuna's— 因緣所生法, 我說卽是空 亦 爲是假名, 亦是中道義 "All

causally produced phenomena, I say, are unreal, Are but a passing name, and indicate the 'mean'." There are other explanations— the 圓教 interprets the 空 and 假 as 中; the 別教 makes 中 independent. 空 is the all, i.e. the totality of

all things, and is spoken of as the 眞 or 實 true, or real; 假 is the differentiation of all things and is spoken of as 俗 common, i.e. things as commonly named; 中 is the connecting idea which makes a unity of both, e.g. "all are but parts

of one stupendous whole." The 中 makes all and the all into one whole, unifying the whole and its parts. 空 may be taken as the immaterial, the undifferentiated all, the sum of existences, by some as the tathāgatagarbha 如來藏; 假as the

unreal, or impermanent, the material or transient form, the temporal that can be named, the relative or discrete; 中 as the unifier, which places each in the other and all in all. The "shallower" 山外 school associated 空 and 中

with the noumenal universe as opposed to the phenomenal and illusory existence represented by 假. The "profounder" 山内 school teaches that all three are aspects of the same.


三諦相卽 The unity of 空, 假, 中, three aspects of the same reality, taught by the 圓教as distinguished from the 別教which separates them.

三識 The three states of mind or consciousness: 眞識 the original unsullied consciousness or Mind, the tathāgatagarbha, the eighth or ālaya 阿賴耶識 ; 現識 mind or consciousness diversified in contact with or

producing phenomena, good and evil; 分別識 consciousness discriminating and evolving the objects of the five senses. Also 意識 manas, 心識 ālaya, and 無垢識 amala, v. 識.

三變 (土田) The three transformations of his Buddha-realm made by Śākyamuni on the Vulture peak—- first, his revelation of this world, then its vast extension, and again its still vaster extension. See Lotus Sutra.

三賢十聖 (or三賢十地). The three virtuous positions, or states, of a bodhisattva are 十住, 十行 and 十廻向. The ten excellent characteristics of a 聖 saint or holy one are the whole of the 十地.

三跋致 (or 諦) saṃpatti. To turn out well, prosper, be on the path of success.

三跋羅 saṃvara. 三婆 (or 三嚩) To hinder, ward off, protect from falling into the three inferior transmigrations; a divine being that fills this office worshipped by the Tantra School. The sixth vijñāna, v. 八識.

三身 trikāya. 三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential

nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the

doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness,

purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a

three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who

need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni

is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three

being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his

material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan

(Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa)

results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything".

Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or

body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用

身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his

saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya

is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at

will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men.


三身三德 The 三身 are the 法, 報, and 應; the 三德 are 法, 般, and 解, i.e. the virtue, or merit, of the (a) 法身 being absolute independence, reality; of (b) 報身, being 般若 prajñā or wisdom; and of (c) 應身, being 解脫德

liberation, or Nirvāṇa.

三身佛性 v. 三身.

三身如來 v. 三身.

三身業 The three physical wrong deeds— killing, robbing, adultery.

三車 triyāna. 三乘 or 三乘法門 (1) The three vehicles across saṃsāra into nirvāṇa, i.e. the carts offered by the father in the Lotus Sutra to lure his children out of the burning house: (a) goat carts, representing śrāvakas; (b) deer

carts, pratyekabuddhas; (c) bullock carts, bodhisattvas. (2) The three principal schools of Buddhism— Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna.

三車家 idem 三乘家.

三軌 The three rules 三法 (三法妙) of the Tiantai Lotus School: (a) 眞性軌 The absolute and real, the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā; (b) 觀照軌meditation upon and understanding of it; (c) 資成軌 the extension of this understanding to all its

workings. In the 三軌弘經 the three are traced to the 法師品 of the Lotus Sutra and are developed as: (a) 慈悲室 the abode of mercy, or to dwell in mercy; (b) 忍辱衣 the garment of endurance, or patience under opposition; (c)

法空座 the throne of immateriality (or spirituality), a state of nirvāṇa tranquility. Mercy to all is an extension of 資成軌 , patience of 觀照軌 and nirvāṇa tranquility of 眞性軌 .

三輩 The three ranks of those who reach the Pure Land of Amitābha: superior i.e. monks and nuns who become enlightened and devote themselves to invocation of the Buddha of boundless age; medium, i.e. laymen of

similar character who do pious deeds; inferior, i.e. laymen less perfect than the last.

三輪 The three wheels: (1) The Buddha's (a) 身 body or deeds; (b) 口 mouth, or discourse; (c) 意 mind or ideas. (2) (a) 神通 (or 變) His supernatural powers, or powers of (bodily) self-transformation,

associated with 身 body; (b) 記心輪 his discriminating understanding of others, associated with 意 mind; (c) 敎誡輪 or 正敎輪 his (oral) powers of teaching, associated with 口. (3) Similarly (a) 神足輪 ; (b) 說法輪 ; (c) 憶念輪 . (4) 惑, 業,

and 苦. The wheel of illusion produces karma, that of karma sets rolling that of suffering, which in turn sets rolling the wheel of illusion. (5) (a) Impermanence; (b) uncleanness; (c) suffering. Cf. 三


三輪世界 The three-wheel world, i.e. 風, 水, and 金輪. Every world is founded on a wheel of whirling wind; above this is one of water; above this is one of metal, on which its nine mountains and eight seas are formed.

三輪化導 idem 三種示導.

三輪教 The three periods of the Buddha's teaching as defined by Paramārtha: (a) 轉法輪 the first rolling onwards of the Law-wheel, the first seven years' teaching of Hīnayāna, i.e. the 四諦 four axioms and 空 unreality; (b) 照法輪

illuminating or explaining the law-wheel, the thirty years' teaching of the 般若 prajñā or wisdom sūtras, illuminating 空 and by 空 illuminating 有 reality; (c) 持法輪 maintaining the law-wheel, i.e. the remaining years of

teaching of the deeper truths of 空有 both unreality and reality. Also the three-fold group of the Lotus School: (a) 根本法輪 radical, or fundamental, as found in the 華嚴經 sūtra; (b) 枝末法輪 branch and leaf, i.e. all other teaching;

until (c) 攝末歸本法輪 branches and leaves are reunited with the root in the Lotus Sutra, 法華經.

三輪相 The three-wheel condition— giver, receiver, gift.

三轉 (三轉法輪) The three turns of the law-wheel when the Buddha preached in the Deer Park: (a) 示轉 indicative, i.e. postulation and definition of the 四諦; (b) 勸轉 hortative, e.g. 苦當知 suffering should be diagnosed; (c) 證轉

evidential, e.g. I have overcome suffering, etc.

三轉法輪十二行 (三轉法輪十二行相) The twelve 行 processes are the application of the above 示, 勸, and 證 within the three turns of the wheel of the law (三轉法輪) to each of the four postulates. The three "turns" are also applied to the four kinds

of knowledge, i.e. 眼, 智, 明, and 覺.

三迦葉 Three brothers Kāsyapa, all three said to be disciples of the Buddha.

三逆 The three unpardonable sins of Devadatta, which sent him to the Avici hell— schism, stoning the Buddha to the shedding of his blood, killing a nun.


三迷 Sama, 等, equal, like, same as.

三退屈 The three feelings of oppression that make for a bodhisattva's recreancy— the vastness of bodhi; the unlimited call to sacrifice; the uncertainty of final perseverance. There are 三事練磨 three modes of training against


三通力 idem 三達 and 三明.

三道 (1) The three paths all have to tread; 輪廻三道, 三輪, i.e. (a) 煩惱道 ; 惑道 ; the path of misery, illusion, mortality; (b) 業道 the path of works, action, or doing, productive of karma; (c) 苦道 the resultant

path of suffering. As ever recurring they are called the three wheels. (2) 聾, 緣, 菩 śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, cf. 三乘.

三道眞言 Three magical "true words" or terms of Shingon for self-purification, i.e. 吽M004603 M067153 which is the "true word" for 身 the body; 訶囉鶴 for 語 the mouth or speech; and M004603 M067153 for 意 the mind.

三達 Three aspects of the omniscience of Buddha: knowledge of future karma, of past karma, of present illusion and liberation; v. 三明.

三那三佛 idem 三藐三佛陀.

三部 Three divisions. Included under this category are such terms as 三部大法, 三部主色, 三部經, etc.

三部大法 (l) The Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, or pantheon, has the three divisions of 佛, 蓮, 金, i.e. Vairocana, Lotus, and Diamond or Vajra. (2) The teaching of the 胎藏界, 金剛界 and 蘇悉地法 is said to cover the whole of esoteric


三部主色 the colors of the three divisions of the great pantheon (三部大法): Vairocana, white; 觀世音 (as representing) Amitābha, yellow; and the Diamond Ruler Śākyamuni, a ruddy yellow.

三部經 There are several groups: (1) The Amitābha group, also styled 淨土三部, is 無量壽經, 觀無量壽經 and 阿彌陀經. (2) The Vairocana group is 大日經, 金剛頂經 and 蘇悉地經; also called 三部祕經. (3) The Lotus group is the 無量義經, 妙法蓮經 and 觀普賢菩薩行法經.

(4) The Maitreya group is 觀彌勤菩薩上生兜率天經, 彌勒下生經 and 彌勒大成佛經.

三醫 The three modes of diagnosis: the superior, 聽聲 listening to the voice; the medium, 相色 observing the external appearance; the inferior 診脈 testing the pulse.

三重三昧 (or 三重等持) idem 三三昧.

三重法界 The three meditations, on the relationship of the noumenal and phenomenal, of the 華嚴宗 Huayan School: (a) 理法界 the universe as law or mind, that all things are 眞如, i.e. all things or phenomena are of

the same Buddha-nature, or the Absolute; (b) 理事無礙法界 that the Buddha-nature and the thing, or the Absolute and phenomena are not mutually exclusive; (c) 事事無礙法界 that phenomena are not mutually exclusive, but in a

common harmony as parts of the whole.

三金 The three metals, gold, silver, copper. The esoterics have (a) earth, water, fire, representing the 身密 mystic body; (b) space and wind, the 語密 mystic mouth or speech; (c) 識 cognition,

the 意密 mystic mind.

三鉢羅佉哆 saṃprāpta, intp. by 善至, 正至, or 時至 well, properly, or timely arrived. Also written 僧跋 intp. 等施 bestowed equally or universally. It is a word spoken authoritatively some say before, some say after a common meal; a "blessing"

to ward off evil from the food.

三鈷 A trident; emblem of the Garbhadhātu 三部; and of the 三智, 三觀等, and三軌. Also written 三古 ; 三胡; 三股.

三銖 Three twenty-fourths of a tael, the weight of a deva's garments, e.g. featherweight.

三長齋月 (三長月) The three whole months of abstinence, the first, fifth, and ninth months, when no food should be taken after noon. The four deva-kings are on tours of inspection during these months.

三門 trividha-dvāra, the three gates; a monastery; purity of body, speech, and thought; idem 三解脫門 also 三業.

三門三大侍者 The three officiators in a monastery— for incense, for writing, and for acting as host.

三阿僧祇劫 The three great asaṃkhyeya (i.e. beyond number) kalpas— the three timeless periods of a bodhisattva's progress to Buddhahood.


三陀羅尼 The three dhāraṇī, which word from dhāra, " maintaining," "preserving," is defined as the power maintaining wisdom or knowledge. Dhāraṇī are "spells chiefly for personal use" (Eliot), as compared with mantra, which

are associated with religious services. The Tiantai School interprets the "three dhāraṇī" of the Lotus Sutra on the lines of the三諦, i.e. 空, 假and中. Another group is聞持陀羅尼 the power to retain all the teaching one hears; 分

別陀羅尼 unerring powers of discrimination; 入音聲陀羅尼 power to rise superior to external praise or blame.

三階法 (三階佛法) The Three Stages School founded by the monk信行Xinxing in the Sui dynasty; it was proscribed in A.D. 600 and again finally in A.D. 725; also styled 三階院; 三階敎.

三際 Past, present, future, idem 三世.

三際時 The three Indian seasons, spring, summer, and winter, also styled熱, 雨, 寒時, the hot, rainy, and cold seasons.

三障 The three vighna, i.e. hinderers or barriers, of which three groups are given: (1) (a) 煩惱障 the passions, i.e. 三毒 desire, hate, stupidity; (b) 業障 the deeds done; (c) 報障 the retributions. (2) (a) 皮煩惱障 ; (b) 肉煩惱障

(c) 心煩惱障 skin, flesh, and heart (or mind) troublers, i.e. delusions from external objects
internal views, and mental ignorance. (3) 三重障 the three weighty obstructions: (a) self-importance, 我慢; (b)

envy, 嫉妬; (c) desire, 貧欲.

雜染 The three kaṣāya, i.e. "mixed dyes" or infections: the passions; their karma; reincarnation; or illusion, karma, and suffering.

三難 The three hardships, or sufferings in the three lower paths of transmigration, v. 三惡道.

三面大黑 The three-faced great black deva, Mahākāla v. 摩, with angry mien, a form of Maheśvara, or Śiva, as destroyer. Another interpretation says he is a union of Mahākāla, Vaiśravaṇa, and a Gandharva.

三顚倒 The three subversions or subverters: (evil) thoughts, (false) views, and (a deluded) mind.

三餘 The three after death remainders, or continued mortal experiences, of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, who mistakenly think they are going to 無餘涅槃final nirvāṇa, but will still find 煩惱餘 further passion and illusion,

業餘 further karma, and 果餘 continued rebirth, in realms beyond the 三界trailokya.

三馬 The three horses, one young, strong, and tractable; another similar but not tractable; a third old and intractable, i.e. bodhisattvas (or bodhisattva-monks), śrāvakas and icchantis.

三魔 The three kinds of evil spirits, of which three groups are given: (1) 煩惱魔 , 陰魔 and他化自在天子魔 ; (2) 煩惱魔 , 天魔 and 死魔 ; (3) 善知識魔 , 三昧魔 , and善提心魔 .

三默堂 Thee three halls of silence where talk and laughter are prohibited: the bathroom, the sleeping apartment, the privy.

三點 See伊字三點.

三齋月 See 三長齋月.

丸香 Incense balls made of various kinds of ingredients; typifying the aggregation of mortal suffering, and its destruction by the, fires of wisdom.

久 Long, for long, long ago; also 久遠.

久住者 One who has spent many years in monastic life, or in a particular monastery.

久成正覺 Perfect enlightenment long acquired; Śākya-Tathāgata in ancient kalpas having achieved complete bodhi, transmitted it to Mañjuśrī Avalokiteśvara, and others, i.e., their enlightenment is the fruit of his

enlightenment. 法華經:壽量品.

久遠實成 The perfect enlightenment achieved by the Buddha in remote kalpas.

乞 To beg.

乞丐 a beggar.

乞士 A bhikṣu, mendicant monk, or almsman.

乞M004101雙提贊Khri-srong-lde-btsan, king of Tibet (A.D. 743-798). In 747 he brought to Tibet "the real founder of Lamaism" (Eliot), Padmasaṃbhava蓮華生上師, a Buddhist of Swat (Urgyan), who introduced a system of magic and

mysticism (saturated with Śivaism) which found its way into Mongolia and China. The king was converted to Buddhism by his mother, a Chinese princess, and became a powerful supporter of it. He encouraged the

translation of the Buddhist canon which was completed by his successors. He is worshipped as an incarnation of Mañjuśrī.

乞灑 乞察; 乞叉; 吃灑; 葛叉; 差; 叉; 刹; kṣaya, used in the sense of omega, implying finality, or nirvāṇa.

乞眼婆羅門 The Brahman who begged one of Śāriputra's eyes in a former incarnation, then trampled on it, causing Śāriputra to give up his efforts to become a bodhisattva and turn back to the Hīnayāna.

乞食 To beg for food, one of the twelve dhūtas prescribing outward conduct of the monk; mendicancy is the 正命 right livelihood of a monk, to work for a living is 邪命 an improper life: mendicancy keeps a monk humble,

frees him from the cares of life, and offers the donors a field of blessedness; but he may not ask for food.

乞食四分 The four divisions of the mendicant's dole; to provide for (1) fellow religionists, (2) the poor, (3) the spirits, (4) self.


于 Yu, a preposition, in, at, etc. , similar to 於.

于遮那摩羅 Used in error for 干遮那摩羅.

干遮那摩羅 Kāñcana-mālā, a hair circlet or ornament of pure gold; name of the wife of Kuṇālā, noted for fidelity to her husband when he had been disgraced.

于闍那 Kuñjara. Name of a tree.

于闍羅 Kuñjara. Name of a tree.

于闐 于遁; 于殿; 于塡; 谿丹; 屈丹; 和闐; 澳那; 瞿薩憺那 Kustana, or Khotan, in Turkestan, the principal centre of Central Asian Buddhism until the Moslem invasion. Buddhism was introduced there about 200 B.C. or earlier. It was the centre

from which is credited the spread of Mahayanism, v. 西城記 12.

亡 Gone, lost, dead, ruined; not.

亡五衆物 The things left behind at death by any one of the five orders of monks or nuns; clothing, etc., being divided among the other monks or nuns; valuables and land, etc., going to the establishment.

亡者 Dead; the dead.

亡魂 The soul of the dead.

凡 All, everybody, common, ordinary.

凡僧 The ordinary practising monk as contrasted with the 聖僧 the holy monk who has achieved higher merit.

凡夫 波羅; 婆羅必栗託仡那; 婆羅必利他伽闍那 bālapṛthagjana. Everyman, the worldly man, the sinner. Explained by 異生 or 愚異生 one who is born different, or outside the Law of the Buddha, because of his karma.

凡夫十重妄 The serious misfortunes of the sinful man in whom the Ālaya-vijñāna, the fundamental intelligence, or life force, of everyman, is still unenlightened; they are compared to ten progressive stages of a dream in

which a rich man sees himself become poor and in prison.

凡夫性 凡性The common underlying nature of all men; also called 異生性.

凡小 Common men, or sinners, also believers in Hīnayāna; also the unenlightened in general.

凡小八倒 The eight subverted views of common men and Hinayanists―counting the impermanent as permanent, the non-joy as joy, the non-ego as ego, the impure as pure; the really permanent as impermanent, the

real joy, the true ego, the real purity as non-joy, non-ego, impurity; cf. 四德.

凡師 Ordinary, or worldly teachers unenlightened by Buddhist truth.

凡情 Desires or passions of the unconverted.

凡愚 Common, ignorant, or unconverted men.

凡慮 The anxieties of common or unconverted men.

凡福 The ordinary blessedness of devas and men as compared with that of the converted.

凡種 Common seed, ordinary people.

凡習 The practices, good and evil, of commom ,or unconverted men.

凡聖 Sinners and saints.

凡聖一如 Sinners and saints are of the same fundamental nature.

凡聖不二 Sinners and saints are of the same fundamental nature.

凡聖同居土 This world, where saints and sinners dwell together; one of the Tiantai 四土.

凡識 Ordinary knowledge, worldly knowledge, that of the unenlightened by Buddha.

凡身 The common mortal body, the ordinary individual.

刃 A blade, a sword; to kill.

刃葉林 Asipattravana; the forest of swords, where every leaf is a sharp sword, v. 地獄.

千 sahasra. A thousand.

千二百五十人 The 1,250, i.e. the immediate disciples of Buddha's disciples, all former heretics converted to Buddha's truth.

千二百舌功德 The 1,200 merits of tongue in the Lotus Sutra.

二百耳功德 The 1,200 merits of ear in the Lotus Sutra.

千二百意功德 The 1,200 merits of mind in the Lotus Sutra.

千佛 The thousand Buddhas. Each of the past, present, and future kalpas has a thousand Buddhas; Śākyamuni is the "fourth" Buddha in the present kalpa.

千佛名經 professes to give their names. A scripture which lists the names of the thousand buddhas.

千化 The thousand-petalled lotus on which sits Locana Buddha, each petal a transformation of Śākyamuni; Locana represents also the Saṃgha, as Vairocana represents the Dharma.

千如是 The thousand "suchnesses" or characteristics, a term of the Tiantai sect. In each of the ten realms 十界, from Buddha to purgatory, the ten are present, totaling one hundred. These multiplied by the ten categories of

existence make a thousand, and multiplied by the three categories of group existence make 3,000.

千手 (千手千眼); 千手千眼大慈大悲觀音菩薩 The thousand-hand Guanyin, see below. There are various sutras associated with this title, e.g. 千手經 an abbreviation of 手千眼觀世音菩薩大廣大圓滿無礙大悲心陀羅尼經; also 千手軌 or 軌經 an abbreviation of 金剛頂瑜伽千手千眼觀自在菩

薩修行儀軌經; it is also called 千手陀羅尼 and 千手千眼儀軌經; there are many others, e.g. 千手千眼觀世音菩藤姥陀羅尼身經 and 千手千眼廣大圓滿無礙大悲心陀羅尼經 both idem 千手千臂陀羅尼神咒 which is the Avalokiteśvara-padma-jāla-mūla-tantra‐nāma-dhāraṇī.

千手觀音 Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes.

千手千眼觀音 Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes.

千眼千臂觀世音 Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes. The image usually has forty arms, one eye in each hand; and forty multiplied by twenty-five is the number of

regions in this universe. For the 二十八部 or retinue, the maṇḍala and signs v. 千手經.

千法明門 The gate of understanding of the thousand laws―the second stage of a bodhisattva's study and attainment.

千泉 Bingheul 屛律 Mingbulak. A lake country 30 li E. of Talas.

千百億身 The Buddha Locana seated on a lotus of a thousand petals, each containing myriads of worlds in each world is, Śākyamuni seated under a bodhi tree, all such worlds attaining bodhi at the same instant.

千眼天 The Deva with 1,000 of a thousand petals, i.e. that of Locana Buddha.

千輻輪相 Sahasrara; the thousand-spoked wheel sign, i.e. the wrinkles on the soles of a cakravarti, or Buddha.

千部論師 (or 千部論主) Master of a thousand śāstras―a title of Nāgārjuna and of Vasubandhu.

千里駒 The thousand-li colt, a name for Xuanzang.


叉 A fork, forked; to fold, folded.

叉手 The palms of the hands together with the fingers crossed forming ten. Also, the palms together with the middle fingers crossing each other, an old Indian form of greeting. In China anciently the left hand was folded over

the right, but with women the right hand was over the left. In mourning salutations the order was reversed.

叉拏 kṣaṇa, an instant, a moment; also 刹拏.

叉磨 kṣamā, v. 懺悔.

叉耶 kṣaya, diminish, decay, end; v. 乞.

口 mukha, the mouth, especially as the organ of speech. 身, 口, 意 are the three media of corruption, body or deed , mouth or word, and mind or thought.

口傳 Oral transmission.

口授 Oral transmission.

口力外道 One of the eleven heretical sects of India. which is said to have compared the mouth to the great void out of which all things were produced. The great void produced the four elements, these produced herbs, and these in

turn all the living; or more in detail the void produced wind, wind fire, fire warmth, warmth water, water congealed and formed earth which produced herbs, herbs cereals and life, hence life is food; ultimately

all returns to the void, which is nirvana.

因力論師 Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which all things are produced; see 口力外道.

口力論師 Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which all things are produced; see 口力外道.

口印 The mouth sign, one of the fourteen symbols of 不重尊 q.v.

口和 Harmony of mouths or voices, unanimous approval.

口四 The four evils of the mouth, lying, double tongue, ill words, and exaggeration; cf. 十惡.

口密 語密 One of the 三密. Secret or magical words, either definite formulas of the Buddha or secret words from his dharma, kaya, or spirit.

口忍 Patience of the mouth, uttering no rebuke under insult or persecution; there are similarly 身忍 and 意忍.

口業 語業 One of the 三業. (1) The work of the mouth, i.e. talk, speech. (2) The evil karma produced by the mouth, especially from lying, double-tongue, ill words, and exaggeration.

口業供養 The offering of the praise or worship of the lips; also 身業供養 and 意業供養.

口疏 奥疏 Esoteric commentary or explanation of two kinds, one general, the other only imparted to the initiated.

奥疏 Esoteric commentary or explanation of two kinds, one general, the other only imparted to the initiated.

口稱 Invocation.

口稱三昧 The samādhi in which with a quiet heart the individual repeats the name of Buddha, or the samādhi attained by such repetition.

口訣 Orally transmitted decisions or instructions.

口輪 正教輪 One of the 三輪. The wheel of the mouth. or the wheel of the true teaching; Buddha's teaching rolling on everywhere, like a chariot-wheel, destroying misery.

口頭禪 Mouth meditation, i.e. dependence on the leading of others, inability to enter into personal meditation.

土 Bhū; bhūmi; pṛthivī. Earth, locality, local, vulgar.

土地神 The local guardian deity of the soil or locality, deus loci; in the classics and government sacrifices known as 社; as guardian deity of the grave 后土. The 土地堂 is the shrine of this deity as ruler of the site of a

monastery, and is usually east of the main hall. On the 2nd and 16th of each month a 土地諷經 or reading of a sutra should be done at the shrine.

土星 賒乃以室折羅 Śanaiścara. Saturn. Śani, the Hindu ruler of the planet, was "identified with the planet itself ".[Eitel.]

土波 Tibet.

土砂供養 土砂加持 The putting of earth on the grave 108 times by the Shingon sect; they also put it on the deceased's body, and even on the sick, as a kind of baptism for sin, to save the deceased from the hells and

base reincarnations, and bring them to the Pure Land.

土羅遮 偸蘭遮 sthūlātyaya. Serious sin.

土饅頭 An earthen loaf, i.e. a grave; but v. 士饅頭.

土麨 Aśoka is said to have become king as a reward for offering, when a child in a previous incarnation, a double-handful of sand as wheat or food to the Buddha.

士 A gentleman, scholar, officer.

士夫 v. 補盧沙 puruṣa.

士夫見 One of the eight heterodox views, i.e. the pride arising from belief in a puruṣa, 補慮沙 q.v.

士饅頭 śmaśāna. A crematory; a burial place for remains from cremation. A grave; v. 土饅頭. The form is doubtful.


夕 Evening.

夕座 The evening service.

朝座 The morning service.

Maha. 摩訶; 麼賀. Great, large, big; all pervading, all-embracing; numerous 多; surpassing ; mysterious 妙; beyond comprehension 不可思議; omnipresent 體無不在. The elements, or essential things, i.e. (a) 三大 The three

all-pervasive qualities of the 眞如 q.v. : its 體, 相 , 用 substance, form, and functions, v. 起信論 . (b) 四大 The four tanmātra or elements, earth, water, fire, air (or wind) of the 倶舍論. (c)五大 The five, i.e. the last four and

space 空, v. 大日經. (d) 六大 The six elements, earth, water, fire, wind, space (or ether), mind 識. Hīnayāna, emphasizing impersonality 人空, considers these six as the elements of all sentient beings;

Mahāyāna, emphasizing the unreality of all things 法空, counts them as elements, but fluid in a flowing stream of life, with mind 識 dominant; the esoteric sect emphasizing nonproduction, or non-creation, regards them as

universal and as the Absolute in differentiation. (e) 七大 The 楞嚴經 adds 見 perception, to the six above named to cover the perceptions of the six organs 根.

大三末多 Mahāsaṃmata. The first of the five kings of the Vivarta kalpa (成劫五王 ), one of the ancestors of the Śākya clan.

大不可棄子部 Āvantikās. The great school of the son who "could not be abandoned" (a subdivision of the Saṃmatiyas 三彌底), whose founder when a newborn babe was abandoned by his parents.

大不善地法 The two great characteristics of the evil state, 無慚無愧 no sense of shame or disgrace, shameless.

大乘 Mahāyāna; also called 上乘; 妙乘; 勝乘; 無上乘; 無上上乘; 不惡乘; 無等乘, 無等等乘; 摩訶衍 The great yāna, wain, or conveyance, or the greater vehicle in comparison with the 小乘 Hīnayāna. It indicates universalism, or Salvation for all, for all are

Buddha and will attain bodhi. It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea, Japan, and in other places in the Far East. It is also called Northern Buddhism. It is

interpreted as 大教 the greater teaching as compared with 小教 the smaller, or inferior. Hīnayāna, which is undoubtedly nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha, is unfairly described as an endeavour to seek nirvana through an

ash-covered body, an extinguished intellect, and solitariness; its followers are sravakas and pratyekabuddhas (i.e. those who are striving for their own deliverance through ascetic works). Mahāyāna, on the

other hand, is described as seeking to find and extend all knowledge, and, in certain schools, to lead all to Buddhahood. It has a conception of an Eternal Buddha, or Buddhahood as Eternal (Adi-Buddha), but

its especial doctrines are, inter alia, (a) the bodhisattvas 菩薩 , i.e. beings who deny themselves final Nirvana until, according to their vows, they have first saved all the living; (b) salvation by faith in, or

invocation of the Buddhas or bodhisattvas; (c) Paradise as a nirvana of bliss in the company of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, saints, and believers. Hīnayāna is sometimes described as 自利 self-benefiting, and

Mahāyāna as 自利利他 self-benefit for the benefit of others, unlimited altruism and pity being the theory of Mahāyāna. There is a further division into one-yana and three-yanas: the trīyāna may be śrāvaka,

pratyeka-buddha, and bodhisattva, represented by a goat, deer, or bullock cart; the one-yāna is that represented by the Lotus School as the one doctrine of the Buddha, which had been variously taught by him according

to the capacity of his hearers, v. 方便. Though Mahāyāna tendencies are seen in later forms of the older Buddhism, the foundation of Mahāyāna has been attributed to Nāgārjuna 龍樹. "The characteristics of this system are an excess of

transcendental speculation tending to abstract nihilism, and the substitution of fanciful degrees of meditation and contemplation (v. Samādhi and Dhyāna) in place of the practical asceticism of the Hīnayāna

school."[Eitel 68-9.] Two of its foundation books are the 起信論and the 妙法蓮華經 but a larnge numberof Mahāyāna sutras are ascribed to the Buddha。.

大乘二種成佛 The two Mahāyāna kinds of Buddhahood: (1) that of natural purity, for every one has the inherent nature; (2) that attained by practice.

大乘善根界 The Mahāyāna good roots realm, a name for the Amitābha Pure-land of the West.

大乘四果The four fruits, or bodhisattva stages in Mahāyāna, the fourth being that of a Buddha: 須陀洹 srota-āpanna, 斯陀含 sakṛdāgāmin, 。阿理那含 anāgāmin, and 阿羅漢 arhan. This is a 通教 category.


大乘因 Mahāyāna "cause" is variously described as the mind of enlightenment 菩提心; or the reality behind all things 諸法實相.

大乘基 "Mahāyāna‐fundament", title of 窺基 Kuiji, a noted disciple of Xuanzang 玄奘; known also as 大乘法師.

大乘妙經 idem 法華經 the Lotus Sutra.

大乘天 "Mahāyāna-deva", a title given to 玄奘 Xuanzang, who was also styled 木叉提婆 Moksa-deva.

木叉提婆 "Mokṣa-deva", a title given to 玄奘 Xuanzang.

大乘宗 The school of Mahāyāna, attributed to the rise in India of the Mādhyamika, i.e. the 中觀 or 三論 school ascribed to Nāgārjuna, and the Yoga 瑜伽 or Dharmalakṣaṇa 法相 school, the other schools being Hīnayāna. In China and

Japan the 倶舍 and 成實 are classed as Hīnayāna, the rest being Mahāyāna , of which the principal schools are 律, 法相 , 三論, 華嚴, 天台, 眞言 , 淨土 , 禪 q.v.

大乘心 The mind or heart of the Mahāyāna; seeking the mind of Buddha by means of Mahāyāna.

大乘戒 The commands or prohibitions for bodhisattvas and monks, also styled 菩薩; 三聚淨戒; 圓頓戒 and other titles according to the school. The 梵網經 gives ten weighty prohibitions and forty-eight lighter ones; v. also 大乘戒經.

大乘教 v. 大乘; for 大乘教九部 v. 九部.

大乘方等經典 The sutra and scriptures of the Mahāyāna, their doctrines being 方正 square and correct and 平等 for all equally, or universal.

大乘楞伽經唯識論 Viṃśatikā-vijñaptimātratā-siddhi-śāstra. A title of one of three treatises by Vasubandhu, tr. A.D. 508-535, 大乘唯識論 tr. 557-569, and 唯識二十論 tr. by Xuanzang in 661 being the other two.

大乘法師 a title for 窺基 v. 大乘基.

大乘法相教 and 大乘破相敎 v. 法相敎.

大乘無上法 The supreme Mahāyāna truth, according to the 楞伽經, is that of ultimate reality in contrast with the temporary and apparent; also reliance on the power of the vow of the bodhisattva.

大乘無作大戒 The Mahāyāna great moral law involving no external action; a Tiantai expression for the inner change which occurs in the recipient of ordination; it is the activity within; also 大乘無作圓頓戒; 無表大戒.

大乘純界 The lands wholly devoted to Mahāyāna, i.e. China and Japan, where in practice there is no Hīnayāna.

大乘經 Mahāyāna sutras, the sūtra-piṭaka. Discourses ascribed to the Buddha, presumed to be written in India and translated into Chinese. These are divided into five classes corresponding to the Mahāyāna theory of the

Buddha's life: (1) Avataṃsaka, 華嚴 the sermons first preached by Śākyamuni after enlightenment; (2) Vaipulya, 方等; (3) Prajñā Pāramitā, 般若; (4) Saddharma Puṇḍarīka, 法華; and last (5) Mahāparinirvāṇa, 涅槃. Another list of

Mahāyāna sutras is 般若; 寳積; 大集; 華嚴 and 涅槃. The sutras of Hīnayāna are given as the Agamas 阿含, etc.

大乘莊嚴經論 Mahāyānasūtra-laṃkāra-ṭīkā. An exposition of the teachings of the Vijñāna-vāda School, by Asaṅga, tr. A.D. 630-3 by Prabhākaramitra. 13 chuan.

大乘起信論 Mahāyāna- śraddhotpāda-śāstra, attributed to Aśvaghoṣa 馬鳴 (without sufficient evidence), tr. by Paramārtha A.D. 553 and Śikṣānanda between 695-700; there are nineteen commentaries on it. It is described as the foundation work

of the Mahāyāna. Tr. into English by Timothy Richard and more correctly by T. Suzuki as The Awakening of Faith.

大乘論 Abhidharma of the Mahāyāna, the collection of discourses on metaphysics and doctrines.

大乘頂王經 Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra, (維摩經) is the Sanskrit title of a work of which there exist six translations, one made by Upaśūnya A.D. 502-557.


大事(因緣) For the sake of a great cause, or because of a great matter―the Buddha appeared, i.e. for changing illusion into enlightenment. The Lotus interprets it as enlightenment; the Nirvana as the [[Buddha-

nature]]; the 無量壽經 as the joy of Paradise.

人相印 Sealed with the sign of manhood, i.e. of the religious life. 大仙 Maharsi. Great sages, applied to Buddhist saints as superior to ordinary "immortals"; also to sravakas, and especially to Buddha; | | 戒 are the

Buddha's laws or commands. Vasistha 婆私瑟侘 was one of the seven rsis 大仙 of Brahmanic mythology.

佛頂 A title of the esoteric sect for their form of Buddha, or Buddhas, especially of Vairocana of the Vajradhātu and Śākyamuni of the Garbhadhātu groups. Also, an abbreviation of a dhāraṇī as is | | | 經 of a

sutra, and there are other | | | scriptures.

休歇底 Ended, finished; dead to the world; also | 死底.

信心 Great or firm faith in, or surrender to Buddha, especially to Amitabha.

信心海 A heart of faith great as the ocean.

僧 A fully ordained monk, i.e. a bhikṣu as contrasted with the śramaņa.

僧正 The Director or Pope of monks; an office under Wudi, A.D. 502‐550, of the Liang dynasty, for the control of the monks. Wendi, 560-7, of the Ch'en dynasty appointed a 大僧統 or Director over the monks in his capital.

大元帥明王 The great commander, one of the sixteen 明王 q.v., named Atavika 阿吒薄迦 (or 倶 or 皆). There are four sutras, chiefly spells connected with his cult.

大光明王 The Great-Light Ming-wang, Śākyamuni in a previous existence, when king of Jambudvīpa, at Benares. There his white elephant, stirred by the sight of a female elephant, ran away with him into the forest, where he

rebuked his mahout, who replied, "I can only control the body not the mind, only a Buddha can control the mind." Thereupon the royal rider made his resolve to attain bodhi and become a Buddha. Later, he gave to

all that asked, finally even his own head to a Brahman who demanded it, at the instigation of an enemy king.

大光音天 ābhāsvara. The third of the celestial regions in the second dhyāna heaven of the form realm; v. 四禪天.

大光普照 The great light shining everywhere, especially the ray of light that streamed from between the Buddha's eyebrows, referred to in the Lotus Sutra.

大光普照觀音 One of the six forms of Guanyin.

大准提 Mahā-cundī, a form of Guanyin. There are dhāraṇīs beginning with the name Cundī.

大刧 mahākalpa. The great kalpa, from the beginning of a universe till it is destroyed and another begins in its place. It has four kalpas or periods known as vivarta 成刧 the creation period; vivarta‐siddha 住刧 the

appearance of sun and moon, i.e. light, and the period of life, human and general; saṃvarta 壤刧 or 滅刧 destruction first by fire, then water, then fire, then deluge, then a great wind, i.e. water during seven

small kalpas, fire during 56 and wind one, in all 64; saṃvartatthāhi 増滅刧 total destruction gradually reaching the void. A great kalpa is calculated as eighty small kalpas and to last 1,347,000,000 years.

大刧賓寧 Kapphiṇa or Mahakapphiṇa v. 劫賓那.

大力王 King Powerful, noted for his unstinted generosity. Indra to test him appeared as a Brahman and asked for his flesh; the king ungrudgingly cut of and gave him his arm. Indra was then Devadatta, [[Wikipedia:


King]] Powerful was Śākyamuni; v. 菩薩藏經 (下).

大力金剛 The mighty "diamond" or Vajra-mahārāja in the Garbhadhātu group, a fierce guardian and servant of Buddhism, see below.

大勇 Āryaśūra. Also 聖勇 The great brave, or ārya the brave. An Indian Buddhist author of several works.

大勇猛菩薩 A guardian ruler in the Garbhadhātu group called Mahānīla, the Great Blue Pearl, or perhaps sapphire, which in some way is associated with him.

大勝金剛 Another name for 金輪佛頂, one of the incarnations of Vairocana represented with twelve arms, each hand holding one of his symbols. Also 大轉輪王; 金剛手 .

大勢 See 大勢至菩薩.

勢至 See 大勢至菩薩.

大勢至菩薩 Mahāsthāma or Mahāsthāmaprāpta 摩訶那鉢. A Bodhisattva representing the Buddha-wisdom of Amitābha; he is on Amitābha's right, with Avalokiteśvara on the left. They are called the three holy ones of the western region. He

has been doubtfully identified with Maudgalyāyana. Also 勢至.

大勢佛 The Buddha of mighty power (to heal and save), a Buddha's title.


大勤勇 Greatly zealous and bold― a title of Vairocana.

大化 The transforming teaching and work of a Buddha in one lifetime.

大千 (世界) A major chiliocosm, or universe, of 3,000 great chiliocosms, v. 三千大千.

大千世界 A major chiliocosm, or universe, of 3,000 great chiliocosms, v. 三千大千.

大召 A temple and its great bell in Lhasa Tibet, styled 老木郞, built when the T'ang princess became the wife of the Tibetan king Ts'ah-po and converted Tibet to Buddhism.

大吉祥天 The good-fortune devīs, and also devas, also called 功德天, concerning whom there are several sutras.

大吉祥金剛 idem 金剛手.

大吉祥明菩薩 The sixth bodhisattva in the second row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group.

大吉大明菩薩 The fifth bodhisattva in the second row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group..

大吉變菩薩 The sixth bodhisattva in the third row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group.

大叫喚地獄 mahāraurava. The hell of great wailing, the fifth of the eight hot hells. Also 大呌 ; 大號呌 ; 大呼.

大和尚 Great monk, senior monk, abbot ; a monk of great virtue and old age. Buddhoṣingha, (Fotu cheng 佛圖澄), who came to China A.D. 310, was so styled by his Chinese disciple 石子龍 Shizi long.

大和竭羅 Dīpaṃkara. The Buddha of burning light, the twenty-fourth predecessor of Śākyamuni, a disciple of Varaprabha ; v. 燃 and 提. In the Lotus Sutra he appears from his nirvana on the Vulture Peak with Śākyamuni,

manifesting that the nirvana state is one of continued existence.

大命 The great order, command, destiny, or fate, i.e. life-and-death, mortality, reincarnation.

大周刋定衆經目錄 The catalogue in 14 juan of the Buddhist scripture made under the Empress Wu of the Tang dynasty, the name of which she changed to Zhou.

大品 The larger, or fuller edition of a canonical work, work, especially of the next. | | 般若經 ; 摩訶般若波羅蜜經 The Mahaprajnaparamita sutra as tr. by Kumarajiva in 27 chuan, in contrast with the 10 chuan edition.

大品經 The larger, or fuller edition of a canonical work, work, especially of the 大品般若經.

大品般若經 摩訶般若波羅蜜經 The Mahāprajñāpāramitā-sūtra as tr. by Kumārajīva in 27 chuan, in contrast with the 10 chuan edition.

大哉解脱服 Great! the robe of deliverance―verses in praise of the cassock, from the 善見論, sung on initiation into the order.

大唐内典錄 A catalogue of the Buddhist library in the Tang dynasty A.D. 664.

大唐西域記 The Record of Western Countries by Xuanzang of the Tang dynasty ; v. 西域記.

大善利 The great benefit that results from goodness, also expressed as 大善大利 implying the better one is the greater the resulting benefit.

大善地法 The ten mental conditions for cultivation of goodness, being a part of the forty-six methods mentioned in the 倶舍論 4 ; faith, zeal, renunciation, shame (for one's own sin), shame (for another's

sin), no desire, no dislike, no harm, calmness, self-control. v. 大地法.

大善知識 Well acquainted with the good ; great friends.

大嚫 dakṣiṇā, v. 達嚫.

大因陀羅座 The throne of Indra, whose throne is four-square to the universe ; also 金剛輪座.

大因陀羅壇 Indra-altar of square shape. He is worshipped as the mind-king of the universe, all things depending on him.

大圓覺 Great and perfect enlightenment, Buddha-wisdom.

大圓鏡智 Great perfect mirror wisdom, i.e. perfect all-reflecting Buddha-wisdom.

大圓鏡智觀 A meditation on the reflection of the perfect Buddha-wisdom in every being, that as an image may enter into any number of reflectors, so the Buddha can enter into me and I into him 入我我入.

大地 Great earth, the whole earth, everywhere, all the land, etc.

大地法 Ten bodhisattva bhūmi, or stages above that of 見道 in the 倶舍論 4, and the mental conditions connected with them. 大地 is also defined as good and evil, the association of mind with them being by the ten methods

of 受, 想, 思, 觸, 欲, 慧, 念, 作意, 勝解, 三摩地.

大域龍 Dignāga, or Mahā-Dignāga, also known as 陳那 Jina, founder of the medieval school of Buddhist logic about the fifth century A.D. His works are known only in Tibetan translations. [Winternitz.]


大壇 A great altar, the chief altar.

大士 Mahasattva. 開士 A great being, noble, a leader of men, a bodhisattva; also a śrāvaka, a Buddha; especially one who 自利利他 benefits himself to help others.

大士籤 Bamboo slips used before Kuan-yin when the latter is consulted as an oracle. '

大夜 The great night, i.e. that before the funeral pyre of a monk is lighted; also 迨夜; 宿夜.

大夢 The great dream, "the dream of life," this life, the world.

大天 Mahādeva. 摩訶提婆. (1) A former incarnation of Śākyamuni as a Cakravartī. (2) A title of Maheśvara. (3) An able supporter of the Mahāsāṃghikaḥ, whose date is given as about a hundred years after the Buddha's death, but

he is also described as a favorite of Aśoka, with whom he is associated as persecutor of the Sthavirāḥ, the head of which escaped into Kashmir. If from the latter school sprang the Mahāyāna, it may account for the detestation in

which Mahādeva is held by the Mahāyānists. An account of his wickedness and heresies is given in 西域記 3 and in 婆沙論 99.

大秦寺 (1) A monastery of the Manichaean sect, erected in Changan during the Tang dynasty by order of the emperor Taizong C.E. 627-650; also 波斯寺 (2) A Nestorian monastery mentioned in the Christian monument

at Sianfu.

大姊 Elder sister, a courtesy title for a lay female devotee, or a nun.

大威德 Mahātejas. Of awe-inspiring power, or virtue, able to suppress evildoers and protect the good. A king of garuḍas, v. 迦. Title of a 明王 protector of Buddhism styled 大威德者; 大威德尊; 大威德明王; 百光扁照王; there are symbols,

spells, esoteric words, sutras, etc., connected with this title.

大婆羅門 The great brāhmaṇa, applied to the Buddha, who though not of Brahman caste was the embodiment of Brahman virtues.

大婆羅門經 A sutra dealing with 大婆羅門.

大堅固婆羅門 The great reliable Brāhmaṇa, i.e., Śākyamuni in a previous life when minister of a country; there is sutra of this name.

大孔雀王 The mayūra, or "peacock" 明王 ,v. 孔雀王There are seven sets of spells connected with him.

大安達羅 Mahendra, or Mahendrī, or Rāja mahendrī. A city near the mouth of the Godavery, the present Rājamundry.

大安慰 The great comforter, or pacifier―a Buddha's title.

大定智悲 Great insight, great wisdom, great pity, the three virtues 三德for Buddha by which he achieves enlightenment and wisdom and saves all beings.

大寂定 The samādhi which the Tathāgata enters, of perfect tranquility and concentration with total absence of any perturbing element; also parinirvāṇa. Also 大寂三昧; 大寂靜摩地.

大寂王 The great tranquil or nirvana dharma‐king, i.e. Vairocana.

大寂滅 Parinirvāṇa; the great nirvana.

大寒林 The grove of great cold, sitavana, i.e., burial stūpas, the graveyard.

大寶 Great Jewel, most precious thing, i.e. the Dharma or Buddha-law; the bodhisattva; the fire-altar of the esoteric cult.

大寶坊 The "great precious region" described in the 大集 sutra as situated between the world of desire and the world of form.

大寶摩尼 The great precious maṇi, or pure pearl, the Buddha-truth.

大寶法王 Mahāratna-dharma-rāja. Title of the reformer of the Tibetan church, founder of the Yellow sect, b. A.D. 1417 ,worshipped as an incarnation of Amitābha, now incarnate in every Bogdo gegen Hutuktu reigning in

Mongolia. He received this title in A. D. 1426. See 宗客巴 Tsong-kha-Pa.

大寶海 The "great precious ocean," (of the merit of Amitabha).

大寶積經 Mahāratnakūṭa-sūtra. Collection of forty-nine sutras, of which thirty-six were translated by Bodhiruci and collated by him with various previous translations.

大寶華 The great precious flower, a lotus made of pearls.

大寶華王 King of jewel-lotuses, i.e., the finest of the gem-flowers 大寶華.

大寶華王座 A throne for the 大寶華王.

大寶藏 The great precious treasury, containing the gems of the Buddha-truth.

大寺 Mahāvihāra. The Great Monastery, especially that in Ceylon visited by Faxian about A.D. 400 when it had 3,000 inmates; v. 毘訶羅.


大導師 The great guide, i.e. Buddha, or a Bodhisattva.

大小二乘 The two vehicles, Mahāyāna and Hinayana; v. 大乘 and 小乘.

大師 Great teacher, or leader, one of the ten titles of a Buddha.

大幻師 Great magician, a title given to a Buddha.

大度師 Great leader across mortality to nirvana, i.e. Buddha, or Bodhisattva.

大廣智三藏 He of great, wide wisdom in the Tripiṭaka, a title of Amogha 阿目佉.

大德 bhadanta. 婆檀陀 Most virtuous, a title of honor of a Buddha; in the Vinaya applied to monks.

大心力 The great mind and power, or wisdom and activity of Buddha.

大心海 Great mind ocean, i.e. omniscience.

大念 (大念佛) Invoking Buddha with a loud voice; meditating on Buddha with continuous concentration.

大念佛 Invoking Buddha with a loud voice; meditating on Buddha with continuous concentration.

大志焚身 The monk Ta-chin who sacrificed himself on the pyre, and thus caused Yang Ti of the Sui dynasty to withdraw his order for dispersing the monks.

大忍法界 The great realm for learning patience, i.e. the present world.

大恩教主 The Lord of great grace and teacher of men, Buddha.

大惡象 The great wild elephant, i.e. the untamed heart.

大悲 mahākaruṇā, "great pity"; i.e. greatly pitiful, a heart that seeks to save the suffering; applied to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas; especially to Guanyin.

大悲三昧 The samādhi of great pity, in which Buddhas and bodhisattvas develop their great pity.

大悲代受苦 Vicarious suffering (in purgatory) for all beings, the work of bodhisattvas. The same idea in regard to Guanyin is conveyed in大悲千手獄.

大悲咒 Another name of the 千手經 or 千手陀羅尼 containing a spell against lust.

大悲壇 The altar of pity, a term for the garbhadhātu maṇḍala , or for the Sakyamumi group.

大悲弓 The bow of great pity. Pity, a bow in the left hand; wisdom 智, an arrow in the right hand.

大悲四八之應 The thirty-two or thirty-three manifestations of the All-pitiful Guanyin responding to every need.

大悲普現 Great pity universally manifested, i.e. Guanyin, who in thirty-three manifestations meets every need.

大悲生心三昧耶 The samadhi of Maitreya.

大悲經 Mahākaruṇā-puṇḍarīka-sūtra, tr. by Narendrayaśas and Dharmaprajñā A.D. 552, five books.

大悲者 The great pitiful one, Kuan-yin.

大悲胎藏 The womb―store of great pity, the fundamental heart of bodhi in all: this womb is likened to a heart opening as an eight-leaved lotus, in the center being Vairocana, the source of pity.

大悲胎藏曼荼羅 The maṇḍala of the 大悲胎藏.

大悲胎藏三昧 The samādhi in which Vairocana evolves the group, and it is described as the "mother of all Buddha-sons".

大悲菩薩 Guanyin, the Bodhisattva of great pity.

大悲觀世 Guanyin, the greatly pitiful regarder of (earth's) cries.

大悲鎧冑門 A degree of samādhi in which Vairocana produced the Bodhisattva Vajrapāla 金剛護菩薩 who protects men like a helmet and surrounds them like mail by his great pity.

大悲闡提 The greatly pitiful icchantikah, who cannot become a Buddha till his saving work is done, i.e. Guanyin, Dizang.

大慈 Great mercy,or compassion.

大慈大悲 Great mercy and great pity, characteristics of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, i.e. kindness in giving joy and compassion in saving from suffering. It is especially applied to Guanyin.

大慈尊 The honored one of great kindness, Maitreya.

大慈恩寺 The monastery of "Great Kindness and Grace", built in Changan by the crown prince of Taizong C.E. 648, where Xuanzang lived and worked and to which in 652 he added its pagoda, said to be 200 feet high, for storing

the scriptures and relics he had brought from India.

大慈恩三藏 "Tripitaka of the Ta Cien T'zu En Si" is one of Xuanzang's 玄奘 titles.

慈生菩薩 The director or fosterer of pity among all the living, i.e. the fifth in the 除蓋障 court of the Garbhadhātu group. Also 大慈起; 慈發生; 慈愍慧; 慈念金剛. His Sanskrit name is translit. 昧憺利也毘廋拏糵多.


大意 The general meaning or summary of a sutra or śāstra. Also, the name of a youth, a former incarnation of the Buddha : to save his nation from their poverty, he plunged into the sea to obtain a valuable pearl from the sea-

god who, alarmed by the aid rendered by Indra, gave up the pearl ; v. 大意經.

大意經 tr. by Gunabhadra of the Liu Sung dynasty, 1 chuan.

大愛道 Mahā prajāpatī, 摩訶波闍波提 Gautama's aunt and foster-mother, also styled Gotami or Gautami, the first woman received into the order. There are sutras known by her name. 大愛 is also a name for the sea-god.

大應供 The great worshipful―one of the ten titles of a Buddha.

大會 A general assembly.

大會衆 The general assembly (of the saints).

大愚 The "greatly ignorant", name of a monastery and title of its patriarch, of the Ch'an (Zen) or intuitive school.

大慧 Mahāmati 摩訶摩底 (1) Great wisdom, the leading bodhisattva of the Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra. (2) Name of a Hangchow master of the Chan school, Zonggao 宗杲 of the Song dynasty, whose works are the 大慧書. (3) Posthumous title of 一行

Yixing, a master of the Chan school in the Tang dynasty.

大慧刀印 The sign of the great wisdom sword, the same esoteric sign as the 寳甁印 and 塔印 There are two books, the abbreviated titles of which are 大慧語錄 and its supplement the 大慧武庫.

大成 Mahāsaṃmbhava. Great completion. The imaginary realm in which (in turn) appeared 20,000 koṭīs of Buddhas all of the same title, Bhīṣmagarjita-ghoṣasvararāja.

大戒 The complete commandments of Hīnayāna and Mahayana, especially of the latter.

大我 The greater self, or the true personality 眞我. Hīnayāna is accused of only knowing and denying the common idea of a self, or soul, whereas there is a greater self, which is a nirvana self. It especially

refers to the Great Ego, the Buddha, but also to any Buddha ;v.大目經1, etc., and 涅槃經 23.

大拘絺那 Mahākauṣṭhila, 摩訶倶絺羅, 摩訶倶祉羅 an eminent disciple of Śākyamuni, maternal uncle of Śāriputra, reputed author of the Saṃgītiparyāya-śāstra.

大拏 sudana, 須達拏, 須大拏, 蘇達拏 ; i.e. Sakyamuni as a prince in a former life, when he forfeited the throne by his generosity.

大攝受 The great all-embracing receiver―a title of a Buddha, especially Amitābha.

大教 The great teaching. (1) That of the Buddha. (2) Tantrayāna. The mahātantra, yoga, yogacarya, or tantra school which claims Samantabhadra as its founder. It aims at ecstatic union of the individual

soul with the world soul, Iśvara. From this result the eight great powers of Siddhi (aṣṭa-mahāsiddhi), namely, ability to (1) make one's body lighter (laghiman); (2) heavier (gaiman); (3) smaller (aṇiman); (4)

larger (mahiman) than anything in the world ; (5) reach any place (prāpti) ; (6) assume any shape (prākāmya) ; (7) control all natural laws (īśitva) ; (8) make everything depend upon oneself; all at will (v.如意身 and 神足). By means of

mystic formulas (Tantras or dhāraṇīs), or spells (mantras), accompanied by music and manipulation of the hands (mūdra), a state of mental fixity characterized neither by thought nor the annihilation of

thought, can be reached. This consists of six-fold bodily and mental happiness (yoga), and from this results power to work miracles. Asaṅga compiled his mystic doctrines circa A.D. 500. The system

was introduced into China A.D. 647 by Xuanzang's translation of the Yogācārya-bhūmi-śāstra 瑜伽師地論 ; v. 瑜. On the basis of this, Amoghavajra established the Chinese branch of the school A.D. 720 ; v. 阿目. This was

popularized by the labours of Vajrabodhi A.D. 732 ; v. 金剛智.

大教經 idem 大金剛頂經.

大教網 The net of the great teaching, which saves men from the sea of mortal life.

大方便 mahopāya; the great appropriate means, or expedient method of teaching by buddhas and bodhisattvas ; v. 方便 .

大方廣 mahāvaipulya ; cf. 大方等 The great Vaipulyas, or sutras of Mahāyāna. 方廣 and 方等 are similar in meaning. Vaipulya is extension, spaciousness, widespread, and this is the idea expressed both in 廣 broad, widespread, as

opposed to narrow, restricted, and in 等 levelled up, equal everywhere, universal. These terms suggest the broadening of the basis of Buddhism, as is found in Mahāyāna. The Vaipulya works are styled sutras, for the broad

doctrine of universalism, very different from the traditional account of his discourses, is put into the mouth of the Buddha in wider, or universal aspect. These sutras are those of universalism, of which the

Lotus 法華 is an outstanding example. The form Vaitulya instead of Vaipulya is found in some Kashgar MSS. of the Lotus, suggesting that in the Vetulla sect lies the origin of the Vaipulyas, and with them of

Mahāyāna, but the evidence is inadequate.

大方廣佛 The 本尊 fundamental honoured one of the 華嚴經, described as the Buddha who has realized the universal law.

大方廣佛華嚴經 Buddhāvataṃsaka-mahāvaipulya-sūtra ; the Avataṃsaka, Hua-yen, or Kegon sutra ; tr. by Buddhabhadra and others A.D. 418-420. The various translations are in 60, 80, and 40 chuan, v. 華嚴經.

大方廣如來祕密藏經 Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra, tr. A.D.350-431, idem 大方等如來藏經, tr. by Buddhabhadra A.D. 417-420, 1 chuan.


大方等 Mahāvaipulya or vaipulya 大方廣; 毗佛畧. They are called 無量義經 sutras of infinite meaning, or of the infinite; first introduced into China by Dharmarakṣa (A.D.266―317). The name is common to Hīnayāna and

Mahayana, but chiefly claimed by the latter for its special sutras as extending and universalizing the Buddha's earlier preliminary teaching. v. 大方廣 and 方等.

大方等大集經 Mahāvaipulya-mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, tr. A.D. 397―439, said to have been preached by the Buddha "from the age of 45 to 49 Buddhas and bodhisattvas assembled from every region, by a great staircase made between

the world of desire and that of form". B.N. Another version was made by Jñānagupta and others in A.D. 594 called 大方等大集賢護經.

大方等頂王説經 Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra, tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D.265―316.

大族王 Mihirakula 摩醯羅矩羅, an ancient Huna king in the Punjab circa A.D. 520 who persecuted Buddhism; v. 西域記 4.

大施太子 (or 善薩). The great princely almsgiver, i.e. Śākyamuni in a previous life; also 能施太子 (or 太子).

大施會 無遮大會 mokṣa-mahā-pariṣad; a great gathering for almsgiving to all, rich and poor, nominally quinquennial.

大日 Vairocana, or Mahāvairocana 大日如來; 遍照如來; 摩訶毘盧遮那; 毘盧遮那; 大日覺王 The sun, "shining everywhere" The chief object of worship of the Shingon sect in Japan, "represented by the gigantic image in the

temple at Nara." (Eliot.) There he is known as Dai-nichi-nyorai. He is counted as the first, and according to some, the origin of the five celestial Buddhas (dhyāni-buddhas, or jinas). He dwells quiescent in Arūpa-dhātu, the

Heaven beyond form, and is the essence of wisdom (bodhi) and of absolute purity. Samantabhadra 普賢 is his dhyāni-bodhisattva. The 大日經 "teaches that Vairocana is the whole world, which is divided into

Garbhadhātu (material) and Vajradhātu (indestructible), the two together forming Dharmadhātu. The manifestations of Vairocana's body to himself―that is, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas ―are represented symbolically by

diagrams of several circles ". Eliot. In the 金剛界 or vajradhātu maṇḍala he is the center of the five groups. In the 胎藏界 or Garbhadhātu he is the center of the eight-leaf (lotus) court. His appearance, symbols, esoteric word,

differ according to the two above distinctions. Generally he is considered as an embodiment of the Truth 法, both in the sense of dharmakāya 法身 and dharmaratna 法寳. Some hold Vairocana to be the dharmakāya of Śākyamuni 大日與釋迦

同一佛 but the esoteric school denies this identity. Also known as 最高顯廣眼藏如來, the Tathagata who, in the highest, reveals the far-reaching treasure of his eye, i.e. the sun. 大日大聖不動明王 is described as one of his

transformations. Also, a śramaņa of Kashmir (contemporary of Padma-saṃbhava); he is credited with introducing Buddhism into Khotan and being an incarnation of Mañjuśrī; the king Vijaya Saṃbhava built a

monastery for him.

大日供 A meeting for the worship of Vairocana.

大日宗 The cult of Vairocana especially associated with the 胎藏界 Garbhakośadhātu, or phenomenal world. The cult has its chief vogue in Japan.

大日經 The Vairocana sutra, styled in full 毘盧遮那成佛神變加持經, tr. in the Tang dynasty by Śubhākarasiṃha 善無畏 in 7 chuan, of which the first six are the text and the seventh instructions for worship. It is one of the three

sutras of the esoteric school. Its teaching pairs with that of the 金剛頂經. There are two versions of notes and comments on the text, the 大日經疏 20 chuan, and 大日經義疏 14 chuan; and other works, e.g. 大日經義釋; 大日經不思議疏; 大日經義軌 in four

versions with different titles.

大日覺王 Vairocana, the king of bodhi.

大明王 The angels or messengers of Vairocana, v. 明王.

大明三藏聖敎目錄 The"Great Ming"dynasty catalogue of the Tripitaka, made during the reign of the emperor Yung Lo; it is the catalogue of the northern collection.


大明白身菩薩 The great bright white-bodied bodhisattva, sixth in the first row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group.

大明續入藏諸集 Supplementary miscellaneous collection of Buddhist books, made under the Ming dynasty A.D. 1368-1644.

大智 Mahāmati; cf. 大慧; Great Wisdom, Buddha-wisdom, omniscience; a title of Mañjuśrī, as the apotheosis of transcendental wisdom.

大智度論 A śāstra ascribed to Nāgārjuna on the greater Prajna-paramita sutra; the sastra was tr. by Kumārajīva, A.D. 397―415, in 100 chuan.

大智慧門 The Buddha-door of great wisdom, as contrasted with that of his 大悲 great compassion.

大智灌頂地 The stage of the Great Wisdom chrism, or anointing of a Buddha, as having attained to the Great Wisdom, or omniscience; it is the eleventh stage.

大智藏 The Buddha-wisdom store.

大曼荼羅 (大曼) The great maṇḍala; one of four groups of Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the esoteric school. The esoteric word 阿 "a " is styled the great maṇḍala-king.

大本 The great, chief, or fundamental book or text. Tiantai takes the 無量壽經 as the major of the three Pure Land sutras, and the 阿彌陀經 as the 小本 minor.

大林寺 Mānavana-saṃghārāma 摩訶伐那伽藍摩 "The monastery of the great forest", S. of Mongali.

大林精舍 The Veṇuvana monastery, called 竹林精舍 or 寺 , and 竹苑, Venuvana vihāra, in the Karanda veṇuvana, near Rājagṛha, a favourite resort of Sakyamuni.

大相 mahārūpa; great form. The kalpa of Mahābhijñā-jñānabhibhu, who is to appear as Buddha in a realm called Saṃbhava.

大染法 The great taint, or dharma of defilement, sex-attraction, associated with 愛染明王 Eros, the god of love.

大梵 Mahābrāhmaṇas; the third Brahmaloka, the third region of the first dhyāna. Mahābrahman; the great Brahma, 大梵天; it is also a title of one of the six Guanyin of the Tiantai sect.

大梵天 Mahābrahman; Brahma; 跋羅吸摩; 波羅賀磨; 梵覽摩; 梵天王; 梵王; 梵. Eitel says: "The first person of the Brahminical Trimūrti, adopted by Buddhism, but placed in an inferior position, being looked upon not as

Creator, but as a transitory devatā whom every Buddhistic saint surpasses on obtaining bodhi. Notwithstanding this, the Saddharma-puṇḍarīka calls Brahma 'the father of all living beings'" 一切衆生之父. Mahābrahman is the

unborn or uncreated ruler over all, especially according to Buddhism over all the heavens of form, i.e. of mortality. He rules over these heavens, which are of threefold form: (a) Brahma (lord), (b)

Brahma-purohitas (ministers), and (c) Brahma-pāriṣadyāh (people). His heavens are also known as the middle dhyāna heavens, i.e. between the first and second dhyānas. He is often represented on the right of the

Buddha. According to Chinese accounts the Hindus speak of him (1) as born of Nārāyaṇa, from Brahma's mouth sprang the brahmans, from his arms the kṣatriyas, from his thighs the vaiśyas, and from his feet the

śūdras; (2) as born from Viṣṇu; (3) as a trimūrti, evidently that of Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, but Buddhists define Mahābrahma's dharmakāya as Maheśvara (Śiva), his saṃbhogakāya as Nārāyaṇa, and his nirmāṇakāya as Brahmā. He is

depicted as riding on a swan, or drawn by swans.

大梵如意天 idem 大梵天 The term is incorrectly said by Chinese interpreters to mean freedom from sexual desire. He is associated with Vairocana, and with fire. v. also 尸棄.

大梵天王 Mahābrahma deva rāja, king of the eighteen Brahmalokas.

大樂説 Mahāpratibhāna. A bodhisattva in the Lotus Sutra, noted for pleasant discourse.

大樂不空 大樂金剛 (薩埵) "Unceasing great joy ", a Shingon name for the second of its eight patriarchs, Puxian, v. 金剛薩埵. There are works under this title.

大樓炭經 A sutra, also called 起世 by 法立 Fali and others; 樓炭 is a Sanskrit term meaning 成敗 creation and destruction.

大機 The great opportunity, or Mahāyāna method of becoming a bodhisattva.

大樹 Great trees, i.e. bodhisattvas, cf. 三草.

大樹仙人 Mahāvṛkṣa ṛṣi, the ascetic Vāyu, who meditated so long that a big tree grew out of his shoulders. Seeing a hundred beautiful princesses he desired them; being spurned, he was filled with hatred, and with a

spell turned them into hunchbacks; hence Kanyākubja, v. 羯 or 罽 the city of hump-backed maidens; its king was ? Brahmadatta. v. 西域記 5.

大樹緊那羅 The King of the mahādruma Kinnaras, Indra's musicians, who lives on Gandha-mādana. His sutra is 大樹緊那羅王所門經, 4 chuan, tr. by Kumārajīva.


大權 The great potentiality; or the great power of Buddhas and bodhisattvas to transform themselves into others, by which e.g. Māyā becomes the mother of 1,000 Buddhas, Rāhula the son of 1,000 Buddhas, and all beings

are within the potency of the dharmakāya.

大權善經 An abbreviation of 慧上菩薩問大權善經.

大權修利菩薩 A bodhisattva―protector of monasteries, depicted as shading his eyes with his hand and looking afar, said to have been a Warden of the Coast under the emperor Aśoka.

大死底人 One who has swept away completely all illusions, or all consciousness; also 大休歇底.

大比丘 Great bhikṣu, i.e. one of virtue and old age; similar to 大和尚.

大毘盧遮那 Mahāvairocana, v. 大日.

大水火 (大水災) mahāpralaya; the final and utter destruction of a universe by (wind), flood, and fire.

大紅蓮 Great red lotuses―name of a cold hell where the skin is covered with chaps like lotuses.

大沙門 mahāśramaņa. The great shaman, i.e. Buddha; also any bhikṣu in full orders.

大沙門統 A director of the order appointed by Wendi of the Sui dynasty, A.D. 581-618.

大法 The great Dharma, or Law (of Mahāyāna salvation).

大法慢 Intellectual pride, arrogance through possession of the Truth.

大法王 Sudharmarāja, King of the Sudharma Kinnaras, the horse-headed human-bodied musicians of Kuvera.

大法螺 The Great Law conch, or Mahāyāna bugle.

大法鼓 The Great Law drum; v. 大法鼓經 Mahābherīhāraka-parivarta; tr. by Gunabhadra A.D. 420‐479.

大法雨 The raining, i.e. preaching, of the Mahāyāna.

大波羅密 The great pāramitās, or perfections, of bodhisattvas, i.e. the ten pāramitās above the 八地.

大洲 A great continent; one of the four great continents of a world; v. 四洲.

大海 mahāsamudra-sāgara 摩訶三母捺羅婆誐羅 The Ocean.

大海八不思議 The eight marvellous characteristics of the ocean―its gradually increasing depth, its unfathomableness, its universal saltness, its punctual tides, its stores of precious things, its enormous creatures, its objection to

corpses, its unvarying level despite all that pours into it.

大海十相 The ten aspects of the ocean, the Huayan sutra adds two more to the eight 大海八不思議, i.e. all other waters lose their names in it; its vastness of expanse.

大海印 The ocean symbol, i.e. as the face of the sea reflects all forms, so the samādhi of a bodhisattva reflects to him all truths; it is also termed 海印三昧.

大海衆 The great ocean congregation; as all waters flowing into the sea become salty, so all ranks flowing into the sangha become of one flavour and lose old differentiations.

大滅諦金剛智 The first two of the 三德 three Buddha-powers; they are (a) his principle of nirvana, i.e. the extinotion of suffering, and (b) his supreme or vajra wisdom.

大滿 Great, full, or complete; tr. of mahā-pūrṇa, king of monster birds or garuḍas who are enemies of the nāgas or serpents; he is the vehicle of Viṣṇu in Brahmanism.

大滿願義 One of the sixteen bodhisattvas of the southern quarter, born by the will of Vairocana.

大灌頂 The greater baptism, used on special occasions by the Shingon sect, for washing way sin and evil and entering into virtue; v. 灌頂經.

大炎熱 Pratāpana or Mahātāpana; the hell of great heat, the seventh of the eight hot hells.

大無量壽經 idem 大經 q.v.

大煩惱地法 The six things or mental conditions producing passion and delusion: stupidity, excess, laziness, unbelief, confusion, discontent (or ambition); v. 倶舍論 4.

大燒炙獄 v. 大炎熱 Pratāpana.

大熾盛光 The great blazing perfect light, a title of 金輪佛頂尊.

大牛車 The great ox cart in the Lotus Sutra 法華經 parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahāyāna.

大牛音 krośa; the distance of the lowing of a great ox, the "eighth" (more correctly fourth.) part of a yojana; v. 拘盧.


大王 mahārāja 摩賀羅惹. Applied to the four guardians of the universe, 四大天王.

大生主 Mahāprajāpatī 摩訶波闍婆提, great "lady of the living", the older translation being 大愛道 the great way (or exemplar) of love; also 衆主 head of the community (of nuns), i.e. Gautami the aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni, the first

nun. She is to be reborn as a Buddha named Sarvasattvapriyadarśanā.

大界 The area of a vihāra or monastic establishment.

大界外相 Four characters often placed on the boundary stones of monasterial grounds.

大白傘蓋佛母 The "mother of Buddhas" with her great snow-white (radiant) umbrella, emblem of her protection of all beings; there are two dhāraṇī-sūtras that bear this name and give her description, the 佛頂傘蓋佛母 and 佛說傘蓋佛母總持陀羅尼經.

大白光神 鬱多羅迦神 ? Uttaraka. The deva of the Himālayas, one of the retinue of the 十二神.

大白牛車 The great white-bullock cart of the Lotus Sutra, the Mahāyāna, as contrasted with the deer-cart and goat-cart of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, i.e. of Hīnayāna.

大白華 The great mandāra 曼陀羅 flower, also called 大白團華 .

大白衣 Pāṇḍaravāsinī, the great white-robed one, a form of Guanyin all in white, with white lotus, throne, etc., also called 白衣 or 白處觀音.

大目乾連 Mahāmaudgalyāyana; v. 摩訶目犍連.

大相國寺 The great aid-the-dynasty monastery at Kaifeng, Henan, founded in A.D. 555, first named 建國, changed circa 700 to the above; rebuilt 996, repaired by the Jin, the Yuan, and Ming emperors, swept away in a Yellow River flood,

rebuilt under Shun Zhi, restored under Qian Long.

大相看 The reception by an abbot of all his monks on the first day of the tenth moon.

大神力 Supernatural or magical powers.

大神咒 dhāraṇī spells or magical formulae connected with supernatural powers 大神力.

大神王 The great deva king, Mahākāla, the great black one, (1) title of Maheśvara, i.e. Śiva; (2) a guardian of monasteries, with black face, in the dining hall; he is said to have been a disciple of Mahādeva, a former

incarnation of Śākyamuni.

大祥忌 The great propitious anniversary, i.e. a sacrifice every third year.

大種 The four great seeds, or elements (四大) which enter into all things, i.e. earth, water, fire, and wind, from which, as from seed, all things spring.

大空 The great void, or the Mahāyāna parinirvāṇa, as being more complete and final than the nirvāṇa of Hīnayāna. It is used in the Shingon sect for the great immaterial or spiritual wisdom, with its esoteric

symbols; its weapons, such as the vajra; its samādhis; its sacred circles, or maṇḍalas, etc. It is used also for space, in which there is neither east, west, north, nor south.

大笑明王 ? Vajrahāsa 跋折羅吒訶婆 The great laughing Mingwang, v. 明王.

大弟子 sthavira, a chief disciple, the Fathers of the Buddhist church; an elder; an abbot; a priest licensed to preach and become an abbot; also 上坐.

大精進菩薩 Śūra, a hero bodhisattva, one of the sixteen in the southern external part of the 金剛界 group.

大統 The head of the order, an office instituted by Wen Di of the Sui dynasty; cf. 大僧正.

大經 The great sūtra, i.e. the 2 juan 佛說無量壽經, so-called by the Pure-land sect and by Tiantai, the Amida sūtra being the小本 smaller sūtra; cf. 大本 and大日經 .

大經卷 A term for the heart.

大綱 The main principles of Buddhism, likened to the great ropes of a net.

大總法門 The bhūtatathatā as the totality of things, and Mind 心眞如 as the Absolute, 起信論.

大義王 (or 大義城) The king, or city, of all ideas, or aims, i.e. the heart as mind.

大聖 The great sage or saint, a title of a Buddha or a bodhisattva of high rank; as also are 大聖世尊 and 大聖主 the great holy honored one, or lord.

大聖天 idem 大聖歡喜天 v. 歡喜天, on whom there are three works.


大聖金剛夜叉 one of the five 大明王.

大聖妙吉祥 see Mañjuśrī 文殊; there are two works under the first of these titles, one under the second, and one under 大聖文殊.

大聖曼殊室利 see Mañjuśrī 文殊; there are two works under the first of these titles, one under the second, and one under 大聖文殊.

大自在 Īśvara, self-existent, sovereign, independent, absolute, used of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

大自在天 Maheśvara, 摩醯首濕伐羅 or Śiva, lord of the present chiliocosm, or universe; he is described under two forms, one as the prince of demons, the other as divine, i.e. 毘舍闍 Piśācamaheśvara and 淨居 Śuddhāvāsa- or

Śuddhodanamaheśvara. As Piśāca, head of the demons, he is represented with three eyes and eight arms, and riding on a white bull; a bull or a linga being his symbol. The esoteric school takes him for the

transformation body of Vairocana, and as appearing in many forms, e.g. Viṣṇu, Nārāyana (i.e. Brahmā), etc. His wife (śakti) is Bhīmā, or 大自在天婦. As Śuddhāvāsa, or Pure dwelling, he is described as a bodhisattva of the

tenth or highest degree, on the point of entering Buddhahood. There is dispute as to whether both are the same being, or entirely different. The term also means the sixth or highest of the six desire heavens.

大自在宮 The abode of Maheśvara at the apex of the form realm. Also, the condition or place from which the highest type of bodhisattva proceeds to Buddhahood, whence it is also styled 淨居天 the pure abode heaven.

大興善寺 The great goodness-promoting monastery, one of the ten great Tang monasteries at Changan, commenced in the Sui dynasty.

大船 The great ship of salvation — Mahāyāna.

大船師 The captain of the great ship of salvation, Buddha.

大般涅槃 mahāparinirvāṇa, explained by 大入滅息 the great, or final entrance into extinction and cessation; or 大圓寂入 great entrance into perfect rest; 大滅度 great extinction and passing over (from mortality). It is interpreted in Mahāyāna

as meaning the cessation or extinction of passion and delusion, of mortality, and of all activities, and deliverance into a state beyond these concepts. In Mahāyāna it is not understood as the annihilation, or

cessation of existence; the reappearance of Dīpaṃkara 然燈 (who had long entered nirvāṇa) along with Śākyamuni on the Vulture Peak supports this view. It is a state above all terms of human expression. See the [[Lotus

Sutra]] and the Nirvāṇa sūtra.

大般涅槃經 The Mahā-parinirvāṇa sūtras, commonly called the 涅槃經 Nirvāṇa sūtras, said to have been delivered by Śākyamuni just before his death. The two Hīnayāna versions are found in the 長阿含遊行經. The Mahāyāna has two Chinese

versions, the northern in 40 juan, and the southern, a revision of the northern version in 36 juan. Faxian's version is styled 大般泥洹經 6 juan. Treatises on the sūtra are 大般涅槃經後分 2 juan tr. by Jñānabhadra; 大般涅槃經疏 33 juan; 大般涅槃經論 1

juan by Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhidharma.

大般若經 The Mahā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra.

大般若供養 The worship of a new copy of the sūtra when finished, an act first attributed to Xuanzang.

大般若波羅蜜多經 Mahā-prajñāpāramitā sūtra, said to have been delivered by Śākyamuni in four places at sixteen assemblies, i.e. Gṛidhrakūṭa near Rājagṛha (Vulture Peak); Śrāvastī; Paranirmitavaśavartin, and Veluvana near Rājagṛha

(Bamboo Garden). It consists of 600 juan as translated by Xuanzang. Parts of it were translated by others under various titles and considerable differences are found in them. It is the fundamental philosophical work of

the Mahāyāna school, the formulation of wisdom, which is the sixth pāramitā.

大苦海 The great bitter sea, or great sea of suffering i.e. of mortality in the six gati, or ways of incarnate existence.

大莊嚴 Mahāvyūha; great fabric; greatly adorned, the kalpa or Buddha-aeon of Mahākāśyapa.

大莊嚴世界 The great ornate world; i.e. the universe of Akāśagarbha Bodhisattva 虛空藏菩薩; it is placed in the west by the sūtra of that name, in the east by the 大隻經 12.

大莊嚴經 Vaipulya-mahāvyūha-sūtra, tr. by Divākara, Tang dynasty, 12 juan; in which the Buddha describes his life in the Tuṣita heaven and his descent to save the world.

大莊嚴經論 or 大莊嚴論經 Sūtrālaṃkāra-śāstra. A work by Aśvaghoṣa, tr. by Kumārajīva A.D. 405, 15 juan.

大菩提心 The great bodhi, i.e. Mahāyāna or Buddha-enlightenment, as contrasted with the inferior bodhi of the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha.

大菩提幢 The banner of great bodhi, an esoteric symbol of Buddha-enlightenment.

大菩薩 bodhisattva-mahāsattva, a great Bodhisattva.


大蓮華 puṇḍarīka, 分陀利; 芬利; 奔茶 the great white lotus; the last of the eight cold hells is so called.

大蓮華法藏界 The great Lotus heaven in the Paradise of the West.

大蓮華智慧三摩地智 The wisdom of the great lotus, samādhi-wisdom, the penetrating wisdom of Amitābha.

大薩遮尼犍子 Mahāsatya-nirgrantha. An ascetic who is said to have become a disciple of the Buddha.

大藏經 The Tripiṭaka; the Buddhist canon.

大藏一覽 "The Tripitaka at a Glance" in 10 juan by 陳實 Chen Shi of the Ming dynasty.

大藏目錄 A catalogue of the Korean canon in 3 juan.

大號呌 Mahāraurava 大呌; 大呼 The hell of great wailing, the fifth of the eight hot hells.

大衆 mahāsaṅgha. The great assembly, any assembly, all present, everybody.

大衆印 The seal of a monastery.

大衆威德畏 Stage-struck, awed by an assembly, one of the five 怖畏.

大衆部 摩調僧祇部 Mahāsāṅghikāḥ, the school of the community, or majority; one of the chief early divisions, cf. 上坐部 Mahāsthavirāḥ or Sthavirāḥ, i.e. the elders. There are two usages of the term, first, when the sthavira, or older

disciples assembled in the cave after the Buddha's death, and the others, the 大衆, assembled outside. As sects, the principal division was that which took place later. The Chinese attribute this division to the

influence of 大天 Mahādeva, a century after the Nirvāṇa, and its subsequent five subdivisions are also associated with his name: they are Pūrvasailāḥ, Avaraśailāḥ, Haimavatāḥ, Lokottara-vādinaḥ, and Prajñapti-vādinaḥ; v. 小乘.

大衣 The monk's patch-robe, made in varying grades from nine to twenty-five patches.

大覺 The supreme bodhi, or enlightenment, and the enlightening power of a Buddha.

大覺世尊 The World-honored One of the great enlightenment, an appellation of the Buddha.

大覺母 The mother of the great enlightenment, an appellation of Mañjuśrī.

大覺金仙 The great enlightened golden ṛṣi, a name given to Buddha in the Song dynasty.

大論 idem 大智度論.

大論師 Mahāvādin, Doctor of the Śāstras, a title given to eminent teachers, especially of the Sāṅkhya and Vaiseṣika schools.

大辯天 Sarasvatī 大辯才天 (大辯才女); 大辯功德天 (大辯才功德天); 薩羅婆縛底; 薩羅酸底 A river, 'the modern Sursooty'; the goddess of it, who 'was persuaded to descend from heaven and confer her invention of language and letters on the human

race by the sage Bhārata, whence one of her names is Bharatī'; sometimes assumes the form of a swan; eloquence, or literary elegance is associated with her. Cf. M. W. Known as the mother of speech, eloquence, letters, and

music. Chinese texts describe this deity sometimes as male, but generally as female, and under several forms. As 'goddess of music and poetry' she is styled 妙 (or 美 ) 音天; 妙音樂天; 妙音佛母. She is represented in two

forms, one with two arms and a lute, another with eight arms. Sister of Yama. 'A consort of both Brahmā and Mañjuśrī,' Getty. In Japan, when with a lute, Benten is a form of Saravastī, colour white, and riding a

peacock. Tib. sbyaṅs-can-ma, or ṅag-gi-lha-mo; M. kele-yin iikin tegri; J. ben-zai-ten, or benten.

大護印 The great protective sign, a manual sign, accompanied with a transliterated repetition of 'Namaḥ sarva-tathāgatebhyaḥ; Sarvathā Haṃ Khaṃ Rākṣasī mahābali; Sarva-Tathāgata-puṇyo nirjāti; Hūṃ Hūṃ Trāta Trāta apratihati svāhā'.

大象藏 Great elephant (or nāga) treasure, an incense supposed to be produced by nāgas or dragons fighting.

大賢 Daxian (Jap. Daiken), a Korean monk who lived in China during the Tang dynasty, of the 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, noted for his annotations on the sūtras and styled 古迹記 the archaeologist.

大寶積經 大寳積經 The sūtra of this name (Mahāratnakūṭa) tr. by Bodhiruci (in abridged form) and others.

大赤華 mahāmañjūṣaka 摩訶曼珠沙 or rubia cordifolia, from which madder is made.

大路邊生 Born by the highway side, v. 周那 Cunda; also 純陀.

大身 The great body, i.e. the nirmāṇakāya, or transformable body 化身 of a Buddha. Also, Mahākāya, a king of garuḍas.

大車 The great bullock-cart in the parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahāyāna, v. Lotus Sutra.


大輪金剛 One of the thirty-three bodhisattvas in the 金剛手 court of the Garbhadhātu group, destroyer of delusion. Also 大輪明王.

大轉輪王 v. 大勝金剛.

大轉輪佛頂 idem 佛頂尊.

大迦多衍那 Mahākātyāyana or Kātyāyana 摩訶迦旃延; 迦延, v. 摩 and 迦. (1) A disciple of Śākyamuni. (2) Name of many persons.

大迦葉 Mahākāśyapa, v. 摩訶迦葉.

大通 大通智勝 Mahābhijñā Jñānābhibhu. The great Buddha of supreme penetraton and wisdom. "A fabulous Buddha whose realm was Sambhava, his kalpa Mahārūpa. Having spent ten middling kalpas in ecstatic meditation he

became a Buddha, and retired again in meditation for 84,000 kalpas, during which his sixteen sons continued (as Buddhas) his preaching. Incarnations of his sons are," Akṣobhya, Merukūṭa, Siṃhaghoṣa, Siṃhadhvaja,

Ākāśapratiṣṭhita, Nityapaṛvrtta, Indradhvaja, Brahmadhvaja, Amitābha, Sarvalokadhātū- padravodvegapratyuttīrna, Tamāla-patra-candanagandha, Merukalpa, Meghasvara, Meghasvararāja, Sarvaloka-bhayastambhitatva- vidhvaṃsanakāra, and

Śākyamuni; v. Eitel. He is said to have lived in a kalpa earlier than the present by kalpas as numerous as the atoms of a chiliocosm. Amitābha is his ninth son. Śākyamuni his sixteenth, and the present 大衆 or assembly of

believers are said to be the reincarnation of those who were his disciples in that former aeon; v. Lotus Sutra, chapter 7.

大通和尚 Title of 神秀 Shenxiu, a disciple of the fifth patriarch.

大道心 One who has the mind of or for supreme enlightenment, e.g. a bodhisattva-mahāsattva.

大醫王 Great Lord of healing, an epithet of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

大鐘 The great bell in the bell tower of a large monastery.

大鐵圍山 (大鐵圍) Mahācakravāla. The great circular 'iron' enclosure; the higher of the double circle of mountains forming the outer periphery of every world, concentric to the seven circles around Sumeru.

大鑑禪師 The great mirror, posthumous title of the sixth 禪 Chan (Zen) patriarch, 慧能 Huineng, imperially bestowed in A.D. 815.

大陰界入 Four fundamentals, i.e. the 四大, 五陰, 十八界, and 十二入 q. v.

大雄 The great hero— a Buddha's title, indicating his power over demons.

大雄峯 Great cock peak, any outstanding peak.

大集經 Mahāsaṃghata-sūtra 大方等大集經 The sūtra of the great assembly of Bodhisattvas from 十方 every direction, and of the apocalpytic sermons delivered to them by the Buddha; 60 juan, tr. in parts at various times by various

translators. There are several works connected with it and others independent, e.g. 大集須彌藏經, 大集日藏經 (and 大集月藏經) , 大集經賢 護, 大集會正法經, 大集譬喩王經, etc.

大集部 Mahāsaṃnipāta. A division of the sūtrapiṭaka containing avadānas, i.e. comparisons, metaphors, parables, and stories illustrating the doctrines.

大雲光明寺 A monastery for Uigur Manichaeans, ordered to be built by 代宗 A.D. 765.

大靑珠 mahānīla. 摩訶尼羅 A precious stone, large and blue, perhaps identical with Indra-nīla-muktā, i.e. the Indra of precious stones, a 'sapphire' (M. W.).

大願 The great vow, of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, to save all the living and bring them to Buddhahood.

大願業力 The forty-eight vows and the great meritorious power of Amitābha, or the efficacy of his vows.

大願淸淨報土 The Pure Reward-Land of Amitābha, the reward resulting from his vows.

大願船 The great vow boat, i.e. that of Amitābha, which ferries the believer over the sea of mortality to the Pure Land.

大顚 Da Dian, the appellation of a famous monk and writer, named 寶通 Baotong, whom tigers followed; he died at 93 years of age in A. D. 824; author of 般若波羅蜜多心經 and 金剛經釋義.

大風災 Great Storms, the third of the three destructive calamities to end the world.

大飮光 Mahākāśyapa q. v., he who "drank in light" (with his mother's milk), she having become radiant with golden-colored pearl, a relic of Vipaśyin, the first of the seven former Buddhas; it is a false etymology.


大高王 Abhyudgata-rāja. Great august monarch, name of the kalpa in which Śubha-vyūha 妙莊嚴王, who is not known in the older literature, is to be reborn as a Buddha.

大魚 makara 摩竭羅 a monster fish.

大黑天 Mahākāla 摩訶迦 (or 謌) 羅 the great black deva 大黑神. Two interpretations are given. The esoteric cult describes the deva as the masculine form of Kālī, i.e. Durgā, the wife of Śiva; with one face and eight arms, or

three faces and six arms, a necklace of skulls, etc. He is worshipped as giving warlike power, and fierceness; said also to be an incarnation of Vairocana for the purpose of destroying the demons; and is described as 大時

the "great time" (-keeper) which seems to indicate Vairocana, the sun. The exoteric cult interprets him as a beneficent deva, a Pluto, or god of wealth. Consequently he is represented in two forms, by the

one school as a fierce deva, by the other as a kindly happy deva. He is shown as one of the eight fierce guardians with trident, generally blue-black but sometimes white; he may have two elephants underfoot. Six arms and

hands hold jewel, skull cup, chopper, drum, trident, elephant-goad. He is the tutelary god of Mongolian Buddhism. Six forms of Mahākāla are noted: (1) 比丘大黑 A black-faced disciple of the Buddha, said to

be the Buddha as Mahādeva in a previous incarnation, now guardian of the refectory. (2) 摩訶迦羅大黑女 Kālī, the wife of Śiva. (3) 王子迦羅大黑 The son of Śiva. (4) 眞陀大黑 Cintāmaṇi, with the talismanic pearl, symbol of bestowing

fortune. (5) 夜叉大黑 Subduer of demons. (6) 摩迦羅大黑 Mahākāla, who carries a bag on his back and holds a hammer in his right hand. J., Daikoku; M., Yeke-gara; T., Nag-po c'en-po.

大黑飛礫法 The black deva's flying shard magic: take the twig of a 榎 jia tree (Catalpa Bungei), the twig pointing north-west; twist it to the shape of a buckwheat grain, write the Sanskrit letter भ on each of its three faces,

place it before the deva, recite his spell a thousand times then cast the charm into the house of a prosperous person, saying may his wealth come to me.

大齋 (大齋會) A feast given to monks.

大龍權現 The Bodhisattva who, having attained the 大地 stage, by the power of his vow transformed himself into a dragon-king, 西域記 1.

女 Women, female; u. f. 汝 thou, you.

女人 Woman, described in the Nirvāṇa sūtra 浬槃經 9 as the "abode of all evil", 一切女人皆是衆惡之所住處 The 智度論 14 says: 大火燒人是猶可近, 淸風無形是亦可捉, 蚖蛇含毒猶亦可觸, 女人之心不可得實 "Fierce fire that would burn men may yet be approached, clear breezes

without form may yet be grasped, cobras that harbour poison may yet be touched, but a woman's heart is never to be relied upon." The Buddha ordered Ānanda: "Do not Look at a woman; if you must, then do not talk with

her; if you must, then call on the Buddha with all your mind"— an evidently apocryphal statement of 文句 8.

女人六欲 The six feminine attractions; eight are given, but the sixth and eighth are considered to be included in the others: color, looks, style, carriage, talk, voice, refinement, and appearance.

女人定 v. 女子出定.

女人往生願 The thirty-fifth vow of Amitābha that he will refuse to enter into his final joy until every woman who calls on his name rejoices in enlightenment and who, hating her woman's body, has ceased to be reborn as a

woman; also 女人成佛願.

女人拜 A woman's salutation, greeting, or obeisance, performed by standing and bending the knees, or putting hands together before the breast and bending the body.

女人禁制 " Women forbidden to approach," a sign placed on certain altars.

女人眷屬論師 One of the twenty heretical sects, who held that Maheśvara created the first woman, who begot all creatures.

女僧 A nun, or 此丘尼 bhikṣuṇī, which is abbreviated to 尼. The first nunnery in China is said to have been established in the Han dynasty.

女國 The woman-kingdom, where matriarchal government is said to have prevailed, e.g. Brahmapura, v. 婆, and Suvarṇagotra, v. 蘇.

女天 Female devas in the desire-realm. In and above the Brahmalokas 色界 they do not exist.

女子出定 The story of a woman named Liyi 離意 who was so deeply in samādhi before the Buddha that Mañjuśrī 文殊 could not arouse her; she could only be aroused by a bodhisattva who has sloughed off the skandhas and attained


女居士 A lay woman who devotes herself to Buddhism.

女德 A woman of virtue, i.e. a nun, or bhikṣuṇī. The emperor Hui Zong of the Song dynasty (A.D. 1101-1126) changed the term 尼 to 女德.


女情 Sexual desire.

女根 Yoni. The female sex-organ.

女犯 The woman offence, i.e. sexual immorality on the part of a monk.

女病 Woman as a disease; feminine disease.

女色 Female beauty— is a chain, a serious delusion, a grievous calamity. The 智度論 14 says it is better to burn out the eyes with a red-hot iron than behold woman with unsteady heart.

女賊 Woman the robber, as the cause of sexual passion, stealing away the riches of religion, v. 智度論 14.

女鏁 Woman as chain, or lock, the binding power of sex. 智度論 14.

子 kumāra; son; seed; sir; 11-1 midnight.

子合國 Kukyar, Kokyar, or Kukejar, a country west of Khotan, 1,000 li from Kashgar, perhaps Yarkand.

子斷 The seed 種子 cut off, i.e. the seed which produces the miseries of transmigration.

子果 Seed and fruit; seed-produced fruit is 子果, fruit-produced seed is 果子. The fruit produced by illusion in former incarnation is 子果, which the Hīnayāna arhat has not yet finally cut off. It is necessary to enter Nirvāṇa

without remnant of mortality to be free from its "fruit", or karma.

子滿果 The fruit full of seeds, the pomegranate.

子璿 A famous learned monk Zixuan, of the Song dynasty whose style was 長水 Changshui, the name of his district; he had a large following; at first he specialized on the Śūraṃgama 楞嚴經; later he adopted the teaching of 賢首 Xianshou of

the 華嚴宗 Huayan school.

子縛 The seed bond, or delusion of the mind, which keeps men in bondage.

子院 Small courts and buildings attached to central monastery.

寸 An inch.

寸絲不掛 Questioned as to what he did with his day, 陸亙日 Lu Xuanri replied "one does not hang things on an inch of thread".

小 Small, little; mean, petty; inferior.

小乘 Hīnayāna 希那衍. The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed after Śākyamuni's death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahāyāna doctrines were introduced. It is the

orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahāyānism which developed on lines fundamentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy

for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith).

Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hīnayāna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahāyāna. Hīnayāna remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and

Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahāyāna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali

being the general literary language of the surviving form of Hīnayāna, Sanskrit of Mahāyāna. The term Hīnayāna is of Mahāyānist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of Mahāyāna over the narrower

personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahāyāna teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it

declares that Hīnayāna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood, seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvāṇa. For arhatship the 四諦Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for

pratyekabuddhahood the 十二因緣 twelve-nidānas, and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles 二乘. Tiantai sometimes calls them the (Hīnayāna) Tripiṭaka school. Three of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools were transported to

China: 倶舍 (Abhidharma) Kośa; 成實 Satya-siddhi; and the school of Harivarman, the律 Vinaya school. These are described by Mahāyānists as the Buddha's adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his

hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahāyāna all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahāyāna view of Hīnayāna, and if the Vaipulya sūtras and special scriptures of their school,

which are repudiated by Hīnayāna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahāyāna in condemning Hīnayāna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sūtras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the

Buddha, have no authenticity; while those of Hīnayāna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hīnayāna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately

after the death of Śākyamuni, when the sthāvira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rājagṛha, to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples

remained outside; these two are the first 上坐部 and 大衆部 q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk 大天 Mahādeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha's nirvāṇa and

during the reign of Aśoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahādeva's sect became the Mahāsāṅghikā, the other the Sthāvira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the

two originals are the so-called "twenty sects" of Hīnayāna. Another division of four sects, referred to by Yijing, is that of the 大衆部 (Arya) Mahāsaṅghanikāya, 上座部 Āryasthavirāḥ, 根本說一切有部 Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, and 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ. There

is still another division of five sects, 五部律. For the eighteen Hīnayāna sects see 小乘十八部.


小乘三印 The three characteristic marks of all Hīnayāna sūtras: the impermanence of phenomena, the unreality of the ego, and nirvāṇa.

小乘九部 The nine classes of works belonging to the Hīnayāna, i.e. the whole of the twelve discourses; the Vaipulya, or broader teaching; and the Vyākaraṇa, or prophesies.

小乘二部 The 上座部 Sthaviravādin, School of Presbyters, and 大衆部 Sarvāstivādin, q.v.

小乘偏漸戒 The Hīnayāna partial and gradual method of obeying laws and commandments, as compared with the full and immediate salvation of Mahāyāna.

小乘十八部 A Chinese list of the "eighteen" sects of the Hīnayāna, omitting Mahāsāṅghikāḥ, Sthavira, and Sarvāstivādah as generic schools: I. 大衆部 The Mahāsāṅghikāḥ is divided into eight schools as follows: (1) 一說部

Ekavyavahārikāḥ; (2) 說出世部 Lokottaravādinaḥ; (3) 雞胤部 Kaukkuṭikāḥ (Gokulikā); (4) 多聞部 Bahuśrutīyāḥ; (5) 說假部 Prajñāptivadinaḥ; (6) 制多山部 Jetavaniyāḥ, or Caityaśailāḥ; (7) 西山住部 Aparaśailāḥ; (8) 北山住部 Uttaraśailāḥ. II. 上坐部 Āryasthavirāḥ, or

Sthāviravādin, divided into eight schools: (1) 雪山部 Haimavatāḥ. The 說一切有部 Sarvāstivādaḥ gave rise to (2) 犢子部 Vātsīputrīyāḥ, which gave rise to (3) 法上部 Dharmottarīyāḥ; (4) 賢冑部 Bhadrayānīyāḥ; (5) 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ; and (6) 密林山 Saṇṇagarikāḥ;

(7) 化地部 Mahīśāsakāḥ produced (8) 法藏部 Dharmaguptāḥ. From the Sarvāstivādins arose also (9) 飮光部 Kāśyaḥpīyā and (10) 經量部 Sautrāntikāḥ. v. 宗輪論. Cf Keith, 149-150. The division of the two schools is ascribed to Mahādeva a century after

the Nirvāṇa. Under I the first five are stated as arising two centuries after the Nirvāṇa, and the remaining three a century later, dates which are unreliable. Under II, the Haimavatāḥ and the Sarvāstivādaḥ are dated some 200 years after

the Nirvāṇa; from the Sarvāstivādins soon arose the Vātsīputrīyas, from whom soon sprang the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth; then from the Sarvāstivādins there arose the seventh which gave rise to the eighth, and again, nearing the

400th year, the Sarvāstivādins gave rise to the ninth and soon after the tenth. In the list of eighteen the Sarvāstivādah is not counted, as it split into all the rest.

小乘四門 Tiantai's division of Hīnayāna into four schools or doctrines: (1) 有門 Of reality, the existence of all phenomena, the doctrine of being (cf. 發智六足論, etc.); (2) 空門 of unreality, or non-existence (cf.

成實論); (3) 亦有亦空門 of both, or relativity of existence and non-existence (cf. 毘勒論); (4) 非有非空 of neither, or transcending existence and non-existence (cf. 迦旃延經).

小乘外道 Hīnayāna and the heretical sects; also, Hīnayāna is a heretical sect.

小乘戒 The commandments of the Hīnayāna, also recognized by the Mahāyāna: the five, eight, and ten commandments, the 250 for the monks, and the 348 for the nuns.


小乘經 The Hīnayāna sūtras, the four sections of the Āgamas 阿含經 v. 小乘九部.

小乘論 The Hīnayāna śāstras or Abhidharma.

小乘阿毗達磨 The philosophical canon of the Hīnayāna, now supposed to consist of some thirty-seven works, the earliest of which is said to be the Guṇanirdeśa śāstra, tr. as 分別功德論 before A.D. 220. "The date of the Abhidharma" is

"unknown to us" (Keith).

小五條 The robe of five patches worn by some monks in China and by the 淨土宗 Jōdo sect of Japan; v. 掛.

小使 To urinate; also 小行. Buddhist monks are enjoined to urinate only in one fixed spot.

小劫 antarā-kalpa, or intermediate kalpa; according to the 倶舍論 it is the period in which human life increases by one year a century till it reaches 84,000 with men 8,400 feet high; then it is reduced at the same rate till

the life-period reaches ten years with men a foot high; these two are each a small kalpa; the 智度論 reckons the two together as one kalpa; and there are other definitions.

小千世界 (小千) A small chiliocosm, consisting of a thousand worlds each with its Mt. Sumeru, continents, seas, and ring of iron mountains; v. 三千大千世界.

小參 Small group, a class for instruction outside the regular morning or evening services; also a class in a household.

小參頭 The leader of a small group.

小品 A summarized version.

小品般若波羅蜜經 (小品經) Kumārajīva's abbreviated version, in ten juan, of the Mahā-prajñā-pāramitā-sūtra.

小宗 The sects of Hīnayāna.

小師 A junior monk of less than ten years full ordination, also a courtesy title for a disciple; and a self-depreciatory title of any monk; v. 鐸 dahara.

小律儀 The rules and regulations for monks and nuns in Hīnayāna.

小念 To repeat Buddha's name in a quiet voice, opposite of 大 |.

小本 A small volume; Tiantai's term for the (小) 阿彌陀經; the large sūtra being the 無量壽經.

小根 小機 Having a mind fit only for Hīnayāna doctrine.

小機 小根; Having a mind fit only for Hīnayāna doctrine.

小樹 Small trees, bodhisattvas in the lower stages, v. 三草二木.

小水穿石 A little water or "dripping water penetrates stone"; the reward of the religious life, though difficult to attain, yields to persistent effort.

小法 The laws or methods of Hīnayāna.

小煩惱地法 upakleśabhūmikāh. The ten lesser evils or illusions, or temptations, one of the five groups of mental conditions of the seventy-five Hīnayāna elements. They are the minor moral defects arising from 無明

unenlightenment; i.e. 忿 anger, 覆 hidden sin, 慳 stinginess, 嫉 envy, 惱 vexation, 害 ill-will, 恨 hate, 謟 adulation, 誑 deceit, 憍 pride.

小王 The small rājās, called 粟散王 millet scattering kings.

小界 A small assembly of monks for ceremonial purposes.

小白華 One of the four divine flowers, the mandāra-flower, v. 曼.

小目連 The small Maudgalyāyana, one of six of that name, v. 目.

小祥忌 An anniversary (sacrifice).

小空 The Hīnayāna doctrine of the void, as contrasted with that of Mahāyāna.

小經 v. 小本; also styled 小彌經.

小聖 The Hīnayāna saint, or arhat. The inferior saint, or bodhisattva, as compared with the Buddha.


小草 Smaller herbs, those who keep the five commandments and do the ten good deeds, thereby attaining to rebirth as men or devas, v. 三草二木.

小行 The practice, or discipline of Hīnayāna; also, urination.

小赤華 Mañjūṣaka. 量殊沙華; 量殊顏 Explained by 柔軟 pliable. Rubia cordifolia, yielding the madder (munjeeth) of Bengal.

小遠 The monk 慧遠 Huiyuan of the Sui dynasty. There was a 晉 Chin dynasty monk of the same name.

小阿師 A junior monk ordained less than ten years.

小院 A junior teacher.

小食 The small meal, breakfast, also called 點心.

尸 A corpse: to manage: u. f. 尸羅.

尸利 Sri. 師利; 室利; 室離; 室哩; 修利; 昔哩; 悉利 (1) Fortune, prosperity; high rank, success, good fortune, virtues, these four are named as its connotation. (2) The wife of Viṣṇu. (3) An honorifc prefix or affix to names of gods,

great men, and books. (4) An exclamation at the head of liturgies. (5) An abbreviation for Mañjuśrī.

尸利佛逝 Śrībhuja, i. e. Mālaya.

尸利夜 Śrīyaśas , a god who bestows good luck.

尸利沙 尸利灑; 舍利沙; 夜合樹 śirīṣa. acacia sirissa. The marriage tree 合婚樹. The 尸利沙 is described as with large leaves and fruit; another kind the 尸利駛 with small leaves and fruit. Also called 沙羅樹.

尸利沙迦 Śirīṣaka. Name of a monk.

尸利毱多 尸利崛多; 室利毱多 Śrīgupta, an elder in Rājagṛha, who tried to kill the Buddha with fire and poison; v. 尸利毱多長者經.

尸利蜜多羅 屍黎密 Śrīmitra, an Indian prince who resigned his throne to his younger brother, became a monk, came to China, translated the 灌頂 and other books.

尸半尸 To kill a person by the 毘陀羅 vetala method of obtaining magic power by incantations on a dead body; when a headless corpse, or some part of the body, is used it is 半尸; when the whole corpse it is 尸.

尸城 Kuśinagara or Kuśigramaka. 拘尸那城; 拘尸那揭羅; 拘夷那竭; 拘尸城 Explained by 九土生地 the birthplace of nine scholars. An ancient kingdom and city, near Kasiah, 180 miles north of Patna; the place where Śākyamuni died.

尸多婆那 Śītavana, see 尸陀林.

尸摩舍那 (or 尸摩賖那) śmaśāna, aśmaśāyma, a cemetery, idem 尸陀林.

尸梨伽那 Śrīguṇa, 厚德 abundantly virtuous, a title of a Buddha.

尸棄 Śikhin, 式棄; 式詰; 尸棄那 (or 尸棄佛); 罽那尸棄; crested, or a fame; explained by 火 fire; 刺那尸棄 Ratnaśikhin occurs in the Abhidharma. In the 本行經 it is 螺髻 a shell like tuft of hair. (1) The 999th Buddha of the last

kalpa, whom Śākyamuni is said to have met. (2) The second of the seven Buddhas of antiquity, born in Prabhadvaja 光相城 as a Kṣatriya. (3) A Maha-brahma, whose name Śikhin is defined as 頂髻 or 火災頂 having a flaming tuft on

his head; connected with the world-destruction by fire. The Fanyimingyi 翻譯名義 describes Śikhin as 火 or 火首 fame, or a flaming head and as the god of fire, styled also 樹提 Suddha, pure; he observed the 火定 Fire

Dhyāna, broke the lures of the realm of desire, and followed virtue.

尸棄毘 A deva of music located in the East.

尸毘迦 Śivi, 尸毘伽; 尸毘略; also wrongly 濕鞞; one of Śākyamuni's former incarnations, when to save the life of a dove he cut off and gave his own flesh to an eagle which pursued it, which eagle was Śiva transformed in order to test

him. 智度論 35.

尸羅 Sila, 尸; 尸怛羅 intp. by 淸凉 pure and cool, i.e. chaste; also by 戒 restraint, or keeping the commandments; also by 性善 of good disposition. It is the second pāramitā, moral purity, i. e. of thought, word, and deed. The

four conditions of śīla are chaste, calm, quiet, extinguished, i. e. no longer perturbed by the passions. Also, perhaps śīla, a stone, i. e. a precious stone, pearl, or coral. For the ten śīlas or commandments v. 十戒, the

first five, or pañca-śīla 五戒, are for all Buddhists.

尸羅不淸淨 If the śīla, or moral state, is not pure, none can enter samādhi.

尸羅婆羅蜜 śīla-pāramitā. Morality, the second of the pāramitās.

尸羅幢 A curtain made of chaste precious stones.

尸羅拔陀提 戒賢 Śīlabhadra, a prince mentioned in 賢 愚 經 6.


尸羅淸淨 Moral purity, essential to enter into samadhi.

尸羅跋提 Sravasti, idem 舍衞.

尸羅跋陀羅 Śīlabhadra. A learned monk of Nalanda, teacher of Hsumzang, A. D. 625.

尸羅達磨 Śīladharma, a śramaṇa of Khotan.

尸羅鉢頗 Śīlaprabha. the Sanskrit name of a learned monk.

||阿迭多 Śīladitya, son of Pratapaditya and brother of Rajyavardhana. Under thc spiritual auspices of Avalokiteśvara, he became king of Kanyakubja A. D. 606 and conquered India and the Punjab. He was merciful to all creatures,

strained drinking water for horses and elephants, was a most liberal patron of Buddhism, re-established the great quinquennial assembly, built many stūpas, showed special favour to Śīlabhadra and Xuanzang, and composed the 八大靈塔梵

讚 Aṣṭama-hāśrī -caitya-saṃskṛta-stotra. He reigned about forty years.

尸棄尼 Also 識 (or 瑟 or 式) 匿. Chavames accepts the identification with Chighnan, a region of the Pamirs (Documents sur les Tou-kiue Occidentaux, p. 162).

尸賴底 Hiranyavati, M003296 離刺拏伐底; 阿利羅伐底; the gold river, a river of Nepal, now called the Gandaki, near which Śākyamuni is said to have entered nirvāṇa. The river is identifed with the Ajitavati.

尸迦羅 越 said to be Sujāta, son of an elder of Rājagṛha and the same as 須闍陀.

尸陀 (林) Śītavana, 尸林; 尸陀婆; 尸多婆那; 屍陀 cold grove 寒林, i. e. a place for exposing corpses, a cemetery. It is also styled 恐毘林, 安陀林, 晝暗林; also v. 尸摩賖那 or 深摩舍那 śmaśāna.

山 A hill, mountain; a monastery.

山世 'Mountain world' i. e. monasteries.

山僧 (1) 'Hill monk', self-deprecatory term used by monks. (2) A monk dwelling apart from monasteries.

山外 A branch of the Tiantai School founded by 晤恩 Wu En (d. A. D. 986) giving the 'shallower' interpretation of the teaching of this sect; called Shan-wai because it was developed in temples away from the Tiantai mountain. The

'Profounder' sect was developed at Tien-tai and is known as 山家宗 'the sect of the mountain family ' or home sect.

山家 The 'mountain school', the ' profounder ' interpretation of Tiantai doctrines developed by 四明 Ssu-ming; v. last entry.

山斤 The weight of a mountain, or of Sumeru— may be more readily ascertained than the eternity of the Buddha.

山毫 Writing brushes as numerous as mountains, or as the trees on the mountains (and ink as vast as the ocean).

山水衲 ' Mountain and water robe, ' the name of a monastic garment during the Sung dynasty; later this was the name given to a richly embroidered dress.

山海如來 Sāgara-varadhara-buddhi-vikiditā-bhijñā. 山海慧 (or 惠) 自在通王如來. The name under which Ānanda is to reappear as Buddha, in Anavanamita-vaijayanta, during the kalpa Manojna-sabdabhigarjita, v. 法華經.

山海空市 'Mountains, seas, the sky, the (busy) market place' cannot conceal one from the eye of 無常 Impermanence, the messenger of death, a phrase summing up a story of four brothers who tried to use their miraculous power

to escape death by hiding in the mountains, seas, sky, and market places. The one in the market place was the first to be reported as dead, 法句經 2.

山王 The king of the mountains, i. e. the highest peak.

山門 The gate of a monastery; a monastery.

川 A stream, a mountain stream; Ssu-ch'uan province.

川施餓鬼 Making offerings at the streams to the ghosts of the drowned.

工 Work, a period of work, a job.

工夫 Time, work, a term for meditation; also 功夫.

工巧明 Śilpasthana-vidyā. 巧業明 One of the five departments of knowledge dealing with the arts, e. g. the various crafts, mechanics, natural science (yin-yang), calculations (especially for the calendar and astrology),


工伎鬼 Nata, a dancer; the skilful or wily one, i. e. the heart or mind.

Self, personal, own.

己利 Personal advantage, or profit.

己心 One's own heart.


己心法門 己心中所行法門 The method of the self-realization of truth, the intuitive method of meditation, 止觀 1.

己界 The buddha-kāya, or realm of Buddha in contrast with the realm of ordinary beings.

己證, 自證 Self-attained assurance of the truth, such as that of the Buddha.

己身彌陀唯心淨土 Myself (is) Amitābha, my mind (is) the Pure Land. All things are but the one Mind, so that outside existing beings there is no Buddha and no Pure Land. Thus Amitābha is the Amitābha within and the [[Pure

Land]] is the Pure Land of the mind. It is an expression of Buddhist pantheism— that all is Buddha and Buddha is all.

已 Already, past; end, cease.

已今當 Past, present, future, 過去, 現在, 未來.

已今當往生 Those born into the 'future life, ' (of the Pure Land) in the past, in the present, and to be born in the future.

已生 部多 bhūta. Become, the moment just come into existence, the present moment; being, existing; a being, ghost, demon; a fact; an element, of which the Hindus have five— earth, water, fire, air, ether; the


已知根 ājñendriya. The second of the 三無漏根 q. v. One who already knows the indriya or roots that arise from the practical stage associated with the Four Dogmas, i. e. purpose, joy, pleasure, renunciation,

faith, zeal, memory, abstract meditation, wisdom.

已過大德 A monk far advanced in religion; an arhat.

已還 Already returned, or, begun again, e. g. the recommencement of a cycle, or course.

已離欲者 Those who have abandoned the desire-realm; divided into two classes, 異生 ordinary people who have left desire, but will be born into the six gati; 聖者 the saints, who will not be reborn into the desire-

realm; e. g. non-Buddhists and Buddhists.

干 A shield; a stem, or pole; to offend; to concern; to seek.

干栗馱 干栗太; 乾栗馱; 訖利多 hṛd, hṛdaya, the physical heart.

干闍那 建折那 kāñcana, golden; i. e. a tree, a shrub of the same type, with golden hue, described as of the leguminous order; perhaps the Kunjara. Wrongly written 于 (or 那) 于闍羅 and 千闍那.

弓 Dhanus. A bow; a bow's length, i. e. the 4, 000th part of a yojana. Seven grains of wheat 麥 make 1 finger-joint 指節; 24 finger-joints make 1 elbow or cubit 肘; 4 cubits make 1 bow; or 1 foot 5 inches make 1 elbow or cubit: 4 cubits

make 1 bow; 300 bows make 1 li; but the measures are variously given.

弓槃茶 Kumbhāṇḍa demons, v. 鳩.


不 No, not, none. (Sanskrit a, an. ).

不一不異 Neither unity nor diversity, or doctrine of the 中論, v. 八不.

不久 Not long (in time).

不久詣道場 Not long before he visits the place of enlightenment or of Truth, i. e. soon will become a Buddha.

不了 Not to bring to a finish, not to make plain, not plain, not to understand, incomprehensible.

不了義經 Texts that do not make plain the Buddha's whole truth, such as Hīnayāna and 通敎 or intermediate Mahāyāna texts.

不了佛智 The incomprehensible wisdom of Buddha.

不二 advaya. No second, non-duality, the one and undivided, the unity of all things, the one reality、 the universal Buddha-nature. There are numerous combinations, e. g. 善惡不二 good and evil are not a dualism: nor are 有

and 空 the material and immaterial, nor are 迷 and 悟 delusion and awareness— all these are of the one Buddha-nature.

不二不異 neither plural nor diverse, e. g. neither two kinds of nature nor difference in form.

不二之法 The one undivided truth, the Buddha-truth. Also, the unity of the Buddha-nature.

不二法門 is similar to 不二之法; also the cult of the monistic doctrine; and the immediacy of entering into the truth.

不但空 ' Not only the void '; or, non-void; śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas see only the 'void', bodhisattvas see also the non-void, hence 不但空 is the 中道空 the 'void' of the 'mean'. It is a term of the 通敎 Intermediate school.

不來 Not coming (back to mortality), an explanation of 阿那含 anāgāmin.

不來不去 anāgamana-nirgama. Neither coming into nor going out of existence, i. e. the original constituents of all 法 things are eternal; the eternal conservation of energy, or of the primal substance.

不來迎 Without being called he comes to welcome; the Pure-land sect believes that Amitābha himself comes to welcome departing souls of his followers on their calling upon him, but the 淨土眞宗 (Jōdo Shin-shu sect) teaches that

belief in him at any time ensures rebirth in the Pure Land, independently of calling on him at death.


不修外道 One of the ten kinds of ' heresies' founded by Sañjayin Vairāṭīputra, v. 删, who taught that there is no need to 求道 seek the right path, as when the necessary kalpas have passed, mortality ends and nirvana naturally


不偸盜 adinnādāna-veramaṇī; the second of the ten commandments, Thou shalt not steal.

不共 Not in the same class, dissimilar, distinctive, each its own.

不共三昧 asakṛt-samādhi; a samādhi in more than one formula, or mode.

不共不定 One of the six 不定因 indefinite statements of a syllogism, where proposition and example do not agree.

不共中共 The general among the particulars, the whole in the parts.

不共業 Varied, or individual karma; each causing and receiving his own recompense.

不共法 āveṇika-buddhadharma. The characteristics, achievements, and doctrine of Buddha which distinguish him from all others. See 十八不共法.

十八不共法 the eighteen distinctive characteristics as defined by Hīnayāna are his 十力, 四無畏, 三念住 and his 大悲; the Mahāyāna eighteen are perfection of body; of speech; of memory; impartiality or universality; ever in samādhi;

entre self-abnegation; never diminishing will (to save); zeal; thought; wisdom; salvation; insight into salvation; deeds and mind accordant with wisdom; also his speech; also his mind;

omniscience in regard to the past; also to the present; and to the future.

不共無明 Distinctive kinds of unenlightenment, one of the two kinds of ignorance, also styled 獨頭無明; particular results arising from particular evils.

不共相 Dissimilarity, singularity, sui generis.

不共般若 The things special to bodhisattvas in the 般若經 in contrast with the things they have in common with śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas.

不共變 Varied, or individual conditions resulting from karma; every one is his own transmigration; one of the 四變.

不分別 The indivisible, or middle way 中道.

不動 acala; niścala; dhruva. The unmoved, immobile, or motionless; also 無動 the term is used for the unvarying or unchanging, for the pole-star, for fearlessness, for indifference to passion or temptation. It is a special term

of Shingon 異言 applied to its most important Bodhisattva, the 不動明王 q. v.

不動佛 不動如來; 阿閦鞞 or 阿閦婆, Akṣobhya, one of the 五智如來 Five Wisdom, or Dhyāni-Buddhas, viz., Vairocana, Akṣobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitābha, and Amoghasiddhi. He is especially worshipped by the Shingon sect, as a

disciple of Vairocana. As Amitābha is Buddha in the western heavens, so Akṣobhya is Buddha in the eastern heaven of Abhirati, the realm of joy, hence he is styled 善快 or 妙喜, also 無瞋恚 free from

anger. His cult has existed since the Han dynasty, see the Akṣobhya-Tathāgatasya-vyūha. He is first mentioned in the prajnapāramitā sutra, then in the Lotus, where he is the first of the sixteen sons of Mahābhijñā-

jñānabhibhu. His dhyāni-bodhisattva is Vajrapāṇi. His appearance is variously described, but he generally sits on a lotus, feet crossed, soles upward, left hand closed holding robe, right hand fingers extended touching ground

calling it as color is pale gold, some say blue a vajra is before him. His esoteric word is Hum; his element the air, his human form Kanakamuni, v. 拘. Jap. Ashuku, Fudo, and Mudo; Tib. mi-bskyod-pa, mi-'khrugs-pa

(mintug-pa); Mong. Ülü küdelükci. v. 不動明王.

不動供 Offerings to 不動明王.

不動使者 The messengers of Akṣobhya-buddha 不動佛.

不動咒 不動慈救咒; 不動慈護咒; 不動陀羅尼; 不動使者祕密法; 不動使者陀羅尼祕密法. Prayers and spells associated with Akṣobhya-buddha 不動佛 and his messengers.

不動地 The eighth of the ten stages in a Buddha's advance to perfection.

不動安鎭法 Prayers to 不動明王 to protect the house.

不動定 The samādhi, or abstract meditation, in which he abides.

不動明王 不動尊 Aryacalanatha 阿奢羅曩 tr. 不動尊 and 無動尊 and Acalaceta, 阿奢囉逝吒 tr. 不動使者. The mouthpiece or messenger, e. g. the Mercury, of the Buddhas; and the chief of the five Ming Wang. He is regarded as the third person in

the Vairocana trinity. He has a fierce mien overawing all evil spirits. He is said to have attained to Buddhahood, but also still to retain his position with Vairocana. He has many descriptive titles, e. g. 無量力神通無動者

不動忿怒王, etc. Five different verbal signs are given to him. He carries a sharp wisdom-sword, a noose, a thunder-bolt. The colour of his images is various—black, blue, purple. He has a youthful appearance; his hair falls over

his left shoulder; he stands or sits on a rock; left eye closed; mouth shut, teeth gripping upper lip, wrinkled forehead, seven locks of hair, full-bodied, A second representation is with four faces and four arms, angry mien,

protruding teeth, with fames around him. A third with necklaces. A fourth, red, seated on a rock, fames, trident, etc. There are other forms. He has fourteen distinguishing symbols, and many dharanis associated with the realm

of fire, of saving those in distress, and of wisdom. He has two messengers 二童子 Kimkara 矜羯羅 and Cetaka 制吒迦, and, including these, a group of eight messengers 八大童子 each with image, symbol, word-sign, etc. Cf. 不動佛.

不動法 Prayer for the aid of 不動明王 to end calamity and cause prosperity.


不動無爲 One of the six 無爲 kinds of inaction, or laissez aIIer, the state of being unmoved by pleasure or pain.

不動解脫 liberation from being disturbed (by the illusions of life).

不動阿羅漢 an arhat who has attained to the state of the immovable liberation 不動解脫.

不動生死 Immortality, nirvana.

不動義 Immobility, one of the ten meanings of the void.

不動講 An assembly for preaching and praising the virtues of 不動尊.

不動金剛明王 The 不動尊 as the vajra representative, or embodiment, of Vairocana for saving all sentient beings.

不卽不離 Neither the thing itself nor something apart, e. g. the water and the wave; similar to 不一不異.

不取正覺願 Amitābha's vow of not taking up his Buddhahood till each of his forty-eight vows is fulfilled, an affix to each of the vows.

不受一切法 Free from the receptivity, or sensation, of things, emancipated from desire.

不受三昧 In the Lotus Sutra, cap. 25, the bodhisattva 無盡意 obeying the Buddha's command, offered Guanyin a jewel-garland, which the latter refused saying he had not received the Buddha's command to accept it.

This attitude is attributed to his 不受 samādhi, the samādhi of 畢竟空 utter 'voidness', or spirituality.

不可 May not, can not: unpermissible, for-bidden; unable. Buke, the name of a monk of the 靈妙寺 Ling Miao monastery in the Tang dynasty, a disciple of Subha-karāṣimha, and one of the founders of 眞言 Shingon.

不可得 ampalabhya; alabhya. Beyond laying hold of, unobtainable, unknowable, unreal, another name for 空 the void. See 三世心不可得.

三世心不可得 The mind or thought, past, present, future, cannot be held fast; the past is gone, the future not arrived, the present does not stay.

不可得空 One of the eighteen 空; it is the 言亡慮絕之空, the 'void' that is beyond words or thought.

不可思議 Beyond thought or description, v. 不思議.

言亡慮絕之空 The 'void' that is beyond words or thought.

四不可思議 The four indescribables, v. 增一阿含經 18, are the worlds; living beings; dragons (nagas); and the size of the Buddha-lands.

五不可思議 The five indescribables, of the 智度論 30, are: The number of living beings; all the consequences of karma; the powers of a state of dhyāna; the powers of nagas; the powers of the Buddhas.

不可思議尊 不可思議光如來 The ineffable Honoured One; the Tathāgata of ineffable light; titles of Amitābha.

不可思議解脫經 A name for the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.

不可思議經 A name for the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra. The full title is also a name for the 維摩經 Vimalakīrti-sūtra.

不可思議解脫法門 The samādhi, or liberation of mind, that ensures a vision of the ineffable.

不可有 The existence of those who do the 不可, or forbidden, i. e. the hells.

不可棄 Not to be cast away— said to be the name of the founder of the Mahīśāsakah, or 化地 school, cast into a well at birth by his mother, saved by his father, at first brahman, afterwards a Buddhist; v. 文殊問經, but probably


不可稱智 The Buddha wisdom that in its variety is beyond description.

不可見有對色 invisible, perceptible, or material things, e. g. sound, smell, etc.

不可見無對色 Invisible, imperceptible, or immaterial things.

不可說 Unmentionable, indefinable; truth that can be thought but not expressed.

不可說佛 Gaṇendra; the 733rd of the Buddhas of the present kalpa 賢劫, in which 1,000 Buddhas are to appear, of whom four have appeared.

不可越守護 Two guardians of the Law on the right of Mañjuśrī in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, named 難持 and 難勝.

不和合性 unharmonizing natures, one of the 五法.

不善 Not good; contrary to the right and harmful to present and future life, e. g. 五逆十惡.

不善律儀 idem 非律儀, i. e. 不法 or 非善戒.

不喞M066116 Ignorant, rustic: immature or ignorant.

不坐高廣大牀 anuccaśayanāmahāśayana. Not to sit on a high, broad, large bed, the ninth of the ten commandments.

不增不減 Neither adding nor subtracting; nothing can be added or taken away. In referenc to the absolute 實相之空理 nothing can be added or taken away; vice versa with the relative.

不增減眞如 the unvarying 眞如 bhūtatathatā, one of the ten 眞如; also the eighth of the 十地.

不壞 avināśya; indestructible, never decaying, eternal.

不壞句 A term in 眞言 Shingon for the magic word 阿 'a', the indestructible embodiment of Vairocana.

不壞四禪 The four dhyāna heavens, where the samādhi mind of meditation is indestructible, and the external world is indestructible by the three final catastrophes.

不壞法 Two kinds of arhats practice the 白骨觀 skull meditation, the dull who consider the dead as ashes, the intelligent who do not, but derive supernatural powers from the meditation.


不壞金剛 Vairocana the indestructible, or eternal.

不壞金剛光明心殿 The luminous mind-temple of the eternal 大日 Vairocana, the place in the Vajradhātu, or Diamond realm, of Vairocana as teacher.

不如蜜多 The twenty-sixth patriarch, said to be Puryamitra (Eitel), son of a king in Southern India, labored in eastern India, d. A. D. 388 by samādhi.

不妄語 musāvādā-veramaṇī, the fourth commandment, thou shalt not lie; no false speaking.

不婬慾 abrahamacaryā-veramaṇī, the third commandment, thou shalt not commit adultery, i. e. against fornication and adultery for the lay, and against all unchastity for the clerics.

不學 aśaikṣa; no longer studying, graduated, one who has attained.

不定 Unfixed, unsettled, undetermined, uncertain.

不定受業 One of the 'four karma' — aniyata or indefinite karma; opposite of 定業.

不定地法 One of the six mental conditions, that of undetermined character, open to any influence good or evil.

不定性 (不定種性) Of indeterminate nature. The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school divides all beings into five classes according to their potentialities. This is one of the divisions and contains four combinations: (1) Bodhisattva-cum-śrāvaka, with

uncertain result depending on the more dominant of the two; (2) bodhisattva-cum-pratyekabuddha; (3) śrāvaka-cum-pratyekabuddha; (4) the characteristcs of all three vehicles intermingled with uncertain results; the third

cannot attain Buddhahood, the rest may.

不定性聚 不定聚 One of the three Tiantai groups of humanity, the indeterminate normal class of people, as contrasted with sages 定性聚 whose natures are determined for goodness, and the wicked 邪定性聚 whose natures are determined for


不定教 Indeterminate teaching. Tiantai divides the Buddha' s mode of teaching into four; this one means that Buddha, by his extraordinary powers of 方便 upāya-kauśalya, or adaptability, could confer Mahāyāna benefits on

his hearers out of his Hīnayāna teaching and vice versa, dependent on the capacity of his hearers.

不定觀 (不定止觀) Direct insight without any gradual process of samādhi; one of three forms of Tiantai meditation.

不害 ahiṃsā. Harmlessness, not injuring, doing harm to none.

不審 A term of greeting between monks. i. e. I do not take the liberty of inquiring into your condition.

不廻 Anagamin. He who does not return; one exempt from transmigration.

不律儀 Practices not in accord with the rule: immoral or subverted rules, i. e. to do evil, or prevent good; heretical rules and practices.

不忘禪 The meditation against forgetfulness.

不思議 acintya. 阿軫帝也 Beyond thought and words, beyond conception, baffling description, amazing.

不思議乘 The ineffable vehicle, Buddhism.

不思議慧童子 The youth of ineffable wisdom, one of the eight youths in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu.

不思議智 acintya-jñāna, inconceivable wisdom, the indescribable Buddha-wisdom.

不思議業相 Inexpressible karma-merit always working for the benefit of the living.

不思議界 acintyadhātu. The realm beyond thought and words, another name for the bhūtatathatā, 眞如.

不思議眞言相道法 The practice of the presence of the invisible Dharmakāya in the esoteric word.

不思議空 第一義空 The Void beyond thought or discussion, a conception of the void, or that which is beyond the material, only attained by Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

不思議空智 The wisdom thus attained which removes all distresses and illusions.

不思議經 The 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.

不思議解脫經 The 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.

不思議薰 The indescribable vāsanā, i. e. suffusion, or 'fuming', or influence of primal 無明 ignorance, on the 眞如 bhūtatathatā, producing all illusion. v 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

不思議變 The indescribable changes of the bhūtatathatā in the multitudinous forms of all things.

不思議易生死 Ineffable changes and transmigrations, i. e. to the higher stages of mortality above the traidhātuka or trailokya 三界.

不悅 Unhappy, uneasy, the disturbing influence of desire.

不惜身命 The bodhisattva virtue of not sparing one's life (for the sake of bodhi).

不懺舉 The excommunication of an unrepentant monk; one of the 三舉.

不才淨 Neither clever nor pure— a term of rebuke.


不拜 Lay Buddhists may not pay homage to the gods or demons of other religions; monks and nuns may not pay homage to kings or parents.

不捉持生像金銀寶物 jātarūpa-rajata-pratigrahaṇād vaira maṇī (virati). The tenth commandment, not to take or possess uncoined or coined gold and silver, or jewels.

不捨誓約 Amitābha's vow of non-abandonment, not to enter Buddhahood till all were born into his Paradise.

不放逸 No slackness or looseness; concentration of mind and will on the good.

不斷 Without ceasing, unceasing.

不斷光 The unceasing light (or glory) of Amitābha.

不斷光佛 One of the twelve shining Buddhas.

不斷常 Unceasing continuity.

不斷念佛 Unceasing remembrance, or invocation of the Buddha.

不斷相應染 One of the 六染心.

不斷讀經 Unceasing reading of the sutras.

不斷經 Unceasing reading of the sutras.

不斷輪 Unceasing turning of the wheel, as in a monastery by relays of prayer and meditation.

不時解脫 The sixth, or highest of the six types of arhats; the other five groups have to bide their time and opportunity 時解脫 for liberation in samādhi, the sixth can enter immediately.

不更惡趣願 The second of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that those born in his kingdom should never again enter the three evil lower paths of transmigration.

不染世間法 Unsullied by the things of the world (e. g. the lotus).

不染汚無知 Uncontaminated ignorance.

不染著諸法三昧 The samādhi which is uncontaminated by any (evil) thing, the samādhi of purity; i. e. Mañjuśrī in samādhi holding as symbol of it a blue lotus in his left hand.

不歌舞倡伎不往觀聽 nāṭya-gīta-vāditra-viśūkadarśanād-vairamaṇī (virati). The seventh commandment against taking part in singing, dancing, plays, or going to watch and hear them.

不正食 Not strict food, not exactly food, things that do not count as a meal, e. g. fruit and nuts.

不死 Undying, immortal.

不死甘露 Sweet dew of immortality, a baptismal water of 眞言 Shingon.

不死藥 Medicine of immortality, called shāhē 裟訶, which grows on 雪山 the Himālayas and bestows on anyone seeing it endless and painless life.

不死覺 One of the eight 覺, the desire for long life.

不死門 The gate of immortality or nirvana, i. e. Mahāyāna.

不殺生 prāṇātipātād vairamaṇī (virati). The first commandment, Thou shalt not kill the living.

不法 Not in accordance with the Buddha law, wrong, improper, unlawful.

不活畏 The fear of giving all and having nothing to keep one alive: one of the five fears.

不滅 anirodha, not destroyed, not subject to annihilation.

不滅不生 anirodhānupāda, neither dying nor being reborn, immortal, v. 不生.

不淨 Unclean, common, vile.

不淨忿怒 不淨金剛; 鳥樞沙摩明王 or 鳥芻沙摩明王; 觸金剛 Ucchuṣma, a bodhisattva connected with 不動明王 who controls unclean demons.

不淨施 'Unclean' almsgiving, i. e. looking for its reward in this or the next life.

不淨肉 'Unclean', flesh, i. e. that of animals, fishes, etc., seen being killed, heard being killed, or suspected of being killed; Hīnayāna forbids these, Mahāyāna forbids all flesh.

不淨行 非梵行 Ignoble or impure deeds, sexual immorality.

不淨觀 The meditation on the uncleanness of the human body of self and others, e. g. the nine stages of disintegration of the dead body 九想 q.v.; it is a meditation to destroy 貪 desire; other details are:

parental seed, womb, the nine excretory passages, the body's component parts, worm-devoured corpse — all unclean.

不淨觀經 A sutra of Dharmatrata.

不淨說法 邪命說法 'Unclean' preaching, i. e. to preach, whether rightly or wrongly, from an impure motive, e. g. for making a living.

不淨輪 One of the three 輪: impermanence, impurity, distress 無常, 不淨, 苦.

不生 anutpatti; anutpāda. Non-birth: not to be reborn, exempt from rebirth; arhan is mistakenly interpreted as 'not born', meaning not born again into mortal worlds. The 'nir' in nirvana is also erroneously said to

mean 'not born'; certain schools say that nothing ever has been born, or created, for all is eternal. The Shingon word 'a' is interpreted as symbolizing the uncreated. The unborn or uncreated is a name for the Tathāgata,

who is not born, but eternal ; hence by implication the term means "eternal". ādi, which means"at first, " "beginning","primary", is also interpreted as 不生 uncreated.


不生斷 One of the 三斷, when illusion no longer arises the sufferings of being reborn in the evil paths are ended.

不生不滅 v. 不滅 'Neither (to be) born nor ended' is another term for 常住 permanent, eternal; nothing having been created nothing can be destroyed; Hīnayāna limits the meaning to the state of nirvana, no more births and

deaths; Mahāyāna in its Mādhyamika form extends it universally, no birth and death, no creation and annihilation, see 中論.

四不生 Nothing is produced (1) of itself; (2) of another, i. e. of a cause without itself; (3) of both; (4) of no-cause.

不疑殺 Not in doubt that the creature has been killed to feed me, v. 不淨肉.

不相應心 The non-interrelated mind, see 起信論.

不相應行 Actions non-interrelated (with mind).

不空 Amogha, Amoghavajra. 不空三藏; 智藏; 阿目佉跋折羅 Not empty (or not in vain) vajra. The famous head of the Yogācāra school in China. A Singhalese of northern brahmanic descent, having lost his father, he came at the

age of 15 with his uncle to 東海, the eastern sea, or China, where in 718 he became a disciple of 金剛智 Vajrabodhi. After the latter's death in 732, and at his wish, Eliot says in 741, he went to India and Ceylon in

search of esoteric or tantric writings, and returned in 746, when he baptized the emperor Xuan Tsung. He was especially noted for rain-making and stilling storms. In 749 he received permission to return home, but was stopped by

imperial orders when in the south of China. In ?756 under Su Tsung he was recalled to the capital. His time until 771 was spent translating and editing tantric books in 120 volumes, and the Yogacara 密教 rose to its peak of

prosperity. He died greatly honoured at 70 years of age, in 774, the twelfth year of Tai Tsung, the third emperor under whom he had served. The festival of feeding the hungry spirits 孟蘭勝會 is attributed to him. His titles of 智藏

and 不空三藏 are Thesaurus of Wisdom and Amogha Tripitaka.

不空供養菩薩 Āryāmogha-pūrṇamaṇi, also styled 如意金剛 'At will vajra'; in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, the fifth on the south of the 悉地 court.

不空如來藏 不空眞如 The realm of phenomena; in contrast with the universal 眞如 or 法身 dharmakāya, unmingled with the illusion of phenomena.

不空成就如來 Amoghasiddhi. The Tathāgata of unerring performance, the fifth of the five wisdom or dhyāni-buddhas of the diamond-realm. He is placed in the north; his image is gold-colored, left hand clenched, right fingers

extended pointing to breast. Also, 'He is seated in 'adamantine' pose (legs closely locked) '(Getty), soles apparent, left hand in lap, palm upwards, may balance a double vajra, or sword; right hand erect in blessing, fingers

extended. Symbol, double vajra; color, green (Getty); word, ah!; blue-green lotus; element, earth; animal, garuḍa; Śakti (female personification), Tārā; Mānuṣi-Buddha (human or savior Buddha), Maitreya.

T., dongrub; J., Fukū jō-jū.

不空羂索 An unerring lasso. See 不空羂索菩薩.

不空羂索菩薩 (不空羂索觀音 or 不空羂索王); Amoghapāśa 阿牟伽皤賖. Not empty (or unerring) net, or lasso. One of the six forms of Guanyin in the Garbhadhātu group, catching deva and human fish for the bodhi-shore. The image has three

faces, each with three eyes and six arms, but other forms have existed, one with three heads and ten arms, one with one head and four arms. The hands hold a net, lotus, trident, halberd, the gift of courage, and a

plenipotentiary staff; sometimes accompanied by 'the green Tārā, Sudhana-Kumāra, Hayagrīva and Bhṛkuṭī (Getty). There are numerous sutras, etc.

不空見菩薩 Amoghadarśin, the unerringly seeing Bodhisattva, shown in the upper second place of Titsang's court in the Garbhadhātu; also 普觀金剛.

不空金剛菩薩 Amoghavajra-bodhisattva. 阿目佶跋折羅 A Bodhisattva in the 蘇悉地 court of the Garbhadhātu.

不空鉤觀音 Amoghāṅkuśa. 央倶捨 Guanyin of the 'Unerring hook', similar to 不空羂索觀音; also styled 淸淨蓮華明王央倶捨; in the court of the empyrean.

不立文字 (不立文字教) The 禪 ch'an or intuitive School does 'not set up scriptures'; it lays stress on meditation and intuition rather than on books and other external aids: cf. Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra.

不輕 Never Despise, 常不輕菩薩 a previous incarnation of the Buddha, as a monk whose constant greeting to all he met, that they were destined for Buddhahood, brought him much persecution; see the chapter of this title in the

Lotus Sutra.

不輕行 The practice of 'Never Despise'. See 不輕.

不綺語 Unrefined, indecent, improper, or smart speech.

不著香華鬘不香塗身 mālā-gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana-vibhūṣaṇasthānād vairamaṇī (virati). The eighth commandment against adorning the body with wreaths of fragrant fowers, or using fragrant unguents.


不聞惡名願 The sixteenth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that he would not enter final Buddhahood as long as anyone of evil repute existed.

不臘次 (or 不臈次) Not in order of age, i. e. clerical age; disorderly sitting; taking a seat to which one is not entitled.

不自在 Not independent, not one's own master, under governance.

不與取 adattādāna. Taking that which is not given, i. e. theft; against this is the second commandment.

不苦不樂受 one of the 三受, the state of experiencing neither pain nor pleasure, i. e. above them. Also styled 捨受 the state in which one has abandoned both.

不蘭迦葉 Pūraṇa-kāśyapa. 富蘭那迦葉 One of the six heretics, or Tirthyas, opposed to Śākyamuni.

不虛妄性 Not of false or untrue nature; true, sincere; also 眞實性.

不行而行 Without doing yet to do, e. g. 無爲而爲.

不覺 Unenlightened, uncomprehending, without 'spiritual' insight, the condition of people in general, who mistake the phenomenal for the real, and by ignorance beget karma, reaping its results in the

mortal round of transmigration; i. e. people generally.

不覺現行位 The first two of the 十地 of the saint, in which the illusion of mistaking the phenomenal for the real still arises.

不說四衆過罪戒 The prohibition of mentioning the errors and sins of other disciples, cleric or lay.

不請 Not to request; uninvited; voluntary.

不請之友 The uninvited friend, i. e. the Bodhisattva.

不請法 Uninvited preaching or offering of the Law, i. e. voluntarily bestowing its benefits.

不變易性 Unchanging nature, immutable, i. e. the bhūtatathatā.

不變眞如 The immutable bhūtatathatā in the absolute, as compared with 隨緣眞如, i. e. in relative or phenomenal conditions.

不變隨緣 The conditioned immutable, i. e. immutable as a whole, but not in its parts, i. e. its phenomenal activity.

不起法忍 The stage of endurance, or patient meditation, that has reached the state where phenomenal illusion ceases to arise, through entry into the realization of the Void, or noumenal; also 生法忍 (or 起法忍) .

不退 (不退轉) avaivartika, or avinivartanīya. Never receding, always progressing, not backsliding, or losing ground; never retreating but going straight to nirvana; an epithet of every Buddha.

三不退 Never receding from 位 position attained; from a right course of 行 action; from pursuing a right line of 念 thought, or mental discipline. These are duties of every bodhisattva, and have numerous interpretations.

四不退 The four kinds of non-backsliding, which includes three kinds of non-backsliding 三不退, on top of which the Pure Land sect adds another 處 place or abode, i. e. that those who reach the Pure Land never fall away, for which

five reasons are given termed 五種不退. The 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect makes their four 信, 位, 證, and 行, faith, position attained, realization, and accordant procedure.

不退住 The seventh of the 十住, the stage of never receding, or continuous progress.

不退土 The Pure Land, from which there is no falling away.

不退地 The first of a bodhisattva's 十地; it is also interpreted by right action and right thought.

不退相 One of the nine 無學 aśaikṣa, i. e. the stage beyond study, where intuition rules. Name of one of the twenty-seven sages.

不退菩薩 A never receding bodhisattva, who aims at perfect enlightenment.

不退輪 (不退轉法輪) The never-receding Buddha vehicle, of universal salvation.

不還 Not to return, never returning. Cf. 不退.

不還向 The third of the 四向 four directions or aims, see 阿那含 anāgāmin, not returning to the desire-world, but rising above it to the 色界 or the 無色界 form-realm, or even formless realm.

不還果 The fruits, fruition, or rewards of the last. Various stages in the final life of parinirvāṇa are named, i. e. five, six, seven, eight, nine, or eleven kinds.

不釐務侍者 A nominal assistant or attendant, an attendant who has no responsibilities.


不非時食 Vikāla-bhojanād vairamaṇī (virati); part of the sixth of the ten commandments, i. e. against eating out of regulation hours, v. 不食肉.

不顧論宗 One of the 因明四宗, a philosophical school, whose rule was self-gratification, 'not caring for' others.

不飮酒 surā-maireya-madya-pramādasthānād vairamaṇī (virati). The fifth of the ten commandments, i. e. against alcohol.

不食肉 vikālabhojana; part of the sixth of the ten commandments, i. e. against eating flesh; v. 不非時食.

madhya. Middle, central, medium, the mean, within; to hit the centre. v. also 三諦.

中乘 The middle vehicle to nirvana, includes all intermediate or medial systems between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. It also corresponds with the state of a pratyekabuddha, who lives chiefly for his own salvation but partly for

others, like a man sitting in the middle of a vehicle, leaving scarcely room for others. It is a definition made by Mahayanists unknown to Hīnayāna.

中價衣 Another name for the uttarā saṅghāṭī, the middle garment of price, or esteem.

中元 The fifteenth of the seventh moon; see 孟蘭盆.

上元 The fifteenth of the first moon. See 孟蘭盆.

下元 The fifteenth of the tenth moon; cf. 孟蘭盆.

中劫 Middling kalpa, a period of 336, 000, 000 years.

中千界 (中千世界) A middling chiliocosm, see 三千大千世界.

中印 Central India, i. e. of the 五印 five Indies, as mentioned by Xuanzang in the 西域記.

中含 The middle Agama 阿含經.

中品 Middle rank or class.

中唄 Chanting of 梵唄 Buddhist hymns is divided into three kinds 初, 中, and 後.

中因 An arrangement by the esoteric sect of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, Vairocana being the first in position, Akṣobhya east, and so on.

中國 Madhyadesa. 中天 (中天竺); 中梵 The middle kingdom, i. e. Central North India, v. 中印.

中士 medium disciples, i. e. śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, who can gain emancipation for themselves, but cannot confer it on others: cf. 下士 and 上士.

中天 (中天竺) Central North India, idem 中國.

中天竺寺 A monastery on the 飛來 Feilai peak at Hangchow.

中宗 The school or principle of the mean, represented by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, which divides the Buddha's teaching into three periods, the first in which he preached 有 existence, the second 空 non-existence, the third 中

neither, something 'between' or above them, e. g. a realm of pure spirit, vide the 深密經 Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra and the Lotus Sutra.

中宿依 A monk's inner garment, i. e. the five-patch garment; also 中着依.

中實 idem 中道實相.

中尊 The central honored one— in any group of Buddhas, e. g. 不動尊 among the five 明王.

中心 idem 忠心經.

中悔 Repenting or recanting midway, i. e. doubting and falling away.

中有 One of the 四有, i. e. the antarā-bhāva or intermediate state of existence between death and reincarnation; hence 中有之旅 is an unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincarnation; v. 中陰.

中有之旅 An unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincarnation; v. 中陰.

中根 Medium capacity, neither clever nor dull, of each of the six organs 六根; there are three powers of each organ 上根, 中根, and 下根.

中梵 Central North India, idem 中國.


中洲 Each of the four great continents at the foot of Mount Sumeru has two middling continents.

中流 In the midst of the stream, i. e. of 生死 mortality, or reincarnations.

中胎 (中胎藏) The central figure of the eight-petalled group of the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala; i. e. the phenomenal Vairocana who has around him four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas, each on a petal. From this maṇḍala spring the

four other great maṇḍalas.

中臺 The name of a Buddha in the center of lotus.

中臺八葉院 The Court of the eight-petaled lotus in the middle of the Garbhadhātu, with Vairocana in its center and four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the eight petals. The lotus is likened to the human heart,

with the Sun-Buddha 大日 at its center. The four Buddhas are E. Akṣobhya, S. Ratnasambhava, W. Amitābha, N. Amoghasiddhi; the four bodhisattvas are S. E. Samantabhadra, S. W. Mañjuśrī, N. W. Avalokiteśvara, and N.

E. Maitreya.

中般 One of the five kinds of those who never recede but go on to parinirvāṇa, cf. 不還.

中草 Medium-sized herbs, medium capacity, v. 三草.

中觀 Meditation on the Mean, one of the 三觀; also meditation on the absolute which unites all opposites. There are various forms of such meditation, that of the 法相宗, the 三論宗, the 天台宗. v. 中論.

中論 中觀論 Prāñnyāya-mūla-śāstra-ṭīkā, or Prāṇyamula-śāstra-ṭīkā; the Mādhyamika-śāstra, attributed to the bodhisattvas Nāgārjuna as creator, and Nīlacakṣus as compiler; tr. by Kumārajīva A. D. 409. It is the principal work of the

Mādhyamika, or Middle School, attributed to Nāgārjuna. Versions only exist in Chinese and Tibetan; an English translation by Miyamoto exists and publication is promised; a German version is by Walleser. The 中論 is

the first and most?? important of the 三論 q. v. The teaching of this School is found additionally in the 順中論; 般若燈論釋大乘中觀釋論 and 中論疏. Cf. 中道. The doctrine opposes the rigid categories of existence and non-existence 假 and 空,

and denies the two extremes of production (or creation) and nonproduction and other antitheses, in the interests of a middle or superior way.

中論性教 The Mādhyamika school, which has been described as a system of sophisiic nihilism, dissolving every proposition into a thesis and its antithesis, and refuting both; but it is considered by some that the refuting of both is

in the interests of a third, the 中 which transcends both.

中諦 The third of the 三諦 three postulates of the Tiantai school, i. e. 空, 假, and 中 q. v.

中輩 The middle stage of the 三輩 referred to in the 無量壽經 i. e. the middle class of those in the next life; also 中輩生.

中輩觀 the meditation on the condition of 中輩.

中道 The 'mean' has various interpretations. In general it denotes the mean between two extremes, and has special reference to the mean between realism and nihilism, or eternal substantial existence and [[Wikipedia:


annihilation]]; this 'mean' is found in a third principle between the two, suggesting the idea of a realm of mind or spirit beyond the terminology of 有 or 無, substance or nothing, or, that which has form, and is

therefore measurable and ponderable, and its opposite of total non-existence. See 中論. The following four Schools define the term according to their several scriptures: the 法相 School describes it as the 唯識, v. 唯識中道; the 三論 School

as the 八不 eight negations, v. 三論; the Tiantai as 實相 the true reality; and the Huayan as the 法界 dharmadhātu. Four forms of the Mean are given by the 三論玄義.

中道卽法界 The doctrine of the 'mean', is the dharmadhātu, or 'spiritual ' universe.

中道宗 The third period of the Buddha's teaching, according to the 法相宗, giving the via media between the two extremes, the absolute as not confined to the phenomenal or the noumenal; also called 中道教.

中道實相 The reality of the 'mean' is neither 有 substance or existent, nor 空 void or non-existent, but a reality which is neither, or a mean between the two extremes of materialism and nihilism; also 中


中道應本 The 'mean' as the basic principle in the 別 and 圓 schools of the doctrine of the 應化身 'transformation body'.

中道第一義 The 'mean' is the first and chief of all principles, nothing is outside it.

中道觀 One of the Tiantai 三觀 three meditations, i. e. on the doctrine of the Mean to get rid of the illusion of phenomena.


中邊論 A treatise by Vasubandhu, translated by Xuanzang in three chuan and by 陳眞諦Chen Zhen-ti in two fascicles. It is an explanation of the 辨中邊論頌 Madhyānta-vibhāga-śāstra, said to have been given by Maitreya to Asaṅga.

中間定 An intermediate dhyāna stage between two dhyāna-heavens; also 中間三昧; 中間靜慮.

中陰 The intermediate existence between death and reincarnation, a stage varying from seven to forty-nine days, when the karma-body will certainly be reborn; v. 中有.

中陰法事 The means used (by the deceased' s family) for ensuring a favorable reincarnation during the intermediate stage, between death and reincarnation.

中食 The midday meal, after which nothing whatever may be eaten.

中體 The central Buddha in a group.

丹 Red, cinnabar color; a remedy, drug, elixir.

丹田 The pubic region, 2 1/2 inches below the navel.

云 To say, speak.

云云 Continuing to speak; they say, people say; as follows, and so on, etc.

云何 Why?

云何唄 The opening stanza of the Nirvana sutra 3.

互 Interlock, dovetail-mutual.

互用罪 The fault of transferring from one object of worship over to another a, gift, or duty, e. g. using gilt given for an image of Śākyamuni to make one for Maitreya; or 'robbing Peter to pay Paul'.

互跪 Kneeling with both knees at once, as in India; in China the left knee is first placed on the ground; also 互胡跪.

互裟伽藍 Haṃsa saṃghārāma, 'Wild goose monastery, ' on Mount Indraśailaguhā, whose inmates were once saved from starving by the self-sacrifice of a wild goose; also 僧裟伽藍 (or 僧鷹伽藍) .

井 A well.

井中撈月 Like ladling the moon out of the well; the parable of the monkeys who saw the moon fallen into a well, and fearing there would be no more moonlight, sought to save it; the monkey-king hung on to a branch, one hung on to his

tail and so on, but the branch broke and all were drowned.

井河 'Like the well and the river', indicating the impermanence of life. The 'well ' refers to the legend of the man who running away from a mad elephant fell into a well; the 'river ' to a great tree growing on the

river bank yet blown over by the wind.

井華 The flower of the water, i. e. that drawn from the well in the last watch of the night, at which time the water is supposed not to produce animal life.

五 pañca, five.

五三八二 Five, three, eight, two, a summary of the tenets of the 法相 school, 五法, 三性, 八識, and 二無我 q. v.

五上分結 The five higher bonds of desire still existing in the upper realms, i. e. in both the form and formless realms.

五下分結 The five bonds in the lower desire-realms, i. e. desire, dislike, self, heretical ideals, doubt 貪, 瞋, 我, 邪戒, 疑.

五不可思議 The five inconceivable, or thought-surpassing things. v. 不可思議.

五不正食 Five improper things for a monk to eat— twigs, leaves, flowers, fruit, powders.

五不還天 idem 五淨居天.

五不還果 idem 五種阿那含.

五乘 The five vehicles conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the vehicle: they are generally summed up as (1) 入乘 rebirth among men conveyed by observing the five commandments; (2) 天乘 among the devas by the

ten forms of good action; (3) 聲聞乘 among the śrāvakas by the four noble truths; (4) 緣覺乘 among pratyekabuddhas by the twelve nidānas; (5) 菩薩乘 among the Buddhas and bodhisattvas by the six pāramitās 六度 q. v. Another

division is the various vehicles of bodhisattvas; pratyekabuddhas; śrāvakas; general; and devas-and-men. Another is Hīnayāna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, the gods of the Brahma heavens, and those of

the desire-realm. Another is Hīnayāna ordinary disciples: śrāvakas: pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas; and the one all-inclusive vehicle. And a sixth, of Tiantai, is for men; devas; śrāvakas-cum-

pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas: and the Buddha-vehicle. The esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: śrāvakas, with fire: pratyekabuddhas, with wind; and bodhisattvas,

with 空 the 'void'.

五乘齊入 All the different classes will obtain an entrance into the Pure Land by the vow of Amitābha.

五事妄語 The five things fallaciously explained by Mahādeva, as stated in the Kathāvatthu.


五五百年 The five periods each of 500 years. In the tenth chapter of the 大集月藏經 the Buddha is reported as saying that after his death there would be five successive periods each of 500 years, strong consecutively in power (1) of

salvation, (2) of meditation, (3) of learning, (4) of stūpa and temple building, and finally (5) of dissension.

五五菩薩 The twenty-five Bodhisattvas 二十五菩薩.

五人說經 v. 五種說人.

五住地 (五住) The five fundamental condition of 煩惱 the passions and delusions: wrong views which are common to the trailokya; clinging, or attachment, in the desire-realm; clinging, or attachment,

in the form-realm; clinging, or attachment, in the formless realm which is still mortal: the state of unenlightenment or ignorance in the trailokya 三界 which is the root-cause of all distressful

delusion, Also 五住地惑.

五佛 The Five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu; v. 五智如來.

五佛五身 A Shingon term for the five Buddhas in their five manifestations: Vairocana as eternal and pure dharmakāya; Akṣobhya as immutable and sovereign; Ratnasaṃbhava as bliss and glory; Amitābha as wisdom in

action; Śākyamuni as incarnation and nirmāṇakāya.

五佛子 Five classes of Buddhists; also idem 五比丘 q. v.

五佛寶冠 五佛冠; 五智冠 (五智寶冠) ; 五寶天冠; 寶冠 A Buddha-crown containing the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas. The five Buddhas 'are always crowned when holding the śakti, and hence are called by the Tibetans the 'crowned Buddhas'

(Getty). Vairocana in the Vajradhātu wears a crown with five points indicative of the five qualities of perfect wisdom, etc., as represented by the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas.

五佛性 The five characteristics of a Buddha' s nature: the first three are the 三因佛性 q. v., the fourth is 果佛性 the fruition of perfect enlightenment, and the fifth 果果佛性 the fruition of that fruition, or the

revelation of parinirvāṇa. The first three are natural attributes, the two last are acquired.

五佛羯磨印 The manual signs by which the characteristic of each of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas is shown in the Diamond-realm group, i. e. Vairocana, the closed hand of wisdom; Akṣobhya, right fingers touching the ground, firm

wisdom; Ratnasaṃbhava, right hand open uplifted, vow-making sign; Amitābha, samādhi sign, right fingers in left palm, preaching and ending doubts; and Amoghasiddhi, i. e. Śākyamuni, the karma sign, i. e. final

nirvana. These mūdra, or manual signs, are from the 瑜祇經 but other forms are common.

五佛頂 (五佛頂尊); 五頂輪王 Five bodhisattvas sometimes placed on the left of Śākyamuni, indicative of five forms of wisdom: (1) 白傘佛頂輪王 (白蓋佛頂輪王); 白 M027897佛頂, Sitāta-patra, with white parasol, symbol of pure mercy,

one of the titles of Avalokiteśvara; (2) 勝佛頂 Jaya, with sword symbol of wisdom, or discretion; (3) 最勝佛頂 (一字最勝佛頂輪王); 金輪佛頂 (最勝金輪佛頂); 轉輪王佛頂 Vijaya, with golden wheel symbol of unexcelled power of preaching; (4) 火

聚佛頂; 光聚佛頂 (or 放光佛頂 or 火光佛頂) ; 高佛頂 Tejorāṣi, collected brilliance, with insignia of authority 如意寶 or a fame; (5) 捨除佛頂; 除障佛頂; 摧碎佛頂; 除業佛頂; 除蓋障佛頂; 尊勝, etc. Vikīrṇa, scattering and destroying all distressing delusion, with a

hook as symbol.

五佛頂法 The forms, colors, symbols, etc., of the 五佛頂.

五佛頂經 Abbreviation for— 一字佛頂輪王經. There is also a 五佛頂三昧陀羅尼經 translated by Bodhiruci circa A. D. 503.

五佛灌頂 Baptism with five vases of perfumed water, symbol of Buddha-wisdom in its five forms.

五作業根 The five working organs: the mouth, hands, feet, sex organ, and anus.

五位 The five categories, or divisions; there are several groups, e. g. (1) Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna have groupings of all phenomena under five heads, i. e. Hīnayāna has 75 法 which are 11 色法, 1 心法, 46 心所法, 14 不相離法, and 3 無爲法; Mahāyāna

has 100 法 which are 8 心, 51 心所, 11 色, 24 不相因, and 6 無爲法. (2) The five divisions of 唯識 are 資糧位, 加行位, 通達位, 修習位, and 究竟 or 佛位. (3) The five evolutions in the womb are: kalalaṃ, embryo-initiation; arbudaṃ, after 27 days; peśī,

37; ghana, 47; praśākha, 57 days when form and organs are all complete. (4) Certain combinations of the 八卦 Eight Diagrams are sometimes styled 五位君臣 five positions of prince and minister.

五位三昧 五種三昧 The five kinds of samādhi: (1) On mortality, the 四禪 and 八定; (2) śrāvaka on the four axioms; (3) pratyekabuddha on the twelve nidānas; (4) bodhisattva on the 六度 and the 萬行; (5) Buddha on the one Buddha-

vehicle, which includes all others; v. 五乘.

五供養 The five kinds of offerings— unguents, chaplets, incense, food, and lamps (or candles).

五使者 The five messengers of Mañjuśrī, 丈殊五使者, 五種金剛使; they are shown on his left in his court in the Garbhadhātu group; their names are (1) Keśīnī 髻設尼 (or 計設尼) ; 繼室尼. (2) Upakeśīnī 鄔波髻設尼; 烏波髻施儞 (or 烏波髻施尼); 優婆計設尼. (3) Citrā 質多羅

(or 質怛羅). (4) Vasumatī, tr. 慧 and 財慧; 嚩蘇磨 底. (5) Ākarṣaṇī, tr. 請召 , 釣召 and 招召 ;阿羯沙尼.


五倶倫 The five comrades, i. e. Śākyamuni's five old companions in asceticism and first converts, v. 五比丘. Also 五拘鄰.

五條袈裟 (五條) The monk' s robe of five patches or lengths, also termed 下衣 as the lowest of the grades of patch-robes. It is styled 院内道行雜作衣 the garment ordinarily worn in the monastery, when abroad and for general purposes;

also written 五帖袈裟、五條衣.

五停四念 idem 五停心觀 and 四念處 i. e. the five meditations for settling the mind and ridding it of the five errors of desire, hate, ignorance, the self, and a wayward or confused mind; the five meditations are 不

淨觀, 慈悲觀, 因緣觀, 界分別觀 and 數息觀 i. e. the vileness of all things, pity for all, causality, right discrimination, breathing; some substitute meditation on the Buddha in place of the fourth; another division

puts breathing first, and there are other differences.

五八 Five eights, i. e. forty.

五八十具 All the five, eight, and ten commandments, i. e. the three groups of disciples, laity who keep the five and eight and monks who keep the ten.

五八尊 The forty forms of Guanyin, or the Guanyin with forty hands: the forty forms multiplied by the twenty-five things 二十五有 make 1, 000, hence Guanyin with the thousand hands.

五八識 The five sense perceptions and the eighth or ālaya vijñāna, the fecundating principle of consciousness in man.

五具足 The five complete utensils for worship— two flower vases, two candlesticks, and a censer.

五刀 The 'five swords' or slayers who were sent in pursuit of a man who fled from his king, e. g. the five skandhas 五蘊.

五分 idem 五分法身 and 五部大論.

五分律 五分戒本 The Mahīśāsaka Vinaya, or five divisions of the law according to that school.

五分法身 pañca-dharmakāya, the five attributes of the dharmakāya or 'spiritual' body of the Tathāgata, i. e. 戒 that he is above all moral conditions; 定 tranquil and apart from all false ideas; 慧 wise and omniscient;

解脫 free, unlimited, unconditioned, which is the state of nirvana; 解脫知見 that he has perfect knowledge of this state. These five attributes surpass all conditions of form, or the five skandhas; Eitel

interprets this by exemption from all materiality (rūpa); all sensations (vedana); all consciousness (saṃjñā); all moral activity (karman); all knowledge (vijñāna). The esoteric sect has its own group. See

also 五種法身.

五分香 The five kinds of incense, or fragrance, corresponding with the 五分法身, i. e. the fragrance of 戒香, 定香, etc.

五利使 Five of the ten 'runners 'or lictors, i. e. delusions; the ten are divided into five 鈍 dull, or stupid, and five 利 sharp or keen, appealing to the intellect; the latter are 身見, 邊見, 邪見, 見取見, 戒禁取見.

五劫思惟 The five kalpas spent by Amitābha thinking out and preparing for his vows.

五力 pañcabalāni, the five powers or faculties — one of the categories of the thirty-seven bodhipakṣika dharma 三十七助道品; they destroy the 五障 five obstacles, each by each, and are: 信力 śraddhābala, faith (destroying

doubt); 精進力 vīryabala, zeal (destroying remissness); 念 or 勤念 smṛtibala, memory or thought (destroying falsity); 正定力 samādhibala, concentration of mind, or meditation (destroying confused or wandering

thoughts); and 慧力 prajñābala, wisdom (destroying all illusion and delusion). Also the five transcendent powers, i. e. 定力 the power of meditation; 通力 the resulting supernatural powers; 借識力

adaptability, or powers of 'borrowing' or evolving any required organ of sense, or knowledge, i. e. by beings above the second dhyāna heavens; 大願力 the power of accomplishing a vow by a Buddha or

bodhisattva; and 法威德力 the august power of Dharma. Also, the five kinds of Mara powers exerted on sight, 五大明王.

五功德門 The five effective or meritorious gates to Amitābha's Pure Land, i. e. worship of him, praise of him, vows to him, meditation on him, willingness to suffer for universal salvation.

五十三佛 Fifty-three past Buddhas, of which the lists vary.

五十三尊 The fifty-three honored ones of the Diamond group, i. e. the thirty-seven plus sixteen bodhisattvas of the present kalpa.

五十三智識 五十三參 The fifty-three wise ones mentioned in the 入法界 chapter of the Huayan Sutra.


五十二位 The fifty-two stages in the process of becoming a Buddha; of these fifty-one are to bodhisattvahood, the fifty-second to Buddhahood. They are: Ten 十信 or stages of faith; thirty of the 三賢 or three grades of

virtue i. e. ten 十住, ten 十行, and ten 十廻向; and twelve of the three grades of 聖 holiness, or sainthood, i. e. ten 地, plus 等覺 and 妙覺. These are the Tiantai stages; there are others, and the number and character of the stages

vary in different schools.

五十二衆 五十二類 The fifty-two groups of living beings, human and not-human, who, according to the Nirvana-sutra, assembled at the nirvana of the Buddha.

五十二種供物 The fifty-two kinds of offerings of the 五十二衆.

五十二身像 The maṇḍala of Amitābha with his fifty-two attendant Bodhisattvas and Buddhas. Also known as 阿彌陀佛五十菩薩像 or 五十 ニ 尊 or 五通曼荼羅; said to have been communicated to 五通菩薩 in India at the 鷄頭磨寺.

五十五善知識 similar to 五十三智識. 五十八戒 The ten primary commands and the forty-eight secondary commands of the 梵綱經. 五十六億七千萬歳 The perod to elapse between Śākyamuni's nirvana and the advent of Maitreya, 56, 070, 000 years.

五十天供 The fifty (or fify-two) objects of worship for suppressing demons and pestilences, and producing peace, good harvests, etc.; the lists differ.

五十字門 The Sanskrit alphabet given as of fifty letters.

五十小劫 The fifty minor kalpas which, in the 涌出 chapter of the Lotus, are supernaturally made to seem as but half a day.

五十展轉 The fiftieth turn, i. e. the great-ness of the bliss of one who hears the Lotus Sutra even at fiftieth hand: how much greater that of him who hears at first hamd ! 五十功德 idem 五十展轉 and 五十轉五十惡 The fifty evils produced

by the five skandhas, i. e. 色 seventeen, 受 eight, 想 eight, 行 nine, 識 eight.

五十法 Fifty modes of meditation mentioned in the 大品般若; i. e. the 三十七品 bodhi paksika dharma, the 三三昧, four 禪, four 無量心, four 無色定, eight 背捨, eight 勝處, nine 次第定, and eleven 切處.

五千上慢 The five thousand supremely arrogant (i. e. Hīnayāna) monks who left the great assemibly, refusing to hear the Buddha preach the new doctrine of the Lotus Sutra; see its 方便 chapter.

印 (度) The five Indias, or five regions of India, idem 五天竺 q. v.

參 Worship on the four fives, i. e. the fifth, tenth, twentieth, and twenty-fifth days of the month; also ||上堂.

叉地獄 The hell in which the sufferers are dismembered with five-pronged forks.

取蘊 The five tenacious bonds, or skandhas, attaching to mortality.

五受 The five vedanas, or sensations; i. e. of sorrow, ofjoy; of pain, of pleasure; of freedom from them all; the first two are limited to mental emotions, the two next are of the senses, and the fifth of both;

v. 唯識論 5.

五同緣意識 One of the four kinds of 意識 q. v.; the mental concept of the perceptions of the five senses. 五味 The five flavours, or stages of making ghee, which is said to be a cure for all ailments; it is a Tiantai

illustration of the five periods of the Buddha's teaching: (1) M000190 |ksira, fresh milk, his first preaching, i. e. that of the 華嚴經 Avatamsaka, for śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas; (2) 酪 |dadhi, coagulated milk, cream, the 阿

含經 Agamas, for Hīnayāna generally; (3) 生酥 | navanita, curdled, the 方等經 Vaipulyas, for the Mahāyāna 通經(4) 涅槃經 |ghola, butter, the 般若經 Prajna, for the Mahāyāna 別教; (5) 醍醐 |sarpirmandla, clarified butter, ghee, the 法華 Lotus

and 涅槃經 Nirvana sutras, for the Mahāyāna 圓教; see also 五時教, and v. 涅槃經 14. Also, the ordinary five flavours -sour, bitter, sweet, pungent, and salty.


五味禪 Five kinds of concentration, i. e. that of heretics, ordinary people, Hīnayāna, Mahāyāna, and 最上乘 the supreme vehicle, or that of believers in the fundamental Buddha-nature of all things; this is styled 如來滿淨禪; 一行三昧,;


五味粥 The porridge of five flavors made on the eighth day of the twelfth moon, the anniversary of the Buddha's enlightenment.

五周因果 The five circuits or areas of cause and effect, i. e. the five main subjects of the Huayan sutra.

五品 A division of the disciples, in the Lotus Sutra, into five grades— those who hear and rejoice; read and repeat; preach; observe and meditate; and transform self and others.

五唯 (五唯量) pañcatanmātrāṇi, the five subtle or rudimentary elements out of which rise the five sensations of sound, touch, form, taste, and smell. They are the fourth of the 二十五諦.

五善 The five good (things), i. e. the first five commandments.

五因 The five causes, v. 倶舍論 7. i. e. (1) 生因 producing cause; (2) 依因supporting cause; (3) 立因 upholding or establishing cause; (4) 持因 maintaining cause; (5) 養因 nourishing or strengthening cause. These all refer

to the four elements, earth, water, fire, wind, for they are the causers or producers and maintainers of the infinite forms of nature. Another list from the Nirvana-Sutra 21 is (1) 生因 cause of rebirth, i.

e. previous delusion; (2) 和合因 intermingling cause, i. e. good with good, bad with bad, neutral with neutral; (3) 住因 cause of abiding in the present condition, i. e. the self in its attachments; (4) 增長因

causes of development, e. g. food, clothing, etc.; (5) 遠因 remoter cause, the parental seed.

五堅固 idem 五五百年.

五執 The five planets, see 五星.

五境 The objects of the five senses, corresponding to the senses of form, sound, smell, taste, and touch.

五塵 The objects of the five senses, which being dusty or earthly things can taint the true nature; idem 五境.

五壇法 The ceremonies before the 五大明王.

五夢 The five bad dreams of King Ajātaśatru on the night that Buddha entered nirvana— as the moon sank the sun arose from the earth. the stars fell like rain, seven comets appeared, and a great conflagration

filling the sky fell on the earth.

五大 The five elements— earth, water, fire, wind, and space. v. also 五行 the five agents. In the esoteric cult the five are the physical manifestation, or garbhadhātu, v. 胎; as being in all phenomena

they are called 五輪 the five evolvers; their phonetic embryos 種子 are those of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas of the five directions, v. 五佛.

五大使者 五天使者 The five dūta, i. e. great lictors, or deva-messengers— birth, old age, disease, death, earthly laws and punishments— said to be sent by Māra as warnings.

五大力菩薩 The five powerful Bodhisattvas, guardians of the four quarters and the centre.

五大尊 idem 五大明王.

五大形 The symbols of the five elements— earth as square, water round, fire triangular, wind half-moon, and space a combination of the other four.

五大施 The five great gifts, i. e. ability to keep the five commandments.

五大明王 The five Dharmapālas, or Law-guardians of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, of whom they are emanations or embodiments in two forms, compassionate and minatory. The five kings are the fierce aspect, e. g. Yamantaka, or the 六

足尊金剛 Six-legged Honoured One is an emanation of Mañjuśrī, who is an emanation of Amitābha. The five kings are 不動, 降三世, 軍荼梨, 六足尊, and 淨身, all vajra-kings.

五大色 The five chief colours— yellow for earth, white for water, red for fire, black for wind, azure for space (or the sky). Some say white for wind and black for water.

五大觀 The meditation on the five elements 五大.

五大院 The fifth of the thirteen great courts of the Garbhadhātu-maṇḍala, named 持明院, the court of the five Dharmapālas 五大明王.

五大龍王 五類龍王 The five great dragon-kings of India.

五天 (五天子) Five devas in the Garbhadhātumaṇḍala located in the north-east. Also 五乘居天 (or 五乘居衆 ); 五那含天子.

五天 五天竺; The five regions of India, north, south, east, west, and central; v. 西域記.

五如來 The five Tathāgatas, or Dhyāni-Buddhas, in their special capacity of relieving the lot of hungry ghosts; i. e. Ratnasambhava. Akṣobhya, Amoghasiddhi, Vairocana, and Śākyamuni; v. 五智如來. '


五妙 The five wonders, i. e. of purified or transcendental sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch in the Pure-land.

五妙境界樂 The joys in the Pure land.

五妙欲 The five creature desires stimulated by the objects of the five earthly senses.

五學處 idem 五戒.

五官 The five controlling powers, v. 五大使, birth, old age, sickness, death, and the (imperial) magistrate.

五官王 The fourth of the 十王 judges of the dead, who registers the weight of the sins of the deceased.

五宗 The five great schools of Mahāyāna, i. e. 天台, 華嚴法相, 三論, and 律宗. There are other classes, or groups.

五家七宗 (五家) Division in China of the 禪 Ch'an, Intuitive or Meditative School. It divided into northern and southern schools under 神秀 Shenxiu and 慧能 Huineng respectively. The northern school continued as a unit, the

southern divided into five or seven 宗, viz. 潙仰宗, 臨濟宗, 曹洞宗, 雲門宗, and 法眼宗; the two others are 黃龍 and 揚岐.

五家所共 What the five classes, i. e. rulers, thieves, water, fire, and prodigal sons, have as their common prey, the wealth struggled for by others.

五寶 The five precious things, syn. all the precious things. There are several groups, e. g. — gold, silver, pearls, cowries, and rubies; or, coral, crystal, gold, silver, and cowries; or, gold, silver, pearls, coral, and amber; etc.

五專 The five special things, or five devotions, observance of any one of which, according to the Japanese 眞宗 Shin sect, ensures rebirth in the Pure Land; they are 專禮, 專讀, 專觀, 專名, or 專讚嘆 either worship, reading,

meditation, invocation, or praise.

五居 idem 五淨居天.

五山 Five mountains and monasteries: (1) in India, sacred because of their connection with the Buddha: 鞞婆羅跋怒 Vaibhāra-vana; 薩多般那求呵 Saptaparṇaguhā; 因陀羅勢羅求呵 Indraśailaguhā; 薩簸恕魂直迦鉢婆羅 Sarpiṣ kuṇḍikā-prāgbhāra; 耆闍崛

Gṛdhrakūṭa; (2) in China, established during the Five Dynasties and the Southern Sung dynasty, on the analogy of those in India; three at Hangzhou at 徑山 Jingshan, 北山 Beishan, and 南山 Nanshan and two at Ningbo at 阿育王山 [[Wikipedia:


King]] Aśoka Shan and 太白山 Taiboshan. Later the Yuan dynasty established one at 全陵 Chin Ling, the 天界大龍翔隻慶寺 which became chief of these under the Ming dynasty.

五師 The five masters or teachers, i. e. respectively of the sutras, the vinaya, the śāstras, the abhidharma, and meditation. A further division is made of 異世五師 and 同世五師. The first, i. e. of different periods,

are Mahākāśyapa, Ānanda, Madhyāntika, Śāṇavāsa, and Upagupta; another group connected with the Vinaya is Upāli, Dāsaka, Sonaka, Siggava, and Moggaliputra Tissva. The 同世 or five of the same period are variously stated: the

Sarvāstivādins say they were the five immediate disciples of Upagupta, i. e. Dharmagupta, etc.; see 五部.

五師子 The five lions that sprang from the Buddha's five fingers; 涅槃經 16.

五年大會 pañca-vārṣika-pariṣad, or mokṣa-mahā-parisad, v. 般. The ancient quinquennial assembly for confession and exhortation, ascribed by some to Aśoka.

五度 The five means of transportation over the sea of mortality to salvation; they are the five pāramitās 五波羅蜜— almsgiving, commandment-keeping, patience under provocation, zeal, and meditation.

五律 The doctrines of the 五部 q. v.

五德 The five virtues, of which there are various definitions. The five virtues required in a confessor at the annual confessional ending the rainy retreat are: freedom from predilections, from anger, from fear,

not easily deceived, discernment of shirkers of confession. Another group is the five virtues for a nurse of the sick, and there are others.

五心 The five conditions of mind produced by objective perception: 卒爾心 immediate or instantaneous, the first impression; 尋求心attention, or inquiry; 決定心conclusion, decision; 染淨心the effect, evil or good; 等流心the

production therefrom of other causations.


五忍 The five stages of bodhisattva-kṣānti, patience or endurance according to the 別教: (1) 伏忍the causes of passion and illusion controlled but not finally cut off, the condition of 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (2) 信忍

firm belief, i. e. from the 初地 to the 三地; (3) 順忍 patient progress towards the end of all mortality, i. e. 四地 to 六地; (4) 無生忍 patience for full apprehension, of the truth of no rebirth, 七地 to 九地; and (5) 寂滅忍 the

patience that leads to complete nirvana, 十地 to 妙覺; cf. 五位.

五忿怒 The five angry ones, idem 五大明王.

五念門 The five devotional gates of the Pure-land sect: (1) worship of Amitābha with the 身 body; (2) invocation with the 口 mouth; (3) resolve with the 意 mind to be reborn in the Pure-land; (4) meditation on the glories of

that land, etc.; (5) resolve to bestow one's merits, e. g. works of supererogation, on all creatures.

五性 The five different natures as grouped by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect; of these the first and second, while able to attain to non-return to mortality, are unable to reach Buddhahood; of the fourth some may, others may not reach it;

the fifth will be reborn as devas or men: (1) śrāvakas for arhats; (2) pratyekabuddhas for pratyekabuddha-hood; (3) bodhisattvas for Buddhahood; (4) indefinite; (5) outsiders who have not the Buddha

mind. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圓覺經 has another group, i. e. the natures of (1) ordinary good people; (2) śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas; (3) bodhisattvas; (4) indefinite; (5) heretics.

五性宗 idem 法相宗.

五怖畏(五畏) The five fears of beginners in the bodhisattva-way: fear of (1) giving away all lest they should have no means of livelihood; (2) sacrificing their reputation; (3) sacrificing themselves through dread

of dying; (4) falling into evil; (5) addressing an assembly, especially of men of position.

五悔 The five stages in a penitential service. Tiantai gives: (1) confession of past sins and forbidding them for the future; (2) appeal to the universal Buddhas to keep the law-wheel rolling; (3) rejoicing over the

good in self and others; (4) 廻向 offering all one's goodness to all the living and to the Buddha-way; (5) resolve, or vows, i. e. the 四弘誓. The Shingon sect 眞言宗 divides the ten great vows of Samantabhadra 普賢

into five 悔, the first three vows being included under 歸命 or submission; the fourth is repentance; the fifth rejoicing; the sixth, seventh, and eighth appeal to the Buddhas; the ninth and tenth, bestowal of acquired


五惑 The five delusions, idem 五鈍使.

五情 The feelings, or passions, which are stirred by the 五根 five senses.

五惡 The five sins— killing, stealing, adultery, lying, drinking intoxicants. Cf. 五戒.

五惡見 idem 五見.

五惡趣 idem 五趣 and 五道.

五慳 The five kinds of selfishness, or meanness: monopolizing (1) an abode; (2) an almsgiving household; (3) alms received; (4) praise; (5) knowledge of the truth, e. g. of a sutra.

五戒 pañca-veramaṇī; the first five of the ten commandments, against killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and intoxicating liquors. 不殺生; 不偸盜; 不邪婬; 不妄語; 不飮酒 They are binding on laity, male and female, as well as on [[monks and

nuns]]. The observance of these five ensures rebirth in the human realm. Each command has five spirits to guard its observer 五戒二十五神.

五所依土 The five Buddha-kṣetra, or dependencies, the realms, or conditions of a Buddha. They are: (1) 法性土 his dharmakāya-kṣetra, or realm of his 'spiritual nature', dependent on and yet identical with the 眞如

bhutatathata; (2) 實 with its five immortal skandhas, i. e. his glorified body for his own enjoyment;. (3) 色相土 the land or condition of his self-expression as wisdom; (4) 他受用土 his saṃbhogakāya realm for

the joy of others; (5) 變化土 the realm on which his nirmāṇakāya depends, that of the wisdom of perfect service of all, which results in his relation to every kind of condition.

五扇提羅 idem 五闡提羅.

五拔刀賊 The five skandhas, idem 五刀.

五攝論 A śāstra of Asaṅga 無著, also translated as the 攝大乘論, giving a description of Mahāyāna doctrine; Vasubandhu prepared a summary of it; tr. by 無性 Wuxiang. Translations were also made by Paramārtha and Xuanzang; other

versions and treatises under various names exist.


五支作法 (or 五分作法) The five parts (avayava) of a syllogism: 立宗 pratijñā, the proposition; 辯因 hetu, the reason; 引喩 udāharaṇa, the example; 合 upanaya, the application; and 結 nigamana, the summing up, or conclusion. These are also

expressed in other terms, e. g. 立義; 因; 譬如; 合譬;, and 決定.

五支戒 The five moral laws or principles arising out of the idea of the mahā-nirvāṇa in the 大涅槃經 11.

五教 The five division of Buddhism according to the Huayan School, of which there are two That of 杜順 Dushun down to 賢首 Xianshou is (1) 小乘教 Hīnayāna which interprets nirvana as annihilation; (2) 大乘始教 the primary

stage of Mahāyāna, with two sections the 相始教 and 空 始教 or realistic and idealistic, (3) 大乘終教 Mahāyāna in its final stage, teaching the 眞如 and universal Buddhahood; (4) 頓教 the immediate, direct, or intuitive school, e. g. by

right concentration of thought, or faith, apart from 'works'; (5) 圓教 the complete or perfect teaching of the Huayan, combining all the rest into one all-embracing vehicle. The five are now differentiated into 十宗 ten

schools. The other division, by 圭峯 Guifeng of the same school, is (1) 人天教 rebirth as human beings for those who keep the five commandments and as devas those who keep the 十善 as 相始教 above; (4) 大乘破相教 as 空始教 above; and (5)

一乘顯性教 the one vehicle which reveals the universal Buddha-nature; it includes (3), (4), and (5) of the first group. See also 五時教.

五教章 The work in three juan by 法藏 Fazang of the Tang dynasty, explaining the doctrines of the Five Schools.

五方五智 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the five regions; see the esoteric 五大.

五方便 An abbreviation for 五五才便, i. e. 二十五才便; also the Tiantai 五方便念佛門.

五族如來 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the Vajradhātu.

五旬 pañca-bhijñā. The five supernatural or magical powers; six is the more common number in Chinese texts, five is the number in Ceylon; v. 五神通.

五更 The five night watches; also the fifth watch.

五明 pañca-vidyā, the five sciences or studies of India: (1) śabda, grammar and composition; śilpakarmasthāna, the arts and mathematics; cikitsā, medicine; hetu, logic; adhyātma, philosophy, which [[Wikipedia:

Monier Williams|

Monier Williams]] says is the 'knoowledge of the supreme spirit, or of ātman', the basis of the four Vedas; the Buddhists reckon the Tripiṭṭaka and the 十二部教 as their 内明, i. e. their inner or special philosophy.

五星 The five planets, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus, and Mercury; also 五執.

五時八教 A Tiantai classification of the Buddha's teaching into five periods and eight kinds of doctrine, which eight are subdivided into two groups of four each, 化儀四教 and 化法四教.

五時 (五時教) The five periods or divisions of Śākyamuni's teaching. According to Tiantai they are (1) 華嚴時 the Avataṃsaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment, when he preached the content,

of this sutra; (2) 鹿苑時 the twelve years of his preaching the Āgamas 阿含 in the Deer Park; (3) 方等時 the eight years of preaching Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna doctrines, the vaipulya period; (4) 般若時 the twenty-two years of his

preaching the prajñā or wisdom sutras; (5) 法華涅槃時 the eight years of his preaching the Lotus Sutra and, in a day and a night, the Nirvana Sutra. According to the Nirvana School (now part of the Tiantai) they are

(1) 三乘別教 the period when the differentiated teaching began and the distinction of the three vehicles, as represented by the 四諦 Four Noble Truths for śrāvakas, the 十二因緣 Twelve Nidānas for pratyekabuddhas, and the 六度 Six

Pāramitās for bodhisattvas; (2) 三乘通教 the teaching common to all three vehicles, as seen in the 般若經; (3) 抑揚教 the teaching of the 維摩經, the 思益梵天所問經, and other sutras olling the bodhisattva teaching at the expense of that

for śrāvakas; (4) 同歸教 the common objective teaching calling all three vehicles, through the Lotus, to union in the one vehicle; (5) 常住教 the teaehmg of eternal life i. e. the revelation through the Nirvana sutra of

the eternity of Buddhahood; these five are also called 有相; 無相; 抑揚; 曾三歸—; and 圓常. According to 劉虬 Liu Chiu of the 晉 Chin dynasty, the teaching is divided into 頓 immediate and 漸 gradual attainment, the latter having five

divisions called 五時教 similar to those of the Tiantai group. According to 法寶 Fabao of the Tang dynasty the five are (1) 小乘; (2) 般着 or 大乘; (3) 深密 or 三乘; (4) 法華 or 一乘; (5) 涅槃 or 佛性教.


五智 The five kinds of wisdom of the 眞言宗 Shingon School. Of the six elements 六大 earth, water, fire, air (or wind), ether (or space) 曇空, and consciousness (or mind 識 ), the first five form the [[Wikipedia:


phenomenal]] world, or Garbhadhātu, the womb of all things 胎藏界, the sixth is the conscious, or perceptive, or wisdom world, the Vajradhātu 金剛界, sometimes called the Diamond realm. The two realms are not

originally apart, but one, and there is no consciousness without the other five elements. The sixth element, vijñāna, is further subdivided into five called the 五智 Five Wisdoms: (1) 法界體性智 dharmadhātu-prakṛti-jñāna, derived

from the amala-vijñāna, or pure 識; it is the wisdom of the embodied nature of the dharmadhātu, defined as the six elements, and is associated with Vairocana 大日, in the centre, who abides in this samādhi; it also

corresponds to the ether 空 element. (2) 大圓鏡智 adarśana-jñāna, the great round mirror wisdom, derived from the ālaya-vijñāna, reflecting all things; corresponds to earth, and is associated with Akṣobhya and the east. (3) 平等性智

samatā-jñāna, derived from mano-vijñāna, wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally; corresponds to fire, and is associated with Ratnasaṃbhava and the south. (4) 妙觀察智 pratyavekṣaṇa-jñāna, derived from 意識,

wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for exposition and doubt-destruction; corresponds to water, and is associated with Amitābha and the west. (5) 成所作智 kṛtyānuṣṭhāna-jñāna, derived from the five senses,

the wisdom of perfecting the double work of self-welfare and the welfare of others; corresponds to air 風 and is associated with Amoghasiddhi and the north. These five Dhyāni-Buddhas are the 五智如來. The five kinds of

wisdom are the four belonging to every Buddha, of the exoteric cult, to which the esoteric cult adds the first, pure, all-refecting, universal, all-discerning, and all-perfecting.

五智如來 五智五佛; 五佛; 五如來 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas, or Wisdom-Tathāgatas of the Vajradhātu 金剛界, idealizations of five aspects of wisdom; possibly of Nepalese origin. The Wisdom Buddha represents the dharmakāya or

Buddha-mind, also the Dharma of the triratna, or trinity. Each evolves one of the five colours, one of the five senses, a Dhyani-bodhisattva in two forms one gracious, the other fierce, and a Mānuṣi-Buddha;

each has his own śakti, i. e. feminine energy or complement; also his own bīja, or germ-sound 種子 or 印 seal, i. e. 眞言 real or substantive word, the five being for 大日 aṃ, for 阿閦 hūṃ, for 寶生 ? hrīḥ, for 彌陀 ? aḥ, for 不 空 ? āḥ.

The five are also described as the emanations or forms of an Ādi-Buddha, Vajrasattva; the four are considered by others to be emanations or forms of Vairocana as the Supreme Buddha. The five are not always

described as the same, e. g. they may be 藥師 (or 王) Bhaiṣajya, 多寶 Prabhūtaratna, Vairocana, Akṣobhya, and either Amoghasiddhi or Śākyamuni. Below is a classified list of the generally accepted five with certain particulars

connected with them, but these differ in different places, and the list can only be a general guide. As to the Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, each Buddha evolves three forms 五佛生 五菩薩, 五金剛, 五忿怒, i. e. (1) a bodhisattva who represents

the Buddha's dharmakāya, or spiritual body; (2) a vajra or diamond form who represents his wisdom in graciousness; and (3) a fierce or angry form, the 明王 who represents his power against evil. (1)

Vairocana appears in the three forms of 轉法輪菩薩 Vajra-pāramitā Bodhisattva, 遍照金 剛 Universally Shining Vajrasattva, and 不動明王 Ārya-Acalanātha Rāja; (2) Akṣobhya's three forms are 虛空藏 Ākāśagarbha, 如意 complete power,

and 軍荼 利明王 Kuṇḍalī-rāja; (3 ) Ratnasaṃbhava's are 普賢 Samantabhadra, 薩埵 Sattvavajra, and 孫婆 or 降三世明王 Trailokyavijayarāja; (4) Amitābha's are 觀世音 Avalokiteśvara, 法金剛 Dharmarāja, and 馬頭明王 Hayagrīva, the horse-head Dharmapāla; (5)

Amoghasiddhi's are 彌勒 Maitreya, 業金剛 Karmavajra, and 金剛夜叉 Vajrayakṣa. The above Bodhisattvas differ from those in the following list: —

Table 1


Name Chinese Position Element Sense Color

Vairocana 大日 centre ether sight white

Akṣobhya 阿閦 east earth sound blue

Ratnasaṃbhava 寶生 south fire smell yellow

Amitābha 彌陀 west water taste red

Amoghasiddhi 不空 north air touch green

Table 2

Germ Animal Dhyani-Bodhisattva Buddha

aṃ lion Samantabhadra 普賢 Krakucchanda

hūṃ elephant Vajrapāṇi 金剛力士 Kanakamuni

? aḥ horse Ratnapāṇi 寶手 Kāśyapa

? hrīḥ goose or peacock Avalokiteśvara 觀音 Śākyamuni

? āḥ garuḍa Visvapāṇi ? Maitreya


五智寶冠 idem 五佛寶冠.

五智所生三身 Each of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas is accredited with the three forms which represent his 身業 body, 口業 speech, and 意業 mind, e. g. the embodiment of Wisdom is Vairocana, his preaching form is 普賢, and his

will form is 不動明王; the embodiment 身 of the mirror is Akṣobhya, his 口 is Mañjuśrī, his 意 is 降三世金剛; and so on; v. 五智如來.

五會念佛 Five ways of intoning 'Amitābha' established by 法照 Fazhao of the Tang dynasty, known as 五曾法師 from his brochure 五曾法事讚.


五果 The five fruits, or effects; there are various groups, e. g. I. (1) 異熟果 fruit ripening divergently, e. g. pleasure and goodness are in different categories; present organs accord in pain or pleasure with their past good

or evil deeds; (2) 等流果 fruit of the same order, e. g. goodness reborn from previous goodness; (3) 土用果 present position and function fruit, the rewards of moral merit in previous lives; (4) 增上果 superior

fruit, or position arising from previous earnest endeavor and superior capacity: (5) 離繋果 fruit of freedom from all bonds, nirvana fruit. II. Fruit, or rebirth: (1) 識 conception (viewed {{Wiki|psychologically]]); (2) 名色 formation

mental and physical; (3) 六處 the six organs of perception complete; (4) 觸 their birth and contact with the world; (5) 受 consciousness. III. Five orders of fruit, with stones, pips, shells (as nuts), chaff-like

(as pine seeds), and with pods.

五根 pañcendriyāṇi. (1) The five roots, i. e. the five organs of the senses: eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body as roots of knowing. (2) The five spiritual organs pr positive agents: 信

faith, 精進 energy, 念 memory, 定 visionary meditation, 慧 wisdom. The 五力 q. v. are regarded as negative agents.

五根色 see 五色.

五根本 They are the six great kleśa, i. e. passions, or disturbers, minus 見 views, or delusions; i. e. desire, anger, stupidity (or ignorance), pride, and doubt.

五業 The five kinds of karma: of which the groups are numerous and differ.

五樂 The pleasures of the five senses, v. 五欲.

五欲 The five desires, arising from the objects of the five senses, things seen, heard, smelt, tasted, or touched. Also, the five desires of wealth, sex, foodand-drink, fame, and sleep.

五正色 idem 五色.

五正行 五種正行 The five proper courses to ensure the bliss of the Pure Land: (1) Intone the three sutras 無量壽經, 觀無量壽經, and 阿彌陀經; (2) meditate on the Pure Land; (3) worship solely Amitābha; (4) invoke his name; (5 )

extol and make offerings to him. Service of other Buddhas, etc., is styled 五 (種) 雜行.

五正食 半者蒲膳尼 pañcabhojanīya. The five foods considered proper for monks in early Buddhism: boiled rice, boiled grain or pease, parched grain, flesh, cakes.

五股 (五股杵 or 五股金剛); also 五鈷, 五古, or 五M029401 The five-pronged vajra or thunderbolt emblem of the 五部 five groups and 五智 five wisdom powers of the vajradhātu; doubled it is an emblem of the ten pāramitās. In the

esoteric cult the 五股印 five-pronged vajra is the symbol of the 五智 five wisdom powers and the 五佛 five Buddhas, and has several names 五大印, 五智印, 五峯印; 金剛慧印, 大羯印, and 大率都婆印, and has many definitions.

五比丘 The first five of Buddha's converts, also called 五佛子, Ājñāta-Kauṇḍinya 憍陳如, Aśvajit 額鞞, Bhadrika 拔提, Daśabala-Kāśyapa 十力迦葉, and Mahānāma-Kulika 摩男拘利, i. e. but there are numerous other forms of their names.

五法 pañcadharma. The five laws or categories, of which four groups are as follows: I. 相名五法 The five categories of form and name: (1) 相 appearances, or phenomena; (2) 名 their names; (3) 分別 sometimes called 妄想 ordinary mental

discrimination of them— (1) and (2) are objective, (3) subjective; (4) 正智 corrective wisdom, which corrects the deficiencies and errors of the last: (5) 如如 the 眞如 Bhutatathata or absolute wisdom, reached

through the 如理智 understanding of the law of the absolute, or ultimate truth. II. 事理五法 The five categories into which things and their principles are divided: (1) 心法 mind; (2) 心所法 mental conditions or activities;

(3) 色法 the actual states or categories as conceived; (4) 不相應法 hypothetic categories, 唯識 has twenty-four, the Abhidharma fourteen; (5) 無爲法 the state of rest, or the inactive principle pervading all things; the first four are the 事

and the last the 理. III. 理智五法 cf. 五智; the five categories of essential wisdom: (1) 眞如 the absolute; (2) 大圓鏡智 wisdom as the great perfect mirror reflecting all things; (3) 平等性智 wisdom of the equal Buddha nature of

all beings; (4) 妙觀察智 wisdom of mystic insight into all things and removal of ignorance and doubt; (5) 成所作智 wisdom perfect in action and bringing blessing to self and others. IV. 提婆五法 The five

obnoxious rules of Devadatta: not to take milk in any form, nor meat, nor salt; to wear unshaped garments, and to live apart. Another set is: to wear cast-off rags, beg food, have only one set meal a day, dwell in the

open, and abstain from all kinds of flesh, milk, etc.

五法人 Followers of the five ascetic rules of Devadatta, the enemy of the Buddha.

五法成身 idem 五相成身.

五法身 idem 五分法身.

五波羅密 The five pāramitās (omitting the sixth, wisdom), i. e. dāna, almsgiving: śīla, commandment-keeping; kṣānti, patience (under provocation): vīrya, zeal; and dhyāna, meditation.

五海 The five 'seas' or infinities seen in a vision by Puxian, v. 舊華嚴經 3, viz., (1) all worlds, (2) all the living, (3) universal karma, (4) the roots of desire and pleasure of all the living, (5) all the

Buddhas, past, present, and future.


五淨 The five 'clean' products of the cow, its pañca-gavya, i. e. urine, dung, milk, cream (or sour milk), and cheese (or butter); cf M. W.

五淨居天, 五不還天 Cf. 色界. The five pure-dwelling heavens in the fourth dhyāna heaven, into which arhats are finally born: 無煩天 Avṛhās, the heaven free from all trouble; 無熱天 Atapās, of no heat or distress; 善現天 Sudṛsās, of

beautiful presentation; 善見天 Sudarśanās, beautiful; and 色究竟天 Akaniṣṭhās, the highest heaven of the form-realm.

五淨食, 五種淨食 idem 五正食.

五濁 五滓; 五渾 The five kaṣāya periods of turbidity, impurity, or chaos, i. e. of decay; they are accredited to the 住 kalpa, see 四劫, and commence when human life begins to decrease below 20,000 years. (1) 劫濁 the

kalpa in decay, when it suffers deterioration and gives rise to the ensuing form; (2) 見濁 deterioration of view, egoism, etc., arising; (3) 煩惱濁 the passions and delusions of desire, anger,

stupidity, pride, and doubt prevail; (4) 衆生濁 in consequence human miseries increase and happiness decreases; (5) 命濁 human life time gradually diminishes to ten years. The second and third are described as the

濁 itself and the fourth and fifth its results.

五濁增時 The period of increasing turbidity or decay; see 五濁.

五燒 The five burnings, or 五痛 five pains, i. e. infraction of the first five commandments leads to state punishment in this life and the hells in the next.

五無量 The five infinites, or immeasurables — body, mind, wisdom, space, and all the living— as represented respectively by the five Dhyāni Buddhas, i. e. 寶生, 阿閦, 無量壽, 大日, and 不空.

五無間 The uninterrupted, or no-interval hell, i. e. avīci hell, the worst, or eighth of the eight hells. It is ceaseless in five respects— karma and its effects are an endless chain with no escape; its sufferings are

ceaseless; it is timeless; its fate or life is endless; it is ceaselessly full. Another interpretation takes the second, third, and fifth of the above and adds that it is packed with 罪器 implements of torture, and that it is full

of all kinds of living beings.

五無間業 or 五無間罪 The five karma, or sins, leading to the avīci hell v. 五逆 and 五無間.

五燈錄 The five Teng-lu are (1) 傳燈錄 A. D 1004-8; (2) 廣燈錄; (3) 讀燈錄; (4) 聯燈錄, and (5) 普燈錄; the 燈錄會元 and 燈錄嚴統 are later collections.

五甁 The five vases used by the esoteric school for offering flowers to their Buddha, the flowers are stuck in a mixture of the five precious things, the five grains and the five medicines mingled with scented water.

五甁智水 The five vases are emblems of the five departments of the Vajradhātu, and the fragrant water the wisdom of the five. Wisdom— Buddhas.

五甁灌頂 Baptism with water of the five vases 五甁 representing the wisdom of the five Buddhas 五佛.

五生 Five rebirths, i. e. five states, or conditions of a bodhisattva's rebirth: (1) to stay calamities, e. g. by sacrificing himself; (2) in any class that may need him; (3) in superior condition, handsome, wealthy,

or noble; (4) in various grades of kingship; (5) final rebirth before Buddhahood; v. 瑜伽論 4.

五畏 idem 五怖畏.

五痛 idem 五燒.

五百 pañcaśata. Five hundred, of which there are numerous instances, e. g. 500 former existences; the 500 disciples, etc.

五百世 or 五百生 500 generations.

五百世無手 A disciple who even passes the wine decanter to another person will be reborn without hands for 500 generations; v. 梵網經下.

五百羅漢 (五百大羅漢) 500 great arhats who formed the synod under Kaniṣka and are the supposed compilers of the Abhidharma-mahāvibhāṣā-śāstra, 400 years after Buddha entered nirvana (阿毗達磨大毗婆娑論), tr. by Xuanzang (A. D. 656

-9). The 500 Lohans found in some monasteries have various definitions.

五百戒 The 'five hundred ' rules for nuns, really 348, viz. 8 波羅夷, 17 僧殘, 30 捨墮, 178 單提, 8 提捨尼, 100 衆學, and 7 滅諍.

五百生 idem 五百世.

五百部 五百小乘; 五百異部 The 500 sects according to the 500 years after the Buddha's death; 智度論 63.

五百問 (五百問事) The 500 questions of Mahā-maudgalyāyana to the Buddha on discipline.

五百由旬 The 500 yojanas of difficult and perilous journey to the Land of Treasures: v. the Lotus Sutra.

五盛陰苦 The mental and physical sufferings arising from the full-orbed activities of the skandhas 五陰, one of the eight sufferings; also 五陰盛 (五陰盛苦).


五眼 The five kinds of eyes or vision: human; deva (attainable by men in dhyāna); Hīnayāna wisdom; bodhisattva truth; and Buddha-vision or omniscience. There are five more relate to omniscience

making 十眼 ten kinds of eyes or vision.

五相 idem 五相成身 and 五衰.

五相成身 (五相成身觀) A contemplation of the five stages in Vairocana Buddhahood— entry into the bodhi-mind; maintenance of it; attainment of the diamond mind; realization of the diamond embodiment; and perfect

attainment of Buddhahood. It refers also to the 五智 of the Vairocana group; also 五轉成身 (or 五法成身) .

五知根 The five indriyas or organs of perception— eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. v. 五根.

五礙 idem 五障.

五神通 (or 五神變) pañcabhijñā; also 五通 (力) the five supernatural powers. (1 ) 天眼通 (天眼智證通) divyacakṣus ; deva-vision, instantaneous view of anything anywhere in the form-realm. (2) 天耳通 (天耳智證通) divyaśrotra, ability

to hear any sound anywhere. (3) 他心通 (他心智證通) paracitta-jñāna, ability to know the thoughts of all other minds. (4) 宿命通 (宿命智證通) pūrvanivāsānusmṛti-jñāna, knowledge of all formed existences of self and others.

(5) 神通 (神通智證通) 通; 神足通; 神如意通 ṛddhi-sākṣātkriyā, power to be anywhere or do anything at will. See 智度論 5. Powers similar to these are also attainable by meditation, incantations, and drugs, hence heterodox teachers

also may possess them.

五祖 The five patriarchs. Those of the Huayan (Kegon) sect are 終南杜順; 雲華智儼; 賢首法藏; 淸涼澄觀, and 圭峯宗密. The Pure-land sect five patriarchs are 曇鸞; 道綽; 善導; 懷感 and 少康. The 蓮社 (白蓮社) Lianshe sect has 善導; 法照; 少康; 省常, and 宗賾


五禁 idem 五戒.

五祕密 (五祕) The five esoteric or occult ones, i. e. the five bodhisattvas of the diamond realm, known as Vajrasattva in the middle; 欲 desire on the east; 觸 contact, south; 愛 love, west; and 慢 pride,

north. Vajrasattva represents the six fundamental elements of sentient existence and here indicates the birth of bodhisattva sentience; desire is that of bodhi and the salvation of all: contact with

the needy world for its salvation follows; love of all the living comes next; pride or the power of nirvana succeeds.

五祕密曼荼羅 or 十七尊曼荼羅 The maṇḍala of this group contains seventeen figures representing the five above named, with their twelve subordinates.

五種 The five kinds; but frequently the 種 is omitted, e. g. for 五種正食 see 五正食.

五種三歸 The five modes of trisarana, or formulas of trust in the Triratna, taken by those who (1) 翻邪 turn from heresy; (2) take the five commandments; (3) the eight commandments; (4) the ten commandments; (5) the complete


五種不女 The five kinds of sexually incomplete females, 螺, 筋, 鼓, 角, and 脉. v. 大藏法數 32.

五種不男 The five kinds of 般荼迦 paṇḍakas, i. e. eunuchs, or impotent males: by birth; emasculation; uncontrollable emission; hermaphrodite; impotent for half the month; they are known as 扇搋 Sandha; 留拏 ? Runda; 伊梨沙掌拏 Irṣyāpaṇḍaka; 半擇迦

Paṇḍaka; 博叉 Pakṣapaṇḍaka; there are numerous subdivisions.

五種不翻 The five kinds of terms which Xuanzang did not translate but transliterated— the esoteric (such as 陀羅尼); those with several meanings (such as 薄伽梵); those without equivalent in China (such as 閻浮樹); old-established

terms (such as 阿耨菩提); and those which would be less impressive when translated.

五種不還 The five kinds of anāgāmins 那含, who never return to the desire-realm: (1) 中般 the anāgāmin who enters on the intermediate stage between the realm of desire and the higher realm of form; (2) 生般 who is born into

the form world and soon overcomes the remains of illusion; (3) 有行般 who diligently works his way through the final stages; (4) 無行般 whose final departure is delayed through lack of aid and slackness; (5) 上流般 who proceeds from

lower to higher heavens into nirvana. Also 五種那含 and 五種般 the 般 being 'Parinirvāṇa'.

五種修法 Five kinds of esoteric ceremonial, i. e. (1) 扇底迦 śāntika, for stopping calamities; (2) 布瑟徵迦 or 補瑟徵迦 pauṣṭika, for success or prosperity; (3) 阿畏遮迦 abhicāraka, for suppressing, or exorcising; (4) 阿羯沙尼 ākarṣaṇī, for calling, or

attracting (good beings, or aid); (5) 伐施迦囉軌 vaśīkaraṇa, for seeking the aid of Buddhas and bodhisattvas; also 五部尊法 and cf. 五種灌頂.


五種印 The signs of the five kinds of vision, v. 五眼.

五種唯識 The five kinds of weishi, or idealistic representation in the sutras and śāstras as summed up by Cien 慈恩 of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school: (1) 境唯識 wisdom or insight in objective conditions; (2) 教唯識 in

interpretation; (3) 理唯識 in principles; (4) 行唯識 in meditation and practice; (5) 果唯識 in the fruits or results of Buddhahood. The first four are objective, the fifth subject.

五種壇法 The five kinds of maṇḍala ceremonials, v. 五部尊法.

五增上緣 (種增上緣) ; 五緣 Five excellent causes, e.g. of blessedness: keeping the commandments; sufficient food and clothing; a secluded abode; cessation of worry; good friendship. Another group is: riddance of

sin; protection through long life; vision of Buddha (or Amitābha, etc. ); universal salvation (by Amitābha); assurance of Amitābha's heaven.

五種布施 The five kinds of almsgiving or dānas— to those from afar, to those going afar, to the sick, the hungry, and those wise in Buddhist doctrine.

五種性 The five germ-natures, or roots of bodhisattva development: (1) 習種性 the germ nature of study of the 空 void (or immaterial), which corrects all illusions of time and space; it corresponds to the 十住 stage; (2) 性種性

that of ability to discriminate all the 性 natures of phenomena and transform the living; the 十行 stage; (3) 道種性(the middle-) way germ-nature, which attains insight into Buddha-laws; the 十廻向; (4) 聖種性 the saint germ-nature

which produces holiness by destroying ignorance; the 十廻向 which the bodhisattva leaves the ranks of the 賢 and becomes 聖; (5) 等覺種性 the bodhi-rank germ-nature which produces Buddhahood, i. e. 等覺.

五種惡病 Five epidemics in Vaiśālī during the Buddha's lifetime— bleeding from the eyes, pus from the ears, nose-bleeding, lockjaw, and astringent taste of all food.

五種散亂 The five kinds of mental aberration: (1) the five senses themselves not functioning properly; (2) external distraction, or inability to concentrate the attention; (3) internal distraction, or

mental confusion; (4) distraction caused by ideas of mean and mine, personality, possession, etc. (5) confusion of thought produced by Hīnayāna ideas.

五種比量 The five inferences in (Indian) logic: (1) 相比量 from appearance, e. g. fire from smoke; (2) 體比量 from the corporeal, e. g. two or more things from one; (3) 業比量 from action, e. g. the animal from its footmark;

(4) 法比量 from recognized law, old age from birth; (5) 因果比量 from cause and effect, that a traveler has a destination.

五種法師 The five kinds of masters of the Law, v. Lotus Sutra, 法師品— one who receives and keeps; reads; recites; expounds; and copies the sutra.

五種法界 The Huayan school's five forms of dharmadhātu: (1) 有爲法界 or 事世界 the phenomenal realm; (2) 無爲法界 or 理世界 the dependent and interactive; the inactive, quiescent, or noumenal realm; (3) 亦有爲亦無爲世界 or 事理無礙世界,

both, i.e., interdependent and interactive; (4) 非有爲非無爲世界 either active nor inactive, but it is also 事理無礙世界, e. g. water and wave, wave being water and water wave; (5) 無障礙世界 or 事事無礙世界 the unimpeded realm, the unity of the

phenomenal and noumenal, of the collective and individual.

五種法身 The five kinds of a Buddha's dharmakāya. There are four groups. I. (1) 如如智法身 the spiritual body of bhūtatathatā-wisdom; (2) 功德法身 of all virtuous achievement; (3) 自法身 of incarnation in the world; (4) 變

化法身 of unlimited powers of transformation; (5) 虛空法身 of unlimited space; the first and second are defined as saṃbhogakāya, the third and fourth as nirmāṇakāya, and the fifth as the dharmakāya, but all are included under

dharmakāya as it possesses all the others. II. The esoteric cult uses the first four and adds as fifth 法界身 indicating the universe as pan-Buddha. III. Huayan gives (1) 法性生身 the body or person of Buddha

born from the dharma-nature. (2) 功德生身 the dharmakāya evolved by Buddha virtue, or achievement; (3) 變化法身 the dharmakāya with unlimited powers of transformation; (4) 實相法身 the real dharmakāya; (5) 虛 空法身 the

universal dharmakāya. IV. Hīnayāna defines them as 五分法身 q. v.


五種灌頂 The five abhiṣecanī baptisms of the esoteric school— for ordaining ācāryas, teachers, or preachers of the Law: for admitting disciples: for putting an end to calamities or suffering for sins; for advancement, or

success; and for controlling (evil spirits ) or getting rid of difficulties, cf. 五種修法. Also, baptism of light: of sweet dew (i. e. perfume): of the 'germ-word' as seed; of the five baptismal signs of wisdom made on the

forehead, shoulders, heart, and throat, indicating the five Dhyāni-Buddhas; and of the ' true word' on the breast.

五種藏 The five 'stores', or the five differentiations of the one Buddha-nature; (1) 如來藏 the Tathāgata-nature, which is the fundamental universal nature possessed by all the living: (2) 正法藏 the source or treasury of all right laws

and virtues: (3) 法身藏 the storehouse of the dharmakāya obtained by all saints: (4) 出世藏 the eternal spiritual nature, free from earthly errors; (5) 自性淸淨藏 the storehouse of the pure Buddha-nature. Another similar

group is 如來藏, 法界藏, 法身藏, 出世間上上藏, and 自性淸淨藏.

五種般 see 五種不還.

五種行 The acts of the 五種法師 q. v.; also idem 五正行.

五種說人 The five kinds of those who have testified to Buddhism; also 五人說經; 五說; i. e. the Buddha,. his disciples, the ṛṣis, devas, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, sages, devas, supernatural beings,

and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, men, and things. See 五類說法.

五種通 Five kinds of supernatural power: (1) 道通 of bodhisattvas through their insight into truth; (2) 神通 of arhats through their mental concentration; (3) 依通 supernatural or magical powers dependent

on drugs, charms, incantations, etc.; (4) 報通 or 業通 reward or karma powers of transformation possessed by devas, nāgas, etc.; (5) 妖通 magical power of goblins, satyrs, etc.

五種那含 v. 五種不還.

五種鈴 The five kinds of bells used by the Shingon sect in Japan, also called 金剛鈴, i. e. 五鈷鈴, 賣鈴, 一鈷. 三鈷鈴, 塔鈴; the different names are derived from their handles; the four first named, beginning with the five-pronged one,

are placed each at a corner of the altar, the last in the middle.

五種雜行 see 五正行.

五種魔 The five māras associated with the five skandhas; also 五蘊魔; 五陰魔, 五衆魔.

五箭 The five arrows, i. e. the five desires 五欲.

五納衣 A monk's garment of patches.

五結 The five bonds to mortality: 貧 desire, 恚 hata, 慢 pride, 嫉 envy, 慳 grudging.

五結樂子 One of Indra's musicians who praised Buddha on a crystal lute; v. 中阿含經 33.

五繫 The five suspended corpses, or dead snakes, hanging from the four limbs and neck of Mara as Papiyan; v. Nirvana sutra 6.

五翳 The five films, or interceptors of the light of sun and moon— smoke, cloud dust, fog, and the hands of asuras.

五聲 idem 五音.

五臺山 Pañcaśirsha, Pancaśikha. Wutai Shan, near the northeastern border of Shanxi, one of the four mountains sacred to Buddhism in China. The principal temple was built A. D. 471-500. There are about 150

monasteries, of which 24 are lamaseries. The chief director is known as Changjia Fo (the ever-renewing Buddha). Mañjuśrī is its patron saint. It is also styled 淸涼山.

五色 The five primary colors, also called 五正色 (or 五大色): 靑 blue, 黃 yellow, 赤 red, 白 white, 黑 black. The 五間色 or compound colors are 緋 crimson, 紅, scarlet, 紫 purple, 綠 green, 磂黃 brown. The two sets correspond to the cardinal

points as follows: east, blue and green; west, white, and crimson; south, red and scarlet; north, black and purple; and center, yellow and brown. The five are permutated in various ways to represent various ideas.

五間色 five compound colors are 緋 crimson, 紅, scarlet, 紫 purple, 綠 green, 磂黃 brown.

五根色: faith, white; zeal, red; memory yellow; meditation, blue; and wisdom, black. These are represented inter alia in the 五色線 (or 五色縷, or 五色綖, or 五色繩) the five-colored emblematic cord; this cord is also a

brahman's sign worn on the shoulder and forbidden by the Buddha.


五苦 The five forms of suffering: I. (1) Birth, age, sickness, death; (2) parting with those loved; (3) meeting with the hated or disliked; (4) inability to obtain the desired; (5) the five skandha sufferings,

mental and physical. II. Birth, age, sickness, death, and the shackles (for criminals). III. The sufferings of the hells, and as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, and human beings.

五菩提 The five bodhi, or stages of enlightenment: (1) 發心菩提 resolve on supreme bodhi; (2) 伏心菩提 mind control, i. e. of the passions and observance of the pāramitās: (3) 明心菩提 mental enlightenment, study, and

increase in knowledge and in the prajñāpāramitā: (4) 出到菩提 mental expansion, freedom from the limitations of reincarnation and attainment of complete knowledge; (5) 無上菩提 attainment of a passionless condition and of

supreme perfect enlightenment;.

五蓋 The five covers, i. e. mental and moral hindrances— desire, anger, drowsiness, excitability, doubt.

五葷 idem 五辛.

五蘊 The five skandhas, pañca-skandha: also 五陰; 五衆; 五塞犍陀 The five cumulations, substances, or aggregates, i. e. the components of an intelligent being, specially a human being: (1) 色 rūpa, form, matter,

the physical form related to the five organs of sense; (2) 受 vedana, reception, sensation, feeling, the functioning of the mind or senses in connection with affairs and things; (3) 想 saṃjñā, conception,

or discerning; the functioning of mind in distinguishing; (4) 行 saṃskāra, the functioning of mind in its processes regarding like and dislike, good and evil, etc.; (5) 識 vijñāna, mental faculty in regard to

perception and cognition, discriminative of affairs and things. The first is said to be physical, the other four mental qualities; (2), (3), and (4) are associated with mental functioning, and therefore with 心所;

(5) is associated with the faculty or nature of the mind 心王 manas. Eitel gives— form, perception, consciousness, action, knowledge. See also Keith's Buddhist Philosophy, 85-91.

五蘊世間 (or 五陰世間 or 五衆世間) The worlds in which the five skandhas exist.

五蘊宅 The abode of the five skandhas— the human body.

五蘊論 大乘五蘊論 A śāstra by Vasubandhu on the Mahāyāna interpretation of the five skandhas, tr. by Xuanzang; 1 chuan. Other works are the 五蘊皆空經 tr. by Yijing of the Tang dynasty. 五蘊譬喩經 tr. by 安世高 An Shih Kao of the

Han dynasty: both are in the 雜阿含經 2 and 10 respectively; also 五蘊論釋 a commentary by Vinītaprabha.

五蘊魔 The Mara of the skandhas, v. 五種魔.

五處供養 The five to be constantly served — father, mother, teacher, religious director, the sick.

五處加持 Ceremonial touching of the five places on the body— brow, right and left shoulders, heart, and throat.

五處眞言 has similar reference to 五處加持. v. 五種灌頂.

五衆 idem 五蘊. Also, the five groups, i. e. monks, nuns, nun-candidates, and male and female novices.

五行 The five lines of conduct. I. According to the 起信論 Awakening of Faith they are almsgiving; keeping the commandments; patience under insult; zeal or progress; meditation. II. According to the 涅槃經 [[Nirvana

Sutra]] they are saintly or bodhisattva deeds; arhat, or noble deeds; deva deeds; children's deeds (i. e. normal good deeds of men, devas, and Hinayanists); sickness conditions, e. g.

illness, delusion, etc.; — into all these lines of conduct and conditions a Bodhisattva enters. III. The five elements, or tanmātra— wood, fire, earth, metal, and water; or earth, water, ire, air, and ether

(or space) as taught by the later Mahāyāna philosophy; idem 五大.

五衍 The five Yanas or Vehicles, idem 五乘.

五衣 The five garments worn by a nun are the three worn by a monk: with two others.

五衰 The five signs of decay or approaching death, of which descriptions vary. e. g. uncontrolled discharges, flowers on the head wither. unpleasant odor, sweating armpits, uneasiness (or anxiety); Nirvana Sutra 19.

五見 The five wrong views: (1) 身見 satkāya-dṛṣṭi, i. e. 我見 and 我所見 the view that there is a real self, an ego, and a mine and thine: (2) 邊見 antar-grāha, extreme views. e. g. extinction or permanence; (3) 邪見 mithyā,

perverse views, which, denying cause and effect, destroy the foundations of morality; (4) 見取見 dṛṣṭi-parāmarśa, stubborn perverted views, viewing inferior things as superior, or counting the worse as the better; (5) 戒禁取見

śīla-vrata-parāmarśa, rigid views in favour of rigorous ascetic prohibitions, e. g. covering oneself with ashes. Cf. 五利使.


五覺 The five bodhi, or states of enlightenment, as described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith; see also 五菩提 for a different group. (1) 本覺 Absolute eternal wisdom, or bodhi; (2) 始覺 bodhi in its initial