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A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms-009

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毒天二鼓 The two kinds of drum: poison-drum, harsh or stern words for repressing evil, and devadrum, gentle words for producing good; also, misleading contrasted with correct teaching. The毒鼓 is likened also to the Buddha-nature

which can slay all evil.

毒樹 Poison tree, an evil monk.

毒氣 Poison vapour, emitted by the three poisons, 貪瞋痴, desire, hate (or anger), stupor (or ignorance).

毒箭 Poison arrow, i. e. illusion.

毒藥 Poison, cf. the sons who drank their father's poisons in the 善門 chapter of The Lotus Sutra.

毒蛇 Poisonous snakes, the four elements of the body— earth, water, fire, wind (or air)— which harm a man by their variation, i. e. increase and decrease. Also, gold.

毒龍 The poisonous dragon, who accepted the commandments and thus escaped from his dragon form, i. e. Śākyamuni in a former incarnation. 智度論 14.

注 Fix, record; flow.

注荼半托迦 Cūḍapanthaka, the sixteenth of the sixteen arhats.

油 Oil.

油鉢 A bowl of oil.

持油鉢 As careful as carrying a bowl of oil.

泡 A bubble, a blister; to infuse.

泡影 Bubble and shadow, such is everything.

River (in north), canal (in south), especially the Yellow River in China and the Ganges 恒河in India.

河沙 The sands of Ganges, vast in number.

河鼻旨 Avīci, the hell of uninterrupted suffering, where the sufferers die and are reborn to torture without intermission.

沓 Ripple, babble; join. Translit. t, d, etc.

沓婆 沓婆摩羅 Dravya Mallaputra, an arhat who was converted to the Mahāyāna faith.

治 Rule, govern; prepare; treat, cure; repress, punish.

治國天 (or 持國天) One of the four devas or maharājas, guarding the eastern quarter.

治地住 One of the 十住 q. v.

治生 A living, that by which one maintains life.

泯 Vast; to flow off; ruin, confusion.

泯權歸實 To depart from the temporary and find a home in the real, i. e. forget Hīnayāna, partial salvation, and turn to Mahāyāna for full and complete salvation.

泥 Mud; paste; clogged; bigoted; translit. n; v. 尼.

泥人 A sufferer in niraya, or hell, or doomed to it.

泥哩底 Nirṛti, one of the rakṣa-kings.

泥塔 Paste pagoda; a mediaeval Indian custom was to make a small pagoda five or six inches high of incense, place scriptures in and make offerings to it. The esoterics adopted custom, and worshipped for the purpose of

prolonging life and ridding themselves of sins, or sufferings.

泥洹 Nirvāṇa; also泥丸; 泥日; 泥垣; 泥畔; v. 涅槃.

泥犁 niraya, intp. as joyless, i. e. hell; also 泥梨 (泥梨耶); 泥梨迦; 泥黎; 泥囉耶; 泥底 v. 捺趣迦 naraka.

泥盧鉢羅 nīla-utpala; the blue lotus, portrayed in the hand of Mañjuśrī.

泥盧都 One of the sixteen hells.

泥縛些那 nivāsana, a garment, a skirt. Also 泥婆娑; 泥伐散娜; 涅般僧.

波 taraṅga. A wave, waves; to involve; translit. p, b, v; cf. 婆; 般; 鉢 etc.

波儞尼 or (波你尼) Pāṇini, the great Indian grammarian and writer of the fourth century B. C., also known as Śālāturīya.

波利 pari round, round about; complete, all.

波利伽羅, 波伽羅 parikara, an auxiliary garment, loincloth, towel, etc.

波利婆沙 parivāsa, sent to a separate abode, isolation for improper conduct.

波利質羅 (波利質多羅), 波疑質姤; 波利樹 paricitra, a tree in the trāyastriṃśas heavens which fills the heavens with fragrance; also Pārijāta, a tree in Indra's heaven, one of the five trees of paradise, the coral-

tree, erythina indica.

波利涅縛南 波利暱縛M003660 parinirvāṇa, v, 般.

波卑 idem 波旬.

波叉 Virūpākṣa, 毘留愽叉, 鼻溜波阿叉 irregular-eyed, a syn. of Śiva; the guardian king of the West.

波吒羅 Pāṭalī, 鉢怛羅 a tree with scented lossoms, the trumpet-flower, Bignonia Suaveolens. A kingdom i. e. 波吒釐 (波吒釐子); 波吒利弗; 波吒梨耶; 波羅利弗多羅; 巴蓮弗 Pāṭaliputra, originally Kusumapura, the modern Patna; capital of Aśoka, where the

third synod was held.

波哆迦 patākā, a flag.

波夷羅 Vajra, one of the generals of Yaoshi, Bhaiṣajya, the Buddha of Healing.


波奴 ? Vidhu, a syn. for the moon.

波婆利 (or 波和利) Pravarī, or perhaps Pravara, woollen or hairy cloth, name of a monastery, the 波婆梨奄婆. Also 波婆利or 波婆離 name of a maternal aunt of Maitreya.

波尼 波抳 pāna, drink, beverage; tr. as water (to drink); 波尼藍 tr. as 'water', but may be pānila, a drinking vessel.

波崙 v. 薩陀.

波帝 pati, 鉢底 master, lord, proprietor, husband.

波戌 paśu, any animal.

波斯 Pārasī, Persian, Persia. 波嘶; 波刺斯 or 波刺私; 波羅悉. In its capital of Surasthāna the Buddha's almsbowl was said to be in A. D. 600. Eitel.

波斯匿 鉢邏犀那特多 (or 鉢邏斯那特多) (or 鉢邏犀那時多); 波刺斯 Prasenajit, king of Śrāvastī, contemporary of the Buddha, and known inter alia as (勝光王) 光王; father of Virūḍhaka, who supplanted him.

波旬 (波旬踰); 波鞞 Pāpīyān. Pāpīmān. Pāpīmā. Pāpīyān is very wicked. Pāpīyān is a Buddhist term for 惡者 the Evil One; 殺者 the Murderer; Māra; because he strives to kill all goodness; v. 魔. Also 波卑面 or 波卑椽 or 波卑緣.

波濕縛 (波栗濕縛); 波奢 pārśva, the ribs. Pārśva, the tenth patriarch, previously a Brahman of Gandhāra, who took a vow not to lie down until he had mastered the meaning of the Tripiṭaka, cut off all desire in the realms of

sense, form and non-form, and obtained the six supernatural powers and eight pāramitās. This he accomplished after three years. His death is put at 36 B. C. His name is tr. as 脇尊者 his Worship of the Ribs.

波樓那 A fierce wind, hurricane, perhaps Vātyā.

波樓沙迦 Paruṣaka, a park in the trāyastriṃśas heaven.

波波 Running hither and thither. Also, Pāvā, a place near Rājagṛha.

波波劫劫 Running about for ever.

波波羅 Pippala, ficus religiosa.

波浪 taraṅga, a wave, waves.

波演那 (or 波衍那) ? paryayaṇa, suggesting an ambulatory; intp. as a courtyard.

波羅伽 pāraka, carrying over, saving; the pāramitā boat.

波羅迦 Pāraga, a title of the Buddha who has reached the other shore.

波羅伽羅 鉢囉迦羅 prākāra, a counting wall, fence.

波羅夷 pārājika. The first section of the Vinaya piṭaka containing rules of expulsion from the order, for unpardonable sin. Also 波羅闍巳迦; 波羅市迦. Cf. 四波羅夷. There are in Hīnayāna eight sins for expulsion of nuns, and in

Mahāyāna ten. The esoteric sects have their own rules.

波羅夷四喩 The four metaphors addressed by the Buddha to monks are: he who breaks the vow of chastity is as a needle without an eye, a dead man, a broken stone which cannot be united, a tree cut in two which cannot


波羅奈 (波羅奈斯) Vārāṇasī. Ancient kingdom and city on the Ganges, now Benares, where was the Mṛgadāva park. Also 波羅捺 (波羅捺寫); 波羅痆斯; 波刺那斯.

波羅奢華 palāśa; a leaf, petal, foliage; the blossom of the Butea frondosa, a tree with red flowers, whose sap is used for dye; said to be black before sunrise, red during the day, and yellow after sunset.

波羅尼密婆舍跋提天 Paranirmita-vaśavartin, 'obedient to the will of those who are transformed by others,' M. W.; v. 他化自在天.

波羅提舍尼 (波羅提提舍尼) pratideśanīya. A section of the Vinaya concerning public confession of sins. Explained by 向彼悔罪 confession of sins before another or others. Also 波羅舍尼; 提舍尼; 波胝提舍尼; 鉢刺底提舍尼.

波羅提木叉 prātimokṣa; emancipation, deliverance, absolution. Prātimokṣa; the 250 commandments for monks in the Vinaya, v. 木叉, also 婆; the rules in the Vinaya from the four major to the seventy-five minor offences;

they should be read in assembly twice a month and each monk invited to confess his sins for absolution.

波羅提毘 (or波羅梯毘) pṛthivī, the earth. Also 鉢里體尾. See 地.


波羅末陀 paramārtha, the highest truth, ultimate truth, reality, fundamental meaning, 眞諦. Paramārtha, name of a famous monk from Western India, Guṇarata, v. 拘, whose title was 眞諦三藏; reached China 547 or 548, but

the country was so disturbed that he set of to return by sea; his ship was driven back to Canton, where he translated some fifty works.

波羅蜜多 pāramitā, 播囉弭多, derived from parama, highest, acme, is intp. as to cross over from this shore of births and deaths to the other shore, or nirvāṇa. The six pāramitās or means of so doing are: (1) dāna, charity; (2)

śīla, moral conduct; (3) kṣānti, patience; (4) vīrya, energy, or devotion; (5) dhyāna, contemplation, or abstraction; (6) prajñā, knowledge. The 十度 ten are the above with (7) upāya, use of expedient or proper

means; (8) praṇidhāna, vows, for bodhi and helpfulness; (9) bāla, strength purpose; (10) wisdom. Childers gives the list of ten as the perfect exercise of almsgiving, morality, abnegation of the world and of

self, wisdom, energy, patience, truth, resolution, kindness, and resignation. Each of the ten is divisible into ordinary, superior, and unlimited perfection, or thirty in all. pāramitā is tr. by 度; 度無極; 到

彼岸; 究竟.

波羅赴 Prabhu, 鉢唎部 surpassing, powerful; a title of Viṣṇu 'as personification of the sun', of Brahmā, Śiva, Indra, etc. prabhū, come into being, originate, original.

波羅越 Pārāvata, a dove; the fifth row of a rock-cut temple in the Deccan, said to resemble a dove, described by Faxian.

波羅門 Brahmin, v. 婆.

波羅頗婆底 Prabhāvatī, younger sister of Aśoka.

波羅頗迦羅密多羅 Prabhākaramitra, enlightener, v. 波頗.

波耶 payas, water; in Sanskrit it also means milk, juice, vital force.

波謎羅 Pamira, the Pamirs, 'the centre of the Tsung-ling mountains with the Sirikol lake (v. Anavatapta) in Lat. 38° 20 N., Long. 74° E.' Eitel.

波輸鉢多 Pāśupata; a particular sect of Sivaites who smeared their bodies with ashes.

波逸提 波藥致 pātaka. A sin causing one to fall into purgatory. Also 波逸底迦; 波夜迦; 波羅逸尼柯; 波質胝迦 (波羅夜質胝迦); but there seems to be a connection with prāyaścitta, meaning expiation, atonement, restitution.

波那姿 panasa, 半那娑 the bread-fruit tree, jaka or jack-fruit.

波里衣多羅 Pāriyātra, 'an ancient kingdom 800 li south-west of Śatadru, a centre of heretical sects. The present city of Birat, west of Mathurā.' Eitel.

波闍波提 Prajāpatī, 波闍鉢提 (波邏闍鉢提) aunt and nurse of the Buddha, v. 摩訶.

波闍羅 vajra, the diamond sceptre, v. 金剛杵.

波陀 pada; a step, footprint, position; a complete word; u. f. 阿波陀那 avadāna.

波陀劫 跋達羅劫 Bhadra-kalpa, v. 賢劫 and 颰.

波離 Upāli, v. 優.

波鞞 v. 波旬.

波頗 Prabhāmitra, (Prabhākaramitra), an Indian monk, who came to China in A. D. 626.

波頭摩 padma; 波曇摩; 波暮; etc., the red lotus; v. 鉢; tr. 華 or 蓮.

波頭摩巴尼 Padmapāṇi, one of the forms of Guanyin, holding a lotus.

Dharma, 達磨; 曇無 (or 曇摩); 達摩 (or 達謨) Law, truth, religion, thing, anything Buddhist. Dharma is 'that which is held fast or kept, ordinance, statute, law, usage, practice, custom'; 'duty'; 'right'; 'proper';

'morality'; 'character'. M. W. It is used in the sense of 一切 all things, or anything small or great, visible or invisible, real or unreal, affairs, truth, principle, method, concrete things, abstract ideas, etc.

Dharma is described as that which has entity and bears its own attributes. It connotes Buddhism as the perfect religion; it also has the second place in the triratna 佛法僧, and in the sense of 法身 dharmakāya it

approaches the Western idea of 'spiritual'. It is also one of the six media of sensation, i. e. the thing or object in relation to mind, v. 六塵.

法主 Dharma-lord, Buddha.


法乳 The milk of the dharma which nourishes the spiritual nature.

法事 佛事 Religious affairs, e. g. assemblies and services; discipline and ritual.

法位 (1) Dharma-state, the bhūtatathatā. (2) The grade or position of a monk.

法住 Dharma abode, i. e. the omnipresent bhūtatathatā in all things. dharmasthititā, continuity of dharma.

法佛 idem 法身佛, or 法性佛.

法侶 A companion of the Dharma, a disciple.

法供養 dharmapūjā. Serving the Dharma, i. e. believing, explaining, keeping, obeying it, cultivating the spiritual nature, protecting and assisting Buddhism. Also, offerings of or to the Dharma.

法光定 samādhi of the light of Truth, that of the bodhisattva in the first stage.

法入 法處 The sense-data of direct mental perception, one of the 十二入 or 處.

法公 Signior of the Law, a courtesy title of any monk.

法典 The scriptures of Buddhism.

法利 The blessing, or benefits, of Buddhism.

法劍 The sword of Buddha-truth, able to cut off the functioning of illusion.

法力 The power of Buddha-truth to do away with calamity and subdue evil.

法化 Transformation by Buddha-truth; teaching in or by it.

法化生身 The nirmāṇakāya, or corporeal manifestation of the spiritual Buddha.

法匠 Dharma workman, a teacher able to mould his pupils.

法印 The seal of Buddha-truth, expressing its reality and immutability, also its universality and its authentic transmission from one Buddha or patriarch to another.

法句經 Dharmapāda, 曇鉢經 a work by Dharmatrāta, of which there are four Chinese translations, A. D. 224, 290-306, 399, 980-1001.

法名 A monk's name, given to him on ordination, a term chiefly used by the 眞 Shin sect, 戒名 being the usual term.

法同舍 A communal religious abode, i. e. a monastery or convent where religion and food are provided for spiritual and temporal needs.

法味 The taste or flavour of the dharma.

法命 The wisdom-life of the dharmakāya, intp. as 法身慧命. The age or lifetime of a monk.

法喜 Joy in the Law, the joy of hearing or tasting dharma. Name of Dharmanandi, v. 曇.

法喜食 The food of joy in the Law.

法號 The name received by a monk on ordination, i. e. his 戒名; also his posthumous title.

法器 Implements used in worship; one who obeys the Buddha; a vessel of the Law.

法四依 The four trusts of dharma: trust in the Law, not in men; trust in sūtras containing ultimate truth; trust in truth, not in words; trust in wisdom growing out of eternal truth and not in

illusory knowledge.

法城 Dharma as a citadel against the false; the secure nirvāṇa abode; the sūtras as the guardians of truth.

法域 The realm of dharma, nirvāṇa; also 法性土.

法堂 The chief temple, so called by the Chan (Zen) sect; amongst others it is 講堂 preaching hall.

法堅那羅王 Druma, king of the Kinnaras.


法場 Any place set aside for religious practices, or purposes; also 道場.

法執 Holding to things as realities, i. e the false tenet that things are real.

法報化三身 The trikāya: 法 dharmakāya, the absolute or spiritual body; 報 saṃbhogakāya, the body of bliss; 化 nirmāṇakāya, the body of incarnation. In Hīnayāna 法身 is described as the commandments, meditations,

wisdom, nirvāṇa, and nirvāṇa-enlightenment; 報身 is the reward-body of bliss; 化 or 應 (化) is the body in its various incarnations. In Mahāyāna, the three bodies are regarded as distinct, but also as aspects of

one body which pervades all beings. Cf. 三身.

法塵 A mental object, any direct mental perception, not dependent on the sense organs. Cf. 六塵.

法夏 Dharma summers, the years or age of a monk; v. 法臘.

法天 Dharmadeva, a monk from the Nālandāsaṃghārāma who tr. under this name forty-six works, 973-981, and under the name of Dharmabhadra seventy-two works, 982-1001.

法子 Child of the Dharma, one who makes his living by following Buddhism.

法宇 Dharma roof, or canopy, a monastery.

法定 One of the twelve names for the Dharma-nature, implying that it is the basis of all phenomena.

法家 Buddhism; cf. 法門.

法密 Dharmagupta, founder of the school of this name in Ceylon, one of the seven divisions of the Sarvāstivādaḥ.

法寶 Dharmaratna. (1) Dharma-treasure, i. e. the Law or Buddha-truth, the second personification in the triratna 三寶. (2) The personal articles of a monk or nun— robe, almsbowl, etc.

法寶藏 The storehouse of all law and truth, i. e. the sūtras.

法尼 A nun.

法山 Buddha-truth mountain, i. e. the exalted dharma.

法帝 Dharma emperor, i. e. the Buddha.

法師 A Buddhist teacher, master of the Law; five kinds are given— a custodian (of the sūtras), reader, intoner, expounder, and copier.

法幢 The standard of Buddha-truth as an emblem of power over the hosts of Māra.

法平等 dharmasamatā; the sameness of truth as taught by all Buddhas.

法度 Rules, or disciplines and methods.

法弟 A Buddhist disciple.

法律 Laws or rules (of the Order).

法忍Patience attained through dharma, to the overcoming of illusion; also ability to bear patiently external hardships.

法念處 The position of insight into the truth that nothing has reality in itself; v. 四念處.

法性 dharmatā. Dharma-nature, the nature underlying all thing, the bhūtatathatā, a Mahāyāna philosophical concept unknown in Hīnayāna, v. 眞如 and its various definitions in the 法相, 三論 (or法性), 華嚴, and 天台 Schools. It is

discussed both in its absolute and relative senses, or static and dynamic. In the Mahāparinirvāṇa sūtra and various śāstras the term has numerous alternative forms, which may be taken as definitions, i. e. 法定 inherent

dharma, or Buddha-nature; 法住 abiding dharma-nature; 法界 dharmakṣetra, realm of dharma; 法身 dharmakāya, embodiment of dharma; 實際 region of reality; 實相 reality; 空性 nature of the Void, i. e. immaterial

nature; 佛性 Buddha-nature; 無相 appearance of nothingness, or immateriality; 眞如 bhūtatathatā; 如來藏 tathāgatagarbha; 平等性 universal nature; 離生性 immortal nature; 無我性 impersonal nature; 虛定界: realm of abstraction; 不虛妄性

nature of no illusion; 不變異性 immutable nature; 不思議界 realm beyond thought; 自性淸淨心 mind of absolute purity, or unsulliedness, etc. Of these the terms 眞如, 法性, and 實際 are most used by the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.


法性土 The kṣetra or region of the dharma-nature, i. e. the bhūtatathatā, or 眞如, in its dynamic relations.

法性宗 The sects, e. g. 華嚴宗, 天台宗, 眞言宗 Huayan, Tiantai, Shingon, which hold that all things proceed from the bhūtatathatā, i. e. the dharmakāya, and that all phenomena are of the same essence as the noumenon.

法性山 The dharma-nature as a mountain, i. e. fixed, immovable.

法性常樂 The eternity and bliss of the dharma-nature, v. 常樂我淨.

法性水 The water of the dharma-nature, i. e. pure.

法性海 The ocean of the dharma-nature, vast, unfathomable, v. 法水.

法性眞如 Dharma-nature and bhūtatathatā, different terms but of the same meaning.

法性身 idem 法身.

法性隨妄 The dharma-nature in the sphere of delusion; i. e. 法性隨緣; 眞如隨緣 the dharma-nature, or bhūtatathatā, in its phenomenal character; the dharma-nature may be static or dynamic; when dynamic it may by

environment either become sullied, producing the world of illusion, or remain unsullied, resulting in nirvāṇa. Static, it is likened to a smooth sea; dynamic, to its waves.

法恩 Dharma-grace, i. e. the grace of the triratna.

法悅 Joy from hearing end meditating on the Law.

法慳 Meanness in offering Buddha-truth, avariciously holding on to it for oneself.

法愛 Religious love in contrast with 欲愛 ordinary love; Dharma-love may be Hīnayāna desire for nirvāṇa; or bodhisattva attachment to illusory things, both of which are to be eradicated; or Tathāgata-

love, which goes out to all beings for salvation.

法成就 siddhi 悉地 ceremony successful, a term of the esoteric sect when prayer is answered.

法我 A thing per se, i. e. the false notion of anything being a thing in itself, individual, independent, and not merely composed of elements to be disintegrated. 法我見 The false view as above, cf. 我見.

法教 Buddhism.

法數 The categories of Buddhism such as the three realms, five skandhas, five regions, four dogmas, six paths, twelve nidānas, etc.

法文 The literature of Buddhism.

法施 The almsgiving of the Buddha-truth, i. e. its preaching or explanation; also 法布施.

法明 Dharmaprabhāsa, brightness of the law, a Buddha who will appear in our universe in the Ratnāvabhāsa-kalpa in a realm called Suviśuddha 善淨, when there will be no sexual difference, birth taking place by


法明道 The wisdom of the pure heart which illumines the Way of all Buddhas.

法明門 The teaching which sheds light on everything, differentiating and explaining them.

法智 Dharma-wisdom, which enables one to understand the four dogmas 四諦; also, the understanding of the law, or of things.

法會 An assembly for worship or preaching.

法會社 A monastery.

法有 The false view of Hīnayāna that things, or the elements of which they are made, are real.

法有我無宗 The Sarvāstivādins who while: disclaiming the reality of personality claimed the reality of things.

法服 法衣 Dharma garment, the robe.

法本 The root or essence of all things, the bhūtatathatā.

法樂 Religious joy, in contrast with the joy of common desire; that of hearing the dharma, worshipping Buddha, laying up merit, making offerings, repeating sūtras, etc.

法樹 The dharma-tree which bears nirvāṇa-fruit.

法橋 The bridge of Buddha-truth, which is able to carry all across to nirvāṇa.

法殿 The temple, or hall, of the Law, the main hall of a monastery; also the Guanyin hall.

法比量 Inferring one thing from another, as from birth deducing death, etc.

法水 Buddha-truth likened to water able to wash away the stains of illusion; 法河 to a deep river; 法海 to a vast deep ocean.


法妙 Kashgar, "or (after the name of the capital) 疏勒. An ancient Buddhistic kingdom in Central Asia. The casia regis of the ancients." Eitel.

法波羅蜜 One of the four pāramitā bodhisattavas in the Diamond realm.

法滅 The extinction of the Law, or Buddhism, after the third of the three stages 正像末.

法炬 The torch of Buddhism.

法照 Dharma-shining; name of the fourth patriarch of the 蓮宗 Lotus sect.

法然 According to rule, naturally; also 法爾; 自然.

法燈 The lamp of dharma, which dispels the darkness of ignorance.

法無我 dharmanairātmya. Things are without independent individuality, i.e. the tenet that things have no independent reality, no reality in themselves. 法無我智 The knowledge or wisdom of the above.

法無礙 (法無礙解 or法無礙智) Wisdom or power of explanation in unembarrassed accord with the Law, or Buddha-truth.

法爾 idem 法然.

法將 Dharma-generals, i.e. monks of high character and leadership.

法王 Dharmarāja, King of the Law, Buddha.

法王子 Son of the Dharma-king, a bodhisattva.

法界 dharmadhātu, 法性; 實相; 達磨馱都 Dharma-element, -factor, or-realm. (1) A name for "things" in general, noumenal or phenomenal; for the physical universe, or any portion or phase of it. (2) The unifying underlying

spiritual reality regarded as the ground or cause of all things, the absolute from which all proceeds. It is one of the eighteen dhātus. These are categories of three, four, five, and ten dharmadhātus; the first three are

combinations of 事 and 理 or active and passive, dynamic and static; the ten are: Buddha-realm, Bodhisattva-realm, pratyekabuddha-realm, śrāvaka, deva, Human, asura, Demon, Animal, and Hades

realms-a Huayan category. Tiantai has ten for meditaton, i.e. the realms of the eighteen media of perception (the six organs, six objects, and six sense-data or sensations), of illusion,

sickness, karma, māra, samādhi, (false) views, pride, the two lower Vehicles, and the Bodhisattva Vehicle.

法界一相 The essential unity of the phenomenal realm.

法界佛 The dharmadhātu Buddha, i.e. the dharmakāya; the universal Buddha; the Buddha of a Buddha-realm.

法界加持 Mutual dependence and aid of all beings in a universe.

法界唯心 The universe is mind only; cf. Huayan Sutra, Laṅkāvatāra Sutra, etc.

法界圓融 The perfect intercommunion or blending of all things in the dharmadhātu; the 無礙 of Huayan and the 性具 of Tiantai.

法界定 In dharmadhātu meditation, a term for Vairocana in both maṇḍalas.

法界宮 The dharmadhātu-palace, i.e. the shrine of Vairocana in the garbhadhātu.

法界實相 dharmadhātu-reality, or dharmadhātu is Reality, different names but one idea, i.e. 實相 is used for 理 or noumenon by the 別教 and 法界 by the 圓教.

法界性 idem 法界 and 法性.

法界無礙智 法界佛邊智 The unimpeded or unlimited knowledge or omniscience of a Buddha in regard to all beings and things in his realm.

法界等流 The universal outflow of the spiritual body of the Buddha, i.e. his teaching.

法界緣起 The dharmadhātu as the environmental cause of all phenomena, everything being dependent on everything else, therefore one is in all and all in one.

法界藏 The treasury or storehouse or source of all phenomena, or truth.

法界身 The dharmakāya (manifesting itself in all beings); the dharmadhātu as the buddhakāya, all things being Buddha.

法界體性智 Intelligence as the fundamental nature of the universe; Vairocana as cosmic energy and wisdom interpenetrating all elements of the universe, a term used by the esoteric sects.

法相 The aspects of characteristics of things-all things are of monad nature but differ in form. A name of the 法相宗 Faxiang or Dharmalakṣaṇa sect (Jap. Hossō), called also 慈恩宗 Cien sect from the Tang temple, in which lived 窺基

Kuiji, known also as 慈恩. It "aims at discovering the ultimate entity of cosmic existence n contemplation, through investigation into the specific characteristics (the marks or criteria) of all existence, and through

the realization of the fundamental nature of the soul in mystic illumination". "An inexhaustible number" of "seeds" are "stored up in the Ālaya-soul; they manifest themselves in innumerable varieties of

existence, both physical and mental". "Though there are infinite varieties. . . they all participate in the prime nature of the ālaya." Anesaki. The Faxiang School is one of the "eight schools", and was established in

China on the return of Xuanzang, consequent on his translation of the Yogācārya works. Its aim is to understand the principle underlying the 萬法性相 or nature and characteristics of all things. Its foundation works are the 解深密經,

the 唯識論, and the 瑜伽論. It is one of the Mahāyāna realistic schools, opposed by the idealistic schools, e.g. the 三論 school; yet it was a "combination of realism and idealism, and its religion a profoundly mystic

one". Anesaki.


法相教 (大乘法相教) The third of the five periods of doctrinal development as distinguished by 圭峯 Guifeng.

法眼 The (bodhisattva) dharma-eye able to penetrate all things. Name of the founder of the法眼宗 Fayan sect, one of the five Chan (Zen) schools.

法眼淨 To see clearly or purely the truth: in Hīnayāna, to see the truth of the four dogmas; in Mahāyāna, to see the truth which releases from reincarnation.

法空 The emptiness or unreality of things, everything being dependent on something else and having no individual existence apart from other things; hence the illusory nature of all things as being composed of

elements and not possessing reality.

法空眞如 The bhūtatathatā as understood when the non-individuality or unreality of "things" is perceived.

法空觀 Meditative insight into the unreality of all things.

法緣 Dharma-caused, i.e. the sense of universal altruism giving rise to pity and mercy.

法縛 idem 法執.

法臘 The end of the monk's year after the summer retreat; a Buddhist year; the number of 夏 or 戒臘 summer or discipline years indicating the years since a monk's ordination.

法臣 Ministers of the Law, i.e. bodhisattvas; the Buddha is King of the Law, these are his ministers.

法自在 A bodhisattva's complete dialectical freedom and power, so that he can expound all things unimpeded.

法自相相違因 One of the four fallacies connected with the reason (因), in which the reason is contrary to the truth of the premiss.

法舟 法船 The barque of Buddha-truth which ferries men out from the sea of mortality and reincarnation to nirvana.

法芽 The sprout or bud of Buddhism.

法苑 The garden of Dharma, Buddhism.

法華 The Dharma-flower, i.e. the Lotus Sutra, the法華經 or 妙法蓮華經 q.v. Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sutra; also the法華宗 Lotus sect, i.e. that of Tiantai, which had this sutra for its basis. There are many treatises with

this as part of the title. 法華法, 法華會, 法華講 ceremonials, meetings, or explications connected with this sutra.

法華一實 The one perfect Vehicle of the Lotus gospel.

法華八年 The last eight years of the Buddha's life, when, according to Tiantai, from 72 to 80 years of age he preached the Lotus gospel.

法華三昧 The samādhi which sees into the three 諦 dogmas of 空假中 unreality, dependent reality and transcendence, or the noumenal, phenomenal, and the absolute which unites them; it is derived from the

"sixteen" samādhis in chapter 24 of the Lotus Sutra. There is a法華三昧經 independent of this samādhi.

法藏 Dharma-store; also 佛法藏; 如來藏 (1) The absolute, unitary storehouse of the universe, the primal source of all things. (2) The Treasury of Buddha's teaching the sutras, etc. (3) Any Buddhist library. (4)

Dharmākara, mine of the Law; one of the incarnations of Amitābha. (5) Title of the founder of the Huayan School 賢首法藏Xianshou Fazang.

法藥 The medicine of the Law, capable of healing all misery.

法蘊 The Buddha's detailed teaching, and in this respect similar to 法藏.

法蘭 Gobharana, 竺法蘭, companion of Mātaṅga, these two being the first Indian monks said to have come to China, in the middle of the first century A.D.

法螺 Conch of the Law, a symbol of the universality, power, or command of the Buddha's teaching. Cf. 商佉 śaṅkha.


法衆 The Buddhist monkhood; an assembly of monks or nuns.

法衣 The religious dress, general name of monastic garments.

法要 The essentials of the Truth; v. 法會.

法見 Maintaining one tenet and considering others wrong; narrow-minded, bigoted.

法語 Dharma-words, religious discourses.

法誓 A religious vow.

法譬 Similes or illustrations of the Dharma.

法財 The riches of the Law, or the Law as wealth.

法身 dharmakāya, embodiment of Truth and Law, the "spiritual" or true body; essential Buddhahood; the essence of being; the absolute, the norm of the universe; the first of the trikāya, v.三身. The dharmakāya is

divided into 總 unity and 別 diversity; as in the noumenal absolute and phenomenal activities, or potential and dynamic; but there are differences of interpretation, e.g. as between the 法相 and 法性 schools. Cf. 法身體性. There

are many categories of the dharmakāya. In the 2 group 二法身 are five kinds: (1) 理 "substance" and 智 wisdom or expression; (2) 法性法身 essential nature and 應化法身 manifestation; the other three couples are similar. In the 3 group 三法身

are (1) the manifested Buddha, i.e. Śākyamuni; (2) the power of his teaching, etc.; (3) the absolute or ultimate reality. There are other categories.

法身佛 The dharmakāya Buddha.

法身如來 The dharmakāyatathāgata, the Buddha who reveals the spiritual body.

法身塔 The pagoda where abides a spiritual relic of Buddha: the esoteric sect uses the letter पं as such an abode of the dharmakāya.

法身流轉 dharmakāya in its phenomenal character, conceived as becoming, as expressing itself in the stream of being.

法舍利 (法身舍利); 法身偈 The śarīra, or spiritual relics of the Buddha, his sutras, or verses, his doctrine and immutable law.

法身菩薩 法身大士 dharmakāyamahāsattva, one who has freed himself from illusion and attained the six spiritual powers 六神通; he is above the 初地, or, according to Tiantai, above the 初住.

法身藏 The storehouse of the dharmakāya, the essence of Buddhahood, by contemplating which the holy man attains to it.

法身觀 Meditation on, or insight into, the dharmakāya, varying in definition in the various schools.

法身體性 The embodiment, totality, or nature of the dharmakāya. In Hīnayāna the Buddha-nature in its 理 or absolute side is described as not discussed, being synonymous with the 五分 five divisions of the commandments,

meditation, wisdom, release, and doctrine, 戒, 定, 慧, 解脫, and 知見. In the Mahāyāna the 三論宗 defines the absolute or ultimate reality as the formless which contains all forms, the essence of being, the noumenon

of the other two manifestations of the triratna. The 法相宗 defines it as (a) the nature or essence of the whole triratna; (b) the particular form of the Dharma in that trinity. The One-Vehicle schools represented by the 華嚴

宗, 天台, etc., consider it to be the bhūtatathatā, 理 and 智 being one and undivided. The Shingon sect takes the six elements-earth, water, fire, air, space, mind-as the 理 or fundamental dharmakāya and the

sixth, mind, intelligence, or knowledge, as the 智 Wisdom dharmakāya.

法輪 dharmacakra, the Wheel of the Law, Buddha-truth which is able to crush all evil and all opposition, like Indra's wheel, and which rolls on from man to man, place to place, age to age. 轉法輪To turn, or roll

along the Law-wheel, i.e. to preach Buddha-truth.

法鈴 The dharma-bell; the pleasing sound of intoning the sutras.

法鏡 The Dharma mirror, reflecting the Buddha-wisdom.

法門 dharmaparyāya. The doctrines, or wisdom of Buddha regarded as the door to enlightenment. A method. Any sect. As the living have 84,000 delusions, so the Buddha provides 84,000 methods法門of dealing with them.

Hence the法門海 ocean of Buddha's methods.

法門身 A Tiantai definition of the dharmakāya of the Trinity, i.e. the qualities, powers, and methods of the Buddha. The various representations of the respective characteristics of buddhas and bodhisattvas in the


法陀羅尼 One of the four kinds of dhāraṇī: holding firmly to the truth one has heard, also called 聞法陀羅.

法阿育 Dharmāśoka; name given to Aśoka on his conversion; cf. 阿育.


法集 idem 佛會.

法雨 The rain of Buddha-truth which fertilizes all beings.

法雲 dharmamegha. Buddhism as a fertilizing cloud.

法雲地 The tenth bodhisattva stage, when the dharma-clouds everywhere drop their sweet dew.

法雲等覺 The stage after the last, that of universal knowledge, or enlightenment.

法雷 The thunder of dharma, awakening man from stupor and stimulating the growth of virtue, the awful voice of Buddha-truth. 法電 The lightning of the Truth.

法非法 dharmādharma; real and unreal; thing and nothing; being and non-being, etc.

法音 The sound of the Truth, or of preaching.

法顯 Faxian, the famous pilgrim who with fellow-monks left Chang'an A.D. 399 overland for India, finally reached it, remained alone for six years, and spent three years on the return journey, arriving by sea in 414. His 佛國

記 Records of the Buddhistic Kingdoms were made, for his information, by Buddhabhadra, an Indian monk in China. His own chief translation is the 僧祗律, a work on monastic discipline.

法食 dharmāhāra. Diet in harmony with the rules of Buddhism; truth as food. 法食時 The regulation time for meals, at or before noon, and not after.

法體 Embodiment of the Law, or of things. (1) Elements into which the Buddhists divided the universe; the Abhidharmakośa has 75, the 成實論 Satyasiddhi Sāstra 84, the Yogācārya 100. (2) A monk.

法魔 Bemused by things; the illusion that things are real and not merely seeming.

法鼓 The drum of the Law, stirring all to advance in virtue.

法齋日 The day of abstinence observed at the end of each half month, also the six abstinence days, in all making the eight days for keeping the eight commandments.

炙 Broil, burn, roast, dry; intimate.

炙茄會 A Chan (Zen) School winter festival at which roasted lily roots were eaten.

炎 Blazing, burning.

炎熱地獄 Tapana, the hell of burning or roasting, the sixth of the eight hot hells, where 24 hours equal 2,600 years on earth, life lasting 16,000 years.

炎經 A name for the Nirvana Sutra, referring to the Buddha's cremation; also to its glorious teaching.

炎點 Nirvana, which burns up metempsychosis.

牧 To herd, pastor.

牧牛 Cowherd.

物 Thing, things in general, beings, living beings, matters; "substance," cf. 陀羅驃 dravya.

物施 One of the three kinds of almsgiving, that of things.

物機 That on which anything depends, or turns; the motive or vital principle.

狐 A fox; seems to be used also for a jackal.

狗 A dog.

狗心 A dog's heart, satisfied with trifles, unreceptive of Buddha's teaching.

狗戒 Dog-rule, dog-morals, i.e. heretics who sought salvation by living like dogs, eating garbage, etc.

狗法 Dog-law, fighting and hating, characteristics of the monks in the last days of the world.

狗臨井吠 Like the dog barking at its own reflection in the well.

狗著獅子皮 The dog in the lion's skin-all the dogs fear him till he barks.

盂蘭盆 (盂蘭); 鳥藍婆 (鳥藍婆拏) ullambana 盂蘭 may be another form of lambana or avalamba, "hanging down," "depending," "support"; it is intp. "to hang upside down", or "to be in suspense", referring to extreme suffering in purgatory;

but there is a suggestion of the dependence of the dead on the living. By some 盆 is regarded as a Chinese word, not part of the transliteration, meaning a vessel filled with offerings of food. The term is applied to

the festival of All Souls, held about the 15th of the 7th moon, when masses are read by Buddhist and Taoist priests and elaborate offerings made to the Buddhist Trinity for the purpose of releasing from

purgatory the souls of those who have died on land or sea. The Ullambanapātra Sutra is attributed to Śākyamuni, of course incorrectly; it was first tr. into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, A.D. 266-313 or 317; the first

masses are not reported until the time of Liang Wudi, A.D. 538; and were popularized by Amogha (A.D. 732) under the influence of the Yogācārya School. They are generally observed in China, but are unknown to [[Southern

Buddhism]]. The "idea of intercession on the part of the priesthood for the benefit of" souls in hell "is utterly antagonistic to the explicit teaching of primitive Buddhism'" The origin of the custom is unknown, but it is

foisted on to Śākyamuni, whose disciple Maudgalyāyana is represented as having been to purgatory to relieve his mother's sufferings. Śākyamuni told him that only the united efforts of the whole priesthood 十方衆會 could

alleviate the pains of the suffering. The mere suggestion of an All Souls Day with a great national day for the monks is sufficient to account for the spread of the festival. Eitel says: "Engrafted upon the [[Wikipedia:


narrative]] ancestral worship, this ceremonial for feeding the ghost of deceased ancestors of seven generations obtained immense popularity and is now practised by everybody in China, by Taoists even and by Confucianists." All

kinds of food offerings are made and paper garments, etc., burnt. The occasion, 7th moon, 15th day, is known as the盂蘭會 (or 盂蘭盆會 or 盂蘭齋 or 盂蘭盆齋) and the sutra as 盂蘭經 (or 盂蘭盆經).


盲 Blind.

盲冥 Blind and in darkness, ignorant of the truth.

盲跛 Blind and lame, an ignorant teacher.

盲龍 The blind dragon who appealed to the Buddha and was told that his blindness was due to his having been formerly a sinning monk.

盲龜 It is as easy for a blind turtle to find a floating long as it is for a man to be reborn as a man, or to meet with a buddha and his teaching.

直 Straight, upright, direct; to arrange.

直傳 Direct information or transmission (by word of mouth).

直堂 The servant who attends in the hall; an announcer.

直心 Straightforward, sincere, blunt.

直掇 直裰 A monk's garment, upper and lower in one.

直歳 A straight year, a year's (plans, or duties).

直說 Straight, or direct, speech; the sutras.

直道 The direct way (to nirvana and Buddha-land).

知 To know. Sanskrit root vid, hence vidyā, knowledge; the Vedas, etc. 知 vijñā is to know, 智 is vijñāna, wisdom arising from perception or knowing.

知一切法智 The Buddha-wisdom of knowing every thing or method (of salvation).

知一切衆生智 The Buddha-wisdom which knows (the karma of) all beings.

知世間 lokavid. He who knows the world, one of the ten characteristics of a Buddha.

知事 To know affairs. The karmadāna, or director of affairs in a monastery, next below the abbot.

知客 The director of guests, i.e. the host.

知寮 Warden of the monasterial abodes.

知庫 The bursar (of a monastery).

知根 The organs of perception. To know the roots, or capacities (of all beings, as does a bodhisattva; hence he has no fears).

知殿 The warden of a temple.

知法 To know the Buddha-law, or the rules; to know things; in the exoteric sects, to know the deep meaning of the sutras; in the esoteric sects, to know the mysteries.

知無邊諸佛智 To have the infinite Buddha-wisdom (of knowing all the Buddha-worlds and how to save the beings in them).

知禮 Knowing the right modes of respect, or ceremonial; courteous, reverential; Zhili, name of the famous tenth-century monk of the Song dynasty, Siming 四明, so called after the name of his monastery, a follower of the

Tiantai school, sought out by a Japanese deputation in 1017.

知者 The knower, the cognizer, the person within who perceives.

知苦斷集 To know (the dogma of) suffering and be able to cut off its accumulation; cf. 四諦.

知見 To know, to know by seeing, becoming aware, intellection; the function of knowing; views, doctrines.

知見波羅蜜 The prajñāpāramitā, v. 般若.

知論 A name for the prajñāpāramitā, v. 般若.

知識 (1) To know and perceive, perception, knowledge. (2) A friend, an intimate. (3) The false ideas produced in the mind by common, or unenlightened knowledge; one of the 五識 in 起信論.

知識衆 A body of friends, all you friends.


知足 Complete knowledge; satisfaction.

知足天 (知足) Tuṣita, the fourth devaloka, Maitreya's heaven of full knowledge, where all bodhisattvas are reborn before rebirth as buddhas; the inner court is知足院.

知道者 The one who knows the path to salvation, an epithet of the Buddha.

Gods of the land; a village, clan, society.

社伽 jagat, all the living.

社得迦 jātaka, previous births or incarnations (especially of buddhas or bodhisattvas).

社得迦摩羅 Jātakamālā, a garland of incarnation stories in verse.

秉 To lay hold of, grasp.

秉拂 To hold the fly-brush, or whisk, the head of an assembly, the five heads of a monastery have this privilege.

秉持 To hold firmly (to the discipline, or rules).

秉炬 To carry the torch (for cremation).

空 śūnya, empty, void, hollow, vacant, nonexistent. śūnyatā, 舜若多, vacuity, voidness, emptiness, non-existence, immateriality, perhaps spirituality, unreality, the false or illusory nature of all existence, the

seeming 假 being unreal. The doctrine that all phenomena and the ego have no reality, but are composed of a certain number of skandhas or elements, which disintegrate. The void, the sky, space. The

universal, the absolute, complete abstraction without relativity. There are classifications into 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 16, and 18 categories. The doctrine is that all things are compounds, or unstable organisms, possessing

no self-essence, i.e. are dependent, or caused, come into existence only to perish. The underlying reality, the principle of eternal relativity, or non-infinity, i.e. śūnya, permeates all phenomena making

possible their evolution. From this doctrine the Yogācārya school developed the idea of the permanent reality, which is Essence of Mind, the unknowable noumenon behind all phenomena, the entity void of ideas and

phenomena, neither matter nor mind, but the root of both.

空一切處 Universal emptiness, or space; the samādhi which removes all limitations of space; also 空徧處.

空三昧 The samādhi which regards the ego and things as unreal; one of the 三三昧.

空假中 Unreality, reality, and the middle or mean doctrine; noumenon, phenomenon, and the principle or absolute which unifies both. 空Unreality, that things do not exist in reality; 假 reality, that things

exist though in "derived" or "borrowed" form, consisting of elements which are permanent; 中 the "middle" doctrine of the Madhyamaka School, which denies both positions in the interests of the transcendental, or

absolute. 空以破一切法, 假以立一切法, 中以妙一切法 other 卽 空卽假卽中. śūnya (universality) annihilates all relativities, particularity establishes all relativities, the middle path transcends and unites all relativities. Tiantai asserts that

there is no contradiction in them and calls them a unity, the one including the other 即空即假即中.

空劫 The empty kalpa, v. 劫.

空卽是色 The immaterial is the material, śūnya is rūpa, and vice versa, 色不異空.

空執 v. 空有二執.

空塵 śūnya as sub-material, ghostly, or spiritual, as having diaphanous form, a non-Buddhist view of the immaterial as an entity, hence the false view of a soul or ego that is real.

空大 Space, one of the five elements (earth, water, fire, wind, space); v. 五大.

空如來藏 The bhūtatathatā in its purity, or absoluteness.

空始教 The initial teaching of the undeveloped Mahāyāna doctrines is the second of the five periods of Śākyamuni's teaching as defined by the Huayan School. This consists of two parts: 空始教 the initial doctrine of śūnya, the

texts for which are the 般若, 三論, etc.; and 相始教, the initial doctrine of the essential nature as held by the esoterics; intp. in the 深密 and 瑜伽 texts.

空定 The meditation which dwells on the Void or the Immaterial; it is divided into 内道, i.e. the 三三昧, and 外道, the latter limited to the four dhyānas 四空定 q.v., except the illusion that things have a reality in themselves, as

individuals 法我 q.v.

空宗 The śūnya sects, i.e. those which make the unreality of the ego and things their fundamental tenet.


空寂 Immaterial; a condition beyond disturbance, the condition of nirvana.

空居天 devas dwelling in space, or the heavenly regions, i.e. the devalokas and rūpalokas.

空徧處 idem 空一切處.

空心 An empty mind, or heart; a mind meditating on the void, or infinite; a mind not entangled in cause and effect, i.e. detached from the phenomenal.

空忍 Patience attained by regarding suffering as unreal; one of the 十忍.

空性 śūnyata, v. 空, the nature of the Void, or immaterial, the bhūtatathatā, the universal substance, which is not 我法 ego and things, but while not Void is of the Void-nature.

空想 Thinking of immateriality. Also, vainly thinking, or desiring.

空慧 The wisdom which beholds spiritual truth.

空拳 riktamuṣṭi; empty fist, i.e. deceiving a child by pretending to have something for it in the closed hand; not the Buddha's method.

空教 The teaching that all is unreal. The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa School divided Buddha's teaching into three periods: (1) the Hīnayāna period, teaching that 法有 things are real; (2) the 般若 prajñā period, that 法 空things are unreal; (3) the

Huayan and Lotus period of the middle or transcendental doctrine 中道教.

空有 Unreal and real, non-existent and existent, abstract and concrete, negative and positive.

空有二執 (or 空有二見). The two (false) tenets, or views, that karma and nirvana are not real, and that the ego and phenomena are real; these wrong views are overcome by the 空有二觀 meditating on the unreality of the

ego and phenomena, and the reality of karma and nirvana.

空有二宗 The two schools 空and 有 in Hīnayāna are given as 倶舍 Kośa for 有 in 成實 Satyasiddhi for 空, in Mahāyāna 法相 for 有 and 三論 for 空.

空果 Empty fruit; also fruit of freedom from the illusion that things and the ego are real.

空法 (1) To regard everything as unreal, i.e. the ego, things, the dynamic, the static. (2) The nirvana of Hīnayāna.

空海 Like sky and sea: like space and the ocean for magnitude.

空無 Unreality, or immateriality, of things, which is defined as nothing existing of independent or self-contained nature.

空無我 Unreal and without ego. 空無邊處. v. 空處.

空王 The king of immateriality, or spirituality, Buddha, who is lord of all things.

空王佛 Dharmagahanābhyudgata-rāja. A Buddha who is said to have taught absolute intelligence, or knowledge of the absolute, cf. Lotus Sutra 9.

空理 The śūnya principle, or law, i.e. the unreality of the ego and phenomena.

空生 The one who expounded vacuity or immateriality, i.e. Subhūti, one of the ten great pupils of the Buddha.

空界 The realm of space, one of the six realms, earth, water, fire, wind, space, knowledge. The空界色 is the visible realm of space, the sky, beyond which is real space.

空相 Voidness, emptiness, space, the immaterial, that which cannot be expressed in terms of the material. The characteristic of all things is unreality, i.e. they are composed of elements which disintegrate. v. 空.

空空 Unreality of unreality. When all has been regarded as illusion, or unreal, the abstract idea of unreality itself must be destroyed.

空空寂寂 Void and silent, i.e. everything in the universe, with form or without form, is unreal and not to be considered as real.

空經 The sutras of unreality or immateriality, e.g. the Prajñāpāramitā.

空聖 A saint who bears the name without possessing the character.

空聚 (1) An empty abode or place. (2) The body as composed of the six skandhas, which is a temporary assemblage without underlying reality.


空色 Formless and with form; noumena and phenomena.

空華 空花 khapuṣpa, flowers in the sky, spots before the eyes, Muscœ volitantes; illusion. The Indian Hīnayānists style Mahāyānists空華外道 śūnyapuṣpa, sky-flower heretics, or followers of illusion.

空處 空無邊處 Ākāśānantyāyatana; the abode of infinite space, the formless, or immaterial world 無色界 the first of the arūpaloka heavens, one of the four brahmalokas.

空處定 (or 空無邊處定) The dhyāna, or meditation connected with the above, in which all thought of form is suppressed.

空行 The discipline or practice of the immaterial, or infinite, thus overcoming the illusion that the ego and all phenomena are realities.

空見 The heterodox view that karma and nirvana are not real, v. 空有.

空觀 v. 空有二觀.

空解 The interpretation (or doctrine) of ultimate reality.

空解脫門 The gate of salvation or deliverance by the realization of the immaterial, i.e. that the ego and things are formed of elements and have no reality in themselves; one of the three deliverances.

空諦 The doctrine of immateriality, one of the three dogmas of Tiantai, that all things animate and inanimate, seeing that they result from previous causes and are without reality in themselves, are

therefore 空or not material, but "spiritual".

空輪 The wheel of space below the water and wind wheels of a world. The element space is called the wheel of space.

空門 (1) The teaching which regards everything as unreal, or immaterial. (2) The school of unreality, one of the four divisions made by Tiantai (3) The teaching of immateriality, the door to nirvana, a general name for

Buddhism; hence空門子 are Buddhist monks.

空閑處 A tr. of 阿蘭若 araṇya, i.e. "forest". A retired place, 300 to 600 steps away from human habitation, suitable for the religious practices of monks.

空際 The region of immateriality, or nirvana. Also called 實際, the region of reality.

空魔 The demons who arouse in the heart the false belief that karma is not real.

空鳥 The bird that cries 空空, the cuckoo, i.e. one who, while not knowing the wonderful law of true immateriality (or spirituality), yet prates about it.

空點 The dot over the ṃ or ṅ in Sanskrit, symbolizing that all things are empty or unreal; used by the Shingon sect with various meanings.

Indian. 竺土; 天竺; 竺India.

竺經 Indian, i.e. Buddhist, sutras. Several Indians are known by this term.

竺曇摩羅察 竺法護 Dharmarakṣa, or Indu-dharmarakṣa, a native of Tukhāra, who knew thirty-six languages and tr. (A.D. 266-317) some 175 works.

竺法蘭 Dharmarakṣa, or Indu-dharmāraṇya, to whom with Kāśyapa Mātaṅga the translation of the sutra of 42 sections is wrongly attributed; he tr. five works in A.D. 68-70.

竺法力 Dharmabala, translator A.D. 419 of the larger Sukhāvatī-vyūha, now lost.

竺葉摩騰 Kāśyapa Mātaṅga, v. 迦葉摩騰.

竺刹尸羅 Taksaśīla, v. 呾叉始羅.

肥 Fat.

肥者耶? Vajradhātrī, the wife or female energy of Vairocana.

肥膩 A grass or herb said to enrich the milk of cattle.

肩 Shoulder.

肩次 肩下; 下肩 shoulder by shoulder, one next to another.

育 To rear, nurture.

育坻 育抵 yukti, yoking, joining, combination, plan.

育坻華 yuktā, a kind of celestial flower.

育多婆提? yukta-bodhi, steps in Yoga wisdom.

卧 śayana, lying down, sleeping.

卧具 A couch, bed, mat, bedding, sleeping garments, etc.

卧佛寺 A shrine of the "sleeping Buddha", i.e. of the dying Buddha.

舍 A shelter, cottage; used as a term of humility for "my"; to lodge; let go, relinquish.

舍利 (1) śārī, śārikā; a bird able to talk, intp. variously, but, M. W. says the mynah. Śārikā was the name of Śāriputra's mother, because her eyes were bright and clever like those of a mynah; there are other interpretation (2)

śarīra(m). 設利羅 (or 室利羅); 實利; 攝 M004215 藍 Relics or ashes left after the cremation of a buddha or saint; placed in stupas and worhipped. The white represent bones; the black, hair; and the red, flesh. Also called

dhātu-śarīra or dharma-śarīra. The body, a dead body. The body looked upon as dead by reason of obedience to the discipline, meditation, and wisdom. The Lotus Sutra and other sutras are

counted as relics, Śākyamuni's relics are said to have amounted to 八斛四斗 84 pecks, for which Aśoka is reputed to have built in one day 84,000 stupas; but other figures are also given. śarīra is also intp. by grains of rice,

etc., and by rice as food.


舍利塔 śarīra-stūpa, a reliquary, or pagoda for a relic (of Buddha).

舍利婆婆 sarṣapa, a mustard seed, 芥子 q.v., the 10,816,000th part of a yojana 由旬 q.v.

舍利弗 奢利弗羅 (or 奢利弗多羅 or 奢利富羅or 奢利富多羅); 奢利補担羅; 舍利子Śāriputra. One of the principal disciples of Śākyamuni, born at Nālandāgrāṃa, the son of Śārikā and Tiṣya, hence known as Upatiṣya; noted for his wisdom and learning;

he is the "right-hand attendant on Śākyamuni". The followers of the Abhidharma count him as their founder and other works are attributed, without evidence, to him. He figures prominently in certain sutras. He is said to have

died before his master; he is represented as standing with Maudgalyāyana by the Buddha when entering nirvana. He is to reappear as Padmaprabha Buddha 華光佛.

舍囉摩拏 śramaṇa. 室拏; 沙迦滿囊; 沙門; 桑門; v. 沙門.

舍多提婆魔 M077447 舍諵 śāstādevamanuṣyāṇām, intp. as 天人師 teacher of gods and men, one of the ten titles of a buddha.

舍多毘沙 Śatabhiṣā, a constellation identified with 危 in Aquarius.

舍夷 ? Śākya, one of the five surnames of the Buddha.

舍婆提 v. 舍衞.

舍摩 śama, calm, quiet, a name for the bodhi tree. For舍摩陀 v. 奢.

舍支 śaśa, 設施 a hare; śaśī, or śaśin, the moon; śakti, energy. (1) The hare (which threw itself into the fire to save starving people), transferred by Indra to the centre of the moon. (2) śakti is the wife or female

energy of a deity, cf. 舍脂. (3) The female organ.

舍樓伽 śāluka, esculent lotus roots; intp. as a kind of cooked liquid food.

舍磨奢那 śmaśāna, a cemetery or crematorium; a low mound of stone under which the remains of monks are buried in countries west of China. Also 奢舍磨奢.

舍羅 śārikā, śārī, v.舍利. śālakā, bamboo or wooden tallies used in numbering monks.

舍羅婆迦 śrāvaka; a hearer, disciple, 聲聞 q. v. (1) He who has heard ( the voice of Buddha). All the personal disciples of Śākyamuni, the chief disciples being called mahāśrāvaka. (2) The lowest degree of

saintship, the others being pratyekabuddha, bodhisattva, buddha.

舍脂 śācī, 舍支; 設施 power of speech and action. Name of Indra's chief consort. Indra is known as舍脂鉢低 Śacīpati.

舍舍迦 śaśaka, a hare, rabbit, v. 舍支.

舍衞 Śrāvastī, 舍婆提; 室羅伐 (室羅伐悉底); 尸羅跋提; 捨羅婆悉帝耶; intp as 聞物 the city of famous things, or men, or the famous city; it was a city and ancient kingdom 500 li northwest of Kapilavastu, now Rapetmapet south of Rapti River (M. W.

says Sāhet-Māhet). It is said to have been in 北憍薩羅 norhern Kośala, distinct from the southern kingdom of that name. It was a favourite resort of Śākyamuni, the 祗園 Jetavana being there.

舍那身 The body or person of Vairocana; 舍那尊特 is defined as Locana; the 舍那 in both cases seems to be "cana", an abbreviation of Vairocana, or Locana.

舍勒 śāṭaka, 舍吒迦; 舍那 (or 奢那) An inner garment, a skirt.

舍頭諫 Śārdūla-karṇa. The original name of Ānanda, intp. 虎耳 tiger's ears.

芝 A felicitous plant; sesamum.

芝苑 Name for 元照 Yuanzhao of 靈芝 Lingzhi monastery, Hangzhou.


芬 Fragrant; confused; translit. puṇ in芬陀利 (or芬陁利) puṇḍarīka. The white lotus, v. 分陀利.

花 華 puṣpa, a flower, flowers; especially the lotus, and celestial flowers. 花座 The lotus throne on which buddhas and bodhisattvas sit.

花筥 花籠; 花皿 Flower baskets for scattering lotus flowers, or leaves and flowers in general.

芥子 sarṣapa, 薩利刹跛; 舍利沙婆 Mustard seed. (1) A measure of length, 10,816,000th part of a yojana, v. 由旬. (2) A weight, the 32nd part of a 賴提 or 草子 raktikā, 2 3/16 grains. (3) A trifle. (4) On account of its hardness and bitter

taste it is used as a symbol for overcoming illusions and demons by the esoteric sects. (5) The appearance of a buddha is as rare as the hitting of a needle's point with a mustard seed thrown from afar.

芥子劫 A mustard-seed kalpa, i.e. as long as the time it would take to empty a city 100 yojanas square, by extracting a seed once every century.

芥石 Mustard-seed kalpa and rock kalpa, the former as above, the latter the time required to rub away a rock 40 li square by passing a soft cloth over it once every century.

虎 vyāghra, 弭也竭羅 a tiger.

虎丘山 Huqiu Shan, a monastery at Suzhou, which gave rise to a branch of the Chan (Zen) school, founded by 紹隆 Shaolong.

虎虎婆 Hahava, the fifth hell. For 虎耳 v. 舍頭.

表 Indicate, manifest, express, expose; external.

表刹 The flagpole on a pagoda.

表德 To manifest virtue, in contrast with 遮情 to repress the passions; the positive in deed and thought, as expounded by the 華嚴宗 Huayan school.

表無表戒 The expressed and unexpressed moral law, the letter and the spirit.

表白 To explain, expound, clear up.

表示 To indicate, explain.

表色 Active expression, as walking, sitting, taking, refusing, bending, stretching, etc.; one of the three 色 forms, the other two being 顯 the colours, red, blue, etc., and 形 shape, long, short, etc.

表銓 Positive or open exposition, contrasted with 遮銓 negative or hidden exposition; a term of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school.

迎 Go to meet, receive, welcome.

迎接 To receive, or be received, e.g. by Amitābha into Paradise.

近 Near, near to, approach, intimate, close.

近事 Those who attend on and serve the triratna, the近事男 upāsaka, male servant or disciple, and近事女 upāsikā, female servant or disciple, i.e. laymen or women who undertake to obey the five commandments. 近住 Laymen or

women who remain at home and observe the eight commandments, i.e. the近事律儀.

近圓 Nearing perfection, i.e. the ten commands, which are "near to" nirvana.

近童 A devotee, or disciple, idem upāsaka.

邲輸跋陀 Viśvabhadra, name of 普顯 Puxian, Samanatabhadra.

金 hiraṇya, 伊爛拏 which means cold, any precious metal, semen, etc.; or 蘇伐刺 suvarṇa, which means "of a good or beautiful colour", "golden", "yellow", "gold", "a gold coin", etc. The Chinese means metal, gold, money.

金人 Buddha; an image of Buddha of metal or gold, also 金佛.

金仙 Golden ṛṣi, or immortal, i.e. Buddha; also Taoist genī.

金光 (金光明) Golden light, an intp. of suvarṇa, prabhāsa, or uttama. It is variously applied, e. g. 金光明女 Wife of 金天童子; 金光明鼓 Golden-light drum. 金光明經 Golden-light Sutra, tr. in the sixth century and twice later, used by

the founder of Tiantai; it is given in its fullest form in the 金光明最勝王經 Suvarṇa-prabhāsa-uttamarāja Sutra.

金光佛刹 The lowest of the Buddha-kṣetra, or lands.

金刹 A "golden" pagoda; the nine "golden" circles on top of a pagoda.

金剛 vajra, 伐闍羅; 跋折羅 (or跋闍羅); 縛曰羅(or 縛日羅) The thunderbolt of Indra, often called the diamond club; but recent research considers it a sun symbol. The diamond, synonym of hardness, indestructibility, power,

the least frangible of minerals. It is one of the saptaratna 七寶.

金剛杵 The vajra, or thunderbolt; it is generally shaped as such, but has various other forms. Any one of the beings represented with the vajra is a 金剛. The vajra is also intp. as a weapon of Indian soldiers. It is

employed by the esoteric sects, and others, as a symbol of wisdom and power over illusion and evil spirits. When straight as a sceptre it is 獨股 one limbed, when three-pronged it is 三股, and so on with five and

nine limbs.

金剛不壞 (金剛不壞身) The diamond indestructible (body), the Buddha.


金剛乘 vajrayāna. The diamond vehicle, another name of the 眞言 Shingon.

金剛夜叉 (or 金剛藥叉) Vajrayakṣa. One of the five 大明王, fierce guardian of the north in the region of Amoghasiddhi, or Śākyamuni, also styled the bodhisattva with the fangs.

金剛佛 vajra-buddha. Vairocana, or 大日 the Sun-buddha; sometimes applied to Śākyamuni as embodiment of the Truth, of Wisdom, and of Purity.

金剛佛子 A son of the vajra-buddha, i.e. of Vairocana, a term applied to those newly baptized into the esoteric sect.

金剛刹 vajrakṣetra, a vajra or Buddhist monastery or building.

金剛力 vajra-power, irresistible strength; 金剛力 (or 金剛力士) is the 金剛神 q.v.

金剛口 Diamond mouth, that of a buddha.

金剛天 The vajradevas twenty in number in the vajradhātu group.

金剛子 rudrākṣa, a seed similar to a peach-stone used for beads, especially in invoking one of the 金剛. Also a vajra son.

金剛定 vajrasamādhi, 金剛喩定; 金剛三昧; 金剛滅定 diamond meditation, that of the last stage of the bodhisattva, characterized by firm, indestructible knowledge, penetrating all reality; attained after all remains of illusion

have been cut off.

金剛密迹 The deva-guardians of the secrets of Vairocana, his inner or personal group of guardians in contrast with the outer or major group of Puxian, Mañjuśrī, etc. Similarly, Śāriputra, the śrāvakas, etc., are the 'inner'

guardians of Śākyamuni, the bodhisattvas being the major group. Idem 金剛手; 金剛力士; 密迹力士, etc.

金剛寶戒 The Mahāyāna rules according to the 梵網 Sutra.

金剛寶藏 The 'Diamond' treasury i.e. nirvana and the pure bodhi-mind, as the source of the mind of all sentient beings, v. Nirvana Sutra.

金剛山 (or 金剛圍山 or金剛輪山) The concentric iron mountains about the world; also Sumeru; also the name of a fabulous mountain. Cf. 金山.

金剛幡 vajraketu. A flag, hung to a pole with a dragon's head.

金剛幡菩薩 Vajraketu Bodhisattva, the flag-bearer, one of the sixteen in the vajradhātu group.

金剛座 (or金剛座床) vajrāsana, or bodhimaṇḍa, Buddha's seat on attaining enlightenment, the 'diamond' throne. Also a posture or manner of sitting. M.W.

金剛心 Diamond heart, that of the bodhisattva, i.e. infrangible, unmoved by 'illusion'.

金剛心殿 The vajradhātu (maṇḍala), in which Vairocana dwells, also called 不壞金剛光明心殿 the shrine of the indestructible diamond-brilliant heart.

金剛念誦 Silent repetition; also 金剛語言.

金剛慧 Diamond wisdom, which by its reality overcomes all illusory knowledge.

金剛手 vajrapāṇi, a holder of the vajra, a protector, any image with this symbol; 金剛部 Groups of the same in the 金 and 胎 maṇḍalas.

金剛手菩薩 (or 金剛手薩埵) Vajrapāṇi Bodhisattva, especially Puxian 普賢 Samantabhadra.

金剛拳 vajra-fist, the hands doubled together on the breast.

金剛拳菩薩 One of the bodhisattvas in the Diamond group.

金剛智 vajramati. The indestructible and enriching diamond wisdom of the Buddha. Also the name of an Indian who came to China A.D. 619; he is said to have introduced the Yogācāra system and founded the esoteric school,

but this is attributed to Amoghavajra, v. 大教. 金剛智三藏 Vajrabodhi may be the same person, but there is doubt about the matter, cf. 大教.

金剛曼荼羅 v. 金剛界.

金剛杵 (or 金剛杖) v. 金剛.

金剛水 Diamond or vajra water, drunk by a prince on investiture, or by a person who receives the esoteric baptismal rite; also 誓水.


金剛法界宮 The palace or shrine of Vairocana in the Garbhadhātu.

金剛炎 Diamond-blaze, a circle of fire to forbid the entry of evil spirits, also called 金炎; 火院 (or 火院界印 or火院密縫印).

金剛王 The vajra-king, i.e. the strongest, or finest, e.g. a powerful bull.

金剛王寶覺 The diamond royal-gem enlightenment, i.e. that of the Buddha.

金剛王菩薩 One of the sixteen bodhisattvas in the Diamond-realm, one of Akṣobhya's retinue; also known as 金剛鉤王 the vajra hook king.

金剛界 vajradhātu, 金界 The 'diamond', or vajra, element of the universe; it is the 智 wisdom of Vairocana in its indestructibility and activity; it arises from the garbhadhātu 胎藏界q.v., the womb or store of the

Vairocanareason or principles of such wisdom, v. 理智. The two, garbhadhātu and vajradhātu, are shown by the esoteric school, especially in the Japanese Shingon, in two maṇḍalas, i.e. groups or circles,

representing in various portrayals the ideas arising from the two, fundamental concepts. vajradhātu is intp. as the 智 realm of intellection, and garbhadhātu as the 理 substance underlying it, or the matrix; the latter is the womb

or fundamental reason of all things, and occupies the eastern position as 'cause' of the vajradhātu, which is on the west as the resultant intellectual or spiritual expression. But both are one as are Reason and

Wisdom, and Vairocana (the illuminator, the 大日 great sun) presides over both, as source and supply. The vajradhātu represents the spiritual world of complete enlightenment, the esoteric dharmakāya

doctrine as contrasted with the exoteric nirmāṇakāya doctrine. It is the sixth element 識 mind, and is symbolized by a triangle with the point downwards and by the full moon, which represents 智 wisdom or

understanding; it corresponds to 果 fruit, or effect, garbhadhātu being 因 or cause. The 金剛王五部 or five divisions of the vajradhātu are represented by the Five dhyāni-buddhas, thus: centre 大日Vairocana; east 阿閦 Akṣobhya;

south 寶生Ratnasambhava; west 阿彌陀 Amitābha; north 不 空 成就 Amoghasiddhi, or Śākyamuni. They are seated respectively on a lion, an elephant, a horse, a peacock, and a garuda. v. 五佛; also 胎.

金剛神 The guardian spirits of the Buddhist order; the large idols at the entrance of Buddhist monasteries; also 金剛手; 金剛力士.

金剛童子 vajrakumāra, 金剛使者 a vajra-messenger of the buddhas or bodhisattvas; also an incarnation of Amitābha in the form of a youth with fierce looks holding a vajra.

金剛索 vajrapāśa, the diamond lasso, or noose; in the hand of 不動明王 and others.

金剛菩薩 Vajrapāśa Bodhisattva in the vajradhātumaṇḍala, who carries the snare of compassion to bind the souls of the living.

金剛經 The Diamond Sutra; Vajracchedikā-prājñāpāramitā Sutra 金剛能斷般若波羅蜜經 A condensation of the Prājñāpāramitā Sutratitle>; first tr. by Kumārajīva, later by others under slightly varying titles.

金剛菩薩 There are many of these vajra-bodhisattvas, e.g.: 金剛因菩薩 Vajrahetu, 金剛手菩薩 Vajrapāṇi, 金剛寳菩薩 Vajraratna, 金剛藏菩薩 Vajragarbha, 金剛針菩薩 Vajrasūci, 金剛將菩薩 Vajrasena, 金剛索菩薩 Vajrapāśa, 金剛鉤菩薩 Vajrāṅkuśa, 金剛香菩薩 Vajradhūpa,

金剛光菩薩 Vajratejaḥ, 金剛法菩薩 Vajradharma, 金剛利菩薩 Vajratīkṣṇa, and others.

金剛藏 Vajragarbha, the bodhisattva in the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra.

金剛藏王 A form of the next entry; also Śākyamuni.

金剛薩埵 Vajrasattva(-mahāsattva). 金薩 A form of Puxian (Samantabhadra), reckoned as the second of the eight patriarchs of the 眞言宗 Shingon sect, also known as 金剛手 (金剛手祕密王 or金剛手菩薩) and other similar titles. The

term is also applied to all vajra-beings, or vajra-bodhisattvas; especially those in the moon-circle in the east of the Diamond maṇḍala. Śākyamuni also takes the vajrasattva form. (1) All beings are vajrasattva,

because of their Buddha-nature. (2) So are all beginners in the faith and practice. (3) So are the retinue of Akṣobhya. (4) So is Great Puxian.

金剛衆 The retinue of the 金剛神 vajradevas.

金剛觀 The diamond insight or vision which penetrates into reality.

金剛語言 idem 金剛念誦.

金剛身 The diamond body, the indestructible body of Buddha.


金剛輪 The diamond or vajra wheel, symbolical of the esoteric sects. The lowest of the circles beneath the earth.

金剛部 The various groups in the two maṇḍalas, each having a 主 or head; in the Diamond maṇḍala Akṣobhya, or Vajrasattva, is spoken of as such.

金剛部母 忙莽鷄 māmakī is 'mother' in this group.

金針 (金剛針) The straight vajra, or sceptre; also v. 金針菩薩.

金剛鈴 The diamond or vajra bell for attracting the attention of the objects of worship, and stimulating all who hear it.

金剛鈴菩薩 Vajraghaṇṭā, a bodhisattva holding a bell in the vajradhātumaṇḍala.

金剛鏁 vajra-śṛṅkhalā. The vajra chain, or fetter.

金剛鏁菩薩 The chain-bearer in the Diamond group.

金剛門 The diamond door of the garbhadhātumaṇḍala.

金剛頂 The diamond apex or crown, a general name of the esoteric doctrines and sutras of Vairocana. The sutra金剛頂經 is the authority for the金剛頂宗 sect.

金剛體 The diamond body, that of Buddha, and his merits.

金口 The golden mouth of the Buddha, a reference inter alia to 金剛口 the diamond-like firmness of his doctrine.

金口相承 金口祖承 The doctrines of the golden mouth transmitted in 'apostolic succession' through generations (of patriarchs).

金地 A Buddhist monastery; v. also 逝 Jetavana.

金地國 Suvarṇabhūmi, said to be a country south of Śrāvastī, to which Aśoka sent missionaries. Also 金出; 金田.

金大王 Protector of travellers, shown in the train of the 1, 000-hand Guanyin.

金山 Metal or golden mountain, i.e. Buddha, or the Buddha's body.

金山王 Buddha, especially Amitābha. The 七金山 are the seven concentric ranges around Sumeru, v. 須; viz. Yugaṃdhara, Īśādhara, Khadiraka, Sudarśana, Aśvakarṇa, Vinataka, Nemiṃdhara, v. respectively 踰, 伊, 竭, 蘇, 頞, 毘, and 尼.

金星 Śukra, the planet Venus.

金杖 The golden staff broken into eighteen pieces and the skirt similarly torn, seen in a dream by king Bimbisāra, prophetic of the eighteen divisions of Hīnayāna.

金毘羅 kumbhīra, 金毘囉; 金波羅; 禁毘羅 (or 宮毘羅); a crocodile, alligator, described as 蛟龍 a 'boa-dragon'; cf. 失. A yakṣa-king who was converted and became a guardian of Buddhism, also known as 金毘羅陀 (金毘羅陀迦毘羅); 金毘羅神; 金毘羅大將. For 金毘羅比

丘 Kampilla, v. 劫.

金毛獅子 The lion with golden hair on which Mañjuśrī (Wenshu) rides; also a previous incarnation of the Buddha.

金水 Golden water, i.e. wisdom.

金沙 Golden-sand (river), an imaginary river in the Nirvana Sutra 10. Also the Hiraṇyavatī, v. 尸.

金河 Hiraṇyavatī, v. 尸賴拏伐底;.

金粟如來 The golden grain tathāgata, a title of Vimalakīrti 維摩 in a previous incarnation.

金翅鳥 (金翅鳥王) Garuda, 妙翅; 迦樓羅 the king of birds, with golden wings, companion of Viṣṇu; a syn. of the Buddha.

金胎 idem 金剛界 and 胎藏界.

金色 Golden coloured.

金色世界 The golden-hued heaven of Mañjuśrī (Wenshu).

金色女 The princess of Vārāṇaśī, who is said to have been offered in marriage to Śākyamuni because he was of the same colour as herself.

金色孔雀王 The golden-hued peacock king, protector of travellers, in the retinue of the 1,000-hands Guanyin.

金色王 A previous incarnation of the Buddha.

金色迦葉 金色尊者; 金色頭陀 Names for Mahākāśyapa, as he is said to have 飮光 swallowed light, hence his golden hue.


金藏 Golden treasury, i.e. the Buddha-nature in all the living.

金藏雲 The first golden-treasury cloud when a new world is completed, arising in the 光音天 Ābhāsvara heaven and bringing the first rain.

金襴衣 A kāṣāya or robe embroidered with gold; a golden robe; also 金襴袈裟; 金色衣.

金言 Golden words, i.e. those of Buddha.

金蹄 Kaṇṭhaka aśvarāja, 金泥; 犍渉駒 name of the steed on which Śākyamuni left his home.

金身 金軀 The golden body or person, that of Buddha.

金輪 The metal circle on which the earth rests, above the water circle which is above the wind (or air) circle which rests on space. Also the cakra, wheel or disc, emblem of sovereignty, one of the seven precious

possessions of a king.

金輪王 A golden-wheel king, the highest in comparison with silver, copper, and iron cakravartin.

金鷄 The golden cock (or, fowl), with a grain of millet in its beak, a name for Bodhidharma.

金骨 Golden bones, i.e. Buddha's relics.

金龜 The golden tortoise on which the world rests, idem 金輪.

長 chang, long; always; zhang, to grow, rising, senior.

長乞食 Always to ask food as alms, one of the twelve duties of a monk.

長壽 Long life.

長壽天 devas of long life, in the fourth dhyāna heaven where life is 500 great kalpas, and in the fourth arūpaloka where life extends over 80, 000 kalpas.

長夜 The whole night, the long night of mortality or transmigration.

長日The long day, or succeeding days prolonged.

長生Long or eternal life (in Paradise), 長生不死, 長生不老 long life without death, or growing old, immortality.

長生符 The charm for immortality, i.e. Buddhism.

長老 Senior, venerable, title for aged and virtuous monks; also an abbot.

長者 揭利呵跋底; 疑叻賀鉢底 gṛhapati. A householder; one who is just, straightforward, truthful, honest, advanced in age, and wealthy; an elder.

長衣 長物; 長鉢 Clothes, things, or almsbowls in excess of the permitted number.

長跪 Kneeling with knees and toes touching the ground and thighs and body erect; tall kneeling.

長阿含經 dīrghāgama, the long āgamas, cf. 阿含.

長食Ample supplies of food, i.e. for a long time.

門 A door; gate; a sect, school, teaching, especially one leading to salvation or nirvana.

門侶 Disciple, fellow-student. 門師Preceptor, the monk who is recognized as teacher by any family. 門徒 Disciple.

門派 門流; 門葉; 門跡 The followers, or development of any sect.

門狀 參狀 or 榜 A name paper, card, visiting-card.

門神 門丞 The gate-gods or guardians.

門經 The funeral service read at the house-door.

門答辣 maṇḍala, see 曼.

門首 門主 The controller of a gate, or sect.

附 Adjoin, attached to, append, near.

附佛法外道 Heretics within Buddhism.

陀 Steep bank, declivity; translit. t, h, d, dh, ty, dy, dhy; cf. 荼, 多, 檀.

陀呵 dāha, burning.

陀多竭多 tathāgata, v. 多.

陀摩 dama, tamed, domiciled, obedient, good.

陀歷 Darada, 'the country of the ancient Dardae mentioned by Strabo and Pliny. The region near Dardu Lat. 35° 11 N., Long. 73° 54 E.' Eitel.

陀毘羅 (or 陀毘荼); 達羅毘荼 (or達羅弭荼) Damila, Dravila, probably Drāviḍa, or Drāvira, anciently a kingdom in Southern India, 'bounded in the South by the Cauveri and reaching northward as far as Arcot or Madras.' Eitel.

陀羅 tārā, star, shining, radiating, a female deity, v. 多.

陀羅尼 (or 陀羅那); 陀鄰尼 dhāraṇī. Able to lay hold of the good so that it cannot be lost, and likewise of the evil so that it cannot arise. Magical formulas, or mystic forms of prayer, or spells of Tantric order,

often in Sanskrit, found in China as early as the third century A.D.; they form a potion of the dhāraṇīpiṭaka; made popular chiefly through the Yogācārya 瑜伽 or 密教esoteric school. Four divisions are given, i.e. 法陀羅尼, 義陀羅

尼, 咒陀羅尼 and 忍陀羅尼; the 咒, i.e. mantra or spell, is emphasized by the 眞言 Shingon sect. There are numerous treatises, e.g. 陀羅尼集經; 瑜伽師地論, attributed to Asaṅga, founder of the Buddhist Yoga school.

陀羅尼菩薩 Dhāraṇī-bodhisattva, one who has great power to protect and save.

陀羅那 Name of a yakṣa.

陀羅羅 Name of a ṛṣi.

陀羅驃 dravya, the nine 'substances' in the nyāya philosophy, earth, water, fire, air, ether 空, time, space 方, soul 神, and mind 意.

陀那 dāna, bestow, alms; the marks on a scale; ādāna, another name for the ālaya-vijñāna.

陀那婆 Dānavat, name of a god.


陀那伽他 dānagāthā, or dakṣiṇāgāthā, the verse or utterance of the almsgiver.

陀那鉢底 or 陀那施主 dānapati, almsgiver.

陁 idem 陀.

阿 a or ā, अ, आ. It is the first letter of the Sanskrit Siddham alphabet, and is also translit. by 曷, 遏, 安, 頞, 韻, 噁, etc. From it are supposed to be born all the other letters, and it is the first sound uttered by the

human mouth. It has therefore numerous mystical indications. Being also a negation it symbolizes the unproduced, the impermanent, the immaterial; but it is employed in many ways indicative of the positive. Amongst

other uses it indicates Amitābha, from the first syllable in that name. It is much in use for esoteric purposes.

阿世耶 āśaya, 阿奢也, disposition, mind; pleased to, desire to, pleasure.

阿他婆吠陀 Atharvaveda, also Ātharvaṇa, the fourth Veda, dealing with sorcery or magic; also 阿達婆鞞陀; 阿闥波陀.

阿伐羅勢羅 Avraśāilāḥ, the school of the dwellers in the Western mountains 西山寺 in Dhanakaṭaka; it was a subdivision of the Mahāsaṅghikāḥ.

阿伽 arghya, argha, 閼伽; 遏伽; 遏迦 tr. by water, but it specially indicates ceremonial water, e.g. offerings of scented water, or water containing fragrant flowers. 阿伽坏The vase or bowl so used.

阿伽坏 The vase or bowl used for ceremonial water 阿伽.

阿伽嚧 阿伽樓; 惡揭嚕 agaru, aguru, fragment aloe-wood, intp. 沉香the incense that sinks in water, the agallochum; 'the Ahalim or Ahaloth of the Hebrews.' Eitel.

阿伽摩 v. 阿含 agama.

阿伽羅伽 Aṅgāraka, the planet Mars; a star of ill omen; a representation in the garbhadhātu.

阿伽陀 阿竭陀; 阿揭 (阿揭陀) agada, free from disease, an antidote, intp. as 普去 a medicine that entirely rids (of disease), elixir of life, universal remedy.

阿伽曇 aghana, not solid, not dense.

阿修羅 asura, 修羅 originally meaning a spirit, spirits, or even the gods, it generally indicates titanic demons, enemies of the gods, with whom, especially Indra, they wage constant war. They are defined as

'not devas', and 'ugly', and 'without wine'. Other forms are 阿須羅 (or 阿蘇羅, or 阿素羅); 阿修倫 (or羅須倫 or 阿修輪 or 羅須輪); 阿素洛; 阿差. Four classes are named according to their manner of rebirth-egg, born, womb-born, transformation-

born, and spawn- or water-born. Their abode is in the ocean, north of Sumeru, but certain of the weaker dwell in a western mountain cave. They have realms, rulers, and palaces, as have the devas. The 阿修羅道 is one of the six

gatis, or ways of reincarnation. The 修羅場 or 修羅巷 is the battlefield of the asuras against Indra. The 阿修羅琴 are their harps.

阿傍 阿防 The ox-head torturers in Hades. Also 阿傍羅刹.

阿儞囉迦 ārdraka, raw ginger.

阿僧伽 (阿僧) asaṅga, āryāsaṅga, intp. as 無著 unattached, free; lived 'a thousand years after the Nirvāṇa', probably the fourth century A.D., said to be the eldest brother of 天親 Vasubandhu, whom he converted to Mahāyāna. He was first a

follower of the Mahīśāsaka hschool, but founded the Yogācārya or Tantric school with his Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra 瑜伽師地論, which in the 三藏傳 is said to have been dictated to him by Maitreya in the Tuṣita heaven, along with the

莊嚴大乘論 and the 中邊分別論. He was a native of Gandhāra, but lived mostly in Ayodhyā (Oudh).

阿僧祇 asaṅkhya, asaṅkhyeya, 阿僧企耶; 僧祇 intp. 無數 innumerable, countless, said to be 一千萬萬萬萬萬萬萬萬兆 kalpas. There are four asaṅkhyākalpas in the rise, duration, and end of every universe, cf. 劫.

阿 M077477 樓馱 v. 阿那律Aniruddha.

阿 M077477 羅陀補羅 Anurādhapura, a northern city of Ceylon, at which tradition says Buddhism was introduced into the island; cf. Abhayagiri, 阿跋.

阿利尼 Alni or Arni; 'a kingdom which formed part of ancient Tukhāra, situated near to the sources of the Oxus.' Eitel.

阿利沙 (or阿黎沙) ārṣa, connected with the ṛṣis, or holy men; especially their religious utterances in verse 阿利沙偈; also a title of a buddha.

阿利沙住處 the highest position of achievement, perfection; see 阿利沙.

阿利羅跋提 Ajitavatī, 阿特多伐底, see 尸 Hiraṇyavatī.

阿利耶 idem 阿賴耶 ālaya, and 阿梨耶.


阿制多 ajita, v. 阿逸多.

阿剡底詞羅 Name of a demon burnt up by the fire it eats.

阿卑羅吽欠 a-vi-ra-hūm-kham, (or āḥ-vi-ra-hūm-kham the Shingon 'true word' or spell of Vairocana, for subduing all māras, each sound representing one of the five elements, earth, water, fire, wind (or

air), and space (or ether). Also, 阿毘羅吽欠 (or 阿尾羅吽欠 or阿尾羅吽劍 or阿毘羅吽劍); 阿味囉 M020011欠.

阿叉摩羅 akṣamālā, a rosary, especially of the seeds of the Eleocarpus. M.W. Also a symbol of the ten perfections.

阿吒利 Aṭāli, 阿吒釐 a province of the ancient kingdom of Malwa, or Malava; its people rejected Buddhism.

阿吒吒 Aṭaṭa; the third of the four cold hells.

阿吒婆拘 阿吒嚩迦; 阿吒薄倶 (or 遏吒薄倶) Āṭavika, name of a demon-general.

阿吒筏底 Alakavatī, the city of Vaiśravaṇa.

阿含 āgama, 阿含暮; 阿鋡; 阿伽摩 (or 阿笈摩), the āgamas, a collection of doctrines, general name for the Hīnayāna scriptures: tr. 法歸 the home or collecting-place of the Law or Truth; 無比法 peerless Law; or 趣無 ne plus ultra, ultimate,

absolute truth. The 四阿含經 or Four Āgamas are (1) 長阿含 Dīrghāgama, 'Long' treatises on cosmogony. (2) Madhyamāgama, 中阿含, 'middle' treatises on metaphysics. (3) Saṃyuktāgama, 雜阿含 'miscellaneous' treatises on abstract [[Wikipedia:


contemplation]]. (4) Ekottarāgama 增一阿含 'numerical' treatises, subjects treated numerically. There is also a division of five āgamas.

阿含時 The period when the Buddha taught Hīnayāna doctrine in the Lumbini garden during the first twelve years of his ministry.

阿含部 Hīnayāna.

阿吽 ahūṃ, the supposed foundation of all sounds and writing, 'a' being the open and 'hūṃ' the closed sound. 'A' is the seed of Vairocana, 'hūṃ' that of Vajrasattva, and both have other indications. 'A' represents the

absolute, 'hūṃ' the particular, or phenomenal.

阿呼 ahu! aho! an interjection, e.g. 奇哉 Wonderful ! Also arka, a flash, ray, the sun; praise; name of a mountain; cf. 阿羅歌.

阿呼地獄 The hell of groaning.

阿呵呵 ahaha, sound of laughter.

阿周陀 The name of 目連 Mahāmaudgalyāyana as a ṛṣi.

阿周陀那 Arjuna v. 阿順那.

阿唎多羅 (阿唎耶多羅) Ārya-tārā; one of the titles of Guanyin, Āryāvalokiteśvara 阿唎多婆盧羯帝爍鉢囉耶.

阿地目得迦 ati-muktata, v. 阿提.

阿夜健多 ayaḥkāṇḍa, an iron arrow; also 阿夜塞健那.

阿失麗沙 Aśleṣā, the 柳 or 24th constellation, stars in Hydra; M.W. says the 9th nakṣatra contraining five stars.

阿夷 arhan, a worthy, noble, or saintly man; especially 阿私陀 Asita, q.v.

阿夷恬 ? ādikarnika, a beginner, neophyte.

阿夷頭 idem 阿耆多 ajita.

阿夷羅和帝 (or阿夷羅婆帝 or 阿夷羅和底 or 阿夷羅婆底 or 阿夷羅和跋提 or 阿夷羅婆跋提), v. 阿特 the river Ajiravatī. v. 阿羅漢.

阿奢也 v. 阿世耶.

阿奢理貳 or 阿奢理兒 āścarya, rare, extraordinary. Part of the name of an ancient monastery in Karashahr.

阿奴謨柁 anumoda, concurrence, a term of thanks from a monk to a donor on parting.

阿奴邏陀 Anurādhā, the seventeenth of the twenty-eight nakṣatras, or lunar mansions. M.W. The 房 constellation in Scorpio.

阿娑嚩 a-sa-va, a formula covering the three sections of the garbhadhātu-'a' the tathāgata section, 'sa' the Lotus section, and 'va' the Diamond section.

阿娑摩補多 asamāpta, incomplete, unended.

阿裟磨娑摩 (or 阿裟摩娑摩) asamasama, one of the titles of a buddha; it is defined as 無等等 which has various interpretations, but generally means of unequalled rank. 阿娑弭 has similar meaning.

阿娑弭 same as 阿裟磨娑摩.

阿娑羅 asaru, a medicine; a plant, Blumea-lacera; or perhaps asāra, the castor-oil plant, or the aloe.

阿娑頗那伽 āśvāsa-apānaka, contemplation by counting the breathings; c.f. 阿那波那.

阿婆 apa, abha, ava, etc.

阿婆摩羅 (or 阿婆娑摩羅) apasmāra, epileptic, demons of epilepsy.

阿婆孕迦羅 abhayaṃkara, giving security from fear, name of a tathāgata.

阿婆盧吉低舍羅 Avalokiteśvara, name of Guanyin.

阿婆磨 anupma, applied to a buddha as無等等 of unequalled rank, cf. 阿娑磨.


阿密哩多 amṛta, 阿密?帝; 阿沒?都 nectar, ambrosia. 阿密哩多軍荼利 One of the five 明王 q.v.

阿尸羅婆那 Śravaṇā, which M.W. gives as 'one of the lunar asterisms... α, β, γ, Aquilae'. Śravaṇā is the month which falls in July-August.

阿尾捨 avesa, spiritualistic possession, a youthful medium. Also 阿尾舍, 阿尾奢, 阿尾賖, 阿毘舍.

阿底哩 (or 阿跌哩) Atri, a devourer; one of the stars in Ursa Major; one of the assistants of Agni shown in the Garbhadhātu; an ancient ṛṣi.

阿庾多 idem 阿由多.

阿差末 akṣayamti, unceasing devotion, with an unfailing mind; name of a bodhisattva.

阿彌陀 (阿彌) amita, boundless, infinite; tr. by 無量 immeasurable. The Buddha of infinite qualities, known as 阿彌陀婆 (or 阿彌陀佛) Amitābha, tr. 無量光 boundless light; 阿彌陀廋斯Amitāyus, tr. 無量壽 boundless age, or

life; and among the esoteric sects Amṛta 甘露 (甘露王) sweet-dew (king). An imaginary being unknown to ancient Buddhism, possibly of Persian or Iranian origin, who has eclipsed the historical Buddha in becoming

the most popular divinity in the Mahāyāna pantheon. His name indicates an idealization rather than an historic personality, the idea of eternal light and life. The origin and date of the concept are unknown,

but he has always been associated with the west, where in his Paradise, Suikhāvatī, the Western Pure Land, he receives to unbounded happiness all who call upon his name (cf. the Pure Lands 淨土 of Maitreya and

Akṣobhya). This is consequent on his forty-eight vows, especially the eighteenth, in which he vows to refuse Buddhahood until he has saved all living beings to his Paradise, except those who had committed the five

unpardonable sins, or were guilty of blasphemy against the Faith. While his Paradise is theoretically only a stage on the way to rebirth in the final joys of nirvana, it is popularly considered as the final resting-

place of those who cry na-mo a-mi-to-fo, or blessed be, or adoration to, Amita Buddha. The 淨土 Pure-land (Jap. Jōdo) sect is especially devoted to this cult, which arises chiefly out of the Sukhāvatīvyūha, but Amita is referred

to in many other texts and recognized, with differing interpretations and emphasis, by the other sects. Eitel attributes the first preaching of the dogma to 'a priest from Tokhara' in A. D.147, and says that Faxian and

Xuanzang make no mention of the cult. But the Chinese pilgrim 慧日Huiri says he found it prevalent in India 702-719. The first translation of the Amitāyus Sutra, circa A.D. 223-253, had disappeared when the

Kaiyuan catalogue was compiled A.D. 730. The eighteenth vow occurs in the tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D. 308. With Amita is closely associated Avalokiteśvara, who is also considered as his incarnation, and appears crowned with, or

bearing the image of Amita. In the trinity of Amita, Avalokiteśvara appears on his left and Mahāsthāmaprāpta on his right. Another group, of five, includes Kṣitigarbha and Nāgārjuna, the latter counted as the second patriarch of the

Pure Land sect. One who calls on the name of Amitābha is styled 阿彌陀聖 a saint of Amitābha. Amitābha is one of the Five 'dhyāni buddhas' 五佛, q.v. He has many titles, amongst which are the following twelve relating to him as

Buddha of light, also his title of eternal life: 無量光佛Buddha of boundless light; 無邊光佛 Buddha of unlimited light; 無礙光佛 Buddha of irresistible light; 無對光佛 Buddha of incomparable light;

燄王光佛 Buddha of yama or flame-king light; 淸淨光佛 Buddha of pure light; 歡喜光佛 Buddha of joyous light; 智慧光佛 Buddha of wisdom light; 不斷光佛 Buddha of unending light; 難思光佛 Buddha of

inconceivable light; 無稱光佛Buddha of indescribable light; 超日月光佛 Buddha of light surpassing that of sun and moon; 無量壽 Buddha of boundless age. As buddha he has, of course, all the attributes of a

buddha, including the trikāya, or 法報化身, about which in re Amita there are differences of opinion in the various schools. His esoteric germ-letter is hrīḥ, and he has specific manual-signs. Cf. 阿彌陀經, of which with

commentaries there are numerous editions.

阿彌陀檀那 Amṛtodana 甘露王. A king of Magadha, father of Anuruddha and Bhadrika, uncle of Śākyamuni.

阿恃多伐底 Ajiravatī; v. 尸. The river Hiraṇyavatī, also 阿利羅跋提 (or阿夷羅跋提or 阿利羅拔提or 阿夷羅拔提); 阿夷羅婆底 (or 阿脂羅婆底or 阿寅羅婆底); 阿爾多嚩底. It is probable that 阿恃多, intp. 無勝 unconquered, is Ajita and an error. Cf. 阿誓.

阿折羅 Ācāra, an arhat of the kingdom of Andhra, founder of a monastery.

阿拘盧奢 ākrośa; 罵 scolding, abusing.

阿拏 aṇu, 阿莬; 阿耨 Minute, infinitesimal, the smallest aggregation of matter, a molecule consisting of 七微 seven atoms.


阿提佛陀 Ādi-buddha, the primal buddha of ancient Lamaism (Tib. chos-kyi-daṅ-poḥi-saṅs-rgyas); by the older school he is associated with Puxian born of Vairocana i.e. Kuntu-bzan-po, or Dharmakāya-Samantabhadha; by the later

school with Vajradhara, or Vajrasattva, who are considered as identical, and spoken of as omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent, eternal, infinite, uncaused, and causing all things.

阿提目多 (or 阿地目多 or 阿提目多伽 or 阿地目多伽) adhimukti or atimukti, entire freedom of mind, confidence, intp. by 善思惟 'pious thoughtfulness', good propensity. atimuktaka, a plant like the 'dragon-lick', suggestive of hemp, with

red flowers and bluish-green leaves; its seeds produce fragrant oil, sesame. Also, a kind of tree.

阿提阿耨波陀 ādyanutpāda, or ādyanutpanna; 本初不生 the original uncreated letter ā or a.

阿摩 ambā, or mother, a title of respect.

阿摩爹爹 Mother and father.

阿摩提 (or 阿麽提); 阿摩 M048697 The 21st of the thirty-three forms of Guanyin, three eyes, four arms, two playing a lute with a phoenix-head, one foot on a lion, the other pendent.

阿摩羅 amala; spotless, unstained, pure; the permanent and unchanging in contrast with the changing; the pure and unsullied, e.g. saintliness; the true nirvana. Also 菴阿摩; 阿末摩 q.v.

阿擅 anātman, 阿檀; 阿捺摩, i.e. 無我 without an ego, impersonality, different from soul or spirit.

阿施 artha, 義 reason, sense, purpose. 施 is probably a misprint for 陁; the Huayan uses 曷攞多; also 他 is used for 施.

阿末羅 āmra, āmalaka, āmrāta.

阿摩洛迦 菴摩洛迦 (or 菴摩羅迦 or 菴摩勒迦) āmra, mango, Mangifera indica; āmalaka, Emblic myrobalan, or Phyllanthus ernhlica, whose nuts are valued medicinally; āmrāta, hog-plum, Spondias mangifera. Also used for discernment of mental

ideas, the ninth of the nine kinds of 心識. 菴沒羅 (or 菴摩羅or 菴婆羅) should apply to āmra the mango, but the forms are used indiscriminately. Cf. 阿摩羅.

阿梨宜 āliṅg-; to embrace; āliṅgī, a small drum; a kind of ecstatic meditation.

阿梨樹 (or 阿棃樹) arjaka, ? Ocymum pilosum, a tree with white scented flowers, said to fall in seven parts, like an epidendrum, styled also 頞杜迦曼折利 (? 頞杜社迦曼折利).

阿梨吒 (阿梨瑟吒) ariṣṭa(ka), the soap-berry tree, Sapindus detergens, 木槵子, whose berries are used for rosaries. Name of a bhikṣu.

阿梨耶 ārya, 阿利宜; 阿棃宜; 阿黎宜; 阿犁宜; 阿離宜; 阿哩夜; 阿略 or 阿夷; 梨耶 loyal, honourable, noble, āryan, 'a man who has thought on the four chief principles of Buddhism and lives according to them,' intp. by 尊 honourable, and 聖 sage,

wise, saintly, sacred. Also, ulūka, an owl.

阿梨呵 arhan, 阿羅漢 q.v.

阿梨耶伐摩 Āryavaman, of the Śarvāstivādin school, author of a work on the vaibhāṣika philosophy.

阿梨斯那 (阿梨耶斯那) Āryasena, a monk of the Mahāsaṅghikāḥ.

阿梨耶馱娑 Āryadāsa, a monk of the Mahāsaṅghikāḥ.

阿槃陀羅 avāntara, intermediate, within limits, included.

阿歐 au! An exclamation, e.g. Ho! Oh! Ah! Also 阿傴; 阿嘔; 阿漚 or 阿優. The two letters a and u fell from the comers of Brahmā's mouth when he gave the seventy-two letters of Kharoṣṭhī, and they are said to be placed at the beginning of the

Brahminical sacred books as divine letters, the Buddhists adopting 如是 'Thus' (evam) instead.

阿毗 avīci, 阿毘 (阿毘至) cf. 阿鼻.

阿毗三佛 (阿毗三佛陀); 阿惟三佛 abhisaṃbuddha, abhisaṃbodha; realizing or manifesting universal enlightenment; fully awake, complete realization.

阿毗目底 abhimukti, probably in error for adhimukti, implicit faith, conviction.

阿毗目佉 (or 阿比目佉) abhimukham, towards, approaching, in presence of, tr. 現前. abhimukhī, the sixth of the ten stages 十住.

阿毗私度 Abhijit, 女宿 the tenth Chinese stellar mansion, stars in Aquarius.

阿毗跋致 阿鞞跋致; 阿惟越致 avivartin, 不退 No retrogression.

阿毗達磨 阿毗曇; 阿鼻達磨 abhidharma. The śāstras, which discuss Buddhist philosophy or metaphysics; defined by Buddhaghōsa as the law or truth (dharma) which (abhi) goes beyond or behind the law; explained by傳 tradition,

勝法 surpassing law, 無比法 incomparable law, 對法 comparing the law, 向法 directional law, showing cause and effect. The阿毗達磨藏 or 阿毗達磨論藏 is the abhidharma-piṭaka, the third part of the tripiṭaka. In the Chinese canon it

consists of 大乘論 Mahāyāna treatises, 小乘論 Hīnayāna treatises, and 藏諸論 those brought in during the Song and Yuan dynasties. The阿毗達磨倶舍論 abhidharma-kośa-śāstra, tr. By Xuanzang, is a philosophical work by Vasubandhu

refuting doctrines of the Vibhāṣā school. There are many works of which abhidharma forms part of the title.

阿毗遮羅 abhicāra. A hungry ghost.

阿毗遮嚕迦 阿毗拓M066116迦 (or 阿毗左M066116迦); 阿毗左囉 abhicāraka, exorcism; an exorciser, or controller (of demons).

阿沙陀 āṣāḍha, 阿沙荼; 頞沙荼 the fourth month, part of June and July. Name of a monk. Aṣāḍā, an Indian constellation comprising箕 and 斗, stars in Sagittarius. Cf. 阿薩多.


阿泥底耶 Āditya, the sons of Aditi, the gods; Varuṇa; the sun; the sky; son of the sun-deva.

阿波摩羅 apasmāra, malevolent demons, epilepsy, and the demons who cause it; also 阿婆摩羅; 阿跋摩羅; 阿跛娑摩囉.

阿波會 阿婆譮; 阿波羅 ābhāsvara(-vimāna), the sixth of the brahmalokas 光音天 of light and sound (ābhāsvara) and its devas, but it is better intp. as ābhās, shining and vara, ground, or splendid, the splendid devas or heaven;

shown in the garbhadhātu. Like other devas they are subject to rebirth. Also 阿會亙修 (or 阿會亙差); 阿波嘬羅 (阿波嘬羅?); 阿衞貨羅.

阿波末加 (or 阿婆末加); 阿波麽羅誐 apāmargā, 牛膝草 Achryanthes aspera.

阿波波 ababa, hahava, the only sound possible to those in the fourth of the eight cold hells.

阿波羅囉 阿波邏羅; 阿波摩利; 阿波波; 阿鉢摩; and ? 阿羅婆樓 apalāla, 'not fond of flesh' (M.W.), a destroyer by flood of the crops; the nāga of the source of the river Śubhavăstu (Swat) of Udyāna, about which there are various legends; he, his wife

比壽尼, and his children were all converted to Buddhism.

阿波摩那婆 (阿波羅摩那阿婆); 阿婆摩那婆 (or 廅婆摩那婆 or阿鉢摩那婆 or廅鉢摩那婆); 阿波摩那; 波摩那 Apramāṇābha, intp. as 無量光 immeasurable light, the fifth of the brahmalokas.

阿波那伽低 aparagati, the three evil paths, i.e. animal, hungry ghost, hell, but some say only the path to the hells.

阿波陀那 阿波陁那; 阿波他那 avadāna, parables, metaphors, stories, illustrations; one of the twelve classes of sutras; the stories, etc., are divided into eight categories.

阿浮呵那 (or 阿浮訶那) āvāhana, or āpattivyutthāna, the calling of a monk or nun into the assembly for penance, or to rid the delinquent of sin.

阿浮達摩 (阿浮陀達摩) adbhuta-dharma, miraculous or supernatural things, a section of the canon recounting miracles and prodigies.

阿潘 Apan, name of the 'first' Chinese Buddhist nun, of Luoyang in Henan.

阿濕喝咃波力叉 aśvattha-vṛkṣa; v. 菩提樹 the ficus religiosa.

阿濕婆 aśva, a horse.

阿濕喝迷陀 aśvamedha, the ancient royal horse-sacrifice.

阿濕摩 (or 阿濕麽or 阿濕魔) aśman, a stone, rock.

阿濕喝揭婆 aśmagarbha; emerald, tr. by 石藏, but also by 馬腦 agate, the idea apparently being derived from another form 阿濕嚩揭波 aśvagarbha, horse matrix. Other forms are 阿濕喝碣婆 (or 阿輸喝碣婆 or 阿舍喝碣婆 or阿濕喝揭婆 or 阿輸喝揭婆 or 阿舍喝揭婆 or 阿濕喝

竭婆 or 阿輸喝竭婆 or 阿舍喝竭婆 or 阿濕喝碣波 or 阿輸喝碣波 or 阿舍喝碣波 or 阿濕喝揭波 or 阿輸喝揭波 or 阿舍喝揭波 or 阿濕喝竭波 or 阿輸喝竭波 or 阿舍喝竭波); 遏濕喝揭婆.

阿濕毘儞 aśvinī. M.W. says it is the first of the twenty-eignt nakṣatras; the eleventh of the Chinese twenty-eight constellations, xu, β Aquarī, α Eqūlei.

阿濕波 aśvin, the twins of the Zodiac, Castor and Pollux, sons of the Sun and aśvinī; they appear in the sky before dawn riding in a golden carriage drawn by horses or birds.

阿濕縛伐多 阿濕婆恃; 阿濕婆 (阿濕婆氏多); 阿濕波持; 阿說示 (or阿說示旨); 阿輸實; 頞鞞 Aśvajit 馬勝 'Gaining horses by conquest.' M.W. Name of one of the first five disciples and a relative of Śākyamuni; teacher of Śāriputra.

阿濕縛庾闍 阿濕嚩若 aśvayuja. The month in which the moon is in conjunction with aśvinī, 16th of the 8th moon to 15th of the 9th; it is the middle month of autumn.

阿濕縛窶沙 (or阿溼縛窶沙); 馬鳴 q.v. Aśvaghosa.

阿濕縛羯拏 阿輸割那 aśvakarṇa, 馬耳 the horse-ear mountains, fifth of the seven concentric mountains around Sumeru.

阿點婆翅羅國 Atyambakela, an ancient kingdom near Karachi.

阿牟伽 v. 阿目佉 amogha.

阿牟伽皤賒 Amoghapāśa, Guanyin with the noose.

阿犍多 (or 阿揵多) āgantuka, any visitant, or incident; a visiting monk; accidental.

阿由 āyurvēda, one of the vedas, the science of life or longevity.

阿由多 (or 阿庾多) ayuta, variously stated as a million or a thousand millions; and a 大阿由多 as ten thousand millions.

阿盧那 aruṇa, 阿留那 (or 阿樓那) ruddy, dawn-colour, dawn, south, fire, Mars, etc.

阿盧那花 aruṇakamala, the red lotus.

阿盧那跋底 A red-coloured incense.

阿目佉 (阿目佉跋折羅) Amogha, or Amoghavajra, 阿牟伽 (or 阿謨伽 or 阿穆伽) intp. 不空 (不空金剛) a monk from northern India, a follower of the mystic teachings of Samantabhadra. Vajramati 金剛智 is reputed to have founded the

Yogācārya or Tantric school in China about A.D. 719-720. Amogha succeeded him in its leadership in 732. From a journey through India and Ceylon, 741-6, he brought to China more than 500 sutras and śāstras; introduced

a new form for transliterating Sanskrit and published 108 works. He is credited with the introduction of the Ullambana fesival of All Souls, 15th of 7th moon, v. 盂. He is the chief representative of Buddhist

mysticism in China, spreading it widely through the patronage of three successive emperors, Xuanzong, Suzong, who gave him the title of 大廣智三藏 q.v., and Daizong, who gave him the posthumous rank and title of a Minister of State.

He died 774.


阿祇儞 or 阿祇尼 Agni, 阿耆尼 (or 阿擬尼) Fire, the fire-deva.

阿私仙 Asita-ṛṣi. 阿私陀 (or 阿斯陀); 阿氏多; 阿夷. (1) A ṛṣi who spoke the Saddhamapuṇḍarīka Sutra to Śākyamuni in a former incarnation. (2) The aged saint who pointed out the Buddha-signs on Buddha's body at his birth.

阿竭多 (or 阿揭多) Agastya, the star Canopus, also intp. as lightning.

阿竭多仙 One of the genī in the Nirvana Sutra, who stopped the flow of the Ganges for twelve years by allowing it to run into one of his ears.

阿維羅提 (or 阿比羅提) Abhirati, the eastern Pure Land of Akṣobhya.

阿縛羅訶佉 a-va-ra-ha-kha, a spell uniting the powers respectively of earth, water, fire, air, and space.

阿縛盧枳低濕伐邏 Avalokiteśvara, 阿縛盧枳帝濕伐邏 (or 阿縛盧枳多伊濕伐邏); 阿婆盧吉帝舍婆羅; 阿那婆婁吉低輸; 阿梨耶婆樓吉弓稅; also Āryā valokiteśvara. Intp. as 觀世音 or 光世音 'Regarder (or Observer) of the world's sounds, or cries'; or ? 'Sounds that enlighten the

world'. Also 觀自在 The Sovereign beholder, a tr. of īśvara, lord, sovereign. There is much debate as to whether the latter part of the word is svara, sound, or īśvara, lord; Chinese interpretations vary. Cf. 觀


阿羅伽 rāga, desire, emotion, feeling, greed, anger, wrath; and many other meanings; derived from to dye, colour, etc.

阿羅歌 阿迦 or 阿伽 arka, or white flower, asclepias (M.W. says calotropis) gigantea. Cf. 阿呼.

阿羅波遮那 (or 阿羅婆遮那) arapacana, a mystical formula, v. Lévi's article on arapacana, Batavian Society Feestbundel, 1929, II, pp. 100 seq.

阿羅漢 arhan, arhat, lohan; worthy, venerable; an enlightened, saintly man; the highest type or ideal saint in Hīnayāna in contrast with the bodhisattva as the saint in Mahāyāna; intp. as 應供worthy of worship, or

respect; intp. as 殺賊 arihat, arihan, slayer of the enemy, i.e. of mortality; for the arhat enters nirvana 不生 not to be reborn, having destroyed the karma of reincarnation; he is also in the stage of 不學 no longer

learning, having attained. Also 羅漢; 阿盧漢; 阿羅訶 or 阿羅呵; 阿梨呵 (or 阿黎呵); 羅呵, etc.; cf. 阿夷; 阿畧.

阿羅漢向 The direction leading to arhatship, by cutting off all illusion in the realms of form and beyond form.

阿羅漢果 The fruit of arhat discipline.

阿羅漢訶 One of the titles of Buddha, the arhan who has overcome mortality.

阿羅磨 ārāma, garden, grove, pleasaunce; hence saṅghārāma, a monastery with its gardens. Also, 阿羅; 阿羅彌; 阿藍麽 or 阿藍摩; 藍.

阿羅邏 Ārāḍa Kālāma, v. next. Also the Atata or Hahava cold hells.

阿羅邏迦藍 Ālāra Kālāma or Ārāḍa Kālāma, the ṛṣi to whom Śākyamuni went on leaving home; another was Udraka Rāmaputra; they had attained to the concept of nothingness, including the non-existence of ideas. Other forms are 阿羅

邏迦羅摩; 阿羅?迦邏摩; 阿藍迦; 阿藍 (阿藍伽藍); 阿蘭迦蘭; 羅勒迦藍.

阿羅闍 rāja, a king.

阿羅闍界 rāja-dhātu, a dominion; kingdom.

阿羯羅 āgāra, a house, dwelling, receptacle; tr. 境 and used in the sense of an organ, e.g. the ear for sound, etc.

阿耆多 ajita, v. 阿逸多.

阿耆多翅舍欽婆羅 (or 阿耆多頸舍欽婆羅 or阿耆多翅舍甘婆羅 or阿耆多頸舍甘婆羅; 阿末多 Ajita Keśa Kambalin, the unyielding one whose cloak is his hair. One of the six tīrthyas, or brahminical heretics, given to extravagant austerities; his

doctrine was that the happiness of the next life is correlative to the sufferings of this life.

阿耆尼 agni, fire, v. 阿祇儞 'Agni or Akni, name of a kingdom... north of lake Lop'. Eitel.

阿耆達 (or 阿耆多達 or 阿耆陀 or 阿耆多陀) Agnidatta, name of a king.

阿耆毘伽 ājīvika, or ājīvaka, 邪命 One who lives on others, i.e. by improper means; an improper livelihood (for one in orders).

阿耨 v. 阿拏 aṇu; and used for Anavatapta, infra.

阿耨菩提 (阿耨多羅三藐三菩提) anuttara-samyak-saṃbodhi; or anubodhi. Unexcelled complete enlightenment, an attribute of every buddha; tr. by 無上正偏知; 無上正等正覺, the highest correct and complete, or universal knowledge or

awareness, the perfect wisdom of a buddha, omniscience.

阿耨樓陀 Anuruddha, son of Amṛtodana, and 'cousin german' to Śākyamumi (Eitel); not Aniruddha; cf. 阿那.

阿耨窣都婆 anuṣṭubh; v, 阿莬.

阿耨觀音 Anu Guanyin, the twentieth of the thirty-three forms of the 'Goddess of Mercy', seated on a rook scanning the sea to protect or save voyagers.

阿耨達 阿那婆答多 (or 阿那波達多) Anavatapta, a lake in Jambudvīpa, north of the Himālayas, south of 香山 Gandha-mādana, descrbed as about 800 li in circumference, bordered by gold, silver, precious stones, etc. It is said to be the

source of the four great rivers: east, the Ganges out of a silver ox mouth; south, the Indus out of that of an elephant; west, the Oxus; and north, the Śītā, said to be the Yellow River. Eitel has the Brahmaputra, Ganges,

Śatadru (or Sutlej), and the Oxus; but there is confusion in the records. The Dragon-king of this lake became a Bodhisattva and is exempt from the distresses of the other seven dragon-kings. The阿耨達山 are the mountains north

of the lake.


阿耶 āya, approach, drawing near.

阿耶羅 āyanā has the same meaning as 阿耶, but is intp. by 觀 to contemplate, look into.

阿耶怛那 (or 阿也怛那) āyatana, seat, abode, intp. by 入 or 處 entrance, or place i.e. the sadāyatanas, six entrances or places of sense-data, or sensation; v. 六 入.

阿耶揭哩婆 (or 阿耶揭唎婆) Hayagrīva, the horse-head Guanyin.

阿耶穆佉 Ayamukha, Hayamukha, an ancient kingdom in Central India.

阿育 Aśoka, 阿恕伽; 阿輸迦(or 阿舒迦, or 阿叔迦) Grandson of Candragupta (Sandrokottos), who united India and reached the summit of his career about 315 B.C. Aśoka reigned from about 274 to 237 B.C. His name Aśoka, 'free from care,' may have

been adopted on his conversion. He is accused of the assassination of his brother and relatives to gain the throne, and of a fierce temperament in his earlier days. Converted, he became the first famous patron of

Buddhism, encouraging its development and propaganda at home and abroad, to which existing pillars, etc., bear witness; his propaganda is said to have spread from the borders of China to Macedonia, Epirus, Egypt, and

Cyrene. His title is Dharmāśoka; he should be distinguished from Kālāśoka, grandson of Ajātaśatru. Cf. 阿育伽經、 阿育伽傳, etc.

阿育伽樹 The name of a tree under which the mother of the Buddha was painlessly delivered of her son, for which Chinese texts give eight different dates; the jonesia aśoka; it is also called 畢利叉 vṛkṣa.

阿若多 (阿若) Ājñāta-kāuṇḍinya, 阿若憍陳如 one of the first five disciples of Śākyamuni, said to be the first to realize the Buddha-truth. ājñāta, his designation (i.e. recognized or confessed), is intp. as 巳知 Having known and 無知

Not knowing, or knowledge of non-existence. Or perhaps for ājñātṛ, confessor. Kaundinya, his surname, is said to mean a 'fire holder' from 'the early fire worship of the Brahmins.'

阿菟 aṇu, v. 阿拏.

阿菟吒闡提 anustubhchandas, a metre of two lines each in 8 十 8 syllables; also 阿耨窣都婆.

阿落刹婆 rākṣāsa, 阿落迦婆 demons, evil spirts; rākṣāsī are female demons, but are also said to be protectresses, cf. 羅叉婆.

阿薄健 Avakan, Vakhan, Khavakan; Wakhan, an ancient kingdom on the borders of the present Afghanistan, described by Xuanzang as 200 li south-east of Badakshan. Also 濕薄健; 劫薄健.

阿薩多 aṣāḍhā, is a double nakṣatra (two lunar mansions) associated with 箕, stars in Sagittarius; this form is said to be pūrvāṣāḍhā and is intp. as 軫, i.e. stars in Corvus, but these stars are in the Indian constellation

Hastā, the Hand, which may be the more correct transliteration; cf. 阿沙陀.

阿薩闍 asādhya, incurable.

阿蘭若 āraṇya; from araṇya, 'forest.'阿蘭若迦 āraṇyaka, one who lives there. Intp. by 無諍聲 no sound of discord; 閑靜 shut in and quiet; 遠離 far removed; 空 寂 uninhabited and still; a lonely abode 500 bow-lengths from any village. A

hermitage, or place of retirement for meditation. Three kinds of occupants are given: 達磨阿蘭若迦 dharma-āraṇyaka; 摩祭阿蘭若迦 mātaṅga-āraṇyaka, and 檀陀阿蘭若迦 daṇḍaka-āraṇyaka. Other forms are: 阿蘭那 or 阿蘭攘; 阿蘭陀 or 陁; 阿練若 or 阿練茄; 曷刺


達磨阿蘭若迦 dharma-āraṇyaka, meditators on the principle of inactivity, or letting Nature have its course; see 阿蘭若.

摩祭阿蘭若迦 mātaṅga-āraṇyaka, those who dwell among the dead, away from human voices; see 阿蘭若.

檀陀阿蘭若迦 daṇḍaka-āraṇyaka, those who dwell in sandy deserts and among rocks (as in the ancient Deccan); see 阿蘭若.

阿術達 Āśu-cittā, daughter of Ajātaśatru, king of Magadha, noted for her wisdom at 12 years of age.

阿詣羅 Aṅgiras, one of the seven deva-ṛṣis born from Brahma's mouth, shown in the Diamond Court of the Garbhadhātu, red coloured, holding a lotus on which is a vase; in Sanskrit the planet Jupiter. A title of

the Buddha. Also M030215 M021474 伽羅和.

阿誓單闍那 (or 阿恃單闍那) ajitaṃjaya, invincible, a charm for entering the meditation on invincibility. Cf. 阿恃.

阿說他 aśvattha, a tree, the ficus religiosa, or bodhi-tree, called also the 無罪樹 no-sin tree, because whoever goes around it three times is rid of sin. Also 阿濕波他; 阿舍波陀; 阿輸他.


阿說羅部 aiśvarikas, a theistic school of Nepal, which set up Ādi-Buddha as a supreme divinity.

阿賀羅 āhāra, v. 食 9.

阿賒迦 A kind of hungry ghost; ? connected with Aśanāyuka.

阿賴耶 ālaya, an abode, resting-place (hence Himālaya, the storehouse of snow), intp. as 無沒 non-disappearing, perhaps non-melting, also as 藏 store. Other forms are 阿利耶 (or 阿梨耶, 阿黎耶, or 阿羅耶); also 賴 or 梨耶. Any of these terms is used in

abbreviation for Ālaya-vijñāna.

阿賴耶外道 The ālaya heresy, one of the thirty heretical sects named in the 大日經, 住心, chapter 1, that the ālaya is a sort of eternal substance or matter, creative and containing all forms; when considered as a whole, it is non-

existent, or contains nothing; when considered 'unrolled,' or phenomenal, it fills the universe. It seems to be of the nature of materialism as opposed to the idealistic conception of the ālaya-vijñāna.

阿賴耶識 ālaya-vijñāna. 'The receptacle intellect or consciousness;' 'the orginating or receptacle intelligence;' 'basic consciousness' (Keith). It is the store or totality of consciousness, both absolute

and relative, impersonal in the whole, temporally personal or individual in its separated parts, always reproductive. It is described as 有情根本之心識 the fundamental mind-consciousness of conscious beings,

which lays hold of all the experiences of the individual life: and which as storehouse holds the germs 種子 of all affairs; it is at the root of all experience, of the skandhas, and of all things on which

sentient beings depend for existence. Mind is another term for it, as it both stores and gives rise to all seeds of phenomena and knowledge. It is called 本識 original mind, because it is the root of all

things; 無沒識 inexhaustible mind, because none of its seeds (or products) is lost; 現識 manifested mind, because all things are revealed in or by it; 種子識 seeds mind, because from it spring all individualities, or particulars; 所

知依識 because it is the basis of all knowledge; 異熟識 because it produces the rounds of morality, good and evil karma, etc.; 執持識 or 阿陀那 q.v., that which holds together, or is the seed of another rebirh, or

phenomena, the causal nexus; 第一識 the prime or supreme mind or consciousness; 宅識 abode (of) consciousness; 無垢識 unsullied consciousness when considered in the absolute, i.e. the Tathāgata; and 第八識, as the last of

the eight vijñānas. There has been much discussion as to the meaning and implications of the ālaya-vijñāna. It may also be termed the unconscious, or unconscious absolute, out of whose ignorance or [[Wikipedia:


unconsciousness]] rises all consciousness.

阿跋多羅 avatāra, descent or epiphany, especially of a deity; but intp. as 無上 peerless and 入 to enter, the former at least in mistake for anuttara.

阿跋耶祇釐 Abhayagiri, Mount Fearless, in Ceylon at Anurādhapura; in its monastery a broad school of the Sthavirāḥ arose.

阿路巴 rūpya, silver.

阿路猱 Aruṇa, a mountain in the Punjab said formerly to fluctuate in height.

阿踰闍 Ayodhyā, 阿踰陀; 阿輸闍 capital of Kośala, headquarters of ancient Buddhdism, the present Oudh, Lat. 26° N., Long. 82° 4 E.

阿軫M067750 acintya, beyond conception, v. 不思議.

阿輸柯 Younger brother of Aśoka; he is said to have reigned for seven days and then resigned to Aśoka, but cf. Mahendra under 摩.

阿轆轆地 The land where all goes smoothly along (a-lu-lu) at will; idem 轉轆轆地.

阿迦 Translit. aka, agha, etc.

阿迦奢 ākāśa, the sky space, the air, ether, atmosphere.

阿迦色 agna, but may be ākāśa; it has two opposite interpretations, substantial and unsubstantial, the latter having special reference to the empyrean.

阿迦囊 阿迦; 阿揭多 A flash in the east, the lightning god; the term is defined as 無厚 not solid, liquid, Sanskrit aghana (aghanam).

阿迦雲 A physician, a healer, probably should be 阿迦曇.

阿迦曇 agadaṃ; especially Bhaiṣajyarāia, the King of Medicine, or Healing.

阿迦尼吒 (阿迦瑟吒) akaniṣṭha, not the least, i.e. the highest, or eighteenth of the heavens of form, or brahmalokas; also阿迦尼沙吒(or 阿迦尼師吒) or 阿迦尼沙託 or 阿迦尼師託; 阿迦貳吒; 阿迦尼M012229 (阿迦瑟M012229); 尼吒;尼師吒; 二吒.

阿逸多 (阿逸) ajita, 無能勝 invincible, title of Maitreya; and of others. Also 阿氏多 (or 阿底多, 阿M060537多, or 阿嗜多); 阿私陀; 阿夷頭.

阿遮利耶 ācārya, 阿闍黎, 闍黎 or 阿闍梨, 闍梨; 阿舍梨; 阿祇利 or 阿祇梨 spiritual teacher, master, preceptor; one of 正行 correct conduct, and able to teach others. There are various categories, e.g. 出家阿遮利 one who has charge of novices; 教

授阿遮利 a teacher of the discipline; 羯磨阿遮利 of duties; 授經阿遮利 of the scriptures; 依止阿遮利 the master of the community.


阿遮羅 (or 阿遮攞); 阿奢羅 Acala, Immovable, the name of Āryācalanātha 不動明王, the one who executes the orders of Vairocana. Also, a stage in Bodhisattva development, the eighth in the ten stages towards Buddhahood.

阿遮樓 Name of a mountain.

阿避陀羯剌拏 Avidhakarṇa, unpierced ears, name of an ancient monastery near Benares; 'near Yodhapatipura'(Eitel).

阿那 āna, 安那 inhalation, v. 阿那波那.

阿那他 anātha, protector-less.

阿那他賓低 Anāthapiṇḍada, a wealthy elder of Śrāvastī, famous for liberality to the needy, and his gift of the Jetavana with its gardens and buildings to the Buddha, cf. 祇. His original name was 須達多 Sudatta and his wife's 毘舍

佉 Viśākhā.

阿那含 (or 阿那鋡); 阿那伽迷 (or 阿那伽彌) anāgāmin, the 不來 non-coming, or 不還 non-returning arhat or saint, who will not be reborn in this world, but in the rūpa and arūpa heavens, where he will attain to nirvana.

阿那含向 One who is aiming at the above stage.

阿那含果 The third of the 四果 four fruits, i.e. the reward of the seeker after the above stage.

阿那婆婁吉低輸 Āryāvalokiteśvara, a title of Guanyin v. 阿縛.

阿那律 阿那律徒(or 阿那律陀); 阿?棲馱 (or 阿M045781棲馱); 阿尼盧豆 (or 阿莬盧豆) (or 阿尼律陀) Aniruddha, 'unrestrained,' tr. by 無滅 unceasing, i.e. the benefits resulting from his charity; or 如意無貪 able to gratify every wish and without desire. One

of the ten chief disciples of Buddha; to reappear as the Buddha Samantaprabhāsa; he was considered supreme in 天眼 deva insight. Cf. 阿耨.

阿那波那 (阿那阿波那); 安般; 安那般那(or 阿那般那) ānāpāna, breathing, especially controlled breathing; āna is intp. as exhaling and apāna as inhaling, which is the opposite of the correct meaning; the process is for calming

body and mind for contemplation by counting the breathing.

阿那耆智羅 A spell for healing sickness, or charm for preventing it; others of similar title are for other saving purposes.

阿那藪囉嚩 (or 阿那籬攞嚩) anāsrava, free from mortality and its delusions.

阿部曇 The Arbuda hell, cf. 頞.

阿鉢唎瞿陀尼 Aparagodāna; apara, west; godana, ox-exchange, where oxen are used as money; the western of the four continents of every world, circular in shape and with circular-faced people. Also 啞咓囉孤答尼耶. Cf. 瞿.

阿鉢底鉢喇底提舍那 āpatti-pratideśanā, confession, 懺悔.

阿鉢羅 M067463 訶諦apratihata, irresistible, unaffected by.

阿鉢唎市多 Aparājita, name of a yakṣa; also 阿跋唎爾多; 阿波羅實多; as a symbol of invincibility it is written 阿波羅質多.

阿鑁 avaṃ. 'a' is the Vairocana germ-word in the Garbhadhātu, 'Vaṃ' the same in the Vajradhātu, hence avaṃ includes both.

阿鑁覽唅缺 a-vam-ram-ham-kham is the highest formula of the 眞言 Shingon sect; it represents all the five elements, or composite parts of Vairocana in his corporeal nature, but also represents him in his 法身 or spiritual

nature; cf. 阿卑, etc., and 阿羅 Arapacana.

阿閦 Akṣobhya, 阿閦鞞; 阿閦婆; 阿芻閦耶 unmoved, imperturbable; tr. 不動; 無動 also 無怒; 無瞋恚 free from anger, according to his Buddha-vow. One of the Five Buddhas, his realm Abhirata, Delightful, now being in the east, as

Amitābha's is in the west. He is represented in the Lotus as the eldest son of Mahābhijñābhibhū 大通智勝, and was the Bodhisattva ? jñānākara 智積 before he became Buddha; he has other appearances. akṣobhya is also said to mean

100 vivara s, or 1 followed by 17 ciphers, and a 大通智勝 is ten times that figure.

阿闍世 Ajātaśatru, 阿闍貰; 阿闍多設咄路; 未生怨 'Enemy before birth'; a king of Magadha whose father, Bimbisāra, is said to have sought to kill him as ill-omened. When grown up he killed his father and ascended the throne. At first inimical

to Śākyamuni, later he was converted and became noted for his liberality; died circa 519 B.C. Also called 'Broken fingers' and Kṣemadarśin. His son and successor was Udāyi; and a daughter was ? Aśu-dharā. According to a Tibetan

legend an infant son of Ajātaśatru was kidnapped, or exposed, and finally became king of Tibet named ~Na-khri-btsan-po.

阿闍梨 ācārya, ācārin, v. 阿遮.

阿闡底 (阿闡底遮) anicchantika, without desire, averse from, i.e. undesirous of nirvana.

阿闥婆那 (or 阿達婆那) (or 阿達波陀 or 阿達波陀) ātharvaṇa, v, 阿他 the Atharva Veda.

阿陀 agada, v. 阿伽陀.

阿陀那 ādāna, intp. by 執持 holding on to, maintaining; holding together the karma, good or evil, maintaining the sentient organism, or the germ in the seed or plant. It is another name for the ālaya-vijñāna, and is known

as the 阿陀那識 ādānavijñāna.


阿難陀 Ānanda, 阿難; intp. by 歡喜 Joy; son of Droṇodana-rāja, and younger brother of Devadatta; he was noted as the most learned disciple of Buddha and famed for hearing and remembering his teaching, hence is styled 多

聞; after the Buddha's death he is said to have compiled the sutras in the Vaibhāra cave, v. 畢, where the disciples were assembled in Magadha. He is reckoned as the second patriarch. Ānandabhadra and Ānandasāgara

are generally given as two other Ānandas, but this is uncertain.

阿難陀夜叉 A yakṣa, called White Teeth.

阿難陀補羅 Ānandapura, a place given by Eitel as north-east of Gujarat; 'the present Bārnagar, near Kurree,' which was 'one of the strongholds of the Jain sect.'

阿鞞跋致 avaivartika, avivartin, aparivartya, 不退轉 One who never recedes; a Bodhisattva who, in his progress towards Buddhahood, never retrogrades to a lower state than that to which he has attained. Also 阿毘跋致; 阿惟越致.

阿順那 arjuna, white, silvery; the tree terminalia arjuna; part of the name of 那伽閼剌樹那, Nāgārjuna. q.v. Also 阿闍那; 阿周陀那; 頞陀那; 夷離淳那.

阿顚底迦 ātyantika, final, endless, tr. by 畢竟 to or at the end, e.g. no mind for attaining Buddhahood; cf. 阿闡.

阿馱囉 ādara 阿陀囉 to salute with folded hands, palms together.

阿鳩羅加羅 ākulakara, disturbing, upsetting; name of a wind.

阿鼻 Avīci, 阿鼻旨; 阿鼻脂; 阿鼻至; the last and deepest of the eight hot hells, where the culprits suffer, die, and are instantly reborn to suffering, without interruption 無間. It is the 阿鼻地獄 (阿鼻旨地獄) or the 阿鼻焦熱地獄hell

of unintermitted scorching; or the阿鼻喚地獄 hell of unintermitted wailing; its wall, out of which there is no escape, is the 阿鼻大城.

雨 varṣa. Rain; to rain.

雨乞 To pray for rain.

雨安居 雨時; 雨期 varṣās; varṣavasāna; the rains, the rainy season, when was the summer retreat, v. 安居.

雨花, 雨華 To rain down (celestial) flowers.

雨衆 The disciples of 伐里沙 Vārṣya, i.e. Vārṣagaṇya, a leader of the Saṃkhyā school.

靑 nīla, blue, dark-coloured; also green, black, or grey; clear.

靑心 An unperturbed mind.

靑提女 The mother of Maudgalyāyana in a former incarnation, noted for her meanness.

靑河 淸河 The blue, or clear river, Vanksu, Vaksu, the Oxus.

靑目 Blue-eyed.

靑蓮 utpala, v. 優鉢羅 Blue lotus.

靑面金剛 The blue-faced rāja, protector of Buddhism, king of the yaksas, with open mouth, dog's fangs, three eyes, four arms, wearing skulls on his head, serpents on his legs, etc.

靑頭 靑頸觀音 The blue-head, or blue-neck Guanyin, the former seated on a cliff, the latter with three faces, the front one of pity, the side ones of a tiger and a pig.

靑鬼 Blue (or green) demons who abuse the sufferers in Hades.

靑龍 Blue or Green dragon.

非 Not: un-: without, apart from; wrong.

非三非一 Neither three nor one; a Tiantai phrase, that the 空假中 or noumenon, phenomenon, and madhya or mean, are three aspects of absolute truth, but are not merely three nor merely one; idem the 三德 three powers, i.e.

dharmmkāya, wisdom, and nirvana.

非二聚 Apart from the two categories of matter and mind; v. 非色非心.

非人 Not-men, not of the human race, i.e. devas, kinnaras, nāgas, māras, rakṣas, and all beings of darkness; sometimes applied to monks who have secluded themselves from the world and to beggars, i.e. not like ordinary


非六生 Not arising directly from the mind, which is the sixth sense, but from the other senses.

非喩 An imaginary and not factual metaphor, one of the eight forms of comparison 八喩.

非器 A vessel unfit for Buddha or Buddhism, e.g. a woman's body, which is unclean, v. Lotus Sutra 提襲 chapter 12.

非天 Not devas, i.e. asuras, v. 阿修羅.

非學者 Those who do not learn Buddha-truth, hence 非學世着 is a world of such.

非安立 The unestablished, or undetermined; that which is beyond terminology. 非安立諦 The doctrine of 非安立眞如 the bhūtatathatā, the absolute as it exists in itself, i.e. indefinable, contrasted with the absolute as expressible

in words and thought, a distinction made by the 唯識論.


非常 anitya, 無常 impermanent, transient, illusory, as evidenced by old age, disease, and death.

非常苦空非我 Impermanent, suffering, empty, non-ego— such is life.

非心 Apart from mind, without mind, beyond mentation.

非心非佛 Apart from mind there is no Buddha; the positive statement is 是心是佛 this mind is Buddha.

非思量底 According to the orthodox or teaching sects, not to discriminate, or reason out; according to the Ch'an sect, to get rid of wrong thoughts (by freeing the mind from active operation).

非情 Non-sentient objects such as grass, wood; earth, stone.

非情成佛 The insentient become (or are) Buddha, a tenet of the 圓教, i.e. the doctrine of pan-Buddha.

非想 Beyond the condition of thinking or not-thinking, of active consciousness or unconsciousness; an abbrev. for 非想非非想天 or 非想非非想處.

非有想. The 定 or degree of meditation of this name leads to rebirth in the arūpa heaven; which is not entirely free from distress, of which it has 八苦 eight forms.

非所斷 Not to be cut off, i.e. active or passive nirvana (discipline); one of the 三所斷.

非時 Untimely; not the proper, or regulation time (for meals), which is: from dawn to noon; hence 非時食 to eat out of hours, i.e. after noon.

非時食 to eat out of hours, i.e. after noon.

非有 abhāva. Non-existent, not real.

非有想非無想天 (or非有想非無想天處) Nāivasaṃjñānāsṃjñāyatana. 非想非非想天 The heaven or place where there is neither thinking nor not-thinking; it is beyond thinking; the fourth of the 四 空 天 four immaterial heavens, known also as

the 有頂天.

非有非空 Neither existing nor empty; neither material nor immaterial; the characterization of the bhūtatathatā (in the 唯識論), i.e. the ontological reality underlying all phenomena. In the light of this, though the

phenomenal has no reality in itself 非有, the noumenal is not void 非空.

非業 Death by accident said not to be determined by previous karma; a sudden, unnatural, accidental death.

非滅 The Buddha's 'extinction' or death not considered as real, v. 非生非滅.

非生非滅 The doctrine that the Buddha was not really born and did not really die, for he is eternal; resembling Docetism.

非色 arūpa, formless, i.e. without rūpa, form, or shape, not composed of the four elements. Also the four skandhas, 非色四薀 excluding rūpa or form.

非色非心 Neither matter nor mind, neither phenomenal nor noumenal; the triple division of all things is into 色, 心, and 非色非心phenomenal, noumenal, and neither.

非菩薩 Not Bodhisattvas, those who have not yet inclined their hearts to Mahāyāna.

非道 Wrong ways, heterodox view, or doctrines.

非非想天 or 非非想處 v. 非有.

非食 Not to eat out of regulation hours, v. 非時食.

非黑非白業 Neither black nor white karma, karma which does not affect metempsychosis either for evil or good; negative or indifferent karma.


係 Connect, bind, involve; is, are.

係念 To think of, be drawn to.

俄 Suddenly, on the point of.

俄那鉢底 Gaṇapati, v. 誐.

M000656伽定 The nāga meditation, which enables one to become a dragon, hibernate in the deep, prolong one's life and meet Maitreya, the Messiah.

保 Protect, ward, guard; guarantee.

保境將軍 The guardian general of the region.

便 Convenient, convenience; then, so; easy; cheap.


便利 Convenient and beneficial; to urinate or evacuate the bowels; a latrine.

便旋 A mere turn, i.e. immediate and easy.

便膳那 (or 便善那or 便社那); ?膳便 vyañjana, 'making clear, marking, distinguishing,' M. W. a 'relish'; intp. by 文 a mark, sign, or script which manifests the meaning; also 味 a taste or flavour, that which distinguishes one [[Wikipedia:


taste]] from another.

俗 common, ordinary, usual, vulgar.

俗人 gṛhastha, an ordinary householder; an ordinary man; the laity.

俗塵 Common dust, earthly pollution.

俗形 Of ordinary appearance, e.g. the laity.

俗戒 The common commandments for the laity.

俗我 The popular idea of the ego or soul, i.e. the empirical or false ego 假我 composed of the five skandhas. This is to be distinguished from the true ego 眞我 or 實我, the metaphysical substratum from which all

empirical elements have been eliminated; v.八大自在我.

俗智 Common or worldly wisdom, which by its illusion blurs or colours the mind, blinding it to reality.

俗流 The common run or flow.

俗諦 世諦 Common principles, or axioms; normal unenlightened ideas, in contrast with reality.

信 śraddhā. Faith; to believe; belief; faith regarded as the faculty of the mind which sees, appropriates, and trusts the things of religion; it joyfully trusts in the Buddha, in the pure virtue of the

triratna and earthly and transcendental goodness; it is the cause of the pure life, and the solvent of doubt. Two forms are mentioned: (1) adhimukti, intuition, tr. by self-assured enlightenment. (2)

śraddhā, faith through hearing or being taught. For the Awakening of Faith, Śraddhotpāda, v. 起信論.

信伏 To believe in and submit oneself to.

信仰 To believe in and look up to.

信力 śraddhābala. The power of faith; one of the five bala or powers.

信受 The receptivity and obedience of faith; to believe and receive (the doctrine).

信受奉行 In faith receive and obey, a sentence found at the end of sutras.

信向 To believe in and entrust oneself to the triratna 三寳.

信士 upāsaka, 信事男 a male devotee, who remains in the world as a lay disciple. A bestower of alms. Cf. 優.

信女 upāsikā. A female devotee, who remains at home. Cf. 優.

信度 Sindhu, Sindh, Scinde, 辛頭 the country of 信度河 the Indus, one of the 'four great rivers.' Sindhu is a general name for India, but refers especially to the kingdom along the banks of the river Indus, whose capital was


信德 The merit of the believing heart; the power of faith.

信心 A believing mind, which receives without doubting.

信忍 Faith-patience, faith-endurance: (1) To abide patiently in the faith and repeat the name of Amitābha. (2) To believe in the Truth and attain the nature of patient faith. (3) According to Tiantai the 別教

meaning is the unperturbed faith of the Bodhisattva (that all dharma is unreal).

信慧 Faith and wisdom, two of the 五根.

信戒 Faith and morals, i.e. the moral law, or commandments; to put faith in the commandments.

信手 Faith, regarded as a hand grasping the precious truth of Buddha.

信施 Almsgiving because of faith; the gifts of the faith.

信根 śraddhendriya. Faith, one of the five roots or organs producing a sound moral life.

信樂 To believe and rejoice in the dharma; the joy of believing.

信水 Faith pure and purifying like water.

信海 The ocean of faith: the true virtue of the believing hear is vast and boundless as the ocean.

信珠 The pearl of faith; as faith purifies the hear it is likened to a pearl of the purest water.


信現觀 Firm faith in the triratna as revealing true knowledge; one of the 六現觀.

信種 The seed of faith.

信藏 The treasury of faith (which contains all merits).

信行 Believing action; faith and practice. Action resulting from faith in another's teaching, in contrast with 法行 action resulting from direct apprehension of the doctrine; the former is found among the 鈍根, i.e.

those of inferior ability, the latter among the 利根, i.e. the mentally acute.

信解 Faith and interpretation, i.e. to believe and understand or explain the doctrine; the dull or unintellectual believe, the intelligent interpret; also, faith rids of heresy, interpretation of ignorance.

信解行證 Faith, interpretation, performance, and evidence or realization of the fruit of Buddha's doctrine.

信順 To believe and obey.

信首 Faith as the first and leading step.

信鼓 The drum or stimulant of faith.

冒 To risk; rash; counterfeit; introduce.

冒地 bodhi.

冒地質多 bodhicitta, the enlightened mind, idem 善提心.

冒地薩恒嚩 Bodhisattva. Cf. 菩提.

則 Pattern, rule; then, therefore.

則劇 To play; a form of play.

剃 To shave.

剃刀 A razor.

剃頭 To shave the head.

剃髮 To shave the hair, following Śākyamuni, who cut off his locks with a sharp sword or knife to signify his cutting himself off from the world.

前 pūrva. Before; former, previous; in front.

前世 前生 Former life or lives.

前中後 Former, intermediate, after.

前佛 A preceding Buddha; former Buddhas who have entered into nirvana.

前堂 The front hall, or its front part.

前塵 Previous impure condition (influencing the succeeding stage or stages).

前正覺山 Prāgbodhi, v. 鉢 A mountain in Magadha, reported to have been ascended by Śākyamuni before his enlightenment, hence its name.

前身 The previous body, or incarnation.

前後際斷 Discontinuous function, though seemingly continuous, e.g. a 'Catherine-wheel,' or torch whirled around.

剌 To cut, slash; translit. la, ra, ya.

剌瑟胝 yaṣṭi, pole, staff, stick, intp. flagpole.

剌竭節 (or 糲竭節) laguḍa, a staff, stick.

剌那 cf. 囉, 羅 ratna, precious thing, jewel, etc.

剌那尸棄 Ratnaśikhin, cf. 尸棄, 'the 999th Buddha of the preceding kalpa, the second of the Sapta Buddha.' Eitel.

剌那伽羅 Ratnākara, a 'jewel-mine, the ocean' (M. W.), intp. jewel-heap; name of a Buddha and Bodhisattva; the 112th Buddha of the present kalpa; also of 'a native of Vaiśālī, contemporary of Śākyamuni.'

剌闍 囉惹 rajas, atmosphere, vapour, gloom, dust, dirt, etc.; intp. dust, minute; also hatred, suffering.

敕 Imperial commands.

敕命 The sovereign commands of the Buddha.

勇 Brave, bold, courageous, fearless.

勇猛精進 Bold advance, or progress.

勇施菩薩 Pradhānaśūra, a Bodhisattva now in Śākyamuni's retinue.

勃 Shooting plants; a comet.

勃沙 弗沙 puṣya; foam; a lunar mansion, i.e. the three arrow stars in the 鬼 constellation of which ? Cancri is one.

勃陀 勃馱; 勃塔耶; 馞陀; 佛陀 Buddha; intp. by 覺 and 佛 q.v.

勃伽夷 Bhagai, 'a city south of Khotan with a Buddha-statue which exhibits all the' lakṣaṇani, or thirty-two signs, 'brought there from Cashmere.' Eitel.

南 dakṣina, south; translit. nāṃ and as a suffix intp. as meaning plural, several, i.e. more than three.

南中三教 The three modes of Śākyamuni's teaching as expounded by the teachers south of the Yangtze after the Ch'i dynasty A.D. 479-501. (1) The 漸教 gradual method, leading the disciples step by step to nirvana. (2) The 頓教

immediate method, by which he instructed the Bodhisattvas, revealing the whole truth. (3) The 不定教 undetermined method, by which the teaching is adapted to each individual or group.

南天 (南天竺) Southern India.

南宗 The Southern sect, or Bodhidharma School, divided into northern and southern, the northern under 神秀 Shen-hsiu, the southern under 慧能 Hui-nang, circa A.D. 700, hence 南能北秀; the southern came to be considered the orthodox

Intuitional school. The phrase 南頓北漸 or 'Southern immediate, northern gradual' refers to the method of enlightenment which separated the two schools.


南山 Southern hill, name of a monastery which gave its name to 道宣 Tao-hsuan of the Tang dynasty, founder of the 四分律 school.

南方 The southern quarter; south.

南方佛教 Southern Buddhism in contrast with 北方 northern Buddhism.

南方無垢世界 (南無垢) The Southern Pure Land to which the dragon-maid went on attaining Buddhahood, cf. Lotus Sutra.

南泉 Nan-ch'uan, a monk of the Tang dynasty circa 800, noted for his cryptic sayings, inheritor of the principles of his master, Ma Tsu 馬祖.

南海摩羅耶山 Mālayagiri 'the Mālaya mountains in Malabar answering to the western Ghats; a district in the south of India.' M. W. A mountain in Ceylon, also called Lanka.

南無 namaḥ; Pali: namo; to submit oneself to, from to bend, bow to, make obeisance, pay homage to; an expression of submission to command, complete commitment, reverence, devotion, trust for salvation, etc. Also written 南牟; 南謨

南忙; 那謨 (or 那模 or 那麻); 納莫 (or 納慕); 娜母; 曩莫 (or 曩謨); 捺麻(or捺謨), etc. It is used constantly in liturgy, incantations, etc., especially as in namaḥ Amitābha, which is the formula of faith of the Pure-land sect, representing the

believing heart of all beings and Amitābha's power and will to save; repeated in the hour of death it opens the entrance to the Pure Land.

南無佛 南無三寳 I devote myself entirely to the Buddha, or triratna, or Amitābha, etc.

南無師 Masters of namaḥ, i.e. Buddhist or Taoist priests and sorcerers.

南羅 Southern Lāra; Mālava, an ancient kingdom in Central India; head quarters of heretical in the present Malwa.

北南 was Valabhī, in Gujarat.

南能北秀 v. 南宗.

南藏 The Southern Collection, or Edition, of the Chinese Buddhist Canon, published at Nanking under the reign of Tai Tsu, the first emperor of the Ming dynasty, who reigned A.D. 1368-1398.

南行 dakṣiṇāyana. The course or declination of the sun to the south it moves from north to south; a period of six months.

南贍部洲 南閻浮提 Jambūdvīpa. One of the four continents, that situated south of Mt. Meru, comprising the world known to the early Indians. Also 南州; 南浮; 南部.

南陽 Nan-yang, a noted monk who had influence with the Tang emperors Su Tsung and Tai Tsung, circa 761-775.

南頓北漸 v. 南宗.

卽 To draw up to, or near; approach; forthwith; to be; i.e. alias; if, even if; 就是. It is intp. as 和融 united together; 不二not two, i.e. identical; 不離 not separate, inseparable. It resembles implication, e.g. the afflictions or

passions imply, or are, bodhi; births-and-deaths imply, or are, nirvana; the indication being that the one is contained in or leads to the other. Tiantai has three definitions: (1) The union, or unity, of two

things, e.g. 煩惱 and 菩提, i.e. the passions and enlightenment, the former being taken as the 相 form, the latter 性 spirit, which two are inseparable; in other words, apart from the subjugation of the passions there

is no enlightenment. (2) Back and front are inseparables; also (3) substance and quality, e.g. water and wave.

卽中 The via media is that which lies between or embraces both the 空 and the 假, i.e. the void, or noumenal, and the phenomenal.

卽事卽理 The identity of phenomena with their underlying principle, e.g. body and spirit are a unity; 卽事而眞 approximates to the same meaning that phenomena are identical with reality, e.g. water and wave.

卽得 Immediately to obtain, e.g. rebirth in the Pure Land, or the new birth here and now.

卽心 Of the mind, mental, i.e. all things are mental, and are not apart from mind.

卽心卽佛, 卽心是佛 (or 卽心成佛) The identity of mind and Buddha, mind is Buddha, the highest doctrine of Mahāyāna; the negative form is 非心非佛 no mind no Buddha, or apart from mind there is no Buddha; and

all the living are of the one mind.


卽心念佛 To remember, or call upon, Amitābha Buddha within the heart, which is his Pure Land.

卽時 Immediately, forthwith.

卽有卽空 All things, or phenomena, are identical with the void or the noumenon.

卽相卽心 Both form and mind are identical, e.g. the Pure Land as a place is identical with the Pure Land in the mind or heart—a doctrine of the Pure Land or Jōdo sect.

卽空卽假卽中 All things are void, or noumenal, are phenomenal, are medial, the three meditations 三觀 of Tiantai.

卽身 The doctrine of the Shingon 眞言 sect that the body is also Buddha; in other words Buddha is not only 卽心 mind, but body; hence 卽身成佛; 卽身菩提 the body is to become (consciously) Buddha by Yoga


卽離 Identity and difference, agreement and disagreement.

卽非 Identity and difference.

哀 Alas! mourn, wail.

哀愍 哀憐 Pity for one in misery.

哀雅 Ai ya! an exclamation of pain, or surprise.

咥 To laugh; to bite. Translit. t.

咥哩若底 trijāti, the three stages of birth, past, present, future.

摩咥哩迦 咥哩迦 Mātṛkā, a name for the Abhidharmapiṭaka.

uc3589吒 Kheṭa, name of a preta, or hungry ghost.

哈密 Hami, 'an ancient city and kingdom in Central Asia north-east of lake Lop in Lat. 43゜3 N., Long, 93°10 E.' Eitel. From Han to Tang times known as I-wu 伊吾, now called Kumul by Turki Mohammadans. For more than 1500 years,

owing to its location and supply of water, Hami was a bridgehead for the expansion and control of the outposts of the Chinese empire in Central Asia.

咸 All, entirely.

咸同 All together.

品 varga, 跋渠 class, series, rank, character; a chapter of a sutra.

上中下品 Superior, middle, and lower class, grade, or rank.

mala. Dust, impurity, dregs; moral impurity; mental impurity. Whatever misleads or deludes the mind; illusion; defilement; the six forms are vexation, malevolence, hatred, flattery, wild

talk, pride; the seven are desire, false views, doubt, presumption, arrogance, inertia, and meanness.

垢有 v. 二眞如.

垢染 Taint of earthly things, or illusion.

垢汗 Defilement (of the physical as type of mental illusion).

垢結 The bond of the defiling, i.e. the material, and of reincarnation; illusion.

垢習 Habituation to defilement; the influence of its practice.

垢識 Defiling knowledge, the common worldly knowledge that does not discriminate the seeming from the real.

城 See under Ten Strokes.

契 A tally, covenant, bond; to agree with; devoted to; adopted (by).

契吒 Kakṣa; Kacha; Kach; ancient kingdom of Mālava, now the peninsula Cutch.

契會 To meet, rally to, or unite in the right or middle path and not in either extreme.

契範 The covenants and rules, or standard contracts, i.e. the sutras.

契線 契經 The sutras, because they tally with the mind of man and the laws of nature.

姞 Chi, name of the concubine of Huang Ti; translit. g .

姞栗陀羅矩吒 (姞栗陀) gṛdhra, a vulture; Gṛdhrakūṭa, the Vulture Peak, v. 者.

姟 Ten millions, tr. of ayuta 阿由他, nayuta, 那由他; but another account says 100 millions.

姥 Matron, dame.

姥達羅 mudrā (mudrā-bala), 100,000 sexillions, 大姥達羅 a septillion; v. 洛.

威 prabhāva. Awe-inspiring majesty; also 威力 and 威神力.

威儀 Respect-inspiring deportment; dignity, i.e. in walking, standing, sitting, lying. There are said to be 3,000 and also 8,000 forms of such deportment.

威儀法師 (威儀師); 威儀僧 A master of ceremonies.

威德 Of respect-inspiring virtue; dignified.

威怒 Awe-inspiring; wrathful majesty.

威怒王 The wrathful maharāja. guardians of Buddhism.

威神 The awe-inspiring gods, or spirits.

威音王 Bhīṣma-garjita-ghoṣa-svara-rāja, the king with the awe-inspiring voice, the name of countless Buddhas successively appearing during the 離衰 kalpa; cf. Lotus Sutra.


宣 Proclaim; spread abroad; widespread. 宣流; 宣說.

客 A guest, visitor, traveller, outsider, merchant.

客司 Guest room; reception of guests.

客山 The guest hill, or branch monastery, in contrast with the 主山 chief one.

客塵 āgantu-kleśa, the foreign atom, or intruding element, which enters the mind and causes distress and delusion; the mind is naturally pure or innocent till the evil element enters; v. 煩惱.

室 House, household, abode; translit. ś, s, śr;, śl. Cf. 尸; 舍; 音; for 室摩 v. 沙門.

室利 śrī, fortunate, lucky, prosperous; wealth; beauty; name applied to Lakṣmī and Śarasvatī, also used as a prefix to names of various deities and men; an abbrev. for Mañjuśrī.

室利嚩塞迦 śrīvāsas, turpentine.

室利蜜多羅 Śrīmitra, a prince of India, who became a monk and tr. three works in Nanking A. D. 317-322.

室利揭婆 Śrīgarbha, fortune's womb, epithet of Viṣṇu. M. W. also tr. it 'a sword,' but it is intp. as a precious stone.

室利提婆 Śrīdeva, name of 道希 Tao-hsi, a noted monk.

室利毱 Śrīgupta, an enemy of Śākyamuni, whom he tried to destroy with a pitfall of fire and a poisoned drink.

室利羅 śarīra, relics, v. 舍.

室利羅多 (or 室利邏多) Śrīlabdha, a celebrated commentator, to whom is attributed, inter alia, the chief commentary on the 起信論 Awakening of Faith; he was called the enlightener of northern India.

室利差呾羅 Śrīkṣetra, 'an ancient kingdom near the mouth of the Brahmaputtra;' capital probably 'modern Silhet (Śrihatta).' Eitel.

室利訖栗多底 Śrīkrītati, ancient name of Kashgar; Eitel.

室利靺蹉 śrīvatsa, the mark of Viṣṇu and Kṛṣṇa, a curl of hair on their breasts, resembling a cruciform flower (M. W. ), intp. as resembling the svastika.

室星 The Revatī constellation in India. that of the 'house' or the thirteenth constellation in China.

室灑 śiṣya, a pupil, disciple.

室獸摩羅 śiśumāra, a crocodile; see 失收摩羅.

室羅末尼羅 śrāmaṇera, v. 沙彌; also for 室羅摩拏洛迦(or 摩拏理迦).

室羅筏拏 (or 室羅縛拏) (室羅筏拏磨洗,室羅縛拏磨洗) śrāvaṇa (or śrāvaṇa-māsa). The hottest month of summer, July-August (from 16th of 5th moon to 15th of 6th moon).

室羅筏悉底 Śrāvastī or Śarāvatī, also 室羅伐. 舍衞國.

封 To seal, close (a letter); classifier, or numerative of letters, etc.; to appoint (imperially).

封體 To seal up a god or Buddha in a body by secret methods.

屋 A house, a room.

屋裏人 The master of the house; the mind within; also a wife.

屍 corpse (of a murdered person. v. 尸 and 毘陀羅.

屍鬼 A corpse-ghost (called up to kill an enemy).

屍陀林 śītavana, a cemetery.

屍黎密 Śrīmitra, cf. 室.

屎 Excrement.

屎擔子 A load of night-soil, i.e. the human body that has to be carried about.

屎糞地獄 The excrement hell.

帝 Ruler, sovereign; translit. t.

帝利耶瞿楡泥伽 傍行 tiryagyoni-gati; the animal path of reincarnation.

帝失羅叉 Tiṣya-rakṣitā; 'a concubine of Aśoka, the rejected lover and enemy of Kuṇāla' ( Eitel). M. W. says Aśoka's second wife.

帝居 The abode of Indra.

帝心 Title given to 杜順 Tu Shun, founder of the Huayan school, by Tang Tai Tsung.

帝沙 Tiṣya; an ancient Buddha; also the father of Śāriputra.

帝相 Indra-dhvaja, a Buddha 'said to have been a contemporary of Śākyamuni, living south-west of our universe, an incarnation of the seventh son of Mahābhijñajñānabhibhū.' Eitel.

帝釋 Sovereign Śakra; Indra; 能天帝 mighty lord of devas; Lord of the Trayastriṃśas, i.e. the thirty-three heavens 三十三天 q. v.; he is also styled 釋迦提桓因陀羅 (or 釋迦提婆因陀羅) (or 釋迦提桓因達羅 or 釋迦提婆因達羅); 釋帝桓因 Śakra-devānām


帝釋弓 (帝弓); 天弓 indradhanus, the rainbow.

帝釋巖 帝釋窟 Indraśīlāguhā, Indra's cave at Nālandā in Magadha, where Indra is supposed to have sought relief for his doubts from the Buddha.

帝釋甁 The vase of Indra, from which came all things he needed; called also 德祥甁(or 賢祥甁or 吉祥甁) vase of virtue, or of worth, or of good fortune.

帝網 (帝釋網) ? Indra-jala. The net of Indra, hanging in Indra's 宮 hall, out of which all things can be produced; also the name of an incantation considered all-powerful.

帝隸路迦也吠闍耶 Trailokya-vijaya, victor or lord over the 三世 three realms.|靑 Indranila, an emerald. 幽 Hidden, dark, mysterious. |儀 The mysterious form, the spirit of the dead. |冥 Mysterious, beyond

comprehension; the shades. |途 The dark paths, i. e. of rebirth in purgatory or as hungry ghosts or animals. |靈 Invisible spirits, the spirits in the shades, the souls of the departed.


度 pāramitā, 波羅蜜; intp. by 渡 to ferry over; to save. The mortal life of reincarnations is the sea; nirvana is the other shore; v. pāramitā, 波. Also, to leave the world as a monk or nun, such is a 度得 or 度者.

度一切世間苦惱 Sarvalōkadhātupadravodvega-pratyuttīrṇa. ' One who redeems men from the misery of all worlds. A fictitious Buddha who dwelled west of our universe, an incarnation of the tenth son of Mahābhijñājñāna bhibhū.'


度世 To get through life; to pass safely through this life. Also, to save the world.

度沃焦 An epithet of Buddha who rescues all the living from being consumed by their desires, which resemble the burning rock in the ocean above purgatory.

度洛叉 Daśalakṣa , 10 lakhs, a million.

度無極 To ferry across, or save, without limit.

度生 To save, rescue all beings; also idem 度世.

度科 The portion of the sutras supposed to be learned by religious novices as preparation for leaving the world as monks.

度脫 To give release from the wheel of transmigration; enlightenment.

建 To found, set up, establish, build.

建佗歌 Kaṇṭhaka, the horse on which Śākyamuni rode when he left home.

建志補羅 建志城 Kāñcīpura, capital of Drāviḍa, the modern Conjevaram, about 48 miles south-west of Madras.

建立 To found (a school of thought or practice); to set up; e. g. samāropa, assertion, Postulation, theory, opp. of 誹謗 apavāda, refutation.

廻 Return, turn back, turn to, give back; a turn.

廻大入一 To turn to and enter the One Vehicle of Mahāyāna.

廻心 To turn the mind or heart towards (Mahāyāna).

廻向 The goal or direction of any discipline such as that of bodhisattva, Buddha, etc.; to devote one's merits to the salvation of others; works of supererogation.

廻施 is similar; cf. 囘向; 十廻向; 五悔; 三心; 九方便.

弭 Stop, put down.

弭曼差 The Mīmāṃsa system of Indian philosophy founded by Jaimini, especially the Pūrva-mīmāṃsa. It was 'one of the three great divisions of orthodox Hindu Philosophy ,' M. W. Cf, the Nyāya and Saṃkhyā.

弭M067396賀 Mimaha, an ancient kingdom about seventy miles east of Samarkand, the present Moughian or Maghīn in Turkestan. ' Eitel.

彥 Accomplished, refined.

彥琮 Yancong, a famous monk, translator and writer, A. D. 557-610.

彥悰 Yancong, Tang monk, translator and writer, date unknown.

彥達縛 Gandharva v. 乾.

待 To wait, treat, behave to.

待對 Relationship, in relation with, one thing associated with another.

後 After, behind, 1ater, posterior.

後世 The 1ife after this; later generations or ages.

後五百年 (後五 or 後五百歳) The Pratirūpaka 象法 (or 像法) symbol, formal, or image period, to begin 500 years after the Nirvana; also the last of the periods of 500 years when strife would prevail.

後光 The halo behind an image.

後唄 The third of the three chants in praise of Buddha.

後報 The retribution received in further incarnation (for the deeds' done in this life).

後夜 The third division of the night.

後得智 分別智 Detailed, or specific, knowledge or wisdom succeeding upon or arising from 根本智 fundamenta1 knowledge.

後有 Future karma; the person in the subsequent incarnation; also, the final incarnation of the arhat, or bodhisattva.

後法 像法 The latter, or symbol, age of Buddhism; see above.

後生 The after condition of rebirth; later born; youth.

後說 Spoken later, or after; the predicate of the major premise of a syllogism.

後身 The body or person in the next stage of transmigration.

vinaya, from vi-ni, to 1ead, train: discipline: v. 毘奈耶; other names are Prātimokṣa, śīla, and upalakṣa. The discipline, or monastic rules; one of the three divisions of the Canon, or Tripiṭaka, and said to have been

compiled by Upāli.

律乘 The Vinaya-vehicle, the teaching which emphasizes the discipline.

律儀 Rules and ceremonies, an intuitive apprehension of which, both written and unwritten, enables the individual to act properly under all circumstances.

律儀戒 The first of the three 衆戒, i. e. to avoid evil by keeping to the discipline.

律宗 The Vinaya school, emphasizing the monastic discipline, founded in China by 道宣 Daoxuan of the Tang dynasty.

律派 The discipline branch, or school.

律師 Master and teacher of the rules of the discipline.

律懺 Repentance and penance according to the rules.

律法 The laws or methods of the discipline; rules and laws.

律相 The discipline, or its characteristics.

律禪 The two schools of Discipline and Intuition.

律藏 The Vinaya-piṭaka.

律行 The discipline in practice, to act according to the rules.


怎 How? What? Why ? Anything.

怎生 How born? How did it arise?

急 Haste, urgency; promptly.

急施 Alms made under stress of urgency.

急施如律令 'Swiftly as Lu-ling runs,' used by sorcerers in their incantations.

Hate, annoyed, vexed. 恨心; 怨恨; 恨怒.

恒 Constant; perseverance, persistence; translit. ga, ha.

恒常 Constant, regular.

恒伽河 The Ganges, v. 恒河.

恒伽提婆 Gaṅgādevī, name of a female disciple of the Buddha.

恒伽達 Gaṅgādatta, son of a wealthy landowner and disciple of the Buddha.

恒婆 (or恒亙婆), haṃsa, a goose.

恒河 恒水; 恒伽 (竸伽, 殑伽, or 強伽) Gaṅgā, the river Ganges, 'said to drop from the centre of Śiva's ear into the Anavatapta lake' (Eitel), passing through an orifice called variously ox's mouth, lion's mouth, golden

elephant's mouth, then round the lake and out to the ocean on the south-east.

恒伽沙 more commonly 恒沙 gaṅgā-nadī-vālukā; as the sands of Ganges, numberless.

思 cint- 指底. Think, thought; turn the attention to; intp. by 心所法 mental action or contents, mentality, intellection.

思假 Thought or its content as illusion.

思惟 To consider or reflect on an object with discrimination; thought, reflection.

思惑 The illusion of thought.

思慧 The wisdom attained by meditating (on the principles and doctrines of Buddhism).

思擇力 Power in thought and selection (of correct principles).

思量 Thinking and measuring, or comparing; reasoning.

思量識 (思量能變識) The seventh vijñāna, intellection, reasoning. See also 三能變.

思食 Thought-food, mental food; to desire food.

Resentment, grievance, hatred.

怨家 怨敵 An enemy.

怨憎會苦 One of the eight sufferings, to have to meet the hateful.

怨結 The knot of hatred.

怨親 Hate and affection.

怨賊 The robber hatred, hurtful to life and goods.

怨靈 An avenging spirit or ghost.

按 To place, lay down, lay the hand on; examine; accord with.

按指 To make a finger-mark, or sign.

拏 Take, lay hold of; translit. for d, n; e. g. dāmara, to affright (demons); v. 荼.

拜 Pay respect (with the hands), worship: the forms of bowing and heeling are meticulously regulated.

拜佛 To worship the Buddhas, etc.

拾 To gather, pick up, arrange; ten.

拾得 To gather; gathered up, picked up, a foundling.

指 Finger, toe; to point, indicate.

指兎 idem 指月 To indicate the hare (in the moon).

指印 To sign by a thumb-mark; a sign.

指多 質多 citta, the mind.

指方立相 To point to the west, the location of the Pure Land, and to set up in the mind the presence of Amitābha; to hold this idea, and to trust in Amitābha, and thus attain salvation. The mystics regard this as a mental

experience, while the ordinary believer regards it as an objective reality.

指月 To point a finger at the moon: the finger represents the sūtras, the moon represents their doctrines.

指環 草指; 指釧 (or 草釧) Finger-ring; sometimes of grass, used by the esoteric sect.

指節 aṅgulī-parvan; finger-joint; a measure, the 24th part of a forearm (hasta).

指腹親 Related by the betrothal of son and daughter still in the womb.

指難 idem 支那 China.

指鬘 Aṅgulīmālya, name of a convert of Śākyamuni, who had belonged to a Śivaitic sect which wore chaplets of finger-bones, and 'made assassination a religious act'.

持 dhṛ; dhara. Lay hold of, grasp, hold, maintain, keep; control.

持句 One who holds to or retains the words (of the dhāraṇī).

持名 To hold to, i. e. rely on the name (of Amitābha).

持國者 A sovereign, ruler of a kingdom.

持國天 (or 治國天) Dhṛtarāṣṭra, one of the four deva-guardians or maharājas, controlling the east, of white colour.

持地 Dharaṇimdhara, holder, or ruler of the earth, or land; name of a Bodhisattva, who predicted the future of Avalokiteśvara.

持律 A keeper or observer of the discipline.

持念 To hold in memory.

持息念 The contemplation in which the breathing is controlled, v. ānāpāna 阿那.

持戒 To keep the commandments, or rules.

持戒波羅蜜 One of the six pāramitās, morality, keeping the moral law.

持本 Holding to the root, or fundamental; ruler of the earth, which is the root and source of all things.

持明 The dhāraṇī illuminant, i. e. the effective 'true word' or magical term.

持明仙 The magician who possesses this term.

持明藏 The canon of the dhāraṇīs; vidyādhara-piṭaka.

持水 Jātiṃdhara, a physician who adjusted prescriptions and diet to the seasons; reborn as Śuddhodana.

持法者 A keeper or protector of the Buddha-law.

持犯 'maintaining and transgressing', i. e. keeping the commandments by 止持 ceasing to do wrong and 作持 doing what is right, e. g. worship, the monastic life, etc.; transgression is also of two kinds, i. e. 作犯 positive in doing

evil and 止犯 negative in not doing good.


持牛戒 Keepers of the law of oxen, an ascetic sect who ate and acted like oxen.

持瓔珞 Mālādharī, wearing a chaplet, name of a rākṣasī, or demoness.

素 To keep to vegetarian diet; vegetarian.

持軸山 Īṣādhara, the second of the seven concentric mountains round Mt. Meru. rounded like a hub.

持邊山 Nemiṃdhara, the outermost of the seven mountain circles around Mt. Meru.

持隻山 Yugaṃdhara: the first of the seven concentric mountains.

持金剛 執全剛 Vajradhara' or Vajrapāṇi, a Bodhisattva who holds a vajra or thunderbolt, of these there are several; a name for Indra.

持齋 To keep the fast, i. e. not eat after noon.

政 Government, administration, policy, politics.

政教 Political teaching, governmental education; politics and the church or religion).

故 Old, of old; from of old; cause; purposely; to die; tr. pūrva.

故二 pūrva-dvitīya, the former mate or wife of a monk.

故思業 (or 故作業) The karma produced by former intention.

故意 Intentionally.

故意方行位 The third to the seventh of the 十地 ten bodhisattva stages of development.

故紙 Old (or waste ) paper.

故苦 Old suffering; also the suffering resulting from prolongation, e. g. too much lying, standing, walking, at first a joy, becomes wearying.

故骨 Old bones, bones of a former incarnation or generation.

斫 To chop; translit. ca, cha.

斫句迦 (or 拆句迦 or 所句迦) Chakoka, or Cugopa. 'An ancient kingdom and city in Little Bukharia, probably the modern Yerkiang (葉爾羌 ) in Lat. 38° 13 N., Long. 78° 49 E. ' Eitel. Or perhaps Karghalik in the Khotan region.

斫芻 (斫乞芻) cakṣu (s), the eye, one of the six organs of sense. Cakṣurdhātu is the 眼界 eye-realm, or sight-faculty. There are definitions such as the eye of body, mind, wisdom, Buddha-truth,

Buddha; or human, deva, bodhisattva, dharma, and Buddha vision.

斫託羅 idem 斫迦羅 (or 柘迦羅); 遮伽羅 (or 遮迦羅); 賒羯羅 Cakra, a wheel, disc, cycle; the wheel of the sun's chariot, of time, etc.; like the vajra it is a symbol of sovereignty, of advancing or doing at will; to

revolve the wheel is to manifest power or wisdom. Eitel. The cakra is one of the thirty-two signs on a Buddha's soles. It is a symbol of a 斫迦羅伐辣底 Cakravartī-rāja.

斫迦羅伐辣底 遮迦越羅; 轉輪王 Cakravartī-rāja, sovereign ruler, whose chariot wheels roll everywhere without hindrance: the extent of his realm and power are indicated by the quality of the metal, iron, copper, silver, or, for

universality, gold. The highest cakravartī uses the wheel or thunder-bolt as a weapon and 'hurls his Tchakra into the midst of his enemies', but the Buddha 'meekly turns the wheel of doctrine and conquers every

universe by his teaching'.

斫迦羅婆 (斫迦羅婆迦) Cakravāka, Cakrāhva, 'the ruddy goose', ' the Brāhmany duck '. M. W. The mandarin duck.

斫迦羅山 Cakravāla, Cakravāḍa, the circle of iron mountains' forming the periphery of a universe '.

施 dāna 檀那 Alms; charity. To give, bestow. See also 實.

施主 dānapati; an almsgiver, a patron of Buddhism.

施僧 To give alms to monks.

施化 To bestow the transforming truth.

施林 To give to the forest, i. e. burial by casting the corpse into the forest.

施無厭 (無厭寺), i. e. 那爛陀 Nālanda-saṃghārāma, a monastery seven miles north of Rājagṛha, where Xuanzang studied; built by Śakrāditya; now 'Baragong (i. e. vihāragrāma) '. Eitel.

施無畏 abhayandada; abhayadāna; the bestower of fearlessness, a title of Guanyin; a bodhisattva in the Garbhadhātu.

施行 The practice of charity.

施設 To set up, establish, start.

施設論部 Kārmikāḥ, the school of Karma, which taught the superiority of morality over knowledge.

施護 Dānapāla, a native of Udyāna who translated into Chinese some 111 works and in A. D. 982 received the title of Great Master and brilliant expositor of the faith.

施開廢 A Tiantai term indicating the three periods of the Buddha's teaching: (1) bestowing the truth in Hīnayāna and other partial forms; (2) opening of the perfect truth like the lotus, as in the Lotus Sutra; (3)

abrogating the earlier imperfect forms.

施食 To bestow food (on monks), and on hungry ghosts.

昭 Bright, illustrious.

昭玄寺 The bureau for nuns in the fifth century A. D.

是 The verb to be, is, are, etc.; right; this, these.

是心是佛 This mind is Buddha; the mind is Buddha, cf. 卽.

是處非處力 The power to distinguish right from wrong, one of the ten Buddha powers.

Tara, a star; the 25th constellation consisting of stars in Hydra; a spark.

星宿 The twenty-eight Chinese constellations 二十八宿; also the twenty-eight nakṣatras; the 十二宮 twelve rāṣi, or zodiacal mansions; and the 七曜 seven mobile stars: sun, moon, and five graha or planets; all which are

used as auguries in 星占法 astrology. A list giving Sanskrit and Chinese names, etc・, is given in 佛學大辭典, pp. 1579-1 580.

星占法 astrology.

星宿劫 A future kalpa of the constellations in which a thousand Buddhas will appear.


星暦 jyotiṣa, relating to astronomy, or the calendar.

殊底色迦 Jyotiṣka; a native of Rājagṛha who gave all his goods to the poor.

星祭 星供 To sacrifice, or pay homage to a star, especially one's natal star.

曷 How ? What ? Why ? Translit. a, ha, ra, ro.

曷利拏 hariṇa, deer of several kinds.

曷利沙伐彈那 Harṣavardhana, king of Kanyākubja, protector of Buddhism about A. D. 625.

曷剌怛那揭婆 ratnagarbha, jewel treasury, or throne.

曷剌? āraṇya, v. 阿.

曷羅怙羅 Rāhula, v. 羅.

曷羅胡 Rohu, 'an ancient city and province of Tukhāra, south of the Oxus.' Eitel.

曷羅闍姞利呬 羅閲城 Rājagṛha, v. 王舍城.

曷羅闍補羅 Rājapura, a province and city, now Rajaori in south-west Kashmir.

曷部多 adbhuta, remarkable, miraculous, supernatural.

柵 Palisades, rails.

柵門那, idem 訕若 Saṅjaya.

枳 Thorn, thorns; translit. ke, ki.

枳哩枳哩 Kelikila, one of the rājas who subdues demons.

枳吒 枳擔 (枳擔那) An island which rises out of the sea.

枳羅蘇 (or 枳羅婆 枳羅娑) kilasa, white leprosy, tr. as 'white' and a 'hill'.

柴 See under Ten Strokes.

柱 Pillar, post, support.

柱塔 A pagoda.

枸 A spinous shrub; translit. k.

枸蘇摩 kusuma, a flower; especially the white China-aster.

枸蘇摩補羅 Kusumapura, the city of flowers, Pāṭaliputra, i. e. Patna.

枸盧舍 krośa, cf. 拘, 倶; the distance the lowing of an ox can be heard, the eighth part of a yojana.

柔 Pliant, yielding, soft.

柔和 Gentle, forbearing, tolerant.

柔輭 (A heart) mild and pliable (responsive to the truth).

柔輭語 Gentle, persuasive words.

柔順忍 The patience of meekness, i. e. in meekness to accord with the truth.

柯 Axe-handle; agent; translit. k, v. 呵, 迦, 哥, etc.

柯尸悲與 The Kāśyapīya school.

枯 Wither, decay.

枯木 Withered timber, decayed, dried-up trees; applied to a class of ascetic Buddhists, who sat in meditation, never lying down, like 石霜枯木 petrified rocks and withered stumps.

枯木堂 The hall in which枯木 sat.

枯筏羅闍 1,000 sextillions, cf. 洛.

柰 Berries of the nyctanthes or musk. āmra, a mango.

柰女 (or 柰氏) Āmradārikā, Āmrapālī, a woman who is said to have been born on a mango-tree, and to have given the Plum-garden 柰苑 (or 柰園) to the Buddha, cf. 菴羅.

柳 A willow.

柳枝 Willow branches put in clean water to keep away evil spirits.

柏 Cypress, cedar, Arbor vitae.

柄 A handle; authority, power.

柄語Authoritative or pivotal words.

染 To dye, infect, contaminate, pollute; lust.

染垢 染汚 Soiled, contaminated, impure, especially by holding on to the illusory ideas and things of life; deluded. The kleśas or contaminations of attachment to the pleasures of the senses, to false views,

to moral and ascetic practices regarded as adequate for salvation, to the belief in a self which causes suffering, etc.

染心 A mind contaminated (with desire, or sexual passion).

染恚痴 Lust, anger, stupidity (or ignorance); also 婬怒痴; 貪瞋痴.

染愛 Polluting desire.

染法 Polluted thing, i. e. all phenomena; mode of contamination.

染汚 idem 染垢.

染汚意 A name for the seventh vijñāna, the mind of contamination, i. e. in egoism, or wrong notions of the self.

染淨 Impurity and purity; the thoughts and things of desire are impure, the thoughts and methods of salvation are pure.

染淨不二門 Impurity and purity as aspects of the total reality and not fundamentally ideas apart, one of the 十不二門 q. v.

染淨眞如 The bhūtatathatā as contaminated in phenomena and as pure being.

染界 The sphere of pollution, i. e. the inhabited part of every universe, as subject to reincarnation.

染緣 The nidāna or link of pollution, which connects illusion with the karmaic miseries of reincarnation. From the 'water' of the bhūtatathatā, affected by the 'waves' of this nidāna-pollution, arise the waves of


染習 Contaminated by bad customs, or habit.

染著 Pollution-bond; a heart polluted by the things to which it cleaves.

染衣 (染色衣) Dyed garments, i. e. the kaṣāya of the early Indian monks, dyed to distinguish them from the white garments of the laity.

段 A piece; a section, paragraph. piṇda, a ball, lump, especially of palatable food, sustenance.


毘 Contiguous; surrounded; hemmed in; liberal; to aid; manifest; translit. v, vi, vai, vya, ve, pi, bh, bhi. Cf. 鞞, 鼻, 吠.

毘佛略 vaipulya, large, spacious, intp. 方廣 q. v., expanded, enlarged. The term is applied to sūtras of an expanded nature, especially expansion of the doctrine; in Hīnayāna the Āgamas, in Mahāyāna the sutras of Huayan and

Lotus type; they are found in the tenth of the 十二部經 twelve sections of the classics. Other forms are 鞞佛略 or 裴佛略; 毘富羅.

毘伽羅 vyākaraṇa, grammatical analysis, grammar; 'formal prophecy,' Keith; tr. 聲明記論 which may be intp. as a record and discussion to make clear the sounds; in other words, a grammar, or sūtras to reveal right forms of

speech; said to have been first given by Brahmā in a million stanzas, abridged by Indra to 100,000, by Pāṇini to 8,000, and later reduced by him to 300. Also 毘耶羯剌諵; 毘何羯唎拏; in the form of 和伽羅 Vyākaraṇas q. v. it is


毘佉羅 (or 毘低羅) Vikāra, an old housekeeper with many keys round her waist who had charge of the Śākya household, and who loved her things so much that she did not wish to be enlightened.

毘倶胝 (or 毘倶知) Bhrūkuti, knitted brow; one of the forms of Guanyin.

毘利差 vṛkṣa means a tree, but as the intp. is 'a hungry ghost,' vṛka, wolf, seems more correct.

毘勒 piṭaka 螕勒. A Tiantai term for the 藏教 or Hīnayāna.

毘吠伽 viveka, 'discrimination, 'intp. 淸辯 clear distinction or discrimination.

媻毘吠伽 Bhāvaviveka, a disciple of Nāgārjuna, who 'retired to a rock cavern to await the coming of Maitreya'. Eitel.

毘囉拏羯車婆 vīranakacchapa, a tortoise, turtle.

毘多輸 Vītaśoka, younger brother of Aśoka, v. 阿.

毘奢蜜多羅 Viśvāmitra, name of Śākyamuni's school-teacher.

毘婆尸 Vipaśyin, 弗沙; 底沙 the first of the seven Buddhas of antiquity, Śākyamuni being the seventh. Also 毘婆沙; 毘頗沙; 毘鉢沙 (or 微鉢沙); 鞞婆沙 (or 鼻婆沙); 維衞.

毘婆沙 vibhāṣā, option, alternative, tr. 廣解 wider interpretation, or 異說 different explanation. (1) The Vibhāṣā-śāstra, a philosophical treatise by Kātyāyanīputra, tr. by Saṅghabhūti A. D. 383. The Vaibhāṣikas 毘婆沙論師 were the followers

of this realistic school, 'in Chinese texts mostly quoted under the name of Sarvāstivādaḥ.' Eitel. (2) A figure stated at several tens of thousands of millions. (3) Vipaśyin, v. 毘婆尸.

毘婆舍那 (or 毘鉢舍那) vipaśyanā, discernment, intp. as 觀 insight, 正見 correct perception, or views, etc. vipaśyanā-vipaśyanā, thorough insight and perception.

毘婆闍婆提 Vibhajyavādins, answerers in detail, intp. as 分別說, discriminating explanation, or particularizing; a school of logicians. 'It is reasonable to accept the view that the Abhidhamma Piṭaka, as we have it in the [[Pali

Canon]], is the definite work of this school.' Keith.

毘富羅 vipula, 毘布羅 broad, large, spacious. A mountain near Kuśāgārapura, in Magadha; v. 毘佛略.

毘尸沙 viśeṣa, the doctrine of 'particularity or individual essence', i. e. the sui generis nature of the nine fundamental substances; it is the doctrine of the Vaiśeṣika school of philosophy founded by Kaṇāda.

毘嵐風 vairambha. The great wind which finally scatters the universe; the circle of wind under the circle of water on which the world rests. Also 毘藍 (毘藍婆) (鞞藍 or 鞞藍婆) (吠藍 or 吠藍婆); 鞞嵐; 吠嵐婆 (or 吠嵐儈伽); 毘樓那; and 毘藍婆 which is

also Pralambā, one of the rākṣasīs.

毘怛迦 vitarka, 'initial attention, 'cognition in initial application,' 'judgment,' Keith; intp. as 尋 search or inquiry, and contrasted with 伺 spying out, careful examination; also as 計度 conjecture, supposition. Cf. 毘遮羅


毘指多婆多 vijitavat, one who has conquered, conqueror, intp. as the sun.

毘提訶 Videha, 佛提媻; 弗於逮. (1) Abbrev. for Pūrvavideha, 佛婆毘提訶 the continent east of Meru. (2) 'Another name for Vaiśālī and the region near Māthava.' Eitel.


毘摩 Bhīmā. (1) Śiva, also a form of Durgā, his wife (the terrible). (2) A city west of Khotan, possessing a statue of Buddha said to have transported itself thither from Udyāna. Eitel. Also used for 毘摩羅 vimalā, unsullied,

pure; name of a river, and especially of Śiva's wife.

毘摩羅詰 鼻磨羅雞利帝; 維磨詰; Vimalakīrti, name of a disciple at Vaiśālī, whom Śākyamuni is said to have instructed, see the sūtra of this name.

毘摩質多 吠摩質呾利 Vimalacitra, a king of asuras, residing at the bottom of the ocean, father of Indra's wife.

毘播奢 Vipāśā, a river in the Punjab, 'the Hyphasis of the Greeks,' now called the Beas.

毘播迦 vipāka, ripeness, maturity, change of state; another name for the eighth 識.

毘曇 v. 阿毘達磨 Abhidharma.

毘木叉 v. 毘目叉.

毘柰耶 Vinaya, 毘那耶; 毘尼 (毘泥迦) (or 鞞尼, 鞞泥迦); 鼻那夜 Moral training; the disciplinary rules; the precepts and commands of moral asceticism and monastic discipline (said to have been given by Buddha); explained by

律 q. v ordinances; 滅 destroying sin; 調伏 subjugation of deed, word, and thought; 離行 separation from action, e. g. evil.

毘柰耶藏 The Vinayapiṭaka, the second portion of the Tripiṭaka, said to have been compiled by Upāli; cf. 律.

毘梨耶 vīrya, virility, strength, energy; 'well-doing,' Keith; intp. 精進 zeal, pure progress, the fourth of the ten pāramitās; it is also intp. as enduring shame. Also 毘利耶 (or 毘黎耶or 毘離耶); 尾唎也.

毘沙拏 viśāṇa, a horn. It is used for the single horn of the rhinoceros, as an epithet for a pratyekabuddha, v. 緣覺, whose aim is his own salvation.

毘沙門 (毘沙門天王) Vaiśravaṇa. Cf. 財 and 倶. One of the four mahārājas, guardian of the North, king of the yakṣas. Has the title 多聞; 普聞; universal or much hearing or learning, said to be so called because he heard the

Buddha's preaching; but Vaiśravaṇa was son of Viśravas, which is from viśru, to be heard of far and wide, celebrated, and should be understood in this sense. Vaiśravaṇa is Kuvera, or Kubera, the Indian Pluto;

originally a chief of evil spirits, afterwards the god of riches, and ruler of the northern quarter. Xuanzong built a temple to him in A. D. 753, since which he has been the god of wealth in China, and

guardian at the entrance of Buddhist temples. In his right hand he often holds a banner or a lance, in his left a pearl or shrine, or a mongoose out of whose mouth jewels are pouring; under his feet are two demons.

Colour, yellow.

毘沙拏五童子 The five messengers of Vaiśravaṇa. Other forms are 毗捨明; 鞞舍羅婆拏; 鞞室羅懣嚢.

毘流波叉 Virūpākṣa, 'irregular-eyed,' 'three-eyed like Śiva,' translated wide-eyed, or evil-eyed; one of the four mahārājas, guardian of the West, lord of nāgas, colour red. Also 毘流博叉 (or 毘樓博叉); 鼻溜波阿叉; 鞞路波阿迄.

毘濕婆 (or 毘濕波). A wind, said to be a transliteration of viśva, universal, cf. 毘嵐.

毘灑迦 ? Viśākhā, one of the retinue of Vaiśravaṇa.

毘璢璃 Virūḍhaka. Known as Crystal king, and as 惡生王 Ill-born king. (1) A king of Kośala (son of Prasenajit), destroyer of Kapilavastu. (2) Ikṣvāku, father of the four founders of Kapilavastu. (3) One of the four mahārājas,

guardian of the south, king of kumbhāṇḍas, worshipped in China as one of the twenty-four deva āryas; colour blue. Also, 毘璢王; 流離王; 婁勒王 (毘婁勒王); 樓黎王 (維樓黎王); 毘盧釋迦王 (or 毘盧宅迦王); 鼻溜茶迦, etc.

毘盧舍那 Vairocana, 'belonging to or coming from the sun' (M. W.), i. e. light. The 眞身 q. v. true or real Buddha-body, e. g. godhead. There are different definitions. Tiantai says Vairocana represents the 法

身 dharmakāya, Rocana or Locana the 報身 saṃbhogakāya, Śākyamuni the 應身 nirmāṇakāya. Vairocana is generally recognized as the spiritual or essential body of Buddha-truth, and like light 徧一切處 pervading everywhere.

The esoteric school intp. it by the sun, or its light, and take the sun as symbol. It has also been intp. by 淨滿 purity and fullness, or fullness of purity. Vairocana is the chief of the Five dhyāni

Buddhas, occupying the central position; and is the 大日如來 Great Sun Tathāgata. There are numerous treatises on the subject. Other forms are 毘盧; 毘盧遮那 (or 毘盧折那); 吠嚧遮那; 鞞嚧杜那.

毘目叉 vimokṣa, vimukti, 毘木叉; 毘木底 liberation, emancipation, deliverance, salvation, tr. 解脫 q. v.

毘目瞿沙 vimuktaghosa, the Buddha's voice of liberation (from all fear); also 毘目多羅.


毘睇 vidyā, 毘底牙 knowledge, learning, philosophy, science; incantation; intp. 明呪 an incantation to get rid of all delusion. The Vidyādharapiṭaka is a section of incantations, etc., added to the Tripiṭaka.

毘羅删拏 Vīrasana. 'An ancient kingdom and city in the Doab between the Ganges and the Yamuna. The modern Karsanah.' Eitel.

毘耶裟 Vyāsa, arranger, compiler; to distribute, diffuse, arrange; a sage reputed to be the compiler of the Vedas and founder of the Vedānta philosophy.

毘舍 veśa, entrance, house, adornment, prostitute; but it is probably vaiśya, the third caste of farmers and traders, explained by 居士 burghers, or 商賈 merchants; cf. 吠.

毘舍佉 Vaiśākha, viśākhā 吠舍佉; 鼻奢佉; one of the constellations similar to Di 底, the third of the Chinese constellations, in Libra; M. W. says the first month in the year, the Chinese interpret it as from the

middle of their second to the middle of their third month.

毘舍佉母 鹿母 A wealthy matron who with her husband gave a vihāra to Śākyamuni, wife of Anāthapindika; v. 阿那.

毘舍支 (or 毘舍遮) ? Piśācī, female sprites, or demons, said to inhabit privies.

毘舍浮 Viśvabhū, the second Buddha of the 31st kalpa. Eitel says: 'The last (1,000th) Buddha of the preceding kalpa, the third of the Sapta Buddha 七佛 q. v., who converted on two occasions 130,000 persons.' Also 毘舍婆 (or

毘舍符); 毘濕婆部; 毘恕沙付; 毘攝羅; 鞞恕婆附; 鞞舍; 隨葉; 浮舍.

毘舍羅 Viśāla, a deity who is said to have protected the image of Buddha brought to Ming Di of the Han dynasty.

毘舍闍 Piśācāḥ. Imps, goblins, demons in the retinue of 持國天 Dhṛtarāṣtra. Also 毘舍遮 (or 畢舍遮) (or 毘舍支, 畢舍支); 辟舍柘 (or 臂舍柘).

毘舍離 吠舍離 (or 吠舍釐). Vaiśālī, an ancient kingdom and city of the Licchavis, where the second synod was held, near Basarh, or 'Bassahar, north of Patna'. Eitel. Also 毘耶 (毘耶離);毘城; 鞞舍離; 鞞隸夜; 維耶 (維耶離).

毘若底 vijñapti, information, report, representation; intp. as 識 knowledge, understanding, hence the 毘若底摩呾剌多 Vijñaptimātratā, or 唯識. Reality is nothing but representations or ideas. For 毘若南 v. 毘闍那.

毘苦媻補羅 Vichavapura. 'The ancient capital of Sindh.' Eitel.

毘茶 Bhiḍa, or Pañca-nada, an ancient kingdom called after its capital of Bhiḍa; the present Punjab. Eilel.

毘訖羅摩阿迭多 Vikramāditya, Valour-sun, intp. as surpassing the sun, a celebrated king who drove out the Sakas, or Scythians, and ruled over northern India from 57 B. C., patron of literature and famous benefactor of

Buddhism. Also 馝柯羅摩阿迭多.

毘訶羅 vihāra, a pleasure garden, monastery, temple, intp. as 遊行處 place for walking about, and 寺 monastery, or temple. Also 鼻訶羅; 鞞訶羅; 尾賀羅.

毘訶羅波羅 vihārapāla, the guardian of a monastery.

毘訶羅莎弭 vihārasvāmin, the patron or bestower of the monastery.

毘跋耶斯 The smṛti-upasthāna 四念處, or four departments of memory; possibly connected with Vipaśyanā, v. 毘婆.

毘遮羅 vicāra, 'applied attention,' Keith, cf. 毘怛迦 intp. as pondering, investigating; the state of the mind in the early stage of dhyāna meditation.

毘那夜加 vināyaka, a hinderer, the elephant god, Ganeśa; a demon with a man's body and elephant's head, which places obstacles in the way.

毘那怛迦 毘泥吒迦 vinataka, bowed, stooping, is used with the same meaning as 毘那夜加, and also [Vinataka] for the sixth of the seven concentric circles around Mt. Meru; any mountain resembling an elephant. Also 毘那耶加; 頻那也迦; 毘那耶怛迦; 吠那

怛迦. For 毘那耶 v. 毘柰耶.

毘闍那 vijñāna, 毘若南 'consciousness or intellect', knowledge, perception, understanding, v. 識.

毘陀 The Vedas; also 皮陀; 圍陀; 韋陀.

毘陀羅 vetāla, an incantation for raising a corpse to kill another person.

毘離耶犀那 Viryasena, an instructor of Xuanzang at the Bhadravihāra, v. 跋.

毘頭利 vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli, one of the seven precious things. [ Vaiḍūrya] A mountain near Vārāṇasī. Also 毘璢璃 or 吠璢璃; 鞞稠利夜.

毘首羯磨 (毘首) Viśvakarman, all-doer, or maker, the Indian Vulcan, architect of the universe and patron of artisans; intp. as minister of Indra, and his director of works. Also 毘守羯磨; 毘濕縛羯磨.


津 Ford, ferry, place of crossing a stream.

津梁 A bridge or ferry across a stream; i. e. religion.

津送 To escort to the ferry, either the living to deliverance or more generally the dead; to bid goodbye (to a guest).

洲 An islet; a continent.

洲渚 An island, i. e. cut off, separated a synonym for nirvāṇa.

洗 To wash, cleanse.

洗淨 Cleansing, especially after stool.

洩 To leak, diminish.

洩瑟知林 Yaṣṭivana, forest of the bamboo staff which took root when thrown away by the Brahman who did not believe the Buddha was 16 feet in height; but he more he measured the taller grew the Buddha, hence his

chagrin. Name of a forest near Rājagṛha.

活 jīva, jīvaka; alive, living, lively, revive, movable.

活國 ? Ghūr, or Ghori, name of an ancient country in Turkestan, which Eitel gives as Lat. 35°41N., Long. 68°59E., mentioned in Xuanzang's Records of Western Countries, 12.

活佛 A living Buddha, i. e. a reincarnation Buddha e. g. Hutuktu, Dalai Lama, etc.

活兒子 A name for the bodhi-tree.

活命 Life, living; to revive.

洴舍 Bimbisāra, v. 頻.

洞 A hole, cave; to see through, know.

洞山 Cave hill or monastery in Yün-chou, modern Jui-chou, Kiangsi, noted for its T'ang teacher悟本 Wu-pen.

洞家 洞上; 洞下 refer to the 曹洞 school of 慧能 Huineng.

洛 Luoyang 洛陽, the ancient capital of China.

洛叉 or 洛沙 lakṣa, a lakh, 100,000. The series of higher numbers is as follows:

度洛叉 a million,

兆倶胝 10 millions,

京末陀 100 millions,

秭阿多 1,000 millions,

垓大秭阿廋多 10,000 millions,

壤那廋多 100,000 millions,

溝大壤那廋多 1 billion,

澗鉢羅廋多 10 billions,

正大澗鉢羅廋多 100 billions,

戴矜羯羅; 甄迦羅 1,000 billions,

大戴矜羯羅; 大甄迦羅 10,000 billions,

頻婆羅 (or 頻跋羅) 100,000 billions,

大頻婆羅 (or 大頻跋羅) 1 trillion,

阿閦婆 (or 阿芻婆) 10 trillions,

大阿閦婆 (or 大阿芻婆) 100 trillions,

毘婆訶1,000 trillions,

大毘婆訶 10,000 trillions,

嗢蹭伽 100,000 trillions,

大嗢蹭伽 1 quadrillion,

婆喝那 10 quadrillions,

大婆喝那 100 quadrillions,

地致婆 1,000 quadrillions,

大地致婆 10,000 quadrillions,

醯都 100,000 quadrillions,

大醯都 1 quintillion,

羯縛 10 quintillions,

大羯縛 100 quintillions,

印達羅 1,000 quintillions,

大印達羅 10,000 quintillions,

三磨鉢躭 100,000 quintillions,

大三磨鉢躭 1 sextillion,

揭底 10 sextillions,

大揭底 100 sextillions,

枯筏羅闍 1,000 sextillions,

大枯筏羅闍 10,000 sextillions,

姥達羅 100,000 sextillions,

大姥達羅 1 septillion,

跋藍 10 septillions,

大跋藍 100 septillions,

珊若 1,000 septillions,

大珊若 10,000 septillions,

毘歩多 100,000 septillions,

大毘歩多 1 octillion,

跋羅攙 10 octillions,

大跋羅攙 100 octillions,

阿僧企耶 asaṃkhyeya, innumerable.

炭 Charcoal, coal.

炭頭 The fire-tender in a monastery.

珍 Precious; rare.

珍域 The precious region, or Pure Land of a Buddha.

珍寶 A pearl; jewel; precious thing.

珍重 To esteem and treat as precious.

珂 White jade shell; translit. k, khr.

珂但尼 佉陀 (or 佉闍尼) khādanīya, food that can be masticated, or eaten.

珂咄羅 Kotlan, 'an ancient kingdom west of the Tsung-ling, south of the Karakal lake, in Lat. 39°N., Long. 72°E.' Eitel.

珂月 The jade-like or pearly moon.

珂貝 Jade (or white quartz) and shells (cowries), used as money in ancient times.

珂雪 Snow-white as jade (or white quartz).

玻璃 sphaṭika. Rock crystal, one of the seven precious things. Also 頗梨 or 頗黎; 塞頗致迦, etc.

珊 Coral; translit. for san, saṃ.

珊尼羅闍 Sanirājā, a river of Udyāna.

珊明 pravāḍa, or prabāla, coral, one of the seven treasures.

珊若 sañjñā, 'a particularly high number,' M. W. 1,000 septillions, a 大珊若 is 10,000 septillions.

珊若婆 A wasting disease.

珊闍邪毘羅胝 (or 珊闍夜毘羅胝) Sañjaya-vairāṭi, a king of yakṣas; also the teacher of Maudgalyāyana and Śāriputra before their conversion.

甚 What? any; very, extreme.

甚深 The profundity (of Buddha-truth).

界 dhātu. 馱都 Whatever is differentiated; a boundary, limit, region; that which is contained or limited, e. g. the nature of a thing; provenance; a species, class, variety; the underlying principle; the root or underlying principles

of a discourse.


界內 Within the region, limited, within the confines of the 三界, i. e. the three regions of desire, form, and formlessness, and not reaching out to the infinite.

界內事教 Tiantai's term for the Tripiṭaka school, i. e. Hīnayāna, which deals rather with immediate practice, confining itself to the five skandhas, twelve stages, and eighteen regions, and having but imperfect ideas of 空 the


界內理教 Tiantai's 通教, which is considered to be an advance in doctrine on the 界內事教, partially dealing with the 空 and advancing beyond the merely relative. Cf. 界外.

界內教 The two schools of 界內事教 and 界內理教.

界內惑 Illusion of the two schools of 界內事教 and 界內理教; illusion of, or in, the above three realms which gives rise to rebirths.

界分 Any region or division, especially the regions of desire, form, and formlessness.

界外 The pure realms, or illimitable 'spiritual' regions of the Buddhas outside the three limitations of desire, form, and formlessness.

界外事教 Tiantai's term for the 別教, which concerned itself with the practice of the bodhisattva life, a life not limited to three regions of reincarnation, but which had not attained to its fundamental principles.

界外理教 Tiantai's 圓教 the school of the complete Buddha-teaching, i. e. that of Tiantai, which concerns itself with the śūnya doctrines of the infinite, beyond the realms of reincarnation, and the development of

the bodhisattva in those realms.

界外教 The two schools of 界外事教 and 界外理教.

界如 The 十界 and 十如 q. v.

界繫 The karma which binds to the finite, i. e. to any one of the three regions.

界趣 The three regions (desire, form, and formlessness) and the six paths (gati), i. e. the spheres of transmigration.

疥 Itch, the itch, scabby.

疥癩野干 A scabby dog, or jackal.

皆 All.

皆空 All is empty and void.

皈 idem 歸.

皈依 To turn to and rely on the triratna.

盆 Bowl, basin, tub.

盆會 The All-Souls anniversary, v. 盂.

省 Look into minutely, inspect, examine; arouse; spare, save; an inspectorate, hence a province.

省行堂 another name for 延壽堂.

看 Look, see; watch over.

看方便 To fix the mind or attention, a Chan (Zen) term.

看病 To nurse the sick; also to attend a patient medically.

眉 Eyebrow, the eyebrows.

眉間白毫相 ūrṇā. The curl of white hairs, between the eyebrows of the Buddha, one of the thirty-two signs of Buddhahood.

眉間光 The ray of light which issued from the 眉間白毫相 lighting up all worlds, v. Lotus Sutra.

相 lakṣana 攞乞尖拏. Also, nimitta. A 'distinctive mark, sign', 'indication, characteristic', 'designation'. M. W. External appearance; the appearance of things; form; a phenomenon 有爲法 in the sense of appearance; mutual; to

regard. The four forms taken by every phenomenon are 生住異滅 rise, stay, change, cease, i. e. birth, life, old age, death. The Huayan school has a sixfold division of form, namely, whole and parts, together

and separate, integrate and disintegrate. A Buddha or Cakravartī is recognized by his thirty-two lakṣana , i. e. his thirty-two characteristic physiological marks.

相性 Form and nature; phenomenon and noumenon.

相似 Alike, like, similar, identical.

相似佛 Approximation or identity of the individual and Buddha, a doctrine of Tiantai; the stage of 十信.

相似卽 (相似卽佛) One of the six of the 相似佛 identities, similarity in form.

相似覺 The approximate enlightenment which in the stages of 十住, 十行and 十廻向 approximates to perfect enlightenment by the subjection of all illusion; the second of the four degrees of bodhi in the Awakening of Faith


相入 Mutual entry; the blending of things, e. g. the common light from many lamps.

相分 An idea, a mental eject; a form.

相卽 Phenomenal identity, e. g. the wave is water and water the wave.

相名五法 v. 五法.

相違因 Mutually opposing causes; one of the 十因.

相大 The greatness of the potentialities, or attributes of the Tathāgata; v. the Awakening of Faith 起信論.

相好 lakṣana-vyañjana; the thirty-two 相 or marks and the eighty 好 or signs on the physical body of Buddha. The marks a Buddha's saṃbhogakāya number 84,000. 相 is intp. as larger signs, 好 as smaller; but as they are also intp.

as marks that please, 好 may be a euphemism for 號.


相宗 idem 法相宗.

相對 Opposite, opposed; in comparison.

相待 The doctrine of mutual dependence or relativity of all things for their existence, e. g. the triangle depends on its three lines, the eye on things having colour and form, long on short.

相想倶絶宗 One of the ten schools, as classified by Hsien-shou of Huayan, which sought to eliminate phenomena and thought about them, in favour of intuition.

相應 Response, correspond, tally, agreement, yukta, or yoga, interpreted by 契合 union of the tallies, one agreeing or uniting with the other.

相應因 Corresponding, or mutual causation, e. g. mind, or mental conditions causing mentation, and vice versa.

相應宗 Yoga, the sect of mutual response between the man and his object of worship, resulting in correspondence in body, mouth, and mind, i. e. deed, word, and thought; it is a term for the Shingon or 眞言 school.

相應法 The correspondence of mind with mental data dependent on five correspondences common to both, i. e. the senses, reasoning, process, time, and object.

相應阿笈摩 The Saṃyuktāgamas, or 'miscellaneous' āgamas; v. 阿.

相應縛 The bond (of illusion) which hinders the response of mind to the higher data.

相智 Knowledge derived from phenomena.

相承 Mutually receiving, handing on and receiving, mutually connected.

相無生 Unreal in phenomena, e. g. turtle-hair or rabbit's horns; the unreality of phenomena, one of the 三無生.

相空 The unreality of form; the doctrine that phenomena have no reality in themselves, in contrast with that of Hīnayāna which only held that the ego had no reality.

相縛 To be bound by externals, by the six guṇas, or objects of sensation. Cf. 相應縛.

相續 santati. Continuity, especially of cause and effect.

相續假 Illusory ideas continuously succeed one another producing other illusory ideas, one of the three hypotheses of the 成實論 Satyasiddhi-śāstra.

相續常 Nodal or successive continuity in contrast with 不斷常 uninterrupted continuity.

相續心 A continuous mind, unceasing thought.

相續相 Continuity of memory, or sensation, in regard to agreeables or disagreeables, remaining through other succeeding sensations, cf. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

相續識 Continuity-consciousness which never loses any past karma or fails to mature it.

相輪 The sign or form of wheels, also 輪相, i. e. the nine wheels or circles at the top of a pagoda.

矜 To pity; boast; attend to; vigorous.

矜哀 To pity.

矜羯羅 金伽羅 Kiṃkara, a servant, slave; the seventh of the eight messengers of 不重明王.

砂 Gravel, sand.

以砂施佛 The legend of Aśoka when a child giving a handful of gravel as alms to the Buddha in a previous incarnation, hence his rebirth as a king.

祆 Xian, commonly but incorrectly written 祅 a Western Asian name for Heaven, or the 天神 God of Heaven, adopted by the Zoroastrians and borrowed later by the Manicheans; also intp. as Maheśvara.

祆寺 A Manichean monastery.

祆教 (or 末尼教) The Manichean religion.

祈 yācñā. Pray; prayer is spoken of as absent from Hīnayāna, and only known in Mahāyāna, especially in the esoteric sect.

祈禱 祈念; 祈請 To pray, beg, implore, invite.

祈雨 To pray for rain.

祈願 To vow.

祇 The Earth-Spirit; repose; vast; translit. j, g.

祇哆槃那 (or 祇哆槃林); 祇園 (祇園精舍); 祇樹園; 祇樹給孤獨園; 祇樹花林窟; 祇桓林 (or 祇洹林); 祇陀林 (or 祇陀園); also 逝 or 誓多, etc. Jetavana, a park near Śrāvastī, said to have been obtained from Prince Jeta by the elder Anāthapiṇḍika, in which

monasterial buildings were erected, the favourite resort of Śākyamuni. Two hundred years later it is said to have been destroyed by fire, rebuilt smaller 500 years after, and again a century later burnt down; thirteen years

afterwards it was rebuilt on the earlier scale but a century later entirely destroyed. This is the account given in 法苑珠林 39.

祇多蜜 Gītamitra, tr. 謌友 'friend of song', who in the fourth century tr. some twenty-five works into Chinese.


祇夜 geya, singing; geyam, a song; preceding prose repeated inverse; odes in honour of the saints; cf. 伽陀 gāthā.

祇支 v. 僧祇支.

祇陀 Jetṛ; Jetā; victor, a prince of Śrāvastī, son of king Prasenajit, and previous owner of the Jetavana.

禺 A monkey; begin; the 巳 hour, 9-11 a. m.

禺中 the middle of the 巳 hour, 10 a. m. Tiantai called the fourth period of Buddha's teaching the 禺中.

科 A class, lesson, examination.

科文 A set portion of a book, a lesson.

科儀 The rule of the lesson.

穿 To bore, pierce; to thread; to don, put on. To bore a well and gradually discover water, likened to the gradual discovery of the Buddha-nature.

穿耳僧 Pierced-ear monks, many of the Indian monks wore ear-rings; Bodhidharma was called 穿耳客 the ear-pierced guest.

突 Rush out; protrude; rude; suddenly.

突婆 dhūpa, incense, frankincense, fragrant gum; intp. as 茅香 lemon-grass, perhaps Andropogen nardus.

突吉羅 突膝吉栗多 (or 突悉吉栗多); 突瑟 ? 理多 duṣkṛta (Pali dukkaṭa), wrong-doing, evil action, misdeed, sin; external sins of body and mouth, i. e. deed and word. Cf. 吉羅.

突迦 Durgā, Bhīmā, or Marīci, 'the wife of Maheśvara, to whom human flesh was offered once a year in autumn.' Eitel.

突路拏 Droṇa, a Brahman who is said to have divided the cremation remains of the Buddha to prevent strife for them among contending princes.

紀 To record; regulate; a year, a period (of twelve years).

紀綱寮 The office of the director of duties.

紇 Tassels; the Uigur tribe; a knot.

紇利陀耶 紇利倶; 紇哩陀耶 (or紇哩乃耶or 紇哩娜耶); 訖利駄耶; 釳陀陀; 汗栗駄; 肝栗大 hṛdaya, the heart, the mind; some forms are applied to the physical heart, others somewhat indiscriminately to the Tathāgata-heart, or the true, natural,

innocent heart.

紇哩 or 紇利 (紇利倶); 纈利 hrīḥ is a germ-word of Amitābha and Guanyin.

紇差怛羅 kṣetra, a land, country, especially a Buddha-realm, cf. 刹.

紇露悉泥 Hrosminkan or Semenghān, an ancient kingdom near Khulm and Kunduz. 'Lat. 35゜40 N., Long. 68゜ 22 E. ' Eitel.

紅 aruṇa, rakta; red.

紅教 紅衣派 The red sect, i. e. the Zva-dmar, or Shamar, the older Lamaistic sect of Tibet, who wear red clothes and hats.

紅蓮花 padma, the red lotus.

紅蓮地獄 The red lotus hell, the seventh of the eight cold hells, where the flesh of the sufferers bursts open like red lotuses.

約 Bind, restrain; agree, covenant; about.

約機 To avail oneself of opportunity, or suitable conditions.

約教 約部 According to their doctrine or according to their school.

約法 According to the doctrine, or method.

美 Fine, handsome, beautiful, admirable. madhura, sweet, pleasant.

美音 Beautiful sound, a king of the Gandharvas (乾闥婆), Indra's musicians. Also, the name of a son of Sudhīra and Sumitra converted by Ānanda.

美音天女 (美音); 妙音天 Sarasvatī, 薩囉薩筏底 the Muse of India, goddess of speech and learning, hence called 大辯才天, goddess of rhetoric; she is the female energy or wife of Brahmā, and also goddess of the

river Sarasvatī.

耐 To endure, bear.

耐怨害忍 The patience which endures enmity and injury.

耐秣陀 Narmadā, the modern Nerbudda river.

耶 An interrogative particle; translit. for jha, ya.

耶旬 耶維 cf 荼毘 jhāpita, cremation.

耶婆 yava, barely; a barleycorn, the 2,688,000th part of yojana; also a measure in general of varying weight and length.

耶婆提 Yavana, Yavadvīpa, i. e. Java.

耶婆盧吉帝 Avalokiteśvara cf. 觀音.

耶舍 Yaśas, or 耶舍陀 Yaśojā. There were two persons of this name: (1) a disciple of Ānanda; (2) another who is said to have 'played an important part in connection with the second synod'.

耶輸陀羅 (耶輸陀); 耶輸多羅. 耶戍達羅 Yaśodharā; the wife of Śākyamuni, mother of Rāhula, who became a nun five years after her husband's enlightenment. She is to become the Buddha Raśmi-śata-sahasra-paripūrṇa-dhvaja; v. [[Lotus

Sutra]]. Her name was also Gopā, 瞿波; 劬毘那 is perhaps Gopī.

M029375 v. 僧.

背 Back, behind; turn the back on, go contrary on the back.

背念 To turn one's back to; carry on the transmigration life and abide quietly in the nirvāṇa-mind.

背捨 To turn the back on and leave the (the world).

背正 To turn the back on Buddha-truth.


背鱠經屛 To mince fish on the back of an image, and paste up the scriptures as a screen from the wind— a man without conscience.

胡 How? Why? Hun; Turk; random; hemp; long-lived; pepper, etc.; translit. go, hu.

胡亂 Disorderly, without order.

胡嚧遮那 gorocanā, 'a bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of a cow.' M. W.

胡子 Hun, or Turk, a term applied to the people west and north of China; a nickname for Bodhidharma.

胡種族 Of West Asian race, a term applied to the Buddha, as the sūtras were also styled 胡經 Hun classics and 老胡 Old Hun was also a nickname for the Buddha.

老胡 Old Hun was also a nickname for the Buddha.

胡蘇多 A charm, or incantation against evil vapours, etc.

胡跪 The Hun way of kneeling, right knee on the ground, left knee up.

胡道人 Monks from Central Asia or India.

胡實健 Hujikan, 'an ancient kingdom south-west of Balkh... in Lat. 35°20′N., Long. 65°E.' Eitel.

胞 Placenta, womb; bladder.

胞胎 Womb, uterine, v. 胎生.

胎 garbha, the womb, uterus.

胎內五位 The five periods of the child in the uterus.

胎外五位 The five periods of the child after birth, i. e. infancy, childhood, youth, middle age, old age.

胎卵濕化 The four yoni or modes of birth— womb-born, egg-born, spawn-born, and born by transformation (e. g. moths, certain deities, etc. ).

胎大日 Vairocana in the Garbhadhātu.

胎獄 胎宮 The womb prison, the womb regarded as a prison; see胎生.

胎生 Uterine birth, womb-born. Before the differentiation of the sexes birth is supposed to have been by transformation. The term is also applied to beings enclosed in unopened lotuses in paradise, who have not had

faith in Amitābha but trusted to their own strength to attain salvation; there they remain for proportionate periods, happy, but without the presence of the Buddha, or Bodhisattvas, or the sacred host, and do not hear

their teaching. The condition is known as 胎宮, the womb-palace.

胎藏界 Garbhadhātu, or Garbhakośa-(dhātu), the womb treasury, the universal source from which all things are produced; the matrix; the embryo; likened to a womb in which all of a child is conceived— its body, mind,

etc. It is container and content; it covers and nourishes; and is the source of all supply. It represents the 理性 fundamental nature, both material elements and pure bodhi, or wisdom in essence or purity; 理 being the

garbhadhātu as fundamental wisdom, and 智 acquired wisdom or knowledge, the vajradhātu. It also represents the human heart in its innocence or pristine purity, which is considered as the source of all Buddha-pity

and moral knowledge. And it indicates that from the central being in the maṇḍala, viz. the Sun as symbol of Vairocana, there issue all the other manifestations of wisdom and power, Buddhas,

bodhisattvas, demons, etc. It is 本覺 original intellect, or the static intellectuality, in contrast with 始覺 intellection, the initial or dynamic intellectuality represented in the vajradhātu; hence it is the 因 cause

and vajradhātu the 果 effect; though as both are a unity, the reverse may be the rule, the effect being also the cause; it is also likened to 利他 enriching others, as vajradhātu is to 自利 enriching self. Kōbō Daishi, founder of

the Yoga or Shingon 眞言 School in Japan, adopted the representation of the ideas in maṇḍalas, or diagrams, as the best way of revealing the mystic doctrine to the ignorant. The garbhadhātu is the womb

or treasury of all things, the universe; the 理 fundamental principle, the source; its symbols are a triangle on its base, and an open lotus as representing the sun and Vairocana. In Japan this maṇḍala is

placed on the east, typifying the rising sun as source, or 理. The vajradhātu is placed west and represents 智 wisdom or knowledge as derived from 理 the underlying principle, but the two are essential one to the other,

neither existing apart. The material and spiritual; wisdom-source and intelligence; essence and substance; and similar complementary ideas are thus portrayed; the garbhadhātu may be generally considered as the static and

the vajradhātu as the dynamic categories, which are nevertheless a unity. The garbhadhātu is divided into 三部 three sections representing samādhi or quiescence, wisdom-store, and pity-store, or thought, knowledge, pity; one

is called the Buddha-section, the others the Vajra and Lotus sections respectively; the three also typify vimokṣa, prajñā, and dharmakāya, or freedom, understanding, and spirituality. There are three heads of these

sections, i. e. Vairocana, Vajrapāṇi, and Avalokiteśvara; each has a mother or source, e. g. Vairocana from Buddha's-eye; and each has a 明王 or emanation of protection against evil; also a śakti or female

energy; a germ-letter, etc. The diagram of five Buddhas contains also four bodhisattvas, making nine in all, and there are altogether thirteen 大院 or great courts of various types of ideas, of varying numbers, generally

spoken of as 414. Cf. 金剛界; 大日; 兩部.


胎金 The Garbhadhātu and the Vajradhātu.

苫 Thatch; mat; mourning.

苫婆羅 擔歩羅 jambhala, jambhīra, the citron tree, Blyxa octandra.

苫末羅 camara, name of several plants, āmra, betel-nut, etc.; the resort of 'golden-winged birds'.

茅 Thatch.

茅蓋頭 A handful of thatch to cover one's head, a hut, or simple monastery.

若 If; as, like; the said; translit. j or jñ sounds.

若那 (or 若南); 惹那那 jñāna, tr. by 智knowledge, understanding, intellectual judgments, as compared with 慧 wisdom, moral judgments; prajñā is supposed to cover both meanings.

若提子 Jñātīputra, v. 尼 Nirgranthajñāti.

茂 Flourishing.

茂泥 文尼; 牟尼 muni, a solitary, a recluse, e. g. Śākyamuni, the recluse of the Śākya family; genī; intp. as one who seeks solitude, and one who is able to be kind.

茂羅三部盧 Mūlasthānapura, the modern Multan.

茂遮 moca, the plantain tree, musa sapientum, associated with the idea of liberation from the passions.

苾 Fragrant.

苾芻 煏芻; 比丘 q. v. bhikṣu, a beggar, religious mendicant; a Buddhist monk.

苾芻尼 bhikṣuṇī, a nun.

苾芻律儀 The 250 rules for monks.

苑 A park, imperial park, a collection: v. Jetavana 祇.

苑公四教 v. 四教.

苦 duḥkha, 豆佉 bitterness; unhappiness, suffering, pain, distress, misery; difficulty. There are lists of two, three, four, five, eight, and ten categories; the two are internal, i. e. physical and mental, and

external, i. e. attacks from without. The four are birth, growing old, illness, and death. The eight are these four along with the pain of parting from the loved, of meeting with the hated, of failure in one's aims, and that

caused by the five skandhas; cf. 四諦.

苦厄 The obstruction caused by pain, or suffering.

苦因 The cause of pain.

苦域 The region of misery, i. e. every realm of reincarnation.

苦性 The nature of misery; a sorrowful spirit.

苦惱 Misery and trouble; distress.

苦智 The knowledge or understanding of the axiom of suffering.

苦本 The root of misery, i. e. desire.

苦果 The physical and mental suffering resulting from evil conduct (chiefly in previous existences).

苦業 The karma of suffering.

苦河 Misery deep as a river.

苦津 The deep ford or flood of misery which must be crossed in order to reach enlightenment.

苦海 The ocean of misery, its limitlessness.

苦法智 The knowledge of the law of suffering and the way of release, one of the 八智. 苦法智忍 q. v.

苦空 Misery and unreality, pain and emptiness.

苦網 The net of suffering.

苦縛 The bond of suffering.

苦苦 duḥkha-duḥkhatā. The pain or painfulness of pain; pain produced by misery or pain; suffering arising from external circumstances, e. g. famine, storm, sickness, torture, etc.

苦蘊 The bundle of suffering, i. e. the body as composed of the five skandhas.

苦行 duṣkara-caryā, undergoing difficulties, hardships, or sufferings; also tapas, burning, torment; hence asceticism, religious austerity, mortification.

苦行林 木瓜林 Uruvilvā-kāśyapa, the forest near Gayā where Śākyamuni underwent rigorous ascetic discipline; v. 優.


苦言 Bitter words, words of rebuke.

苦諦 (苦聖諦) duḥkaha-ārya-satyam. The first of the four dogmas, that of suffering; v. 苦集.

苦輪 The wheel of suffering, i. e. reincarnation.

苦道 The path of suffering; from illusion arises karma, from karma suffering, from suffering illusion, in a vicious circle.

苦際 The limit of suffering, i. e. entrance to nirvāṇa.

苦陰 The body with its five skandhas 五陰 enmeshed in suffering.