The 7th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
will be held on 1-3 February, 2018 in Perth, Western Australia.

Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
Some of the Buddhist Illustrations created by Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
FREE for everyone to use

We would also appreciate your feedback on Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia. Please write feedback here
Here you can read media articles about the Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia which have been published all over the world.

Articles by alphabetic order
 Ā Ī Ñ Ś Ū Ö Ō
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms-008

From Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Please consider making little donation to help us expand the encyclopedia    Donate Paypal-logo.jpg    Enjoy your readings here and have a wonderful day  


佛語必 The bhūtatathatā, as the mind or storehouse of Buddha's words.

佛跡 佛迹 Buddha's relic; any trace of Buddha, e.g. the imprint of his foot in stone before he entered nirvana.

佛身 buddhakāya, a general term for the trikāya, or threefold embodiment of Buddha. There are numerous categories or forms of the buddhakāya.

佛道 The way of Buddha, leading to Buddhahood; intp. as bodhi, enlightenment, gnosis.

佛部 The groups in which Buddha appears in the Garbhadhātu and Vajradhātu respectively.

佛陀 v. 佛 There are numerous monks from India and Central Asia bearing this as part of their names.

佛陀什 Buddhajīva, who arrived in China from Kashmir or Kabul, A.D. 423.

佛陀僧訶 Buddhasiṃha, a disciple of Asaṅga, probably fifth century A.D., about whose esoteric practices, lofty talents, and final disappearance a lengthy account is given in the Fan Yi Ming Yi 翻譯名義; it is also a title of 佛圖澄


佛陀多羅 (佛陀多羅多) Buddhatrāta of Kashmir or Kabul, was a translator about 650.

佛陀扇多 Buddhaśānta, of Central India, translator of some ten works from 525-539.

佛陀提婆 Buddhadeva.

佛陀槃遮 Buddhavaca.

佛陀毱多 Buddhagupta, "a Buddhistic king of Magadha, son and successor of Śakrāditya," Eitel.

佛陀波利 Buddhapāla, came from Kabul to China 676; also Buddhapālita, a disciple of Nāgārjuna and founder of the 中論性教.

佛陀蜜多羅 Buddhamitra, the ninth patriarch.

佛陀跋陀羅 Buddhabhadra, of Kapilavastu, came to China circa 408, introduced an alphabet of forty-two characters and composed numerous works; also name of a disciple of Dharmakoṣa, whom Xuanzang met in India, 630


佛陀耶舍 Buddhayaśas, of Kashmir or Kabul, tr. four works, 408-412.

佛陀難提 Buddhanandi, of Kāmarūpa, descendant of the Gautama family and eighth patriarch.

佛陀馱沙 Buddhadāsa, of Hayamukha 阿耶穆佉 author of the 大毗婆沙論.

佛陀伐那山 Buddhavanagiri, 'a mountain near Rājagṛha famous for its rock caverns, in one of which Śākyamumi lived for a time.' Eitel.


佛隴 Name of a peak at the southwest corner of Tiantai; also a name for Zhiyi 智顗 q.v.

佛頂 Śākyamuni in the third court of the Garbhadhātu is represented as the佛頂尊 in meditation as Universal Wise Sovereign. The 五佛頂q.v. Five Buddhas are on his left representing his Wisdom. The three 佛頂 on his right are

called 廣大佛頂, 極廣大佛頂, and 無邊音聲佛頂; in all they are the eight 佛頂.

佛頂印 The characteristic sign on a Buddha's head, short curls, topknot, or uṣnīṣa.

佛頂咒 楞嚴咒 sitātapatroṣṇīṣa-dhāraṇī; the white-umbrella dhāraṇī in the 首楞嚴經.

佛頂骨 buddhoṣṇīṣa; the skull or cranial protuberance on the Buddha's head; one of his characteristic marks.

佛願 The vow of Buddha to save all beings.

佛馱 佛駄 Used in certain names for 佛陀 Buddha.

佛馱什 Buddhajīva.

佛馱斯那 Buddhasena.

佛馱笈多 Buddhagupta.

佛馱耶 ? Buddhāya.

佛馱耶舍 Buddhayaśas, known as the 'red-beard Vibhāṣā.'

佛馱踐陀羅 Buddhabhadra.

佛骨 A bone of the Buddha, especially the bone against whose reception by the emperor Xianzong the famous protest of Hanyu was made in 819.

免 Avoid; remit.

免僧 A monk whose attendance at the daily assembly is excused for other duties.

兎 śaśa; a rabbit; also a hare. The hare in the moon, hence 懷兎者 is the moon or śaśin.

兎毛塵 The speck of dust that can rest on the point of a hare's down, one-seventh of that on a sheep's hair.

兎角 śaśa-viṣāṇa; śaśa-śṛṅga; a rabbit's horns, i.e. the non-existent; all phenomena are as unreal as a rabbit's horns.

冷 Cold.

冷暖 Cold and warm.

冷淘 Cold swill, a name for冷麪 cold dough-strings.

冷河 The cold river Sītā, v. 私多.

冶 Smelt, melt; fascinating; translit. for ya in akṣaya.

冶受皮陀 Yajurveda, one of the four Vedas.

删 Cut, excise; translit. s, ś.

删地涅暮折那 Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra, name of the 解深密經 sutra.

删提嵐 Described as a fabulous world of the past whose name is given as Śaṇḍilya, but this is doubtful.

删闍夜 (or 耶毘羅胝子); 删逝移毘刺知子 Sañjaya-Vairāṭīputra, or Saṁjayin Vairaḍīputra, one of the six founders of heretical or non-Buddhist schools, whose doctrine was that pain and suffering would end in due course, like unwinding a

ball of silk, hence there was no need of seeking the 'Way'.

判 Divide, judge, decide.

判教 Division of the Buddha's teaching, e.g. that of Tiantai, into the five periods and eight teachings, that of Huayan into five teachings, etc.

判釋 To divide and explain sutras; to arrange in order, analyse the Buddha's teaching.

利 paṭu, tīkṣṇa; sharp, keen, clever; profitable, beneficial; gain, advantage; interest.

利人 To benefit or profit men, idem利他 parahita; the bodhisattva-mind is 自利利他 to improve oneself for the purpose of improving or benefiting others; the Buddha-mind is 利他一心 with single mind to help others, pure

altruism; 利生 is the extension of this idea to 衆生 all the living, which of course is not limited to men or this earthly life; 利物 is also used with the same meaning, 物 being the living.

利使 The sharp or clever envoy, i.e. the chief illusion of regarding the ego and its experiences and ideas as real, one of the five chief illusions.

利劍 A sharp sword, used figuratively for Amitābha, and Mañjuśrī, indicating wisdom, discrimination, or power over evil.

利智 Keen intelligence, wisdom, discrimination; pāṭava.

利根 Sharpness, cleverness, intelligence, natural powers, endowment; possessed of powers of the pañca-indryāni (faith, etc.) or the five sense-organs, v. 五根.

利樂 Blessing and joy; the blessing being for the future life, the joy for the present; or aid (for salvation) and the joy of it.

利樂有情 To bless and give joy to the living, or sentient, the work of a bodhisattva.

利波波 離波多; 黎婆多; 頡隸伐多 Revata; Raivata. (1) A Brahman hermit; one of the disciples of Śākyamuni, to be reborn as Samanta-prabhāsa. (2) President of the second synod, a native of Sāṅkāśya. (3) A contemporary of

Aśoka, mentioned in connection with the third synod. Cf. Eitel.

利益 Benefit, aid, to bless; hence 利益妙 the wonder of Buddha's blessing, in opening the minds of all to enter the Buddha-enlightenment.

利行攝 saṃgraha-vastu, the drawing of all beings to Buddhism through blessing them by deed, word, and will; one of the 四攝法 q.v.

利辯 Sharp and keen discrimination, or ratiocination, one of the seven characteristics 七種辯 of the bodhisattva.

利養 To nourish oneself by gain; gain; avarice.

利養縛 The bond of selfish greed, one of the two bonds, gain and fame.


別 Separate, divide, part from, other, different, differentiate, special.

別他那 Veṣṭana, 吠率努, name of a deva; the second term suggests Viṣṇu, and Veṣṭu might be a conception of Viṣṇu; the intp. 圍 suits both, for Veṣṭana means surrounding, enclosing, and Viṣṇu, pervade, encompass.

別依 Secondary texts or authorities, in contrast with 總依 the principal texts of a school.

別傳 Separately handed down; oral tradition; to pass on the teaching from mind to mind without writing, as in the Chan (Zen) or Intuitional school. Also 單傳.

別劫 antara-kalpas, small or intermediate kalpas, v. 劫.

別向圓修 The 向 of the 別教, i. e. the Separatist or Differentiating school, is the 修 of the 圓教 or Perfect school; i.e. when the 別教 Bodhisattva reaches the stage of the 十囘向, he has reached the 修 stage of the perfect nature and

observance according to the 圓教 or Perfect school.

別圓 The 別教 and 圓教 schools, q. v. and 四教.

別境 Different realms, regions, states, or conditions.

別境心所 vibhāvanā; the ideas, or mental states, which arise according to the various objects or conditions toward which the mind is directed, e.g. if toward a pleasing object, then desire arises.

別報 Differentiated rewards according to previous deeds, i.e. the differing conditions of people in this life resulting from their previous lives.

別念佛 To intone the name of a special Buddha.

別惑 別見 Delusions arising from differentiation, mistaking the seeming for the real; these delusions according to the 別教 are gradually eradicated by the Bodhisattva during his first stage.

別教 The 'different' teaching of the 華嚴宗. Both the Huayan school and the Lotus school are founded on the 一乘 or One Vehicle idea; the Lotus school asserts that the Three Vehicles are really the One Vehicle; the Huayan

school that the One Vehicle differs from the Three Vehicles; hence the Lotus school is called the 同教一乘 unitary, while the Huayan school is the 別教一乘 Differentiating school.

別時念佛 To call upon Buddha at special times. When the ordinary religious practices are ineffective the Pure Land sect call upon Buddha for a period of one to seven days, or ten to ninety days. Also 如法念佛.

別業 Differentiated karma (the cause of different resultant conditions); cf. 總業.

別理隨緣 The 理 li is the 眞如 bhūtatathatā, which one school says is different in operation, while another asserts that it is the same, for all things are the chen-ju .

別相 viśeṣa; differentiation; difference, one of the 六相 of the Huayan school.

別相三觀 The three views of the 別教 in regard to the absolute, the phenomenal, the medial 空假中 as separate ideas.

別衆 For a monk schismatically or perversely to separate himself in religious duties from his fellow-monks is called duṣkṛta, an offence or wickedness, v. 突吉羅.

別見 Unenlightened, or heterodox, views.

別解脫戒 Another name for the commandments, which liberate by the avoidance of evil. Also別解脫律儀.

別請 Special deference paid by singling out or inviting one member of the community; which procedure is against monastic rules.

別願 Special vows, as the forty-eight of Amitābha, or the twelve of 藥師佛 Yao Shih Fo (Bhaiṣajya), as contrasted with general vows taken by all Bodhisattvas.

劬 Toil; translit. k, gh.

劬嬪 (劬嬪陀) Kapphiṇa, v. 劫賓那.

劬師羅 Ghoṣira, v. 具史羅.

劬毗耶 瞿波 Gopā, i. e. Yaśodharā, wife of Śākyamuni, v. 耶.

助 Help, aid, assist; auxiliary.

助音 To assist in singing, or intoning.

助業 Auxiliary karma, i.e. deeds or works, e.g. reciting the sutras about the Pure Land, worship, praise, and offering, as additional to direct karma 正業, i.e. faith in Amitābha, expressed by constant

thought of him and calling on his name.


助道 Auxiliary means, e.g. of meditation; auxiliary discipline; any aid to faith or virtue.

劫 刧 A kalpa, aeon, age; also translit. ka; 'a fabulous period of time, a day of Brahmā or 1, 000 Yugas, a period of four hundred and thirty-two million years of mortals, measuring the duration of the world; (a month

of Brahmā is supposed to contain thirty such kalpas; according to the Mahābhārata twelve months of Brahmā constitute his year, and one hundred such years his lifetime; fifty years of Brahmā are supposed to have elapsed... ).' M. W.

An aeon of incalculable time, therefore called a 大時節 great time-node. v. 劫波.

劫初 The beginning of the kalpa of formation; the kalpa of creation; also 成劫.

劫地羅 khadira v. 竭地羅.

劫婆吒 劫縛拏 kaparda, a shell, cowrie, small coin.

劫婆羅樹 v. 劫波樹 and 劫沙波裟 or 劫具, for both of which it is used.

劫布怛那 (or 劫布呾那or 劫布咀那or 劫布俎那) Kapotana, or Kebudhana; an ancient kingdom, the modern Kebud or Keshbūd, north of Samarkand.

劫布羅 karpūra, camphor, described as 龍腦香 dragon-brain scent.

劫比他 Kapittha. (1) An ancient kingdom of Central India, also called 僧佉尸 Saṃkāśya. (2) A Brahman of Vṛji who ill-treated the Buddhists of his time, was reborn as a fish, and was finally converted, by Śākyamuni, Eitel.

劫比拏 idem劫賓那.

劫比 (劫比羅) kapila; also 劫畢羅; 迦比羅 (or 迦毗羅) The meaning is 'brown', but it is chiefly used for 'the sage Kapila, founder of the classical Sāṃkhya' philosophy and the school of that name.

劫比羅天 金比羅天; 倶鞠羅天 A deva, or demon, called Kapila, or Kumbhīra, or Kubera.

劫比羅伐窣堵 (or 劫比羅伐窣都) Kapilavastu, 劫比羅國; 迦毘羅衞; 迦毗羅蘇都 (or 伽毗羅蘇都) (or 迦毗羅皤窣都) (or伽毗羅皤窣都); 迦羅 (or 迦夷 or 迦維); 伽毗黎, etc. Capital of the principality occupied by the Śākya clan; destroyed during Śākyamuni's life, according to

legend; about 100 miles due north of Benares, north-west of present Gorakhpur; referred to in 西域記.

劫比舍也 Said to be 罽賓 Kashmir.

劫水 The flood in the kalpa of destruction, v. 三災.

劫波 kalpa; also劫簸; 劫跛; v. 劫. Aeon, age. The period of time between the creation and recreation of a world or universe; also the kalpas of formation, existence, destruction, and non-existence, which four as a

complete period are called mahākalpa 大劫. Each great kalpa is subdivided into four asaṇkhyeya-kalpas (阿僧企耶 i.e. numberless, incalculable): (1) kalpa of destruction saṃvarta; (2)kalpa of utter annihilation, or

empty kalpa 増滅劫; 空劫 saṃvarta-siddha; (3) kalpa of formation 成劫 vivarta; (4) kalpa of existence 住劫 vivartasiddha; or they may be taken in the order 成住壤空. Each of the four kalpas is subdivided into twenty

antara-kalpas, 小劫 or small kalpas, so that a mahākalpa consists of eighty small kalpas. Each small kalpa is divided into a period of 増 increase and 減 decrease; the increase period is ruled over by the four

cakravartīs in succession, i.e. the four ages of iron, copper, silver, gold, during which the length of human life increases by one year every century to 84,000 years, and the length of the human body to 8,400 feet. Then

comes the kalpa of decrease divided into periods of the three woes, pestilence, war, famine, during which the length of human life is gradually reduced to ten years and the human body to 1 foot in height. There

are other distinctions of the kalpas. A small kalpa is represented as 16,800,000 years, a kalpa as 336,000,000 years, and a mahākalpa as 1,334,000,000 years. There are many ways of illustrating the length of a kalpa,

e.g. pass a soft cloth over a solid rock 40 li in size once in a hundred years, when finally the rock has been thus worn away a kalpa will not yet have passed; or a city of 40 li, filled with mustard seeds, one being removed

every century till all have gone, a kalpa will not yet have passed. Cf. 成劫.

劫波婆 (or 劫波育 or 劫波羅 or 劫波薩); 劫婆羅; 劫具 (劫具婆) kārpāsa is cotton, Gossypium Herbaceum; but this refers especially to kārpāsī, the cotton tree.

劫波杯 kapāla, a bowl, skull; the drinking bowl of Śiva, a skull filled with blood.

劫波樹 kalpataru A tree in Indra's garden bearing fruit according to the seasons.


劫波羅 kapāla, a skull; also kārpāsa, see劫波娑.

劫波娑天 Yama, as ruler of time, 時分天.

劫海 The ocean of kalpas, i.e. their great number.

劫濁 The impure or turbid kalpa, when the age of life is decreasing and all kinds of diseases afflict men.

劫火 The fire in the kalpa of destruction; also 劫盡火; 劫焰; 劫燒 v. 三災.

劫灰 kalpa-ash, the ashes after the fire kalpa of destruction.

劫災 The calamity of fire, wind, and water, during the 壞劫 kalpa of destruction.

劫焰 kalpa-flames, idem 劫火.

劫燒 idem劫火.

劫簸 idem 劫波.

劫具 v. 劫波娑.

劫賓那 Kapphiṇa; also 劫比拏王; 劫庀那 (or 劫比那, or 劫譬那); or Kampilla, 金毗羅; whose monastic name was Mahā-kapphiṇa; intp. as 房宿 (born) under the constellation Scorpio; he is said to have understood astronomy and been king of

Southern Kośala; he became a disciple of Śākyamuni and is to be reborn as Samantaprabhāsa Buddha.

劫跛劫跛夜帝 ? kalpa-kalpāyati, perhaps connected with klṛp, intp. as 離分別 (or 無分別) indiscriminate, undifferentiate.

卵生 aṇḍaja. Egg-born, one of the four ways of coming into existence, v. 四生.

却 Decline, reject; but, yet.

却入生死 To leave his perfect life to enter into the round of births and deaths, as a Bodhisattva does.

吿 To inform; plead; accuse.

吿香 To inform by offering incense.

吸 To suck up, inhale.

呼吸 Exhale and inhale.

Chant, hum, mutter.

吟詠 吟諷 To intone, repeat.

吹 To blow; puff, praise.

吹光 To blow out a light, a blown-out light.

吹毛 Name of a sharp sword, or Excalibur, that would sever a falling feather; to blow hair or fur.

吹法螺 To blow the conch of the Law, the Buddha's preaching.

吽 M020011 Translit. for hūṃ, which is interpreted as the bodhi, or omniscience, of all Buddhas.

吽吽 The lowing of oxen.

吽迦囉身 Hūṃkāra, Puxian 普賢 Samantabhadra in his minatory aspect against demons.

呌喚 Raurava; also 號呌; 呼呼. The wailing hells, the fourth of the eight hot hells, where the inmates cry aloud on account of pain.

Prince, noble, ideal man or woman; translit. kun.

君持 君遲; 軍持; 据穉迦 (or 据稚迦) kuṇḍa, kuṇḍikā, a pitcher, waterpot; washbowl.

君荼 (or 軍荼) kuṇḍa, a hole in the ground for the fire at the fire altar: the homa or fire altar.

吠 To bark (as a dog); translit. ve, vi, vai; cf. 毘; 鞞; 衞; 別.

吠世師 吠世史迦 Vaiśeṣika, v. 衞.

吠努璃耶 vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli.

吠嚧遮那;吠路者那 Vairocana v. 毘.

吠室囉末拏 Vaiśravaṇa, v. 鞞.

吠嵐 vairambha, v. 毘.

吠摩質怛利 vimalacitra, v. 毘.

吠率怒 Veṣṭana, v. 別.

吠瑠璃 (吠瑠璃耶) vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli.

吠舍 鞞吠(or 毘吠);吠奢 vaiśya; the third of the four Indian castes, that of agriculture and trade.

吠舍佉 (or 薜舍佉); 鼻奢迦 Vaiśākha; the second Indian month, from 15th of 2nd to 16th of 3rd Chinese months.

吠舍釐 (or 吠舍離) Vaiśālī, v. 毘.

吠陀 Veda, v. 韋.

含 To hold in the mouth: cherish: restrain.

含中教 A Tiantai term for the 通教 which was midway between or interrelated with Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna.

含情 All beings possessing feeling, sentience.

含生 含靈 Living beings, all beings possessing life, especially sentient life.

含華 In the closed lotus flower, i.e. those who await the opening of the flower for rebirth in Paradise.

含識 含類 All sentient beings.

坊 A place, locality; a temple, place of assembly, etc.


均 Equal, in balance, all; used for kun.

均提 Kunti, (a) said to be a devoted disciple of Śāriputra; (b) one of the attendants on Mañjuśrī.

坐 niṣad; niṣaṇṇa; sit; rest; situated.

坐具 given as niṣīdana, an article for sitting on, said to be a cloth, or mat.

坐久成勞 To accomplish one's labour by prolonged sitting, as did Bodhidharma.

坐參 The evening meditation at a monastery (preceding instruction by the abbot).

坐堂 A sitting room, the assembly room of the monks.

坐夏 坐臘 varṣā; the retreat or rest during the summer rains.

坐夏由 A certificate of "retreat" given to a wandering monk.

坐禪 To sit in dhyāna, i.e. abstract meditation, fixed abstraction, contemplation; its introduction to China is attributed to Bodhidharma (though it came earlier), and its extension to Tiantai.

坐禪堂 The monks' assembly room.

坐證 Another term for dhyāna contemplation.

夾 Squeeze, clip, nip; lined.

夾山 Name of a monastery and monk in 澧州 Lizhou under the Tang dynasty.

妓 A singing-girl, courtesan.

妓樂 Female musicians and performers.

妖 An imp; to bewitch; magical.

妖通 The power to change miraculously into trees and animals; v. 五種通.

妙 su, sat, mañju, sūkṣma. Wonderful, beautiful, mystic, supernatural, profound, subtle, mysterious. su means good, excellent, surpassing, beautiful, fine, easy. sat means existing, real, good. mañju means beautiful,

lovely, charming. Intp. in Chinese as 不可思議 beyond thought or discussion; 絕待 special, outstanding; 無比 incomparable; 精微深遠 subtle and profound.

妙中 The profound medium (madhya); the universal life essence, the absolute, the bhūtatathatā which expresses the unity of all things, i.e. the doctrine held by Tiantai as distinguished from the 別教 which holds the

madhya doctrine but emphasizes the dichotomy of the 空 transcendental and 假 phenomenal.

妙假 The profound meaning of phenomena of Tiantai, that they are the bhūtatathatā (e.g. water and wave) as distinguished from the 別教 view; cf. 妙中.

妙光 Varaprabha, Wonderful Light, an ancient incarnation of Mañjuśrī.

妙光佛 Sūryaraśmi, the 930th Buddha of the present kalpa.

妙典 The classics of the wonderful dharma, i.e. Mahāyāna.

妙吉祥 Wonderful and auspicious, the meaning of Mañjuśrī, 妙 for mañju and 吉祥 for śrī; v. 文殊.

妙喜世界 The realm of profound joy, the country of Vimalakīrti 維摩居士, who is stated to have been a contemporary of Śākyamuni; v. 維摩詰經 12.

妙喜足天 The heaven full of wonderful joy, idem Tuṣita, v. 兜率天.

妙善公主 The princess of wonderful goodness, name of Guanyin as third daughter of King 莊嚴 Zhuangyan.

妙因 The profound cause, the discipline of the bodhisattva, i.e. chastity, and the six pāramitās, etc., as producing the Buddha-fruit.

妙土 The wonderful land; a Buddha's reward-land; especially the Western Paradise of Amitābha.

妙宗 Profound principles; the Lotus school.

妙幢 Ruciraketu. Name of a Bodhisattva.

妙幢相三昧 dhvajāgrakeyūra, "the ring on the top of a standard," a degree of ecstatic meditation mentioned in the Lotus Sutra.

妙德 Wonderful virtue, title of Mañjuśrī; also an intp. of the meaning of Kapilavastu, v. 劫比, etc.

妙心 The mind or heart wonderful and profound beyond human thought. According to Tiantai the 別教 limited this to the mind 眞心 of the Buddha, while the 圓教 universalized it to include the unenlightened heart

心 of all men.

妙意菩薩 Mānavaka, i.e. Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation as disciple of Dīpaṅkara 然燈佛.

妙應 The miraculous response, or self-manifestation of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.


妙教 Admirable, profound teaching; i.e. that of the Lotus Sutra.

妙明 Profoundly enlightened heart or mind, i.e. the knowledge of the finality of the stream of reincarnation.

妙智 The wonderful Buddha-wisdom.

妙有 The absolute reality, the incomprehensible entity, as contrasted with the superficial reality of phenomena; supernatural existence.

妙果 Wonderful fruit, i.e. bodhi or enlightenment and nirvana.

妙樂 Wonderful music (in the Pure Land). Miao-yo, the sixth Tiantai patriarch.

妙法 saddharma, 薩達摩 (薩達刺摩) The wonderful law or truth (of the Lotus Sutra).

妙法一乘 The One Vehicle of the wonderful dharma, or perfect Mahāyāna.

妙法堂 善法堂 The hall of wonderful dharma, situated in the south-west corner of the Trāyastriṃśas heaven, v. 忉, where the thirty-three devas discuss whether affairs are according to law or truth or the contrary.

妙法宮 The palace of the wonderful Law, in which the Buddha ever dwells.

妙法燈 The lamp of the wonderful Law shining into the darkness of ignorance.

妙法船 The bark or boat of wonderful dharma, capable of transporting men over the sea of life into nirvana.

妙法華 idem妙法蓮華.

妙法藏 The treasury of the wonderful dharma.

妙法輪 The wheel of the wonderful Law, Buddha's doctrine regarded as great cakra or wheel.

妙法蓮華 法華 The wonderful truth as found in the Lotus Sutra. the One Vehicle Sutra; which is said to contain 實法 Buddha's complete truth as compared with his previous 權法 or 方便法, i.e. partial, or expedient teaching, but

both are included in this perfect truth. The sutra is the Saddhamapuṇḍarīka 正法華經 or (添品妙法蓮華經) 妙法蓮華經, also known as 薩曇芥陀利經, of which several translations in whole or part were made from Sanskrit into Chinese, the

most popular being by Kumārajīva. It was the special classic of the Tiantai school, which is sometimes known as the 蓮宗 Lotus school, and it profoundly influenced Buddhist doctrine in China, Japan, and

Tibet. The commentaries and treatises on it are very numerous; two by Chih-i 智顗 of the Tiantai school being the妙法蓮華經文句 and the 玄義.

妙無 asat, the mystery of non-existence.

妙玄 Wonderful and profound; an abbreviation for妙法蓮華經玄義 the Tiantai commentary on the Lotus Sutra.

妙眞如性 The profound nature of the bhūtatathatā, the totality, or fundamental nature, of all things.

妙臂菩薩 Subāhu-kumāra, the Bodhisattva of the wonderful arm; there is a sutra of this name.

妙色 surūpa, 蘇樓波. The wonderful form or body, i.e. of a Buddha's saṃbhogakāya and his Buddha-land.

妙色身如來 Surūpakāya Tathāgata (Akṣobhya, the Buddha of the East), who is thus addressed when offerings are made to the hungry spirits.

妙莊王 (妙莊嚴王) Śubhavyūha, the king who is the subject and title of the twenty-seventh chapter of the Lotus Sutra. He is also reputed to be the father of Guanyin.

妙蓮華 The wonderful lotus, symbol of the pure wisdom of Buddha, unsullied in the midst of the impurity of the world.

妙行 The profound act by which a good karma is produced, e.g. faith; v. 一行一切行.

妙見 The beautiful sight, i.e. Ursa Major, or the Bodhisattva who rules there, styled 妙見大士 (or 妙見菩薩), though some say Śākyamuni, others Guanyin, others 藥師 Bhaiṣajya, others the seven Buddhas. His image is that of a youth

in golden armour.

妙覺 The wonderful enlightenment of Mahāyāna, or self-enlightenment to enlighten others.

妙覺地 The stage of wonderful enlightenment, Buddhahood.

妙覺性 The profound, enlightened nature, that of Buddha, one of the 六性.

妙觀 The wonderful system of the three Tiantai meditations; v. 三諦, 三觀.

妙語藏 The storehouse of miraculous words, mantras, dhāraṇī, or magic spells of Shingon.

妙賢 Subhadra, 善賢 A monk referred to in the 西域記 Records of Western Lands.


妙趣 The wonderful destiny or metempsychosis, i.e. that of Mahāyāna.

妙車 The wonderful vehicles (mentioned in the Lotus Sutra).

妙門 The wonderful door of dharma; nirvana; the six Tiantai methods leading through meditation to enlightenment and the state of nirvana.

妙音 Wonderful sound. (1) Gadgadasvara, 妙音菩薩 (or 妙音大士) a Bodhisattva, master of seventeen degrees of samādhi, residing in Vairocanaraśmi-pratimaṇḍita, whose name heads chap. 24 of the Lotus Sutra. (2) Sughoṣa, a

sister of Guanyin; also a Buddha like Varuṇa controlling the waters 水天德佛, the 743rd Buddha of the present kalpa. (3) Ghoṣa, 瞿沙 an arhat, famous for exegesis, who "restored the eyesight of Dharmavivardhana by washing

his eyes with the tears of people who were moved by his eloquence." Eitel.

妙音徧滿 Universal wonderful sound, Manojña-śabdābhigarjita, the kalpa of Ānanda as Buddha.

妙音天 (妙音樂天) Sarasvatī, the wife or female energy of Brahmā. Also called 辨才天 (辨才天女) Jap. Benzaiten, or Benten; goddess of eloquence, learning, and music, bestower of the Sanskrit language and letters,

and the bestower of 財 riches; also the river goddess. Sometimes considered as masculine. Honoured among the seven gods of luck, and often represented as mounted on a dragon or a serpent.

妙音鳥 The wonderful-voice bird, the kalaviṅka.

妙顯山 The mountain of marvelous appearance, i.e. Sumeru.

妙高山 (妙高山王) The wonderful high mountain, Sumeru; the king of mountains.

孝 Filial, obedient.

孝子 A filial son.

孝服 Mourning clothes for parents.

孝順 Obedient.

孛 Po; plants shooting; a comet.

孛伽夷 Bhagai. A city south of Khotan, formerly famous for a statue exhibiting all the thirty-two lakṣanas or marks on the body of Buddha.

宏 Vast, spacious.

宏智 Hung-chih, posthumous name of a monk of 天童 Tiant'ung monastery, Ningpo, early in the twelfth century.

宋 The Sung dynasty, A.D. 960-1280.

宋元入藏諸大小乘經 Sutras of the Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna admitted into the canon during the Northern and Southern Sung (A.D. 960-1127 and 1127-1280) and Yuan (A.D. 1280-1368) dynasties. B.N., 782-1081.

宋帝王 The third of the ten rulers of Hades, who presides over the Kālasūtra, the hell of black ropes.

尾 Tail: end.

尾儞也 vibhā, to shine, illuminate, tr, by 明, a name for the Shingon sect 眞言 because of its power to dispel the darkness of delusion.

尾嚕愽乞叉 virūpākṣa, epithet for the three-eyed deva, Śiva. See also 毘流波叉.

尾嚕茶迦 Virūḍhaka idem 毘璢璃, one of the four maharāja-devas.

尿 Urine, urinate.

尿牀鬼子 A urinating ghost; a term of abuse.

尿闥 A urinal.

希 Rare, seldom, few; to hope for.

希奇 Rare and extraordinary.

希天施;希求施 Giving in hope of heaven, or bliss; one of the 八種布施.

希有 Rare, extraordinary, uncommon, few.

希有人 There are few, a sad exclamation, indicating that those who accept Buddha's teaching are few, or that those who do evil and repent, or give favours and remember favours, etc., are few.

希法 adbhutadharma; supernatural things, prodigies, miracles, a section of the twelve classical books.

希祀鬼 Ghosts that hope for sacrificial offerings (from their descendants).

希連河 希連禪 The river Nairañjanā, v. 尼.

希麟音義 The dictionary compiled by Hsi-lin of the Tang dynasty, supplementing the 慧琳音義 Hui-lin-yin-i. Sound and meaning accord with Hui-lin, and terms used in translations made subsequent to that work are added.

序 Seriatim; preface, introduction; the opening phrase of a sutra, "Thus have I heard;" an opening phrase leading up to a subject.

序王 The introduction by Chih-i to the Lotus Sutra. Introductions are divided into 序, 正, and 流通, the first relating to the reason for the book; the second to its method; and the third to its subsequent history.

弟 Younger brother.

弟子 Disciple, disciples.

Form, figure, appearance, the body.

形像 pratimā, an image or likeness (of Buddha).

形山 The body, comparable to a mountain.

形貌 Form, appearance.

形貌欲 The desire awakened on seeing a beautiful form, one of the 六欲 six desires.


形色 saṃsthānarūpa, the characteristics of form— long, short, square, round, high, low, straight, crooked. It is also associated with rūpāvacara as personal appearance, and as a class of gods in the realm of form.

志 Will, resolve, 志意; 心志; also data, records.

快 Glad, joyful; quick, sharp.

快樂 Joyful.

快目王 The quick-eyed king, Sudhīra, or highly intelligent, who could see through a wall 40 li away, yet who took out his eyes to give as alms; v. 賢愚經 6.

Delight, joy.

忌 Avoid, tabu, dread; hate, jealous.

忌日 諱日 The tabu day, i.e. the anniversary of the death of a parent or prince, when all thoughts are directed to him, and other things avoided.

忍 kṣānti, 羼提 (or 羼底); patience, endurance, (a) in adverse circumstances, (b) in the religious state. There are groups of two, three, four, five, six, ten, and fourteen, indicating various forms of patience,

equanimity, repression, forbearance, endurance, constancy, or "perseverance of the saints," both in mundane and spiritual things.

忍不墮惡趣 The stage of patience ensures that there will be no falling into the lower paths of transmigration.

忍仙 The patient ṛṣi, or immortal of patience, i.e. the Buddha.

忍位 The stage of patience.

忍加行 The discipline of patience, in the 四加行 four Hīnayāna disciplines; also in the Mahāyāna.

忍善 The patient and good; or patient in doing good.

忍土 The place of patience or endurance, this world.

忍地 The stage of patience, i.e. of enlightenment separating from the chain of transmigration.

忍智 Patience and wisdom. In the Hīnayāna, patience is cause, wisdom effect; in Mahāyāna, the two are merged, though patience precedes wisdom.

忍水 Patience in its depth and expanse compared to water.

忍法 (忍法位) The method or stage of patience, the sixth of the seven stages of the Hīnayāna in the attainment of arhatship, or sainthood: also the third of the four roots of goodness.

忍波羅蜜 The patience pāramitā, v. 忍辱.

忍界 sahā, or sahāloka, or sahālokadhātu. The universe of persons subject to transmigration, the universe of endurance.

忍調 Patiently to harmonize, i.e. the patient heart tempers and subdues anger and hatred.

忍辱 羼提波羅蜜多 (or 羼底波羅蜜多) kṣānti pāramitā; patience, especially bearing insult and distress without resentment, the third of the six pāramitās 六度. Its guardian Bodhisattva is the third on the left in the hall of space in

the Garbhadhātu.

忍辱仙 kṣāntyṛṣi; the ṛṣi who patiently suffered insult, i.e. Śākyamuni, in a former life, suffering mutilation to convert Kalirāja.

忍辱地 The stage of patience. Two kinds are distinguished, patience which endures (1) insults originating in men, such as hatred, or abuse, (2) distresses arising from natural causes such as heat, cold, age, sickness,


忍辱太子 The patient prince, of Vārāṇaśī (Benares), who gave a piece of his flesh to heal his sick parents, which was efficacious because he had never given way to anger.

忍辱衣 The robe of patience, a patient heart which, like a garment, wards off all outward sin. A general name for the kaṣāya, monk's robe.

忍鎧 (忍辱鎧) Patience as armour, protecting against evils; also the kaṣāya, monk's robe.

成 Complete, finish, perfect, become.

成佛 To become Buddha, as a Bodhisattva does on reaching supreme perfect bodhi.

成佛得脫 To become Buddha and obtain deliverance (from the round of mortality).

成劫 vivarta kalpa, one of the four kalpas, consisting of twenty small kalpas during which worlds and the beings on them are formed. The others are: 住劫 vivarta-siddha kalpa, kalpa of abiding, or existence,

sun and moon rise, sexes are differentiated, heroes arise, four castes are formed, social life evolves. 壞劫saṃvarta kalpa, that of destruction, consisting of sixty-four small kalpas when fire, water, and

wind destroy everything except the fourth dhyāna. 空劫 saṃvarta-siddha kalpa, i.e. of annihilation. v. 劫波.

成唯識論 Vidya-matrāṣiddhi śāstra, in 10 juan, being Vasubandhu's 唯識 in 30 juan reduced by Xuanzang, also by others, to 10. There are works on it by various authors.

成實 Completely true, or reliable, perfect truth, an abbreviation for成實宗, 成實論, 成實師.

成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect (Jap. Jōjitsu-shū), based upon the Satyasiddhi śāstra of Harivarman, v. 訶. tr. by Kumārajīva. In China it was a branch of the 三論 San Lun sect. It was a Hīnayāna variation of the śūnya 空 doctrine. The

term is defined as perfectly establishing the real meaning of the sutras.

成實論 tr. as above is in 16 juan; there are other works on it.

成就 siddhi: accomplishment, fulfillment, completion, to bring to perfection.

成就衆生 To transform all beings by developing their Buddha-nature and causing them to obtain enlightenment.

成熟者 The ripe; those who attain; those in whom the good nature, immanent in all the living, completes their salvation.


成等正覺 To attain to perfect enlightenment, become Buddha.

成自然覺 To attain to natural enlightenment as all may do by beholding eternal truth 實相 within their own hearts.

成身會 根本會; 羯磨會 The first group in the nine Vajradhātu groups.

成道 To attain the Way, or become enlightened, e.g. the Buddha under the bodhi tree.

成道會 臘八 The annual commemoration of the Buddha's enlightenment on the 8th day of the 12th month.

我 I, my, mine; the ego, the master of the body, compared to the ruler of a country. Composed of the five skandhas and hence not a permanent entity. It is used for ātman, the self, personality. Buddhism takes

as a fundamental dogma 無我, i.e. no 常我, no permanent ego, only recognizing a temporal or functional ego. The erroneous idea of a permanent self continued in reincarnation is the source of all illusion. But

the Nirvana Sutra definitely asserts a permanent ego in the transcendental world, above the range of reincarnation; and the trend of Mahāyāna supports such permanence; v. 常我樂淨.

我事 My body; myself; my affair.

我人四相 The four ejects of the ego in the Diamond Sutra: (1) 我相 the illusion that in the five skandhas there is a real ego; (2) 人相 that this ego is a man, and different from beings of the other paths; (3) 衆生相

that all beings have an ego born of the five skandhas; (4) 壽相 that the ego has age, i.e. a determined or fated period of existence.

我倒 The illusion of an ego, one of the four inverted or upside-down ideas.

我劣慢 ūnamāna; the pride of thinking myself not much inferior to those who far surpass me. One of the 九慢 q.v.

我勝慢 adhimāna; the pride of thinking oneself superior to equals. One of the 九慢.

我執 ātma-grāha; holding to the concept of the ego; also 人執.

我室 The ego as the abode (of all suffering).

我德 Power or virtue of the ego, the ego being defined as 自在 sovereign, master, free; v. 我波羅蜜.

我愚 Ego ignorance, holding to the illusion of the reality of the ego.

我想 The thought that the ego has reality.

我愛 Self-love; the love of or attachment to the ego, arising with the eighth vijñāna.

我慢 abhimāna, ātma-mada. Egoism exalting self and depreciating others; self-intoxication, pride.

我我所 I and mine: the self and its possessions.

我所 我所有; 我所事 Mine, personal, subjective; personal conditions, possessions, or anything related to the self.

我所心 The mind that thinks it is owner of things.

我所見 The incorrect view that anything is really mine, for all things are but temporal combinations.

我有 The illusion that the ego has real existence.

我法 Self (or the ego), and things.

我法倶有宗 The school that regards the ego and things as real; the 犢子部 Vātsīputrīya school.

我波羅蜜 The ego pāramitā in the four based on the Nirvana Sutra in which the transcendental ego is 自在, i.e. has a real and permanent nature; the four are 常 permanency, 樂 joy, 我 personality, 淨 purity.

我痴 Ego-infatuation, confused by the belief in the reality of the ego.

我相 Egoism, the concept of the ego as real. Anyone who believes in我相, 人我, 衆生我, 壽我 is not a true Bodhisattva, v. 我人四相.

我空 生空 (衆生空); 人空 Illusion of the concept of the reality of the ego, man being composed of elements and disintegrated when these are dissolved.

我空眞如 The Hīnayāna doctrine of impersonality in the absolute, that in truth there is no ego; this position abrogates moral responsibility, cf. 原人論.


我等慢 mānātimāna; the pride of thinking oneself equal to those who surpass us. One of the 九慢.

我見 身見 The erroneous doctrine that the ego, or self, composed of the temporary five skandhas, is a reality and permanent.

我語取 The attachment to doctrines or statements about the ego. One of the 四取.

我顚倒 The illusion that the ego is real; also the incorrect view that the nirvana-ego is non-ego. One of the 四顚倒.

戒 śīla, 尸羅. Precept, command, prohibition, discipline, rule; morality. It is applied to the five, eight, ten, 250, and other commandments. The five are: (1) not to kill; (2 ) not to steal; (3) not to commit adultery; (4)

not to speak falsely; (5) not to drink wine. These are the commands for lay disciples; those who observe them will be reborn in the human realm. The Sarvāstivādins did not sanction the observance of a limited selection

from them as did the 成實宗 Satyasiddhi school. Each of the five precepts has five guardian spirits, in all twenty-five, 五戒二十五神. The eight for lay disciples are the above five together with Nos. 7, 8, and 9 of the

following; the ten commands for the ordained, monks and nuns, are the above five with the following: (6) not to use adornments of flowers, nor perfumes; (7) not to perform as an actor, juggler, acrobat, or go to watch and

hear them; (8) not to sit on elevated, broad, and large divans (or beds); (9) not to eat except in regulation hours; (10) not to possess money, gold or silver, or precious things. The 具足戒full commands for a monk number 250,

those for a nun are 348, commonly called 500. Śīla is also the first of the 五分法身, i.e. a condition above all moral error. The Sutra of Brahma's Net has the following after the first five: (6) not to speak of the sins

of those in orders; (7) not to vaunt self and depreciate others; (8) not to be avaricious; (9) not to be angry; (10) not to slander the triratna.

戒力 The power derived from observing the commandments, enabling one who observes the five commandments to be reborn among men, and one who observes the ten positive commands 十善 to be born among devas, or as a king.

戒取 Clinging to the commandments of heterodox teachers, e.g. those of ultra-asceticism, one of the four attachments, 四取 catuḥ-parāmarśa.

戒取使 The delusion resulting from clinging to heterodox commandments.

戒取見 戒禁取見 Clinging to heterodox ascetic views; one of the five darśana 五見.

戒品 The different groupings or subjects of the commandments, or discipline; i.e. the 5, 10, 250. etc.

戒善 The good root of keeping the commandments, from which springs the power for one who keeps the five to be reborn as a man; or for one who keeps the ten to be reborn in the heavens, or as a king.

戒器 A utensil fit to receive the rules, i.e. one who is not debarred from entering the order, as is a eunuch, slave, minor, etc.

戒垢 The source of defiling the commandments, i.e. woman.

戒場 The place where monks are given the commandments.

戒壇 The altar at which the commandments are received by the novice; the 方等戒壇 is the Mahāyāna altar.

戒學 The study of the rules or discipline; one of the three departments 三學, the other two being meditation and philosophy.

戒定慧 Discipline, meditation, wisdom; discipline wards off bodily evil, meditation calms mental disturbance, wisdom gets rid of delusion and proves truth.

戒師 The teacher of the discipline, or of the commandments (to the novice); also 戒和尚.

戒師五德 The five virtues of the teacher of the discipline: obedience to the rules, twenty years as monk, ability to explain the vinaya, meditation, ability to explain the abhidharma.

戒律 śīla and vinaya. The rules.

戒律藏 The Vinaya Piṭaka, the second main division of the Buddhist canon.

戒德 The power of the discipline.


戒忍 Patience acquired by the observance of the discipline; the first of the ten kṣānti.

戒急乘緩 Zealous for the discipline rather than for knowledge, e.g. Hīnayāna.

乘急戒緩 One who is zealous for knowledge rather than the discipline, e.g. Vimalakīrti 維摩.

乘戒倶急 One who emphasizes both precepts and meditative insight, the Bodhisattva.

乘戒倶緩 One who is indifferent to both meditative insight and moral discipline.

戒本 The Prātimokṣa 波羅提木叉 q.v.

戒本經 is the latter half of the 梵網經.

戒波羅密 Moral precepts, the second of the six pāramitās.

戒渡離 Upāli, a śūdra, disciple of Śākyamuni, famous for his knowledge of the Vinaya; v. 優波離.

戒海 The rules are pure and purify like the waters of the ocean.

戒牒 戒驗; 度牒 Certificate of ordination of a monk.

戒珠 The commandments, or rules, are like pure white pearls, adorning the wearer.

戒相 The commandments or rules in their various forms; also the commandments as expressions for restraining evil, etc.

戒禁 Prohibitions arising out of the fundamental rules; by-laws.

戒禁取見 v. 戒取.

戒膝 The "commandments' knee," i.e. the right knee bent as when receiving the commandments.

戒臘 The number of years a monk has been ordained. 臘 is the name of an offering made at the end of the year in ancient times. Also戒蠟; 戒臈; 僧臘.

戒藏 The Vinaya Piṭaka; the collection of rules.

戒賢 Śīlabhadra, see 尸.

戒躅 The rut or way of the commandments; the rules.

戒門 The way or method of the commandments or rules: obedience to the commandments as a way of salvation.

戒香 The perfume of the commandments, or rules, i.e. their pervading influence.

戒體 The embodiment of the commandments in the heart of the recipient. v. 無表; also the basis, or body, of the commandments.

技人 A magician, trickster, conjurer.

批 An order of a court, rescript; a contract, lease; to comment, criticize.

批那 vīṇā; the Indian lute.

抖 To shake.

抖擻 斗藪 dhūta; stirring up to duty; discipline. v. 頭陀.

折 To snap, break; decide; compound; fold.

折伏攝受 To subdue the evil and receive the good; cf. 抑.

折利怛羅 (or 折利但羅) Caritra, 發行城 "A port on the south-east frontier of Uḍa (Orissa) whence a considerable trade was carried on with Ceylon." Eitel.

折句迦 斫折句 (or 所折句) Cakoka, i.e. Karghalik in Turkestan.

折石 A broken stone, i.e. irreparable.

折蘆 The snapped-off reed on which Bodhidharma is said to have crossed the Yangtsze from Nanking.

投 To cast, throw into, surrender, tender.

投子 T'ou-tzu, name of a hill and monastery at 舒州 Shu-chou and of 義靑 I-ch'ing its noted monk.

投機 To avail oneself of an opportunity; to surrender oneself to the principles of the Buddha in the search for perfect enlightenment.

投淵 To cast oneself into an abyss (hoping for eternal life).

投華 To cast, or offer flowers in worship.

投身 To cast away, or surrender, one's body, or oneself.

抑 Curb, repress; or.

抑揚教 The third of the five periods of Buddha's teaching, as held by the Nirvana sect of China 涅槃宗, during which the 維摩思益 is attributed to him.

抑止 To suppress, e. g. 抑止惡事 suppress evil deeds.

抑止攝取 The suppression or universal reception of evil beings; pity demands the latter course.

扶 Aid, support, uphold.

扶塵根 The external organs, i.e. of sight, etc., which aid the senses; 扶塵根 is also written 浮塵根 meaning fleeting, vacuous, these external things having an illusory existence; the real organs, or indriya, are the 正根 or

勝義根 which evolve the ideas.


扶律談常 (扶律談常教) The teaching which supports the rules and speaks of the eternal, i. e. the 涅槃經 Nirvāṇa Sūtra.

扶疏 'Supporting commentary', another name for the 涅槃經 Nirvāṇa Sūtra, because according to Tiantai it is an amplification of the Lotus Sutra.

扶薩 Bodhisattva, idem 菩薩.

改 To change, correct.

改宗 To change one's cult, school of thought, or religion.

改悔 To repent and reform.

更 To change; a night watch; again; the more.

更藥 Medicines that should be taken between dawn and the first watch, of which eight are named, v. 百一羯磨 5.

李 Plum.

李園 āmravana, the wild-plum (or mango) grove, see 菴.

束蘆 To tie reeds together in order to make them stand up, illustration of the interdependence of things and principles.

杖林 Yaṣṭivana, 洩瑟知林; the forest in which a Brahman tried to measure Buddha's height with a 16 ft. bamboo pole, but the more he measured the higher the body became; another part of the legend is that the forest grew

from the bamboo which he left behind in chagrin.

杜 Stop, prevent; azalea.

杜口 To shut the mouth, render speechless.

杜嚕 turuṣka olibanum, Indian incense, resin, gum used for incense. It is said to resemble peach resin and to grow in Aṭali. Its leaves resemble the pear's and produce pepper; it is said to flourish in the sands of Central

Asia and its gum to flow out on to the sands.

杜多 杜茶; 頭陀 q. v. dhūta, discipline (to shake off sin, etc. ).

杜底 dūta, a messenger; dūtī, a female messenger.

杜魯婆跋吒 Dhruvpaṭu, a king of Valabhī, son-in-law of Śīladitya.

步 (歩) pada; step, pace.

步他 v. 佛 Buddha.

步擲金剛 or 步擲明王; 播般曩結使波 A form of 普賢 Samantabhadra as a vajra-king.

每 Each, every.

每恒里 v. 彌勒 Maitreya.

每恒里末那 maitrīmanas, of kindly mind, tr. by 慈悲 merciful.

汲 Draw water; emulate, eager.

汲井輪 The round of reincarnations is like the waterwheel at the well ever revolving up and down.

沐 To bathe; translit. mu, mo.

沐魄太子 is 慕魄 one of the former incarnations of Śākyamuni.

沈 沉 To sink; heavy.

沈冥 Sunk in the gloom of reincarnations and ignorance.

沈檀 agaru, or aguru, sandal incense.

沈香 (沈水香) aguru, the tree and incense of that name.

沈空 To sink into emptiness, or uselessness.

沃 Wet, wash, enrich.

沃焦石 (or 沃焦山) The rock, or mountain, Pātāla, on the bottom of the ocean, just above the hot purgatory, which absorbs the water and thus keeps the sea from increasing and overflowing. 沃焦海 is the ocean which contains this rock, or


汚 Filthy, impure. kleśa; contamination of attachment to the pleasures of sense, to heretical views, to moral and ascetic practices regarded as adequate to salvation, to the belief in the self, all

which cause misery.

沒 Sunk, gone; not; translit. m, mu, mo, mau, ma, bu, v, etc.

沒交渉 No inter-relation.

沒劫 moha, delusion, bewilderment, infatuation, tr. by 愚 foolishness; cf. 謨.

沒哩底野吠 Derived from mṛtyu, death; one of Yama's 明王 or rājas.

沒巴鼻 No nose to lay hold of; no lead, no bases.

沒度 Buddha, v. 佛.

沒栗度 mṛdu, soft, pliant, weak.

沒栗多 vrata, temporary chastity, or observance.

沒曳達利瑟致 māyādṛḍṭi, illusion-views, intp. by 我見 egoism, the false doctrine that there is a real ego.

沒滋味 Tasteless, valueless, useless, e. g. the discussion of the colour of milk by blind people.

沒特伽羅子 (or 沒刀伽羅子) v. 目連 (目犍連) Maudgalaputra, or Maudgalyāyana.

沒馱 buddha, v. 佛.

求 To seek, beseech, pray.

求不得苦 The pain which results from not receiving what one seeks, from disappointed hope, or unrewarded effort. One of the eight sorrows.

求名菩薩 The Qiuming (fame-seeking) bodhisattva, v. Lotus Sutra, a name of Maitreya in a previous life. Also, Yaśaskāma, 'A disciple of Varaprabhā noted for his boundless ambition and utter want of

memory.' Eitel.

求寂 Seeking nirvāṇa, i. e. the disciple who accepts the ten commandments.

求那 guṇa, a quality, characteristic, or virtue, e. g. sound, taste, etc.


求那毘地 Guṇavṛddhi, 德進, an Indian monk who came to China 492-5, tr. three works, d. 502.

求那跋摩 Guṇavarman, tr. 功德鐙, a prince of Kubhā (Cashmere), who refused the throne, wandered alone, reached China, tr. ten works, two of which were lost by A. D. 730. Born in 367, he died in Nanjing in A. D. 431. He taught that

truth is within, not without, and that the truth (dharma) is of oneself, not of another. The centre of his work is placed in 揚州 Yangzhou. It is said that he started the order of nuns in China, v. 翻譯名義 Fan-yi-


求那跋陀羅 Guṇabhadra, tr. 德賢. (1) A follower of the Mahīśāsakā in Kapiśā. (2) A Brāhmaṇa of Central India, tr. into Chinese some seventy-eight works A. D. 435-443; b. 394, d. 468.

沙 bālukā. Sand; sands, e. g. of Ganges 恒河, implying countless; translit. s, ś, ṣ. Cf. 莎.

沙劫 Kalpas countless as the sands of Ganges.

沙婆婆瑟 saḍ-varṣa; the sexennial assembly.

沙彌 śrāmaṇera, 室羅摩拏洛迦; 室末那伊洛迦; 室羅摩尼羅 The male religious novice, who has taken vows to obey the ten commandments. The term is explained by 息惡行慈 one who ceases from evil and does works of mercy, or lives

altruistically; 勤策男 a zealous man; 求寂 one who seeks rest; 求涅槃寂 one who seeks the peace of nirvāṇa. Three kinds are recognized according to age, i. e. 7 to 13 years old, old enough to 驅鳥 'drive away crows'; 14 to 19, called 應法 able

to respond to or follow the doctrine; 20 to 70.

沙彌尼 (沙尼) śrāmaṇerikā 室羅摩拏理迦. A female religious novice who has taken a vow to obey the ten commandments, i. e. 勤策女 a zealous woman, devoted.

沙彌尼戒 The ten commandments taken by the śrāmaṇerikā: not to kill living beings, not to steal, not to lie or speak evil, not to have sexual intercourse, not to use perfumes or decorate oneself with flowers, not to occupy high

beds, not to sing or dance, not to possess wealth, not to eat out of regulation hours, not to drink wine.

沙彌戒 The ten commandments of the śrāmaṇera; v. 十戒.

沙心 Mind like sand in its countless functionings.

沙摩帝 Saṃmatīya, 正量部 one of the eighteen Hīnayāna sects.

沙波訶 svāhā, hail! 裟訶 v. 蘇.

沙界 Worlds as numerous as the sands of Ganges.

沙羅 sāla, or śāla, 裟羅 the Sāl or Śal tree; the teak tree; the Shorea (or Valeria) Robusta; a tree in general.

沙羅王 sālarāja, a title of the Buddha.

沙羅那 (or 沙羅拏); 娑刺拏王 ? Śāraṇa (said to be a son of King Udayana) who became a monk.

沙羅雙樹 The twin trees in the grove 娑羅林 in which Śākyamuni entered nirvāṇa.

沙落迦 'Charaka, a monastery in Kapiśa.' Eitel.

沙訶 sahā, 娑訶; 索訶 the world around us, the present world. Also svāhā, see above.

沙那利迦 ṣāṇṇagarika, one of the eighteen Hīnayāna sects.

沙門 śramaṇa. 桑門; 娑門; 喪門; 沙門那; 舍羅磨拏; 沙迦懣曩; 室摩那拏 (1) Ascetics of all kinds; 'the Sarmanai, or Samanaioi, or Germanai of the Greeks, perhaps identical also with the Tungusian Saman or Shaman.' Eitel. (2) Buddhist

monks 'who 'have left their families and quitted the passions', the Semnoi of the Greeks'. Eitel. Explained by 功勞 toilful achievement, 勤息 diligent quieting (of the mind and the passions), 淨志 purity of mind, 貧道

poverty. 'He must keep well the Truth, guard well every uprising (of desire), be uncontaminated by outward attractions, be merciful to all and impure to none, be not elated to joy nor harrowed by distress, and able to

bear whatever may come.' The Sanskrit root is śram, to make effort; exert oneself, do austerities.

沙門果 The fruit, or rebirth, resulting from the practices of the śramaṇa.

沙門統 The national superintendent or archbishop over the Order appointed under the Wei dynasty.

牢 A gaol, fold, pen; secure, firm.

牢關 A firm barrier, a place shut tight, type of the deluded mind.

牢籠 Pen, pit, or fold (for animals) and cage (for birds).

狂 Deranged, mad, wild.

狂亂往生 Saved out of terror into the next life; however distressed by thoughts of hell as the result of past evil life, ten repetitions, or even one, of the name of Amitābha ensures entry into his Paradise.

狂慧 Foolish wisdom; clever but without calm meditation.

狂狗 A mad dog.


狂華 muscæ volitantes, dancing flowers before the eyes.

狂象 A mad elephant, such is the deluded mind.

男 Male.

男女 Male and female.

男根 The male organ.

矣 A particle of finality, pronounced yi, used in 矣栗駄 hṛd, the heart; the essence of a thing.

禿 Bald.

禿人 禿居士; 禿奴 A monk; a nun, sometimes used as a term of abuse.

秀能 The two patriarchs 神秀 Shenxiu and 慧能 Huineng, q. v.

私 Private, secret, selfish, illicit.

私印 A monk's private seal, which should resemble a skull as reminder of the brevity of life.

私婆吒 Vasiṣtha, v. 婆.

私婆婆 svabhāva, 'own state, essential or inherent property, innate or peculiar disposition, natural state or constitution nature' (M. W.), intp. as 自體體 or 自性性.

私多 私陀; 悉陀; 徒多; 枲多 Sītā. Described as the 'cold' river; one of the four great rivers flowing from the Anavatpta or Anavadata Lake 阿耨達池 in Tibet. One account makes it 'an eastern outflux' which subsequently becomes the

Yellow River. It is also said to issue from the west. Again, 'the Ganges flows eastward, the Indus south, Vatsch (Oxus) west, Sītā north.' Vatsch = Vākṣu. 'According to Xuanzang, however, it is the northern outflux of the

Sirikol [Sarikkol] Lake (Lat. 38°20′N., Long. 74°E.) now called Yarkand daria, which flows into Lake Lop, thence underneath the desert of Gobi, and reappears as the source of the Huanghe.' Eitel. According to Richard, the Huanghe 'rises

a little above two neighbouring lakes of Khchara (Charingnor) and Khnora (Oring-nor). Both are connected by a channel and are situated at an elevation of 14,000 feet. It may perhaps be at first confounded with Djaghing-gol, a river

110 miles long, which flows from the south and empties into the channel joining the two lakes'.

究 To go to the bottom of; inquire into; end, fundamental, supreme. v. 鳩 for究槃荼 Kumbhāṇḍa and究磨羅 Kumāra; v. 拘尸那 for究施 Kuśināgra.

究究吒 kukkuṭa, a cock, or fowl.

究竟 Examine exhaustively; utmost, final, at the end, a tr. of uttarā, upper, superior, hence 至極 ultimate, supreme.

究竟佛 The fundamental, ultimate, or supreme Buddha, who has complete comprehension of truth; Buddha in his supreme reality.

究竟位 The supreme class or stage, i. e. that of Buddhahood. The Mahāyāna groups the various stages in the attainment of Buddhahood into five, of which this is the highest.

究竟卽 The stage of complete comprehension of truth, being the sixth stage of the Tiantai School, v. 六卽.

究竟樂 The supreme joy, i. e. nirvāṇa.

究竟法身 The supreme dharmakāya, the highest conception of Buddha as the absolute.

究竟覺 Supreme enlightenment, that of Buddha; one of the four kinds of enlightenment in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

肘 hasta, forearm, the 16,000th part of a yojana; it varies from 1ft. 4in. to 1ft. 8in. in length.

良 Good, virtuous, beneficial.

良日 吉日 A good, or auspicious, day.

良忍 Ryōnin, founder of the Japanese 融通念佛 school.

良賁 Liangben, the Tang monk who assisted Amogha in the translation of the 仁王經 Ren Wang Jing.

良福田 The field of blessedness, cultivated by offerings to Buddha, the Law, and the Order.

虬宮 The dragon palace in which Nāgārjuna recited the 華嚴經 Huayan jing.

見 darśana, 捺喇捨曩; also dṛṣṭi; seeing, discerning, judgment, views, opinions; it is thinking, reasoning, discriminating, selecting truth, including the whole process of deducing conclusions from premises. It is

commonly used in the sense of wrong or heterodox views or theories, i. e. 邪見 or 有見, especially such as viewing the seeming as real and the ego as real. There are groups of two, four, five, seven, ten and sixty-two kinds of 見


見佛 Beholding Buddha; to see Buddha. Hīnayāna sees only the nirmāṇakāya or body of incarnation, Mahāyāna sees the spiritual body, or body in bliss, the saṃbhogakāya.

見修 Views and practice; heterodoxy; cf. 見思.

見地 The stage of insight, or discernment of reality, the fourth of the ten stages of progress toward Buddhahood, agreeing with the 預流果 of Hīnayāna.

見大 Visibility (or perceptibility) as one of the seven elements of the universe.


見性 To behold the Buddha-nature within oneself, a common saying of the Chan (Zen) or Intuitive School.

見思 Views and thoughts, in general 見惑思惑 illusory or misleading views and thoughts; 見 refers partly to the visible world, but also to views derived therefrom, e. g. the ego, with the consequent

illusion; 思 to the mental and moral world also with its illusion. The 三惑 three delusions which hinder the 三諦 three axioms are 見思, 塵沙, and 無明 q. v. Hīnayāna numbers 88 kinds and the Mahāyāna 112 of 見惑, of 思惑 10

and 16 respectively.

見愛 views and desires, e. g. the illusion that the ego is a reality and the consequent desires and passions; the two are the root of all suffering.

見慧 The wisdom of right views, arising from dhyāna meditation.

見正 Seeing correctly; said to be the name of a disciple of the Buddha who doubted a future life, to whom the Buddha is said to have delivered the contents of the 見正經.

見毒 The poison of wrong views.

見漏 The illusion of viewing the seeming as real, v. 四漏.

見濁 dṛṣṭi-kaṣāya. Corruption of doctrinal views, one of the five final corruptions.

見王齋 The service on the third day when the deceased goes to see King Yama.

見相 The state or condition of visibility, which according to the 起信論 Awakening of Faith arises from motion, hence is also called 轉相.

見眞 To behold truth, or ultimate reality.

見結 The bond of heterodox views, which fastens the individual to the chain of transmigration, one of the nine attachments; v. 見縛.

見網 The net of heterodox views, or doctrines.

見縛 The bond of the illusion of heterodox opinions, i. e. of mistaking the seeming for the real, which binds men and robs them of freedom: v. 見結.

見取 Clinging to heterodox views, one of the four 取; or as 見取見, one of the 五見 q. v.

見取使 The trials of delusion and suffering from holding to heterodox doctrines; one of the ten sufferings or messengers.

見取見 dṛṣṭiparāmarśa: to hold heterodox doctrines and be obsessed with the sense of the self, v. 五見.

見聞 Seeing and hearing, i. e. beholding Buddha with the eyes and hearing his truth with the ears.

見處 The state of wrong views, i. e. the state of transmigration, because wrong views give rise to it, or maintain it.

見諦 The realization of correct views, i. e. the Hīnayāna stage of one who has entered the stream of holy living; the Mahāyāna stage after the first Bodhisattva stage.

見諍 Wrangling on behalf of heterodox views; striving to prove them.

見道 The way or stage of beholding the truth (of no reincarnation), i. e. that of the śrāvaka and the first stage of the Bodhisattva. The second stage is 修道 cultivating the truth; the third 無學道 completely comprehending

the truth without further study.

見障 The obstruction of heterodox views to enlightenment.

見非見 The visible and invisible; phenomenal and noumenal.

見顚倒 To see things upside down; to regard illusion as reality.

角 viṣāna ; a horn, a trumpet: also a corner, an angle; to contend.

角馱 Perverted doctrines and wrong thoughts, which weigh down a monk as a pack on an animal.

言 Words, speech; to speak.

言依 Word-dependence, i. e. that which can be expressed in words.


言句 Sentences.

言詮 Words as explaining meaning; explanation.

離言詮 beyond explanation.

言教 The teaching of Buddha as embodied in words.

言行 Words and deeds.

言語 言說 Words, speech, verbal expression.

言陳 Set out in words, i. e. a syllogism.

谷 A gully.

谷呱呱 gu-wa-wa, the cry of a ghost, made in proof of its existence to one who had written a treatise on the non-existence of 鬼 ghosts.

豆 māṣa, 摩沙; 磨灑 Legumes, beans, peas, lentils, etc.

豆伽藍 Masūra Saṅghārāma, Lentil Monastery, 'an ancient vihāra about 200 li southeast of Moñgali.' Eitel.

豆佉 duḥkha, trouble, suffering, pain, defined by 逼惱 harassed, distressed. The first of the four dogmas, or 'Noble Truths' 四諦 is that all life is involved, through impermanence, in distress. There are many

kinds of 苦 q. v.

貝 śaṅkha a shell, cowry, conch; valuables, riches; a large trumpet sounded to call the assembly together.

貝鐘 conch and bell.

貝多 貝多羅 (貝多羅葉); 貝葉 pattra; palm leaves from-the borassus flabelliformis, used for writing material.

貝文 The scriptures written on palm leaves.

貝支迦 pratyeka, v. 辟支迦.

貝牒 pattra tablets, sūtras written on them.

赤 kaṣāya 袈沙野, red, hot; south; naked.

赤梅檀 A tree used for incense.

赤白二渧 The 'drops' of red and white, i. e. female and male sperm which unite in conception.

赤眼 The red-eye, i. e. a turtle.

赤肉團 (赤肉) The red flesh (lump), the heart.

赤鄂衍那 Chagayana. 'An ancient province and city of Tukhāra, the present Chaganian in Lat. 38° 21 N' Long. 69°21 E.' Eitel.

赤髭毘婆沙 The red-moustached (or bearded) Vibhāṣā, a name for 佛陀耶舍 Buddhayaśas.

赤鬼 The red demons of purgatory, one with the head of a bull, another with that of a horse, etc.

走 To walk, go.

走海 To travel by sea.

足 Foot, leg; enough, full.

足目 'Eyes in his feet,' name of Akṣapāda Gotama, to whom is ascribed the beginning of logic; his work is seen 'in five books of aphorisms on the Nyāya.' Keith.

身 kāya; tanu; deha. The body; the self.

身入 The sense of touch, one of the 六入 six senses.

身三口四意三 The three commandments dealing with the body, prohibiting taking of life, theft, unchastity; the four dealing with the mouth, against lying, exaggeration, abuse, and ambiguous talk; the three belonging to the

mind, covetousness, malice, and unbelief.

身光 The glory shining from the person of a Buddha, or Bodhisattva; a halo.

身命 Body and life; bodily life.

身器 The body, as a utensil, i. e. containing all the twelve parts, skin. flesh, blood, hair, etc.

身土 Body, and environment. The body is the direct fruit of the previous life; the environment is the indirect fruit of the previous life.

身城 The body as the citadel of the mind.

身如意通 ṛddhividhi-jñāna. Also 身通, 身足通; the power to transfer oneself to various regions at will, also to change the body at will.

身座 The body as the throne of Buddha.

身心 Body and mind, the direct fruit of the previous life. The body is rūpa, the first skandha; mind embraces the other four, consciousness, perception, action, and knowledge; v. 五蘊.

身根 kāyendriya; the organ of touch, one of the six senses.

身業 The karma operating in the body; the body as representing the fruit of action in previous existence. One of the three karmas, the other two referring to speech and thought.

身毒 Sindhu, Scinde, v. 印度.

身毛上靡相 The hairs on Buddha's body curled upwards, one of the thirty-two marks.

身燈 The body as a lamp, burnt in offering to a Buddha, e. g. the Medicine King in the Lotus Sutra.

身田 The body regarded as a field which produces good and evil fruit in future existence.


身相 Bodily form; the body.

身蓮 The lotus in the body, i. e. the heart, or eight-leaved lotus in all beings; it represents also the Garbhadhātu, which is the matrix of the material world out of which all beings come.

身見 satkāyadṛṣṭi; the illusion that the body, or self, is real and not simply a compound of the five skandhas; one of the five wrong views 五見.

身識 kāya-vijñāna. Cognition of the objects of touch, one of the five forms of cognition; v. 五根.

身車 The body as the vehicle which, according with previous karma, carries one into the paths of transmigration.

身通 The power to transfer the body through space at will, one of the marks of the Buddha.

身雲 The numberless bodies of Buddhas, hovering like clouds over men; the numberless forms which the Buddhas take to protect and save men, resembling clouds; the numberless saints compared to clouds.

車 A cart, wheeled conveyance.

車也 chāyā, 陰 shade, shadow.

車匿 闡鐸迦 Chandaka, the driver of Śākyamuni when he left his home.

車帝 The name of a cave, said to be Śataparṇa, or Saptaparṇaguhā.

車軸 The hub of a cart; applied to large drops (of rain).

車鉢羅婆 Name of a spirit.

辛頭 The Indus; Sindh; idem 信度.

辛頭波羅香 sindhupāra (? sindhuvāra), incense or perfume, from a fragrant plant said to grow on the banks (pāra) of the Indus (Sindhu).

辰 Hour; time; the celestial bodies.

辰那 jina, victorious, applied to a Buddha, a saint, etc.; forms part of the names of 辰那呾邏多 Jinatrāta; 辰那弗多羅 Jinaputra; 辰那飯荼 Jinabandhu; three Indian monks in China, the first and last during the seventh century.

巡 Wander about, patrol, inspect.

巡堂 To patrol, or circumambulate the hall.

巡寮 To inspect all the buildings of a monastery.

巡案 To patrol and receive any complaints.

巡更 To patrol as night-watchman.

巡火 Guarding against fire.

巡錫 To walk about with a metal staff, i. e. to teach.

邠 The ancient state of Bin, south-west Shanxi; translit. p, e. g. in Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra 邠祁文陀弗, Anāthapiṇḍada 阿那邠抵, etc.

邪 Deflected, erroneous, heterodox, depraved; the opposite of 正; also erroneously used for 耶.

邪倒見 Heterodoxy; perverted views or opinions.

邪命 (邪命食) Heterodox or improper ways of obtaining a living on the part of a monk, e. g. by doing work with his hands, by astrology, his wits, flattery, magic, etc. Begging, or seeking alms, was the orthodox way of obtaining a


邪命說法 The heterodox way of preaching or teaching, for the purpose of making a living.

邪執 Heterodox tenets and attachment to them.

邪婬 Adultery.

邪山 A mountain of error or heterodox ideas; such ideas as great as a mountain.

邪性定 (邪性定聚) The accumulation (of suffering) to be endured in purgatory by one of heterodox nature; one of the three accumulations 三聚.

邪慢 mithyāmāna ; perverse or evil pride, doing evil for self-advancement; to hold to heterodox views and not to reverence the triratna.

邪扇 Heterodox fanning, i. e. to influence people by false doctrines.

邪旬 jhāpita, 旬 being erroneously used to represent the syllable pi, v. 荼.

邪法 Heterodoxy, false doctrines or methods.

邪私 Depraved and selfish desires, lust.

邪網 The net of heterodoxy, or falsity.

邪聚 The accumulation of misery produced by false views, one of the 三聚.


邪行 Erroneous ways, the ninety-six heretical ways; the disciplines of non-Buddhist sects.

邪行眞如 The phenomenal bhūtatathatā, from which arises the accumulation of misery.

邪見 Heterodox views, not recognizing the doctrine of moral karma, one of the five heterodox opinions and ten evils 五見十惡.

邪見乘 The Hīnayāna, the Vehicle of perverted views.

邪見稠林 The thickets of heterodoxy.

邪道 Heterodox ways, or doctrines.

邪雲 Clouds of falsity or heterodoxy, which cover over the Buddha-nature in the heart.

邪魔 Evil demons and spirits, māras.

邪魔外道 māras and heretics.

那 Where ? How ? What ? That. Translit. na, ne, no, nya; cf. 娜, 拏, 曩.

那他 nāda, a river.

那伽 nāga. Snake, dragon, elephant. It is tr. by 龍 dragon and by 象 elephant. (1) As dragon it represents the chief of the scaly reptiles; it can disappear or be manifest, increase or decrease, lengthen or shrink; in spring

it mounts in the sky and in winter enters the earth. The dragon is of many kinds. Dragons are regarded as beneficent, bringing the rains and guarding the heavens (again Draco); they control rivers and lakes, and

hibernate in the deep. nāga and mahānāga are titles of a Buddha, (also of those freed from reincarnation) because of his powers, or because like the dragon he soars above earthly desires and ties. One of his former

reincarnations was a powerful poisonous dragon which, out of pity, permitted itself to be skinned alive and its flesh eaten by worms. (2) A race of serpent-worshippers.

那伽閼剌樹那 (or 那伽閼曷樹那) Nāgārjuna, 龍樹 the dragon-arjuna tree, or nāgakrośana, intp. probably wrongly as 龍猛 dragon-fierce. One of the 'four suns' and reputed founder of Mahāyāna (but see 阿 for Aśvaghoṣa), native of [[Wikipedia:South


India]], the fourteenth patriarch; he is said to have cut off his head as an offering. 'He probably flourished in the latter half of the second century A. D.' Eliot, v. 龍樹. He founded the Mādhyamika or 中 School, generally

considered as advocating doctrines of negation or nihilism, but his aim seems to have been a reality beyond the limitations of positive and negative, the identification of contraries in a higher synthesis, e. g.

birth and death, existence and non-existence, eternal and non-eternal; v. 中論.

那先 Nāgasena 那伽犀那. The instructor of the king in the Milindapaṅha, v. 那先經 (那先比丘經).

那利羅 (那利薊羅) nārikela, nārikera, 捺唎羅吉唎 The coco-nut. Nārikeladvīpa is described as 'an island several thousand li south of Ceylon, inhabited by dwarfs 3 feet high, who have human bodies with beaks like birds, and live upon

coco-nuts'. Eitel.

那吒 Naṭa, said to be the eldest son of Vaiśravaṇa, and represented with three faces, eight arms, a powerful demon-king.

那含 那金含 anāgāmin, v. 阿.

那婆 (那婆摩利) nava; navamālikā. Variegated or mixed flowers.

那律 Aniruddha, v. 阿那律.

那提 nadī, river, torrent; name of Punyopāya, 布如那提, 布焉伐耶 a noted monk of Central India.

那提迦葉 捺地迦葉波 Nadīkāśyapa, brother of Mahākāśyapa, to become Samantaprabhāsa Buddha.

那揭 (那揭羅喝羅) Nagara; Nagarahāra. 曩哦囉賀囉 'An ancient kingdom and city on the southern bank of the Cabool River about 30 miles west of Jellalabad (Lat. 34°28 N., Long. 70°30 E. ). The Nagara of Ptolemy.' Eitel.

那摩 nāman 娜麽 (or曇麽). A name 名.

那爛陀 Nālandā, a famous monastery 7 miles north of Rājagṛha, built by the king Śakrāditya. Nālandā is intp. as 施無厭 'Unwearying benefactor', a title attributed to the nāga which dwelt in the lake Āmra there. The village is identified

in Eitel as Baragong, i. e. Vihāragrāma. For Nālandā excavations see Archæological Survey Reports, and cf. Xuanzang's account.

那由他 nayuta, 那庾多 (or 那由多); 那術 (or 那述) a numeral, 100,000, or one million, or ten million.


那羅 Naṭa; cf. 那吒; a dancer or actor 伎戲; or perhaps narya, manly, strong, one definition being 力.

那羅延 (那羅延那); 那羅野拏 Nārāyaṇa, 'son of Nara or the original man, patronymic of the personified Purusha or first living being, author of the Purusha hymn,' M. W. He is also identified with Brahmā, Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa; intp. by 人生本 the

originator of human life; 堅固 firm and stable; 力士 or 天界力士 hero of divine power; and 金剛 vajra; the term is used adjectivally with the meaning of manly and strong. Nārāyaṇa is represented with three faces, of greenish-

yellow colour, right hand with a wheel, riding a garuḍa-bird.

那羅延天 Nārāyaṇa-deva, idem Nārāyaṇa. His 那羅延天后 śakti or female energy is shown in the Garbhadhātu group.

那羅摩那 (or那羅摩納) Naramānava, a young Brahman, a descendant of Manu.

那羅那里 nara-nari union of the male and female natures.

那羅陀 ? narādhāra, a flower, tr. 人持花 carried about for its scent.

那耶 naya; leading, conduct, politic, prudent, method; intp. by 正理 right principle; 乘 conveyance, i. e. mode of progress; and 道 way, or method.

那耶修摩 Nāya is a name of Jñātṛ, v. 尼 Nīrgrantha.

那落迦 naraka, 'hell, the place of torment,... the lower regions' (M. W. ), intp. by 地獄 q. v.

那謨 nāmaḥ, namo, idem 南無 q. v.

那辣遮 nārāca, an arrow, intp. 錐 a pointed implement.

那連耶舍 (那連提黎耶舍) Narendrayaśas, a monk of Udyāna, north-west India; sixth century A. D.; tr. the Candra-garbha, Sūrya-garbha, and other sūtras.

那阿賴耶曼荼羅 nālaya-maṇḍala, the non-ālayamaṇḍala, or the 道場 bodhi-site or seat, which is 無依處 without fixed place, independent of place, and entirely pure.

那鞞 nabhi; navel, nave of a wheel.

那麻 nāmaḥ, namo, idem 南無.

里 A village, neighbourhood, third of an English mile; translit. r and ṛ; perhaps also for l and lṛ.

防 Ward of, protect, beware; to counter.

防難 To counter, or solve difficulties, especially difficult questions.

防羅 (idem 邏) Warders or patrols in Hades.

防那 vāna, weaving, sewing: tr. as a tailoress.


乳 Milk, which in its five forms illustrates the Tiantai 五時教 five periods of the Buddha's teaching.

乳味 The flavour of fresh milk, to which the Buddha's teaching in the 華嚴經 Huayan jing is compared.

乳木 Resinous wood (for homa, or fire sacrifice).

乳水眼 The eye able to distinguish milk from water; as the goose drinks the milk and rejects the water, so the student should distinguish orthodox from heterodox teaching.

乳經 Tiantai compares the Avataṃsavka-sūtra 華嚴經 to milk, from which come all its other products.

乳香 kunduruka, boswellia thurifera, both the plant and its resin.

事 artha 日迦他 (迦 being an error for 遏); affair, concern, matter; action, practice; phenomena; to serve. It is 'practice' or the thing, affair, matter, in contrast with 理 theory, or the underlying principle.

事度 Salvation by observing the five commandments, the ten good deeds, etc.

事教 Teaching dealing with phenomena. The characterization by Tiantai of the Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching as 界内事教 within the three realms of desire, form, and formlessness; and the 別教 'different teaching' as 界外事

教 outside or superior to those realms; the one dealt with the activities of time and sense, the other transcended these but was still involved in the transient; the 別教 was initial Mahāyāna incompletely developed.

事法界 The phenomenal world, phenomenal existence. v. 四法界.

事法身 The Buddha-nature in practice, cf. 理法身, which is the Buddha-nature in principle, or essence, or the truth itself.

事火 Phenomenal fire, v. 性火 fire as an element; also, fire-worship.


事理 Practice and theory; phenomenon and noumenon, activity and principle, or the absolute; phenomena ever change, the underlying principle, being absolute, neither changes nor acts, it is the 眞如 q. v. also v.

理. For 事理法界 (事理無礙法界) v. 四法界.

事理三千 The three thousand phenomenal activities and three thousand principles, a term of the Tiantai School.

事理五法 v. 五法.

事相 Phenomenon, affair, practice. The practices of the esoterics are called 事理部 as contrasted with their open teaching called 教相部.

事理禪師 A mystic, or monk in meditation, yet busy with affairs: an epithet of reproach.

事論 Discussion of phenomena in contrast with 理論.

事造 Phenomenal activities. According to Tiantai there are 3,000 underlying factors or principles 理具 giving rise to the 3,000 phenomenal activities.

事迹 Traces of the deeds or life of an individual; biography.

事障 Phenomenal hindrances to entry into nirvāṇa, such as desire, etc.; 理障 are noumenal hindrances, such as false doctrine, etc.

亟 Haste, urgency.

亟縛屣 Leather sandals.

亞 Second, inferior; used in translit. as 阿 'a', e. g. 亞畧 Ārya.

享 Offer up; enjoy.

享堂 The hall of offerings, an ancestral hall.

侍 Attend; wait on; attendant.

侍者 An attendant, e. g. as Ānanda was to the Buddha; assistants in general, e. g. the incense-assistant in a temple.

使 To send; cause; a messenger; a pursuer, molester, lictor, disturber, troubler, intp. as 煩惱 kleśa, affliction, distress, worldly cares, vexations, and as consequent reincarnation. There are categories of 10, 16, 98,

112, and 128 such troublers, e. g. desire, hate, stupor, pride, doubt, erroneous views, etc., leading to painful results in future rebirths, for they are karma-messengers executing its purpose. Also 金剛童子

q. v.

供 pūjā; to offer (in worship), to honour; also to supply; evidence.

供佛 To offer to Buddha.

供具 供物 Offerings, i. e. flowers, unguents; water, incense, food, light.

供天 天供 The devas who serve Indra.

供奉 To offer; the monk who serves at the great altar.

供帳 The Tang dynasty register, or census of monks and nuns, supplied to the government every three years.

供帳雲 The cloud of Bodhisattvas who serve the Tathāgata.

供養 To make offerings of whatever nourishes, e. g. food, goods, incense, lamps, scriptures, the doctrine, etc., any offering for body or mind.

來 āgama; āgam-; āgata. Come, the coming, future.

來世 Future world, or rebirth.

來應 To come in response to an invitation; to answer prayer (by a miracle).

來果 The fruit or condition of the next rebirth, regarded as the result of the present.

來生 Future rebirth; the future life.

來迎 The coming of Buddhas to meet the dying believer and bid welcome to the Pure Land; the three special welcomers are Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta.

依 To depend, rely on; dependent, conditioned; accord with.

依他 Dependent on or trusting to someone or something else; trusting on another, not on self or 'works.'

依他性 (依他起性) Not having an independent nature, not a nature of its own, but constituted of elements.

依他自性 One of the 三性 dependent on constructive elements and without a nature of its own.

依他心 The mind in a dependent state, that of the Buddha in incarnation.

依他十喩 The unreality of dependent or conditioned things, e. g. the body, or self, illustrated in ten comparisons: foam, bubble, flame, plantain, illusion, dream, shadow, echo, cloud, lightning; v. 維摩詰經 2.

依圓 Dependent and perfect, i. e. the dependent or conditioned nature, and the perfect nature of the unconditioned bhūtatathatā.

依地 The ground on which one relies; the body, on which sight, hearing, etc., depend; the degree of samādhi attained; cf. 依身.

依報 v. 依正.

依怙 To rely on, depend on.

依果 idem 依報 v. 依正.

依止 To depend and rest upon.

依止甚深 The profundity on which all things depend, i. e. the bhūtatathatā; also the Buddha.

依止師, 依止阿闍梨 The ācārya, or master of a junior monk.

依正 The two forms of karma resulting from one's past; 正報 being the resultant person, 依報 being the dependent condition or environment, e. g. country, family, possessions, etc.

依法不依人 To rely upon the dharma, or truth itself, and not upon (the false interpretations of) men.

依版 禪版 A board to lean against when in meditation.

依言眞如 The bhūtatathatā in its expressible form, as distinguished from it as 離言 inexpressible.

依身 The body on which one depends, or on which its parts depend, cf. 依他.


依通 The magical powers which depend upon drugs, spells, etc., v. 五通.

兩 Two, a couple, both; an ounce, or tael.

兩卷經 The Two Fascicle Sutra, i. e. the 佛說無量壽經.

兩垢 (兩垢如如) The contaminated and uncontaminated bhūtatathatā, or Buddha-nature, v. 止觀 2 and 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

兩權 The two temporary vehicles, śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha, as contrasted with the 實 complete Bodhisattva doctrine of Mahāyāna.

兩河 The 'two rivers', Nairañjanā, v. 尼, where Buddha attained enlightenment, and Hiraṇyavatī, see 尸, where he entered Nirvāṇa.

兩翅 The two wings of 定 and 慧 meditation and wisdom.

兩肩神 The two recording spirits, one at each shoulder, v. 同名 and 同坐神.

兩界 v. 兩部.

兩舌 Double tongue. One of the ten forms of evil conduct 十惡業.

兩財 The two talents, or rewards from previous incarnations, 内 inner, i. e. bodily or personal conditions, and 外 external, i. e. wealth or poverty, etc.

兩足尊 The most honoured among men and devas (lit. among two-footed beings), a title of the Buddha. The two feet are compared to the commandments and meditation, blessing and wisdom, relative and absolute

teaching (i. e. Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna), meditation and action.

兩部 兩界 Two sections, or classes.

兩部曼荼羅 maṇḍala of the two sections, i. e. dual powers of the two Japanese groups symbolizing the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu v. 金剛界 and 胎藏界.

兩鼠 The two rats (or black and white mice), night and day.

Canon, rule; allusion; to take charge of; mortgage.

典客 (or典賓); 知客 The one who takes charge of visitors in a monastery.

典座 The verger who indicates the order of sitting, etc.

典攬 Summary of the essentials of a sutra, or canonical book.

辭典 A dictionary, phrase-book.

具 All; complete; to present; implements; translit. gh.

具史羅 (or 瞿史羅) or 劬師羅 Ghoṣira, a wealthy householder of Kauśāmbī, who gave Śākyamuni the Ghoṣiravana park and vihāra.

具壽 ? āyuṣmant. Having long life, a term by which monk, a pupil or a youth may be addressed.

具戒 idem 具足戒.

具戒方便 The 'expedient' method of giving the whole rules by stages.

具戒地 The second of the bodhisattva ten stages in which all the rules are kept.

具支灌頂 One of the three abhiṣeka or baptisms of the 大日經. A ceremonial sprinkling of the head of a monarch at his investiture with water from the seas and rivers (in his domain). It is a mode also employed in the investiture of

certain high officials of Buddhism.

具縛 Completely bound, all men are in bondage to illusion.

具說 To discuss completely, state fully.

具譚 Gautama, v. 瞿.

具足 All, complete.

具足戒 The complete rules or commandments— 250 for the monk, 500 (actually 348) for the nun.

具足德本願 The forty-fourth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that all universally should acquire his virtue.

凾 A box, receptacle; to enfold: a letter.

凾蓋相應 Agreeing like a box and lid.

刻 Cut, carve, engrave; oppress; a quarter of an hour, instant.

刻藏 To engrave the canon.

到 Arrive, reach, to.

到彼岸 pāramitā, cf. 波; to reach the other shore, i. e. nirvāṇa.

到頭 At the end, when the end is reached.

制 Restrain, govern; regulations; mourning.

制多 制底 (or 質底); 制體 caitya, a tumulus, mausoleum, monastery, temple, spire, flagstaff on a pagoda, sacred place or thing, idem 支提 (or 支帝), cf. 刹.

制多山部 Jetavanīyāḥ, a Hīnayāna sect.

制底畔睇 (or 畔彈那) caitya-vandana, to pay reverence to, or worship a stūpa, image, etc.

制怛羅 Caitra, the spring month in which the full moon is in this constellation, i. e. Virgo or 角; M. W. gives it as March-April, in China it is the first month of spring from the 16th of the first moon to the 15th of the

second. Also idem 制多 caitya.

制戒, 制教 The restraints, or rules i. e. of the Vinaya.

制門 The way or method of discipline, contrasted with the 化門, i. e. of teaching, both methods used by the Buddha, hence called 化制二門.

刹 cha; translit. kṣ.

刹土 乞叉; 乞漉 kṣetra, land, fields, country, place; also a universe consisting of three thousand large chiliocosms; also, a spire, or flagstaff on a pagoda, a monastery but this interprets caitya, cf. 制. Other forms are 刹多羅

(or 制多羅 or 差多羅); 紇差怛羅.

刹塵 Lands, countless as the dust.

刹利 (刹帝利); 刹怛利耶 kṣatriya. The second, or warrior and ruling caste; Chinese render it as 田主 landowners and 王種 royal caste; the caste from which the Buddha came forth and therefore from which all Buddhas (如來

) spring.

刹摩 kṣema, a residence, dwelling, abode, land, property; idem 刹 and 刹竿.

刹海 Land and sea. The flagpole of a monastery, surmounted by a gilt ball or pearl, symbolical of Buddhism; inferentially a monastery with its land. Also 刹柱, 金刹 (or 表刹).

刹那 kṣaṇa. An indefinite space of time, a moment, an instant; the shortest measure of time, as kalpa is the longest; it is defined as 一念 a thought; but according to another definition 60 kṣaṇa equal one finger-snap, 90 a

thought 念, 4,500 a minute; there are other definitions. In each kṣaṇa 900 persons are born and die.


刹那三世 The moments past, present, future.

刹那無常 Not a moment is permanent, but passes through the stages of birth, stay, change, death.

刹那生滅 All things are in continuous flow, born and destroyed every instant.

初 To cut cloth for clothes; beginning, first.

初夜 The first of the three divisions of the night.

初位 The initial stage on the road to enlightenment.

初住 The first of the ten stages, or resting-places, of the bodhisattva. 住 is the resting-place or stage for a particular course of development; 地 is the position or rank attained by the spiritual characteristics achieved in this


初僧祗 The first of the three asaṃkhyeya or incalculable kalpas.

初刹那識 The initial kṣaṇa, initial consciousness, i. e. the eighth or ālaya-vijñāna, from which arises consciousness.

初地 The first of the 十地 ten bodhisattva stages to perfect enlightenment and nirvāṇa.

初心 The initial resolve or mind of the novice.

初日分 The first of the three divisions of the day, beginning, middle, end 初中後.

初更 The first watch of the night.

初時教 A term of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, the first of the three periods of the Buddha's teaching, in which he overcame the ideas of heterodox teachers that the ego is real, and preached the four noble truths and the

five skandhas, etc.

初果 The initial fruit, or achievement, the stage of srota-āpanna, illusion being discarded and the stream of enlightenment entered.

初果向 The aiming at the stage of srota-āpanna. The other stages of Hīnayāna are sakṛdāgāmin, anāgāmin, and arhat.

初歡喜地 The first of the ten stages toward Buddhahood, that of joy.

初發心 The initial determination to seek enlightenment; about which the 晉 Jin dynasty Huayan jing says: 初發心時便成正覺 at this very moment the novice enters into the status of perfect enlightenment; but other schools

dispute the point.

初禪天 The first of the four dhyāna heavens, corresponding to the first stage of dhyāna meditation.

初禪梵天 devas in the realms of form, who have purged themselves from all sexuality.

初禪定 The first dhyāna, the first degree of dhyāna-meditation, which produces rebirth in the first dhyāna heaven.

初能變 The initiator of change, or mutation, i. e. the ālaya-vijñāna, so called because the other vijñānas are derived from it.

卓 Lofty, tall erect.

卓錫 Tall or erect staves, i. e. their place, a monastery.

卑 Low, inferior; translit. p, pi, v, vy, m.

卑慢 (下慢) The pride of regarding self as little inferior to those who far surpass one; one of the 七慢.

卑先匿 Prasenajit, v. 波.

卑帝利 pitṛ, a kind of hungry demon.

卑鉢羅 pippala, the bodhidruma, v. 菩.

卑摩羅叉 Vimalākṣa, the pure-eyed, described as of Kabul, expositor of the 十誦律, teacher of Kumārajīva at Karashahr; came to China A. D. 406, tr. two works.

卑栗蹉 蔑戻車 mlecchas, border people, hence outside the borders of Buddhism, non-Buddhist.

叔 A father's younger brother; translit. śi, śu.

叔叔羅 (叔叔摩羅) śiśumāra, a crocodile.

叔迦 (or M003764迦) (叔婆) śuka, a parrot.

叔離 Śukla, or Śukra, white, silvery; the waxing half of the moon, or month; one of the asterisms, 'the twenty-fourth of the astronomical Yogas, ' M. W.; associated with Venus.

取 upādāna. To grasp, hold on to, held by, be attached to, love; used as indicating both 愛 love or desire and 煩惱 the vexing passions and illusions. It is one of the twelve nidānas 十二因緣 or 十二支 the [[Wikipedia:


grasping]] at or holding on to self-existence and things.

取次語 Easy, facile, loose talk or explanations.

取相 The state of holding to the illusions of life as realities.

取相懺 To hold repentance before the mind until the sign of Buddha's presence annihilates the sin.

取與 The producing seed is called 取果, that which it gives, or produces, is called 與果.

取著 To grasp, hold on to, or be held by any thing or idea.

取蘊 The skandhas which give rise to grasping or desire, which in turn produces the skandhas. 見取 v. 見.

受 To receive, be, bear; intp. of vedana, 'perception,' 'knowledge obtained by the senses, feeling, sensation.' M. W. It is defined as mental reaction to the object, but in general it means receptivity, or

sensation; the two forms of sensation of physical and mental objects are indicated. It is one of the five skandhas; as one of the twelve nidānas it indicates the incipient stage of sensation in the


取具 To receive the entire commandments, as does a fully ordained monk or nun.

取想行識 The four immaterial skandhas— vedanā, saṃjñā, saṃskāra, vijñāna, i. e. feeling, ideation, reaction, consciousness.

取戒 To receive, or accept, the commandments, or rules; a disciple; the beginner receives the first five, the monk, nun, and the earnest laity proceed to the reception of eight, the fully ordained accepts the ten. The term

is also applied by the esoteric sects to the reception of their rules on admission.

取持 To receive and retain, or hold on to, or keep (the Buddha's teaching).

取業 Duties of the receiver of the rules; also to receive the results or karma of one's deeds.

取歳 To receive, or add, a year to his monastic age, on the conclusion of the summer's retreat.


受用 Received for use.

受用身 The saṃbhogakāya 報身 v. 三身 trikāya, i. e. the functioning glorious body, 自受用 for a Buddha's own use, or bliss; 他受用 for the spiritual benefit of others.

受用土 The realm of the saṃbhogakāya.

受者 A recipient (e. g. of the rules). The illusory view that the ego will receive reward or punishment in a future life, one of the sixteen false views.

受蘊 vedanā, sensation, one of the five skandhas.

受記 受決; 受別 To receive from a Buddha predestination (to become a Buddha); the prophecy of a bodhisattva's future Buddhahood.

受隨 To receive the rules and follow them out 受體隨行.

呿 To gape; translit. kha.

咃 Translit. tha.

咄嚕瑟劍 turuṣka, olibanum, incense; also the name of an Indo-Scythian or Turkish race.

呼 Call; breathe out.

呼呼The raurava or fourth hot hell.

呼圖克圖 (or 胡土克圖) Hutuktu, a chief Lama of Mongolian Buddhism, who is repeatedly reincarnated.

呼摩 護摩 homa, an oblation by fire.

呬摩怛羅 Himatala 雪山下. 'An ancient kingdom ruled in A. D. 43 by a descendant of the Śākya family. Probably the region south of Kundoot and Issar north of Hindukush near the principal source of the Oxus.' Eitel. 西域記 3.

呵 he, ko. Breathe out, yawn, scold; ha, laughter; used for 訶 and 阿.

呵也怛那 āyatana, an organ of sense, v. 六入.

呵利陀 (or 阿利陀) (or 呵梨陀) Hāritī, the demon-mother; also Harita, Haridrā, tawny, yellow, turmeric.

呵吒迦 (or 訶吒迦) hāṭaka; gold, thorn-apple.

呵婆婆 Hahava, or Ababa, the fourth of the eight cold hells, in which the sufferers can only utter this sound..

呵羅羅 Aṭaṭa the third of the eight cold hells, in which the sufferers can only utter this sound.

呵責犍度 The eleventh of the twenty rules for monks, dealing with rebuke and punishment of a wrongdoer.

呾 da. Call; stutter; translit. ta.

呾你也他 (or 呾儞也他) tadyathā, i. e. 所謂, as or what is said or meant, it means, i. e., etc.

呾刹那 tatkṣaṇa, 'the 2250th part of an hour.' Eitel.

呾喇健 Talekān, 'an ancient kingdom on the frontiers of Persia,' its modem town is Talikhan.

呾叉始羅 竺刹尸羅 Takṣaśīlā, 'ancient kingdom and city, the Taxila of the Greeks, the region near Hoosum Abdaul in Lat. 35°48 N., Long. 72° 44 E.' Eitel.

呾摩栗底 (or 躭摩栗底); 多摩梨帝 Tāmralipti (or tī), the modem Tamluk near the mouth of the Hooghly, formerly 'the principal emporium for the trade with Ceylon and China'. Eitel.

呾羅斯 Talas, or Taras; '(1) an ancient city in Turkestan 150 li west of Ming bulak (according to Xuanzang). (2) A river which rises on the mountains west of Lake Issikoul and flows into a large lake to the north-west.' Eitel.

呾蜜 Termed, or Tirmez, or Tirmidh. 'An ancient kingdom and city on the Oxus in Lat. 37° 5 N., Long. 67 ° 6 E.' Eitel.

rasa. Taste, flavour; the sense of taste. One of the six sensations.

味塵 Taste-dust, one of the six 'particles' which form the material or medium of sensation.

味欲 味著 The taste-desire, hankering after the pleasures of food, etc.; the bond of such desire.

味道 Taste, flavour; the taste of Buddha-truth or tasting the doctrine.

咒 dhāraṇī 陀羅尼; mantra; an incantation, spell, oath, curse; also a vow with penalties for failure. Mystical, or magical, formulae employed in Yoga. In Lamaism they consist of sets of Tibetan words connected with

Sanskrit syllables. In a wider sense dhāraṇī is a treatise with mystical meaning, or explaining it.

咒咀 咒殺; 咒起死鬼 (or 咒起屍鬼) An incantation for raising the vetāla 畏陀羅 or corpse-demons to cause the death of another person.

咒心 The heart of a spell, or vow.

咒藏 One of the four piṭakas, the thesaurus of dhāraṇīs.

咒術 Sorcery, the sorcerer's arts.

咒願 Vows, prayers, or formulas uttered in behalf of donors, or of the dead; especially at the All Souls Day's offerings to the seven generations of ancestors. Every word and deed of a bodhisattva should be a


命 jīvita . Life, vital, length of life, fate, decree.

命光 The light of a life, i. e. soon gone.

命命鳥 耆婆耆婆迦 jīvajīvaka; jīvaṃjīva, a bird with two heads, a sweet songster; 生生鳥 or 共命鳥 is the same bird.

命寳 The precious possession of life.

命根 A root, or basis for life, or reincarnation, the nexus of Hīnayāna between two life-periods, accepted by Mahāyāna as nominal but not real.

命梵 Life and honour, i. e. perils to life and perils to noble character.

命濁 One of the 五濁, turbidity or decay of the vital principle, reducing the length of life.

命終 Life's end; nearing the end.

命者 The living being; the one possessing life; life.

命藤 The rope of life (gnawed by the two rats, i. e. night and day).

命道沙門 A śramaṇa who makes the commandments, meditation, and knowledge his very life, as Ānanda did.

命難 Life's hardships; the distress of living.


周 Around, on every side, complete.

周利槃陀加 (or 周梨槃陀加) Kṣudrapanthaka; little (or mean) path. Twin brothers were born on the road, one called Śuddhipanthaka, Purity-path, the other born soon after and called as above, intp. 小路 small road, and 繼道 successor by the

road. The elder was clever, the younger stupid, not even remembering his name, but became one of the earliest disciples of Buddha, and finally an arhat. The records are uncertain and confusing. Also 周利般兎; 周稚般他迦, 周利槃特 (周利槃

特迦); 朱茶半託迦; 周陀.

周忌 周關 The first anniversary of a death, when 周忌齋 anniversary masses are said.

周祥 The anniversary of Buddha's birthday.

周羅 (周羅髮); 首羅 cūḍā; a topknot left on the head of an ordinand when he receives the commandments; the locks are later taken off by his teacher as a sign of his complete devotion.

周遍 Universal, everywhere, on every side.

周遍法界 The universal dharmadhātu; the universe as an expression of the dharmakāya; the universe; cf. 法界.

周那 Cundā, said to be the same as 純陀.

周陀 ?Kṣudra, said to be the same as 周利 supra.

Harmony, peace; to blend, mix; with, unite with; respond, rhyme.

和順 Harmonious and compliant.

和會 To blend, unite.

和伽羅 (和伽羅那); 和伽那; 和羅那 vyākaraṇa, grammar, analysis, change of form; intp. as 授記 prediction, i. e. by the Buddha of the future felicity and realm of a disciple, hence Kauṇḍinya is known as Vyākaraṇa-Kauṇḍinya.

和南 婆南; 伴談 (or 伴題); 畔睇; 畔彈南; 槃淡; 槃那寐; 盤荼味; 煩淡 vandana. Obeisance, prostration, bowing the head, reverencing, worshipping.

和合 To blend, unite, be of one mind, harmonize.

和僧 (和合僧); 和衆 (和合衆) A saṃgha 僧伽, a monastery.

和僧海 A monastery where all are of one mind as the sea is of one taste.

和尚 A general term for a monk. It is said to be derived from Khotan in the form of 和闍 or 和社 (or 烏社) which might be a translit. of vandya (Tibetan and Khotani ban-de), 'reverend.' Later it took the form of 和尚 or 和上.

The 律宗 use 和上, others generally 和尚. The Sanskrit term used in its interpretation is 鳥波陀耶 upādhyāya, a 'sub-teacher' of the Vedas, inferior to an ācārya; this is intp. as 力生 strong in producing (knowledge), or in

begetting strength in his disciples; also by 知有罪知無罪 a discerner of sin from not-sin, or the sinful from the not-sinful. It has been used as a synonym for 法師 a teacher of doctrine, in distinction from 律師 a

teacher of the vinaya, also from 禪師 a teacher of the Intuitive school.

和夷羅 vajra.

和夷羅洹閱叉 跋闍羅波膩 Vajrapāṇi, the 金剛手 Bodhisattva holding the sceptre or thunderbolt, or 金剛神 one of the names of Indra, as a demon king and protector of Buddhism.

和闐 Khotan, Kustana, cf. 于.

和須吉 Vāsuki, lord of nāgas, name of a 'dragon-king', with nine heads, hydra-headed; also 和修吉.

和須蜜 (和須蜜多) Vasumitra. A distinction is made (probably in error) between Vasumitra, noted as a libertine and for his beauty, and Vasumitra 筏蘇蜜呾羅 q. v., a converted profligate who became president of the synod under Kaniṣka.

和香丸 A pill compounded of many kinds of incense typifying that in the one Buddha-truth lies all truth.

垂 Drop, droop, let down, pass down; regard.

垂示 垂語 To make an announcement.

垂迹 Traces, vestiges; manifestations or incarnations of Buddhas and bodhisattvas in their work of saving the living.

夜 Night; translit ya.

夜他跋 yathāvat, suitably, exactly, solid, really.

夜叉 乞叉; 藥叉; 閱叉 yakṣa, (1) demons in the earth, or in the air, or in the lower heavens; they are malignant, and violent, and devourers (of human flesh). (2) The 八大將, the eight attendants of Kuvera, or Vaiśravaṇa, the

god of wealth; those on earth bestow wealth, those in the empyrean houses and carriages, those in the lower heavens guard the moat and gates of the heavenly city. There is another set of sixteen. The names of all

are given in 陀羅尼集經 3. See also 羅 for rakṣa and 吉 for kṛtya. yakṣa-kṛtya are credited with the powers of both yakṣa and kṛtya.

夜摩 Yama, 'originally the Aryan god of the dead, living in a heaven above the world, the regent of the South; but Brahminism transferred his abode to hell. Both views have been retained by Buddhism.'

Eitel. Yama in Indian mythology is ruler over the dead and judge in the hells, is 'grim in aspect, green in colour, clothed in red, riding on a buffalo, and holding a club in one hand and noose in the other': he

has two four-eyed watch-dogs. M. W. The usual form is 閻摩 q. v.

夜摩天 Yamadeva; the third devaloka, which is also called 須夜摩 or 蘇夜摩, intp. as 時分 or 善時分 the place where the times, or seasons, are always good.

夜摩盧迦 Yamaloka, the realm of Yama, the third devaloka.

夜殊 Yajurveda, 'the sacrificial Veda' of the Brahmans; the liturgy associated with Brahminical sacrificial services.

奉 To receive respectfully; honoured by, have the honour to, be favoured by, serve, offer.

奉事 To carry out orders.

奉加, 奉納 To make offerings.

奉行 To obey and do (the Buddha's teaching).

奈 Remedy, alternative, how ? what ? a yellow plum.

奈利 idem 泥梨 niraya, hell.

奈河 The inevitable river in purgatory to be crossed by all.


奈河橋 The bridge in one of the hells, from which certain sinners always fall.

奈取羅訶羅 Rudhirāhāra, name of a yakṣa.

奇 āścarya, adbhuta; wonderful, rare, extraordinary; odd.

奇妙 Beautiful, or wonderful beyond compare.

奇特 Wonderful, rare, special, the three incomparable kinds of 神通奇特 power to convert all beings, 慧心奇特 Buddha-wisdom, and 攝受奇特Buddha-power to attract and save all beings.

奇異 Extraordinary, uncommon, rare.

奔 To run; translit. pun and p.

奔攘舍羅 puṇyaśālā, almshouse or asylum for sick and poor.

奔荼 (奔荼利迦) puṇḍarīka, the white lotus, v. 分 or 芬; also the last of the eight great cold hells, v. 地獄.

奔那伐戰那 Puṇḍra-vardhana, an ancient kingdom and city in Bengal.

奔那伽 puṣpanāga, the flowering dragon-tree under which Maitreya is said to have attained enlightenment.

委 To throw down, depute; really; crooked; the end.

委順 To die, said of a monk.

妬 Jealous, envious.

妬不男 irṣyāpaṇḍaka. Impotent except when aroused by jealousy, one of the five classes of 'eunuchs'.

姑 Paternal aunt, husband's sister, a nun; to tolerate; however; leave.

姑尸草, 矩奢 kuśa grass, grass of good omen for divination.

姑臧 Ku-tsang, formerly a city in Liangchow, Kansu, and an important centre for communication with Tibet.

始 Beginning, first, initial; thereupon.

始士 An initiator; a Bodhisattva who stimulates beings to enlightenment.

始教 According to Tiantai, the preliminary teaching of the Mahāyāna, made by the Avataṃsaka (Kegon) School; also called 相始教; it discussed the nature of all phenomena as in the 唯識論, 空始教; and held to the immateriality of

all things, but did not teach that all beings have the Buddha-nature.

始終 Beginning and end, first and last.

始行人 A beginner.

始覺 The initial functioning of mind or intelligence as a process of 'becoming', arising from 本覺 which is Mind or Intelligence, self-contained, unsullied, and considered as universal, the source of

all enlightenment. The 'initial intelligence' or enlightenment arises from the inner influence 薰 of the Mind and from external teaching. In the 'original intelligence' are the four values adopted and

made transcendent by the Nirvāṇa-sūtra, viz. 常, 樂, 我, 淨 Perpetuity, joy, personality, and purity; these are acquired through the 始覺 process of enlightenment. Cf. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

孟 Eldest, first; Mencius; rude.

孟八郞 The eight violent fellows, a general term for plotters, ruffians, and those who write books opposed to the truth.

孟婆神 The Meng family dame, said to have been born under the Han dynasty, and to have become a Buddhist; later deified as the bestower of 孟婆湯 the drug of forgetfulness, or oblivion of the past, on the spirits of the


孤 Orphan, solitary.

孤山 An isolated hill; a monastery in Kiangsu and name of one of its monks.

孤地獄 (孤獨地獄) Lokāntarika, solitary hells situated in space, or the wilds, etc.

孤園 (孤獨園); 給園; 祗洹; 逝多林 Jetavana, the seven-story abode and park presented to Śākyamuni by Anāthapiṇḍaka, who bought it from the prince Jeta. It was a favourite resort of the Buddha, and 'most of the sūtras (authentic and

suppositious) date from this spot'. Eitel.

孤獨園 is also a term for an orphanage, asylum, etc.

孤落迦 A fruit syrup.

孤調 Self-arranging, the Hīnayāna method of salvation by individual effort.

官 Official, public.

官難 In danger from the law; official oppression.

定 To fix, settle. samādhi. 'Composing the mind'; 'intent contemplation'; 'perfect absorption of thought into the one object of meditation.' M. W. Abstract meditation, the mind fixed in one direction,

or field. (1) 散定 scattered or general meditation (in the world of desire). (2) 禪定 abstract meditation (in the realms of form and beyond form). It is also one of the five attributes of the dharmakāya 法身, i.

e. an internal state of imperturbability or tranquility, exempt from all external sensations, 超受陰; cf. 三摩提.

定侶 Fellow-meditators; fellow-monks.

定光 (1) Dīpaṃkara 提洹羯; 然燈佛, to whom Śākyamuni offered five lotuses when the latter was 儒童 Rutong Bodhisattva, and was thereupon designated as a coming Buddha. He is called the twenty-fourth predecessor of Śākyamuni. He

appears whenever a Buddha preaches the Lotus Sutra. (2) Crystal, or some other bright stone.

定判 To determine, adjudge, settle.


定力 samādhibala. The power of abstract or ecstatic meditation, ability to overcome all disturbing thoughts, the fourth of the five bāla 五力; described also as 攝心 powers of mind-control.

定聚 One of the 三聚 q. v.

定命 Determined period of life; fate.

定妃 The female figures representing meditation in the maṇḍalas; male is wisdom, female is meditation.

定學 Learning through meditation, one of the three forms of learning 三學.

定心 定意 A mind fixed in meditation.

定心三昧 A fixed mind samādhi, i. e. fixed on the Pure Land and its glories.

定忍 Patience and perseverance in meditation.

定性 Fixed nature; settled mind. A classification of 'five kinds of nature' 五種性 is made by the 法相宗, the first two being the 定性二乘, i. e. śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, whose mind is fixed on arhatship, and not on

Buddhahood. The 定性喜樂地 is the second dhyāna heaven of form, in which the occupants abide in surpassing meditation or trance, which produces mental joy.

定慧 Meditation and wisdom, two of the six pāramitās; likened to the two hands, the left meditation, the right wisdom.

定散 A settled, or a wandering mind; the mind organized by meditation, or disorganized by distraction. The first is characteristic of the saint and sage, the second of the common untutored man. The fixed heart may

or may not belong to the realm of transmigration; the distracted heart has the distinctions of good, bad, or indifferent.

定散二善 Both a definite subject for meditation and an undefined field are considered as valuable.

定智 Meditation and wisdom.

定根 samādhīndriya. Meditation as the root of all virtue, being the fourth of the five indriya 五根.

定業 Fixed karma, rebirth determined by the good or bad actions of the past. Also, the work of meditation with its result.

定業亦能轉 Even the determined fate can be changed (by the power of Buddhas and bodhisattvas).

定水 Calm waters; quieting the waters of the heart (and so beholding the Buddha, as the moon is reflected in still water).

定相 Fixity, determined, determination, settled, unchanging, nirvāṇa. The appearance of meditation.

定覺支 The enlightenment of meditation, the sixth of the sapta bodhyaṅga 七菩提分 q. v.

定身 The dharmakāya of meditation, one of the 五分法身 five forms of the Buddha-dharmakāya.

宗 Ancestors, ancestral; clan; class, category. kind; school, sect; siddhānta, summary, main doctrine, syllogism, proposition, conclusion, realization. Sects are of two kinds: (1) those founded on principles having historic

continuity, as the twenty sects of the Hīnayāna, the thirteen sects of China, and the fourteen sects of Japan: (2) those arising from an individual interpretation of the general teaching of Buddhism, as the

sub-sects founded by Yongming 永明 (d. 975), 法相宗, 法性宗, 破相宗, or those based on a peculiar interpretation of one of the recognized sects, as the Jōdo-shinshū 淨土眞宗 found by Shinran-shōnin. There are also divisions of five, six, and

ten, which have reference to specific doctrinal differences. Cf. 宗派.

宗乘 The vehicle of a sect, i. e. its essential tenets.

宗元 The basic principles of a sect; its origin or cause of existence.

宗儀 The rules or ritual of a sect.

宗依 That on which a sect depends, v. 宗法.

宗匠 The master workman of a sect who founded its doctrines.

宗因喩 Proposition, reason, example, the three parts of a syllogism.


宗學 The study or teaching of a sect.

宗客巴 Sumatikīrti (Tib. Tsoṅ-kha-pa), the reformer of the Tibetan church, founder of the Yellow Sect (黃帽教); according to the 西藏新志 b. A. D. 1417 at Hsining, Kansu. His sect was founded on strict discipline, as opposed to the lax

practices of the Red sect, which permitted marriage of monks, sorcery, etc. He is considered to be an incarnation of Mañjuśrī; others say of Amitābha.

宗密 Zongmi, one of the five patriarchs of the Huayan (Avataṃsaka) sect, d. 841.

宗旨 The main thesis, or ideas, e. g. of a text.

宗極 Ultimate or fundamental principles.

宗法, 宗體 The thesis of a syllogism consisting of two terms, each of which has five different names: 自性 subject; 差別 its differentiation; 有法 that which acts; 法 the action; 所別 that which is differentiated; 能別 that which

differentiates; 前陳 first statement; 後陳 following statement; 宗依 that on which the syllogism depends, both for subject and predicate.

宗派 Sects (of Buddhism). In India, according to Chinese accounts, the two schools of Hīnayāna became divided into twenty sects. Mahāyāna had two main schools, the Mādhyamika, ascribed to Nāgārjuna and Āryadeva about the

second century A. D., and the Yogācārya, ascribed to Asaṅga and Vasubandhu in the fourth century A. D. In China thirteen sects were founded: (1) 倶舍宗 Abhidharma or Kośa sect, representing Hīnayāna, based upon the

Abhidharma-kosa-śāstra or 倶舍論. (2) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect, based on the 成實論 Satyasiddhi-śāstra, tr. by Kumārajīva; no sect corresponds to it in India; in China and Japan it became incorporated in the 三論宗. (3) 律宗

Vinaya or Discipline sect, based on 十誦律, 四分律, 僧祗律, etc. (4) 三論宗 The three śāstra sect, based on the Mādhyamika-śāstra 中觀論 of Nāgārjuna, the Sata-śāstra 百論 of Āryadeva, and the Dvādasa-nikāya-śāstra 十二門論 of Nāgārjuna; this

school dates back to the translation of the three śāstras by Kumārajīva in A. D. 409. (5) 涅槃宗 Nirvāṇa sect, based upon the Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra 涅槃經 tr. by Dharmaraksa in 423; later incorporated in Tiantai, with which it had

much in common. (6) 地論宗 Daśabhūmikā sect, based on Vasubandhu's work on the ten stages of the bodhisattva's path to Buddhahood, tr. by Bodhiruci 508, absorbed by the Avataṃsaka school, infra. (7) 淨土宗 Pure-land or

Sukhāvatī sect, founded in China by Bodhiruci; its doctrine was salvation through faith in Amitābha into the Western Paradise. (8) 禪宗 dhyāna, meditative or intuitional sect, attributed to Bodhidharma about A.

D. 527, but it existed before he came to China. (9) 攝 論宗, based upon the 攝大乘論 Mahāyāna-saṃparigraha-śāstra by Asaṅga, tr. by Paramārtha in 563, subsequently absorbed by the Avataṃsaka sect. (10) 天台宗 Tiantai, based on the 法華經

Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sūtra, or the Lotus of the Good Law; it is a consummation of the Mādhyamika tradition. (11) 華嚴宗 Avataṃsaka sect, based on the Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra, or Gandha-vyūha 華嚴經 tr. in 418. (12) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa

sect, established after the return of Xuanzang from India and his trans. of the important Yogācārya works. (13) 眞言宗 Mantra sect, A. D. 716. In Japan twelve sects are named: Sanron, Hossō, Kegon, Kusha,

Jōjitsu, Ritsu, Tendai, Shingon; these are known as the ancient sects, the two last being styled mediaeval; there follow the Zen and Jōdo; the remaining two are Shin and Nichiren; at present there are the Hossō,

Kegon, Tendai, Shingon, Zen, Jōdo, Shin, and Nichiren sects.

宗用 Principles and their practice, or application.

宗祖 The founder of a sect or school.

宗家 A name for Shandao 善導 (d. 681), a writer of commentaries on the sutras of the Pure Land sect, and one of its principal literary men; cf. 念佛宗.

宗義 The tenets of a sect.

宗致 The ultimate or fundamental tenets of a sect.

宗要 The fundamental tenets of a sect; the important elements, or main principle.

宗說倶通 In doctrine and expression both thorough, a term applied to a great teacher.

宗門 Originally the general name for sects. Later appropriated to itself by the 禪 Chan (Zen) or Intuitional school, which refers to the other schools as 教門 teaching sects, i. e. those who rely on the written word rather than on

the 'inner light'.


宗風 The customs or traditions of a sect. In the Chan sect it means the regulations of the founder.

宗骨 The 'bones' or essential tenets of a sect.

宗體 The body of doctrine of a sect. The thesis of a syllogism, v. 宗法.

居 Dwell, reside; be.

居士 倶欏鉢底; 迦羅越 kulapati. A chief, head of a family; squire, landlord. A householder who practises Buddhism at home without becoming a monk. The female counterpart is 女居士. The 居士傳 is a compilation giving the biography of

many devout Buddhists.

居倫 居鄰 (or 倶鄰); 拘輪 idem Ājñāta-kauṇḍinya, v. 憍.

屈 To bend; oppression, wrong.

屈屈吒播陀 (or屈屈吒波陀) Kukkuṭapādagiri; Cock's foot, a mountain said to be 100 li east of the bodhi tree, and, by Eitel, 7 miles south-east of Gayā, where Kāśyapa entered into nirvāṇa; also known as 窶盧播陀山 tr. by 尊足 'honoured foot'. The

legend is that these three sharply rising peaks, on Kāśyapa entering, closed together over him. Later, when Mañjuśrī ascended, he snapped his fingers, the peaks opened, Kāśyapa gave him his robe and entered nirvāṇa by fire. 屈叱阿濫摩

Kukkuṭa-ārāma, a monastery built on the above mountain by Aśoka, cf. 西域記 8.

屈支 屈茨; 庫車; 龜弦; 丘玆 Kutche (Kucha). An ancient kingdom and city in Turkestan, north-east of Kashgar.

屈浪那 (or 屈浪拏) Kūrān, anciently a kingdom Tokhara, 'the modern Garana, with mines of lapis lazuli (Lat. 36°28 N., Long. 71° 2 E. ).' Eitel.

屈摩羅 屈滿囉 A lotus bud.

屈眴 A cottony material of fine texture.

屈陀迦阿含 The Pali Khuddakāgama, the fifth of the Āgamas, containing fifteen (or fourteen), works, including such as the Dharmapāda ,Itivṛttaka, Jātaka, Buddhavaṃsa, etc.

屈霜儞迦 Kashanian, a region near Kermina, Lat. 39°50 N., Long. 65°25 E. Eitel.

屈露多 Kulūta. An ancient Kingdom in north India famous for its rock temples; Kulu, north of Kangra.

岸 kūla. Shore, bank.

岸樹 A tree on a river's brink, life's uncertainty.

岸頭 The shore of the ocean of suffering.

彼岸 The other shore; nirvāṇa.

帕 Kerchief, veil.

帕克斯巴 Bashpa, v. 八 and 巴.

庚 Age; change; west; to reward; the seventh of the ten celestial stems.

庚申會 An assembly for offerings on the night of Keng-shen to an image in the form of a monkey, which is the shen symbolical animal; a Taoist rite adopted by Buddhism.

底 Bottom, basis; translit. t, d, dh.

底下 At the bottom, below, the lowest class (of men).

底哩 tri, three, in trisamaya, etc.

底彦多 丁岸哆 tiṅanta, tryanta, described as the singular, dual, and plural endings in verbs.

底栗車 tiryagyoni, the animal species, animals, especially the six domestic animals.

底沙 Tiṣya. (1) The twenty-third of the twenty-eight constellations 鬼宿 γδηθ in Cancer; it has connection with Śiva. (2) Name of a Buddha who taught Śākyamuni and Maitreya in a former incarnation.

底理 The fundamental principle or law.

廻 v. 囘 6.

延 Prolong, prolonged, delay; invite.

延年 延壽; 延命; Prolonged life.

延年轉壽 Prolonged years and returning anniversaries.

延命法 Methods of worship of the 延命菩薩 life-prolonging bodhisattvas to increase length of life; these bodhisattvas are 普賢; 金剛薩埵; 地藏; 觀音, and others.

延促劫智 Buddha-wisdom, which surmounts all extending or shrinking kalpas, v. 劫波.

延壽 Prolonged life, the name of Yanshou, a noted Hangzhou monk of the Song dynasty.

延壽堂 The hall or room into which a dying person is taken to enter upon his 'long life'.

延慶寺 Yanqing si, the monastery in which is the ancient lecture hall of Tiantai at 四明山 Siming Shan in Zhejiang.

弩 Crossbow, bow.

弩達囉灑 Durdharṣa, hard to hold 難執持, or hard to overcome 難降伏, or hard to behold 無能見, guardian of the inner gate in Vairocana's maṇḍala.

弩蘖帝 anvāgati, approaching, arriving.

彼 That, the other, in contrast with 此 this.

彼岸 波羅 parā, yonder shore i. e. nirvāṇa. The saṃsāra life of reincarnation is 此岸 this shore; the stream of karma is 中流 the stream between the one shore and the other. Metaphor for an end to any affair. pāramitā (an incorrect

etymology, no doubt old) is the way to reach the other shore.

彼茶 peta, or piṭaka, a basket.

往 To go; gone, past; to be going to, future.

往生 The future life, the life to which anyone is going; to go to be born in the Pure Land of Amitābha. (1) 往相囘向 To transfer one's merits to all beings that they may attain the Pure Land of Amitābha. (2) 還相囘向 Having

been born in the Pure Land to return to mortality and by one's merits to bring mortals to the Pure Land.


忠 Loyal.

忠心 Loyal, faithful, honest.

忽 Suddenly; hastily; a millionth.

忽懍 Khulm, an ancient kingdom and city between Balkh and Kunduz.

忽露摩 Shadumān, 'a district of ancient Tukhāra, north of the Wakhan.' Eitel.

怖 uttras-; santras-; fear, afraid.

怖捍 霍罕 Ferghana, in Russian Turkestan.

怖畏施 Almsgiving to remove one's fears.

怖魔 Scare-demon, a supposed tr. of the term bhikṣu.

怛 Distressed; pity. Translit. for t, ta, tan, etc.

怛他 tadyathā, 所謂 whereas, as here follows.

怛他揭多 (or 怛他蘖多); 怛陀竭多; 怛佗議多; 怛薩阿竭 (or 怛闥阿竭) tathāgata, v. 多.

怛利耶怛喇舍 (or 怛利耶怛喇奢) Trayastriṃśa, the thirty-three heavens of lndra, cf. 多羅夜登陵舍.

怛刹那 ? tṛṇa, a length of time consisting of 120 kṣaṇa, or moments; or 'a wink', the time for twenty thoughts.

怛哩支伐離迦 tricīvaraka, the three garments of a monk.

怛囉麽洗 Caitra-māsa, tr. as the 正月 or first month; M. W. gives March-April.

怛索迦 Takṣaka, name of a dragon-king.

怛縛 tvam, thou, you.

怛羅夜耶 traya, three, with special reference to the triratna .

怛荼 daṇḍa, cf. 檀拏 a staff.

怛那 idem 檀那 dāna, alms, giving, charity.

怛鉢那 tapana, an ego, or self, personal, permanent existence, both 人我 and 法我 q. v.

忿 Anger.

忿怒 Anger, angry, fierce, over-awing: a term for the 忿王 or 忿怒王 (忿怒明王) the fierce mahārājas as opponents of evil and guardians of Buddhism; one of the two bodhisattva forms, resisting evil, in contrast with the other

form, manifesting goodness. There are three forms of this fierceness in the Garbhadhātu group and five in the Diamond group.

忿怒鉤 A form of Guanyin with a hook.

忿結 The bond of anger.

念 smṛti. Recollection, memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a moment.

念力 smṛtibala, one of the five bāla or powers, that of memory. Also one of the seven bodhyaṅga 七菩提分.

念佛 To repeat the name of a Buddha, audibly or inaudibly.

念佛者 One who repeats the name of a Buddha, especially of Amitābha, with the hope of entering the Pure Land.

念佛宗 or 念佛門. The sect which repeats only the name of Amitābha, founded in the Tang dynasty by 道綽 Daochuo, 善道 Shandao, and others.

念佛三昧 The samādhi in which the individual whole-heartedly thinks of the appearance of the Buddha, or of the dharmakāya, or repeats the Buddha's name. The one who enters into this samādhi, or merely repeats the name

of Amitābha, however evil his life may have been, will acquire the merits of Amitābha and be received into Paradise, hence the term.

念佛往生 This is the basis or primary cause of such salvation (念佛三昧).

念佛爲本 or 念佛爲先. Amitābha's merits by this means revert to the one who repeats his name 念佛廻向.

念佛往生願 The eighteenth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows.

念天 One of the six devalokas, that of recollection and desire.

念定 Correct memory and correct samādhi.

念念 kṣaṇa of a kṣaṇa, a kṣaṇa is the ninetieth part of the duration of a thought; an instant; thought after thought.

念念無常 Instant after instant, no permanence, i. e. the impermanence of all phenomena; unceasing change.

念念相續 Unbroken continuity; continuing instant in unbroken thought or meditation on a subject; also unceasing invocation of a Buddha's name.

念持 To apprehend and hold in memory.

念根 smṛtīndriya. The root or organ of memory, one of the five indriya 五根.

念漏 The leakages; or stream of delusive memory.

念珠 To tell beads.

念經 To repeat the sutras, or other books; to intone them.

念著 Through perverted memory to cling to illusion.

念處 smṛtyupasthāna. The presence in the mind of all memories, or the region which is contemplated by memory.

四念處 Four objects on which memory or the thought should dwell— the impurity of the body, that all sensations lead to suffering, that mind is impermanent, and that there is no such thing as an ego.

There are other categories for thought or meditation.

念覺支 Holding in memory continually, one of the sapta bodhyaṅga 七覺支.

念言 (As) the mind remembers, (so) the mouth speaks; also the words of memory.

念誦 To recite, repeat, intone, e. g. the name of a Buddha; to recite a dhāraṇī, or spell.

性 svabhāva, prakṛti, pradhāna. The nature intp. as embodied, causative, unchanging; also as independent or self-dependent; fundamental nature behind the manifestation or expression. Also, the Buddha-nature immanent in all

beings, the Buddha heart or mind.

性佛 The dharmakāya 法性佛, v. 法身.

性具 The Tiantai doctrine that the Buddha-nature includes both good and evil; v. 觀音玄義記 2. Cf. 體具; 理具 of similar meaning.

性分 The nature of anything; the various nature of various things.


性命 The life of conscious beings; nature and life.

性善 Good by nature (rather than by effort); naturally good; in contrast with 性惡 evil by nature. Cf. 性具.

性土 The sphere of the dharma-nature, i. e. the bhūtatathatā, idem 法性土.

性地 Spiritual nature, the second of the ten stages as defined by the 通教 Intermediate School, in which the illusion produced by 見思 seeing and thinking is subdued and the mind obtains a glimmer of the immateriality of

things. Cf. 十地.

性宗 v. 法性宗.

性得 Natural attainment, i. e. not acquired by effort; also 生得.

性德 Natural capacity for good (or evil), in contrast with 修性 powers (of goodness) attained by practice.

性心 The perfectly clear and unsullied mind, i. e. the Buddha mind or heart. The Chan (Zen) school use 性心 or 心性 indifferently.

性念處 citta-smṛtyupasthāna, one of the four objects of thought, i. e. that the original nature is the same as the Buddha-nature, v. 四念處.

性戒 The natural moral law, e. g. not to kill, steal, etc, not requiring the law of Buddha.

性我 The Buddha-nature ego, which is apperceived when the illusory ego is banished.

性橫修縱 A division of the triratna in its three aspects into the categories of 橫 and 縱, i. e. cause and effect, or effect and cause; a 別教 division, not that of the 圓教.

性欲 Desires that have become second nature; desires of the nature.

性海 The ocean of the bhūtatathatā, the all-containing, immaterial nature of the dharmakāya.

性火 Fire as one of the five elements, contrasted with 事火 phenomenal fire.

性相 The nature (of anything) and its phenomenal expression xing being 無爲 non-functional, or noumenal and xiang 有爲 functional, or phenomenal.

性相學 The philosophy of the above (性相), i. e. of the noumenal and phenomenal. There are ten points of difference between the 性相二宗, i. e. between the 性 and 相 schools, v. 二宗.

性種性 Nature-seed nature, i. e. original or primary nature, in contrast with 習性性 active or functioning nature; it is also the bodhisattva 十行 stage.

性種戒 idem 性戒.

性空 The nature void, i. e. the immateriality of the nature of all things.

性空教 One of the three 南山 Nanshan sects which regarded the nature of things as unreal or immaterial, but held that the things were temporally entities.

性空觀 The meditation of the 性空教 sect on the unreality, or immateriality, of the nature of things.

性罪 Sins that are such according to natural law, apart from Buddha's teaching, e. g. murder, etc.

性色 Transcendent rūpa or form within or of the tathāgatagarbha; also 眞色.

性覺 Inherent intelligence, or knowledge, i. e. that of the bhūtatathatā.

性識 Natural powers of perception, or the knowledge acquired through the sense organs; mental knowledge.

性起 Arising from the primal nature, or bhūtatathatā, in contrast with 緣起 arising from secondary causes.

性遮 Natural and conventional sins, i. e. sins against natural law, e. g. murder, and sins against conventional or religious law, e. g. for a monk to drink wine, cut down trees, etc.

房 House, room. The rooms for monks and nuns in a monastery or nunnery.

房宿 Scorpio, idem 劫賓那.

所 A place; where, what, that which, he (etc. ) who.

所作 That which is done, or to be done, or made, or set up, etc.


所依 āśraya, that on which anything depends, the basis of the vijñānas.

所別 The subject of the thesis of a syllogism in contrast with 能別 the predicate; that which is differentiated.

所化 The one who is transformed or instructed.

所引 That which is brought forward or out; a quotation.

所有 What one has, what there is, whatever exists.

所知依 That on which all knowledge depends, i. e. the ālayavijñāna, the other vijñānas being derived from it; cf. 八識.

所知障 The barrier of the known, arising from regarding the seeming as real.

所立 A thesis; that which is set up.

所緣 ālambana; that upon which something rests or depends, hence object of perception; that which is the environmental or contributory cause; attendant circumstances.

所緣緣 adhipatipratyaya. The influence of one factor in causing others; one of the 四緣.

所詮 That which is expounded, explained, or commented on.

所遍計 That by which the mind is circumscribed, i. e. impregnated with the false view that the ego and things possess reality.

所量 That which is estimated; the content of reasoning, or judgment.

拄 A prop, a post.

拄杖 (拄杖子) A crutch, staff.

抹 Rub out or on, efface.

抹香 Powdered incense to scatter over images.

拓 Carry (on the palm), entrust to, pretext, extend.

拓林羅 One of the twelve generals in the Yaoshi (Bhaiṣajya) sutra.

拍掌 拍手 Clapping of hands at the beginning and end of worship, a Shingon custom.

抱 Embrace, enfold, cherish.

抱佛脚 (Only when old or in trouble) to embrace the Buddha's feet.

承 Receive, succeed to, undertake, serve.

承事 Entrusted with duties, serve, obey, and minister.

承露盤 or 承露槃 The 'dew-receivers', or metal circles at the top of a pagoda.

拙 Stupid, clumsy.

拙具羅 (or 窶具羅); 求求羅 kukura, kukkura; a plant and its perfume.

拙度 A stupid, powerless salvation, that of Hīnayāna.

抵 Knock; arrive; resist, bear; substitute.

抵彌 timi, timiṅgila, a huge fish, perhaps a whale.

折 Tear open, break down.

折摩駄那 Calmadana or 涅末 Nimat, 'An ancient kingdom and city at the south-east borders of the desert of Gobi.' Eitel.

抽 Draw, withdraw, pull out.

抽籤 To draw lots, seek divine indications, etc.

抽脫 To go to the latrine.

拖 Tow, tug; delay; implicate.

拖泥帶水 和泥合水 Mud and water hauler, or made of mud and water, a Chan (Zen) school censure of facile remarks.

拂 To rub, wipe, dust.

拂子 A duster, fly brush.

拂石 盤石劫 A kalpa as measured by the time it would take to wear away an immense rock by rubbing it with a deva-garment; cf. 芥 and 劫波.

拂迹入玄 To rub out the traces of past impurity and enter into the profundity of Buddha.

招 Call, beckon, notify, cause; confess.

招魂 To call back the spirit (of the dead).

招提 拓鬪提舍 caturdiśaḥ, the four directions of space; cāturdiśa, belonging to the four quarters, i. e. the saṃgha or Church; name for a monastery.

披 To spread open, unroll, thrown on (as a cloak). 披 is to wear the garment over both shoulders; 袒 is to throw it over one shoulder.

披剃 The first donning of the robe and shaving of the head (by a novice).

拈 To take in the fingers, pluck, pinch.

拈古 拈提 To refer to ancient examples.

拈花微笑 'Buddha held up a flower and Kāśyapa smiled'. This incident does not appear till about A. D. 800, but is regarded as the beginning of the tradition on which the Chan (Zen) or Intuitional sect based its


拈衣 To gather up the garment.

拈香 To take and offer incense.

拈語 To take up and pass on a verbal tradition, a Chan (Zen) term.

拔 Pull up, or out; raise.

拔婆 拔波 vatsa, calf, young child.

拔底耶 upādhyāya, a spiritual teacher, or monk 和尚 v. 烏.

拔提 -vatī, a terminal of names of certain rivers, e. g. Niraṇyavatī.

拔提達多 Bhadradatta, name of a king.

拔濟 To rescue, save from trouble.

拔舌地獄 The hell where the tongue is pulled out, as punishment for oral sins.

拔苦與樂 To save from suffering and give joy.

拔羅魔囉 bhramara, a kind of black bee.

拔思發 拔合思巴; 八思巴 Baschpa (Phags-pa), Tibetan Buddhist and adviser of Kublai Khan, v. 八發 (八發思).


拘 Seize, take, arrest; translit. k sounds, cf. 巨, 矩, 倶, 憍.

拘利 拘胝 koṭī. A million. Also explained by 億 100, 000; or 100 lakṣa, i. e. ten millions. Also 倶利 or 倶胝.

拘利太子 Kolita, the eldest son of Droṇodana, uncle of Śākyamuni; said to be Mahānāma, but others say Mahāmaudgalyāyana. Also 拘栗; 拘肄多.

拘吒賒摩利 Kūṭaśālmali. Also 居吒奢摩利 (or 居吒奢摩離) A fabulous tree on which garuḍas find nāgas to eat: M. W. describes it as 'a fabulous cotton tree with sharp thorns with which the wicked are tortured in the world of Yama'.

拘吒迦 kuṭaṅgaka, thatched; a hut.

拘尸那 Kuśinagara; 拘尸那竭 or拘尸那揚羅; 拘夷那竭 (or 倶夷那竭); 倶尸那; 究施 a city identified by Professor Vogel with Kasiah, 180 miles north-west of Patna, 'capital city of the Mallas' (M. W.); the place where Śākyamuni died; 'so called after

the sacred Kuśa grass.' Eitel. Not the same as Kuśāgārapura, v. 矩.

拘摩羅 kumāra; also 矩摩羅 (or 鳩摩羅); a child, youth, prince, tr. by 童子 a youth, 拘摩羅天; 鳩摩羅伽天 Kumārakadeva, Indra of the first dhyāna heaven whose face is like that of a youth, sitting on a peacock, holding a cock, a

bell, and a flag.

拘摩羅尊 Kumārata, v. 鳩.

拘沙 A branch of the Yüeh-chih people, v. 月.

拘流沙 Kuru, the country where Buddha is said to have delivered the sutra 長阿合大緣方便經.

拘物頭 kumuda; also 拘物陀; 拘物度; 拘勿頭 (or 拘勿投); 拘牟頭 ( or拘貿頭or 拘某頭or 拘那頭); 拘母陀; 句文羅; 倶勿頭; 屈摩羅; 究牟陀 a lotus; an opening lotus; but kumuda refers especially to the esculent white lotus. M. W.

拘理迦 Kulika. 'A city 9 li south-west of Nālanda in Magadha.' Eitel.

拘瑟耻羅 Kauṣṭhila, also 倶瑟祉羅; an arhat, maternal uncle of Śāriputra, who became an eminent disciple of Śākyamuni.

拘留孫佛 Krakucchanda; also 拘留泰佛; 拘樓秦; 倶留孫; 鳩樓孫; 迦羅鳩餐陀 (or 迦羅鳩村馱); 羯洛迦孫馱; 羯羅迦寸地; 羯句忖那, etc. The first of the Buddhas of the present Bhadrakalpa, the fourth of the seven ancient Buddhas.

拘盧舍 (拘盧) krośa; also 拘樓賒; 拘屢; 倶盧舍; the distance a bull's bellow can be heard, the eighth part of a yojana, or 5 li; another less probable definition is 2 li. For 拘盧 Uttarakuru, see 倶.

拘睒彌 Kauśāmbī, or Vatsapattana 拘邊; 憍賞彌; a country in Central India; also called 拘羅瞿 v. 巨.

拘羯羅 cakra, v. 斫.

拘耆 (拘耆那羅) Kokila, also 拘翅羅, the cuckoo, M. W.

拘蘇摩 kusuma, 'the white China aster.' Eitel.

拘蘇摩補羅 Kusumapura, city of flower-palaces; two are named, Pāṭaliputra, ancient capital of Magadha, the modern Patna; and Kanyākubja, Kanauj (classical Canogyza), a noted city in northern Hindustan; v. 羯.

拘謎陀 Kumidha, 'An ancient kingdom on the Beloortagh to the north of Badakhshan. The vallis Comedorum of Ptolemy.' Eitel.

拘那牟尼 (拘含牟尼) Kanakamuni, 拘那含; 迦諾迦牟尼 q. v., lit. 金寂 the golden recluse, or 金仙 golden ṛṣi; Brahman of the Kāśyapa family, native of Śobhanavatī, second of the five Buddhas of the present Bhadra-kalpa fifth of the seven

ancient Buddhas; possibly a sage who preceded Śākyamuni in India.

拘那羅 Kuṇāla; also 拘拏羅, 拘浪拏; 鳩那羅 a bird with beautiful eyes; name of Dharmavivardhana (son of Aśoka), whose son Sampadi 'became the successor of Aśoka'. Eitel. Kuṇāla is also tr. as an evil man, possibly of the evil eye.

拘那羅陀 (or拘那羅他); 拘那蘭難陀 ? Guṇarata, name of Paramārtha, who was known as 眞諦三藏, also as Kulanātha, came to China A. D. 546 from Ujjain in Western India, tr. many books, especially the treatises of Vasubandhu.

拘鄰 Kauṇḍinya; also 拘輪 (or 倶輪); 倶鄰;鄰 (or 居倫). v. 憍.


拘鞞陀羅 Kovidāra, bauhinia variegata, fragrant trees in the great pleasure ground (of the child Śākyamuni).

放 To let go, release, send out; put, place.

放下 To put down, let down, lay down.

放光 Light-emitting; to send out an illuminating ray.

放光三昧 A samādhi in which all kinds and colours of light are emitted.

放光瑞 The auspicious ray emitted from between the eyebrows of the Buddha before pronouncing the Lotus Sutra.

放燈 Lighting strings of lanterns, on the fifteenth of the first month, a custom wrongly attributed to Han Ming Ti, to celebrate the victory of Buddhism in the debate with Taoists; later extended to the seventh and fifteenth full


放生 To release living creatures as a work of merit.

放逸 Loose, unrestrained.

於 At, in, on, to, from, by, than.

於諦 All Buddha's teaching is 'based upon the dogmas' that all things are unreal, and that the world is illusion; a 三論 phrase.

於麾 A name for Ladakh. 'The upper Indus valley under Cashmerian rule but inhabited by Tibetans.' Eitel.

易 Change; easy.

易行 Easy progress, easy to do.

變易 To change.

昔 Of old, formerly.

昔哩 śrī, fortunate, idem 室利 (or 尸利).

昆勒 piṭaka, also 蜫勒 defined as the śāstras; a misprint for 毘.

昏 Dusk, dull, confused.

昏城 The dim city, the abode of the common, unenlightened man.

昏識 Dull, or confused, knowledge.

昏醉 matta, drunk, intoxicated.

昏鐘 昏鼓 The bell, or drum, at dusk.

昏默多 Kandat, the capital of Tamasthiti, perhaps the modern Kunduz, but Eitel says 'Kundoot about 40 miles above Jshtrakh, Lat. 36° 42N., Long. 71° 39E.

明 vidyā, knowledge. ming means bright, clear, enlightenment, intp. by 智慧 or 聰明 wisdom, wise; to understand. It represents Buddha-wisdom and its revelation; also the manifestation of a Buddha's light

or effulgence; it is a term for 眞言 because the 'true word' can destroy the obscurity of illusion; the 'manifestation' of the power of the object of worship; it means also dhāraṇīs or mantras of mystic

wisdom. Also, the Ming dynasty A. D. 1368-1644.

明了 To understand thoroughly; complete enlightenment.

無明 Commonly tr. 'ignorance', means an unenlightened condition, non-perception, before the stirrings of intelligence, belief that the phenomenal is real, etc.

明信佛智 To believe clearly in Buddha's wisdom (as leading to rebirth in the Pure Land).

明冥 The (powers of) light and darkness, the devas and Yama, gods and demons, also the visible and invisible.

明利 Clear and keen (to penetrate all mystery).

明地 The stage of illumination, or 發光地 the third of the ten stages, v. 十地.

明妃 Another name for dhāraṇī as the queen of mystic knowledge and able to overcome all evil. Also the female consorts shown in the maṇḍalas.

明度無極 An old intp. of prajñā 明 pāramitā 度, the wisdom that ferries to the other shore without limit; for which 明炬 a shining torch is also used.

明得 (明定) A samādhi in the Bodhisattva's 四加行 in which there are the bright beginnings of release from illusion.

明德菩薩 The Bodhisattva who has reached the stage of 明得, i. e. the 煗位.

明心 The enlightened heart.

明慧 The three enlightenments 三明, and the three wisdoms 三慧.

明敏 Śīghrabodhi. 'A famous priest of the Nālanda monastery.' Eitel.

明星 Venus; 太白 and the 天子 deva-prince who dwells in that planet; but it is also said to be Aruṇa, which indicates the Dawn.

明月 The bright moon.

明月珠 明珠; 摩尼 The bright-moon maṇi or pearl, emblem of Buddha, Buddhism, the Buddhist Scriptures, purity, etc.

明月天子 The moon-deva, in Indra's retinue.

明法 The law or method of mantras, or magic formulæ.


明薫 The inner light, enlightenment censing and overcoming ignorance, like incense, perfuming and interpenetrating.

明王 The rājas, ming-wang, or fence sprits who are the messengers and manifestation of Vairocana's wrath against evil spirits.

明相 Early dawn, the proper time for the monk's breakfast; brightness.

明神 The bright spirits, i. e. devas, gods, demons.

明脫 Enlightenment (from ignorance) and release (from desire).

明藏 The Buddhist canon of the Ming dynasty; there were two editions, one the Southern at Nanjing made by T'ai Tsu, the northern at Beijing by Tai Tsung. A later edition was produced in the reign of Shen Tsung (Wan Li), which

became the standard in Japan.

明處 The regions or realms of study which produce wisdom, five in number, v. 五明 (五明處).

明行足 vidyā-caraṇa-saṃpañña; knowledge-conduct-perfect 婢侈遮羅那三般那. (1) The unexcelled universal enlightenment of the Buddha based upon the discipline, meditation, and wisdom regarded as feet; one of the ten

epithets of Buddha. Nirvāṇa Sūtra 18. (2) The 智度論 2 interprets 明 by the 三明 q. v., the 行 by the 三業 q. v., and the 足 by complete, or perfect.

明道 The bright or clear way; the way of the mantras and dhāraṇīs.

明達 Enlightenment 明in the case of the saint includes knowledge of future incarnations of self others, of the past incarnation of self and others, and that the present incarnation will end illusion. In the

case of the Buddha such knowledge is called 達 thorough or perfect enlightenment.

服 Submit, serve; clothing, to wear; mourning; to swallow; a dose.

服水論師 The sect of non-Buddhist philosophers who considered water the beginning and end of all things.

板 A board; a board struck for calling e. g. to meals.

杯 A cup.

杯度 Beidu, a fifth-century Buddhist monk said to be able to cross a river in a cup or bowl, hence his name.

枉 Oppression, wrong; crooked; in vain.

枉死 Wrongly done to death.

析 To divide, separate, differentiate, explain.

分析 To divide; leave the world; separation.

析小 To traverse or expose the fallacy of Hīnayāna arguments.

析微塵 To subdivide molecules till nothing is reached.

析水 To rinse (the alms-bowl).

析智 Analytical wisdom, which analyses Hīnayāna dharmas and attains to the truth that neither the ego nor things have a basis in reality.

枝 A branch.

枝香 Incense made of branches of trees, one of the three kinds of incense, the other two being from roots and flowers.

枝末惑 or枝末無明 Branch and twig illusion, or ignorance in detail, contrasted with 根本無明root, or radical ignorance, i. e. original ignorance out of which arises karma, false views, and realms of illusion which

are the 'branch and twig' condition or unenlightenment in detail or result. Also, the first four of the 五住地 five causal relationships, the fifth being 根本無明.

林 A grove, or wood; a band.

林微尼 (or 林毘尼); 嵐毘尼; 龍彌你 (or流彌你); 臘伐尼; 論民; 林毘, etc. Lumbinī, the park in which Śākyamuni was born, '15 miles east of Kapilavastu.' Eitel.

林葬 Forest burial, to cast the corpse into a forest to be eaten by animals.

林藤 Vegetable food, used by men at the beginning of a kalpa.

林變 The trees of the wood turned white when the Buddha died.

東 pūrva, east.

東勝身洲 (佛婆毘提訶) 毘提訶; 佛婆提; 佛于逮; 逋利婆; 鼻提賀; 布嚕婆, etc. Pūrvavideha. The eastern of the four great continents of a world, east of Mt. Meru, semicircular in shape.

東司 東淨; 東厠 The privy in a monastery.

東土 The eastern land, i. e. China.

東密 The eastern esoteric or Shingon sect of Japan, in contrast with the Tiantai esoteric sect.

東山 An eastern hill, or monastery, general and specific, especially the 黃梅東山 Huangmei eastern monastery of the fourth and fifth patriarchs of the Chan (Zen) school.

東山部 佛媻勢羅部 Pūrvaśailāḥ; one of the five divisions of the Mahāsāṃghikaḥ school.

東山寺 Pūrvaśailā-saṃghārāma, a monastery east of Dhanakaṭaka.

東嶽 The Eastern Peak, Tai Shan in Shandong, one of the five sacred peaks; the god or spirit of this peak, whose protection is claimed all over China.


東庵 The eastern hall of monastery.

東方 The east, or eastern region.

東曼陀羅 The eastern maṇḍala, that of the Garbhadhātu.

phala, 頗羅 fruit; offspring; result, consequence, effect; reward, retribution; it contrasts with cause, i. e. 因果 cause and effect. The effect by causing a further effect becomes also a cause.

果上 In the stage when the individual receives the consequences of deeds done.

果人 Those who have obtained the fruit, i. e. escaped the chain of transmigration, e. g. buddha, pratyekabuddha, arhat.

果位 The stage of attainment, or reward as contrasted with the cause-stage, i. e. the deed.

果佛性 Fruition of the Buddha-enlightenment, its perfection, one of the five forms of the Buddha-nature.

果分 The reward, e. g. of ineffable nirvāṇa, or dharmakāya.

果名 果號 Attamentment-name, or reward-name or title, i. e. of every Buddha, indicating his enlightenment.

果唯識 The wisdom attained from investigating and thinking philosophy, or Buddha-truth, i. e. of the sūtras and abhidharmas; this includes the first four under 五種唯識.

果圓 Fruit complete, i. e. perfect enlightenment, one of the eight Tiantai perfections.

果地 The stage of attainment of the goal of any disciplinary course.

果報 異熟 Retribution for good or evil deeds, implying that different conditions in this (or any) life are the variant ripenings, or fruit, of seed sown in previous life or lives.

果報土 The realm of reward, where bodhisattvas attain the full reward of their deeds, also called 實報無障礙土, one of the 四土 of Tiantai.

果報四相 The four forms of retribution — birth, age, sickness, death.

果德 The merits nirvāṇa, i. e. 常樂我淨 q. v., eternal, blissful, personal (or autonomous), and pure, all transcendental.

果斷 To cut off the fruit, or results, of former karma. The arhat who has a 'remnant of karma', though he has cut off the seed of misery, has not yet cut off its fruits.

果果 The fruit of fruit, i. e. nirvāṇa, the fruition of bodhi.

果果佛性 The fruit of the fruit of Buddhahood, i. e. parinirvāṇa, one of the 五佛性.

果極 Fruition perfect, the perfect virtue or merit of Buddha-enlightenment.

果極法身 The dharmakāya of complete enlightenment.

果海 The ocean of bodhi or enightenment.

果滿 The full or complete fruition of merit; perfect reward.

果熟識 The ālaya-vijñāna, i. e. storehouse or source of consciousness, from which both subject and object are derived.

果界圓現 In the Buddha-realm, i. e. of complete bodhi-enlightenment, all things are perfectly manifest.

果相 Reward, retribution, or effect; especially as one of the three forms of the ālaya-vijñāna.

果縛 Retribution-bond; the bitter fruit of transmigration binds the individual so that he cannot attain release. This fruit produces 子縛 or further seeds of bondage.

果縛斷 Cutting off the ties of retribution, i. e. entering nirvāṇa, e. g. entering salvation.

果脣 Fruit lips, Buddha's were 'red like the fruit of the Bimba tree'.

果遂 The fruit follows.

果遂願 The assurance of universal salvation, the twentieth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows.

果頭 The condition of retribution, especially the reward of bodhi or enlightenment, idem 果上, hence 果頭佛 is he who has attained the Buddha-condition, a Tiantai term.


欣 Joyful, elated, elevated.

欣求 To seek gladly.

欣界 The joyful realm (of saints and sages).


毒器 The poison vessel, the body.