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A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms-010

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苦集 samudaya, arising, coming together, collection, multitude. The second of the four axioms, that of 'accumulation', that misery is intensified by craving or desire and the passions, which are the cause of

reincarnation.

苦集滅道 The four axioms or truths: i. e. duḥkha, pain; samudaya, as above; nirodha, the extinguishing of pain and reincarnation; mārga, the way to such extinction; cf. 四諦.

苦類智 The wisdom which releases from suffering in all worlds.

苦類忍 (苦類智忍) One of the eight forms of endurance arising out of 苦類智, v. 八忍.

苦餘 Remains of suffering awaiting the Hīnayāna disciple who escapes suffering in this world, but still meets it in succeeding worlds.

衍 Overflow, inundate; abundant; ample; superfluous; fertile; used in 摩訶衍 Mahāyāna.

衍門 The ample door, school, or way, the Mahāyāna.

要 Important, essential, necessary, strategic; want, need; about to; intercept; coerce; agree, etc.

要妙 The essential and mystic nature (of Buddha-truth).

要文 The important text or texts.

要旨 The important meaning or aim.

要津 The ford, or road.

要行 The essential mode of action, or conduct.

要言 Important, or essential words.

要門 Essential or strategic way.

計 To reckon, count (on); scheme; add to, annex; translit. ke; cf. 髻, 鷄.

計名字相 The stage of giving names (to seeming things, etc. ), v. 六麤. Cf. Awakening of Faith 起信論.

計度 tarka; vitarka, conjecture, reckon, calculate, differentiate.

計我實有宗 The sect that reckons on, or advocates, the reality of personality.

計捨羅 計薩羅 (or 鷄薩羅) kesara, hair, filament, intp. as stamens and pistils.

計着 To maintain determinedly, bigotedly, on the basis of illusory thinking.

計都 計部; 鷄都 or 兜 ketu, any bright appearance, comet, ensign, eminent, discernment, etc.; the name of two constellations to the left and right of Aquila.

貞 Chaste, lucky.

貞實 Pure and true.

負 To bear on the back; turn the back on; Iose.

負門 Positions that have been withdrawn from in argument; defeated.

赴 To go to, or into.

赴火外道 Ascetics who burn themselves alive.

赴請 To go in response to an invitation; go to invite.

赴機 To go or to preach according to the need or opportunity.

軍 An army; military; martial; translit. kuṇ, cf. 君.

軍持 Kuṇḍi, Guanyin with the vase, also 軍M040652 (or 鍕M040652); 運M063616; 君持; 君遲; also 君稚迦 (or 捃稚迦) for Kuṇḍikā, idem. 君持 and 君遲 are also used for kuḍikā, an ascetic's water-bottle.

君荼 kuṇḍa, firepot, brazier, or fire-hole used by the esoterics in fire-worship.

君荼利 君遲 kuṇḍalin, ring-shaped, intp. as a vase, bottle.

君荼利明王 Amṛta, v. 阿, one of the five ming wang, the ambrosia king, also known as a 夜叉 yakṣa in his fierce form of queller of demons.

君那 kuṇḍa, a flower, perhaps jasmine, oleander, or Boswellia thurifera.

軌 A rut, rule; axle.

軌持 A rule and its observance, intp. as to know the rule or doctrine and hold it without confusion with other rules or doctrines.

軌範 Rule, mode.

軌範師 A teacher of rules, discipline, morals; an ācārya.

軌儀 Rule, form.

迴 v. 廻.

述 Narrate, publish, narration.

述嚕怛羅 戍縷多 śrotra, the ear.

迦 Translit. ka, kā; cf. 伽; 各; 嘎; 揭; 柯; 箇; 紺; 羯.

迦利 Kali, strife, striver; ill-born; also 迦梨; 迦棃; 迦藍浮; 迦羅富; 迦陵伽王; 哥利 (or 歌利); 羯利 Kalirāja, Kalingarāja, a king of Magadha noted for his violence; it is said that in a former incarnation he cut off the ears, [[Wikipedia:

nose|

nose]], and hands of the Buddha, who bore it all unmoved; cf. Nirvāṇa sūtra, 31.

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迦利沙 (迦利沙那) karṣa, karṣana; dragging, pulling, ploughing; a weight, intp. as half a Chinese ounce.

迦利沙波拏 kārṣāpaṇa, tr. as 400 candareens, but the weights vary; also 迦利沙般拏 (or 迦利沙婆拏or 迦利沙鉢拏); 羯迦利鉢那 (or 羯迦利鉢拏); 罽利沙盤.

迦吒富單那 Kaṭapūtana, 羯迦布怛那 pretas, or demons, of remarkably evil odour.

迦奢 kāśa, a species of grass, used for mats, thatch, etc.; personified as one of Yama's attendants. M. W. Eitel says a broom made of it and used by Śākyamuni 'is still an object of worship'.

迦奢布羅 Kāśapura, a city which Eitel locates between Lucknow and Oudh.

迦尸 Kāśī 迦私, a place said to be so called because its bamboos were good for arrows, north of Kosala; but it is also given by M. W. as Benares.

迦尼迦 kanaka, or kanika; a tree or plant, probably a kind of sandal-wood.

迦布德迦 kapotaka, 迦逋唐 a dove, pigeon.

迦布德迦伽藍 鴿園 Kapotaka-saṃghārāma, a monastery of the Sarvāstivādaḥ school, so called because the Buddha in a previous incarnation is said to have changed himself into a pigeon and to have thrown himself into the fire in

order to provide food for a hunter who was prevented from catching game because of Buddha's preaching. When the hunter learned of Buddha's power, he repented and attained enlightenment.

迦師 ? kṛsara, 'rice and peas boiled together'; 'grain and sesamum.' M. W. It is intp. as a wheat porridge.

迦摩 kāma, desire, love, wish. A hungry spirit.

迦摩浪迦 Kāmalaṅkā, an ancient country 'probably part of the present Chittagong opposite the mouth of the Ganges'. Eitel.

迦摩羅 (or 迦末羅) kāmalā, jaundice.

迦摩縷波 Kāmarūpa, now Kamrup; 'an ancient kingdom formed by the western portion of Assam.' Eitel.

迦摩駄都 Kāmadhātu; the realm of desire, of sensuous gratification; this world and the six devalokas; any world in which the elements of desire have not been suppressed.

迦旃 (迦旃延子) Kātyāyana; Mahākātyāyana; Mahākātyāyanīputra; one of the ten noted disciples of Śākyamuni. The foundation work of the Abhidharma philosophy; viz. the Abhidharma-jñāna-prasthāna-śāstra, has been

attributed to him, but it is by an author of the same name 300 to 500 years later. Other forms are 迦多桁那; 迦多桁尼子(or 迦多演尼子); 迦底耶夜那; 迦氈延 (尼子). There are others of the same name; e. g. the seventh of the ten non-Buddhist

philosophers, perhaps Kakuda Kātyāyana, associated with mathematics, but spoken of as 'a violent adversary of Śākyamuni.' M. W.

迦曇波 (or 迦曇婆) kadamba, a tree or plant with fragrant lowers; the Nauclea cadamba; the mustard plant.

迦柘 kāca, glass, crystal; tr. as a precious stone.

迦梨沙舍尼 karṣanīya; to be drawn, attracted, conciliated; intp. as forgiveness.

迦梨迦 (or 迦羅迦) Kālīyaka, a nāga inhabiting the Yamunā (Jumna), slain by Kṛṣṇa; intp. as a black dragon. Also Kālikā, a garment of diverse colours.

迦樓羅 garuḍa; 'a mythical bird, the chief of the feathered race, the enemy of the serpent race, the vehicle of Vishṇu.' M. W. Tr. as golden-winged, with an expanse of 3,360,000 li, carrying the ruyi pearl or talisman on its neck;

among other accounts one says it dwells in great trees and feeds on snakes or dragons. Also 迦婁羅; 迦留羅; 迦嘍荼; 伽樓羅; 揭路荼; 誐嚕拏 (or 蘗嚕拏). The association of the garuḍa, like the phoenix, with fire makes it also a symbol of

flame 迦樓羅炎.

迦樓那 迦盧拏 karuṇā, pitying, pity.

迦比羅 (or 迦毘羅) Kapila, author of the Sāṅkhya philosophy, v. 却; also Kapilavastu, v. 却.

迦毘摩羅 Kapimala, of Patna, second century. A. D. converted by Aśvaghoṣa 馬鳴; he himself is said to have converted Nāgārjuna; he was the thirteenth Patriarch.

迦毘羅 Kapila; tawny, brown, red; intp. as red head, or yellow head; name of the founder of the Sāṅkhya philosophy; also 迦毘梨; 迦比羅; 劫毘羅; cf. 僧劫 and 數. Kapilavastu, v. 劫; also written in a dozen varieties, e. g. 迦毘羅婆 (or 迦毘比

, 迦毘比婆); 迦毘羅皤窣都; 迦維 (or 迦維羅閲, 迦維羅越).

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迦波釐 kāpālikas, followers of Śiva who wore skulls.

迦濕彌羅 Kāśmīra, Kashmir, formerly known in Chinese as 罽賓 Jibin ('the Kophen of the Greeks, the modern Kabul', Kubhā); under Kaniṣka the seat of the final synod for determining the Canon. Other forms are 迦葉彌羅; 羯濕弭羅.

迦留陀夷 Kālodāyin, also called 烏陀夷 Udayin or Black Udayin, but there are other interpretations; said to have been schoolmaster to Śākyamuni when young and one of the early disciples; also to have been murdered.

迦畢試 Kapiśā, an ancient kingdom, south of the Hindu Kush, said to be 4, 000 li around, with a capital of the same name 10 li in circumference; formerly a summer resort of Kaniṣka.

迦絺那 kaṭhina, 迦提; 羯絺那 hard, inflexible, unyielding; a robe of merit.

迦絺那月 Kārttika-māsa, the month in October-November, intp. as the month after the summer retreat, when monks received the 'kaṭhina ' robe of merit; the date of the month is variously given, but it follows the summer

retreat; also 迦提月; 迦栗底迦月 (or 羯栗底迦月); 迦利邸迦月; 迦哩底迦麽洗 (or 迦剌底迦麽洗).

迦羅 kalā, 哥羅; 歌羅; a minute part, an atom; the hundredth part lengthwise of a human hair; also a sixteenth part of anything. Also kāla (and 迦攞), a definite time, a division of time; the time of work, study, etc., as opposed to

leisure time. kāla, among other meanings, also means black, for which 迦羅迦 kālaka is sometimes used, e.g. the black nāga.

迦羅毘囉 karavīra, a fragrant oleander; tr. as 羊躑躅 a plant whose leaves on pressure exude juice.

迦羅毘迦 Probably an incorrect form of Kapilavastu, v. 迦毘羅國.

迦沙曳 (or 迦沙野 or 迦沙異 or 迦羅沙曳 or 迦羅沙野 or 迦羅沙異) kaṣāya, a monk's dyed robe, in contrast with white lay garb.

迦羅臂拏迦 Kālapināka, a 'city of Magadha, 20 li south-east of Kulika, south of the present city of Behar'. Eitel.

迦羅越 kulapati, the head of a clan, or family.

迦羅迦吒 The crab in the zodiac.

迦羅邏 karāla, 'having projecting teeth, formidable,' 'epithet of the Rākshasas, of Śiva, of Kāla, of Vishṇu,' etc. M.W.

迦羅鎭頭 kālaka and tinduka, the first a poisonous fruit, the second non-poisonous, similar in appearance; a simile for bad and good monks.

迦羅鳩馱 Krakucchanda, v. 拘留孫; also Kakuda-Kātyāyana, v. 迦旃.

迦耶 kāya, the body; an assemblage; cf. trikāya.

迦膩色伽 (迦膩伽) Kaniṣka, king of 月支 the Yuezhi, i.e. of Tukhāra and the Indo-Scythians, ruler of Gandhāra in northern Punjab, who conquered northern India and as far as Bactria. He became a patron of Buddhism, the greatest after

Aśoka. His date is vaiously given; Keith says 'probably at the close of the first century A.D. ' It is also put at A.D. 125-165. He convoked 'the third (or fourth) synod' in Kashmir, of 500 leading monks, under the

presidency of 世友Vasumitra, when the canon was revised and settled; this he is said to have had engraved on brass and placed in a stūpa .

迦葉 (迦葉波) kāśyapa, 迦攝 (迦攝波) inter alia 'a class of divine beings similar to or equal to prajāpati'; the father 'of gods, demons, men, fish, reptiles, and all animals'; also 'a constellation'. M.W. It is intp. as

'drinking light', i.e. swallowing sun and moon, but without apparent justification. (1) One of the seven or ten ancient Indian sages. (2) Name of a tribe or race. (3) Kāśyapa Buddha, the third of the five buddhas

of the present kalpa, the sixth of the seven ancient buddhas. (4) Mahākāśyapa, a brahman of Magadha, who became one of the principal disciples of Śākyamuni, and after his death became leader of the disciples,

'convoked and directed the first synod, whence his title Ārya Sthavira (上坐, lit. chairman) is derived.' Eitel. He is accounted the chief of the ascetics before the enlightenment; the first compiler of the canon and the

first patriarch. (5) There were five Kāśyapas, disciples of the Buddha, Mahā-Kāśyapa, Uruvilā-Kāśyapa, Gayā-Kāśyapa, Nadī-Kāśyapa, and Daśabala-Kāśyapa; the second, third, and fourth are said to have been brothers. (6) A

bodhisattva, whose name heads a chapter in the Nirvana Sutra. (7) 迦葉摩騰 Kāśyapa-Mātaṅga, the monk who with Gobharana, or Dharmarakṣa, i.e. Zhu Falan 竺法蘭, according to Buddhist statements, brought images and scriptures to

China with the commissioners sent by Mingdi, arriving in Luoyang A.D. 67.

迦葉遺 Kāśyapīya, a school formed on the division of the Mahāsaṅghikāḥ into five schools a century after the Nirvana. Keith gives the southern order, in the second century after the Nirvana, as Theravāda (Sthavira),

Mahīśāsaka, Sarvāstivādin, Kāśyapīya. Other forms: 迦葉毘; 迦葉維; 迦葉波; 迦葉臂耶; 柯尸悲與.

迦蘭陀 ? karaṇḍa, ? karaṇḍaka. A bird which flies in flocks and has a pleasant note; also, a squirrel which awakened Bimbisāra to warn him against a snake. (2) The karaṇḍa-venuvana, a garden belonging to an elder called Karaṇḍa,

used by a Nirgrantha sect, then presented by King Bimbisāra to Śākyamuni. Other forms: 迦蘭夷; 迦蘭馱; 迦蘭多迦; 迦藍陀; 伽鄰; 羯蘭鐸迦 (or 羯蘭馱迦).

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迦迦 kāka, kākāla; a crow, also 迦迦迦; 迦迦羅.

迦迦羅蟲 is said to be kākāla, a black insect or worm.

迦迦婁多 kākaruta. A crow's caw.

迦迦婆迦頻闍邏 Perhaps kapiñjala, a francolin, partridge, or pheasant.

迦迦那 gagana, the firmament, space.

迦遮末尼 (or 迦柘末尼) kācamani, crystal, quartz.

迦遮鄰地? kācalindikāka, or kācilindi, also 迦遮粦底迦 (or 迦眞粦底迦); 迦旃粦提 (or 迦旃粦陀); 迦止栗那; 迦鄰提 (or 迦鄰陀). A sea bird, from whose feathers robes are made.

迦邏迦 kāra (or kāraka), one who does, or causes; an agent.

迦逋唐 v. 迦布.

迦那伽牟尼 Kanakamuni, v. 拘那牟尼.

迦那提婆 Kāṇadeva, a disciple of Nāgārjuna and fifteenth patriarch, a native of South India, of the Vaiśya caste; said to have only one eye, hence Kāṇa his name; known also as Deva Bodhisattva.

迦陵頻伽 (迦陵伽) kalaviṅka. A bird described as having a melodious voice, found in the valleys of the Himalayas. M.W. says 'a sparrow'. It may be the kalandaka, or kokila, the cuckoo. It 'sings in the shell' before hatching

out. Other forms are 迦陵頻伽鳥, 迦蘭伽 (or 迦蘭頻伽 or 迦毘伽 or迦毘頻伽); 迦毘伽 (or 迦毘伽羅); 迦尾羅; 羯羅尾羅; 羯毘伽羅 (or 鶡鵯伽羅), etc.

迦頻闍羅 (or 迦賓闍羅); 鷓鴣 kapiñjala, a francolin, partridge, or pheasant.

迦頻闍羅王 Kapiṅjalarāja, a previous incarnation of Śākyamuni as a pheasant.

郁 Elegant, refined, translit. y and u.

郁伽 yoga, cf. 瑜伽.

郁伽支羅 Ukkacela, is a place unknown.

郁多羅僧伽 (郁多) uttarāsaṅga, the cassock, the seven-patch robe; for this and uttarakuru cf. 鬱.

郁迦 Ugra, an elder of Śrāvastī, whose name is given to a sutra.

重 Heavy, weighty, grave, serious; to lay stress upon, regard respectfully; again, double, repeated.

重如 v. 如如 the double ru.

重山 The heavy mountain (of delusion).

重火 To pay respect to the god of fire.

重空 The double space, i.e. the space beyond space, the void beyond the void.

重重 Repeated, again and again, manifold, e.g. 重重帝網 The multi-meshed net of Indra.

重關 The grave barriers (to meditation and enlightenment).

重閣講堂 The double-storeyed hall at Vaiśālī where the Buddha stayed.

重障 Serious hindrances (to enlightenment), e.g. delusion, sin, retribution (or the results of one's previous lives).

重頌 祇夜 geya, repetition in verse of a prose section.

限 Limit, boundary, to fix.

限分 limited, e.g. limited culpability by reason of accident, unintentional error.

降 Descend, send down; degrade; subdue; submit.

降世 To descend to earth from above, as recorded of the Buddha.

降三世 To subdue the three worlds, as conqueror of them, e.g. 降三世明王 Trailokya-vijaya-rāja, rāja subduing the three realms above, here, below, one of the five great 明王 q.v.; the one controlling the east; subduer of the [[three

realms]] of desire, resentment, and stupidity; also of these three passions in past, present, future. There are other similar rājas.

降伏 abhicāraka, exorciser; magic; subjugator (of demons).

降焰魔尊 Yamāntaka, cf. 焰 the fierce mahārāja with six legs who controls the demons of the West.

降生 To descend into the world, as the Buddha is said to have done from the Tuṣita heaven.

降神 The descent of Buddha's spirit into Māyā's womb; also to bring down spirits as does a spiritualistic medium.

降胎 The descent into Māyā's womb.

降臨 To descend, draw near from above, condescend, e.g. the Buddha, the spirits, etc.

降誕 The anniversary of the descent, i.e. the Buddha's birthday, not the conception.

降魔 To overcome demons, e.g. as the Buddha did at his enlightenment.

降龍 To subdue nāgas, e.g. 降龍鉢 to compel a nāga to enter an almsbowl as did the Buddha; 降龍伏虎 to subdue nāgas and subjugate tigers.

面 Face.

面目 Face and eyes, face, looks.

面門 Forehead, or mouth, or the line across the upper lip.

面授 Personal or face-to-face instruction.

面壁 To sit in meditation with the face to a wall, as did Bodhidharma for nine years, without uttering a word.

革 Skins, hides, pelts; strip, cut off.

革蔥 茗葱 latārka, 'green onions' (M.W.), tr. as 蒜 garlic.

韋 A thong; translit. for vi, ve, vai sounds.

韋將軍 (韋天將軍) One of the generals under the southern mahārāja guardian in a temple.

韋堤希 (韋堤); 毘堤希 (or 吠堤希); 吠題呬弗多羅 Vaidehī, wife of Bimbisāra, and mother of Ajātaśatru; also called Śrībhadra.

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韋紐天 韋糅; 違紐; 毘紐; 毘瑟紐; 韋搜紐; 韋廋紐; 毘瑟怒 (or 毘瑟笯) Viṣṇu, all-pervading, encompassing; 'the preserver' in the trimūrti, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva, creator, preserver, destroyer; the Vaiṣṇavas (Vishnuites) are devoted to him as the Śaivas are

to Śiva. His wife is Lakṣmī, or Śrī. The Chinese describe him as born out of water at the beginning of a world-kalpa with 1,000 heads and 2,000 hands; from his navel springs a lotus, from which is evolved Brahmā.

韋陀 圍陀; 毘陀; 皮陀; 吠陀 (or 吠馱); 薜陀; 鞞陀 veda; knowledge, tr. 明智, or 明分 clear knowledge or discernment. The four Vedas are the Ṛg Veda, Yajur Veda, Sāma Veda, and Athara Veda; they were never translated

into Chinese, being accounted heretical.

韋陀輸 (or 韋馱輸) Vītāśoka, Vigatāśoka, younger brother of king Āśoka.

韋陀羅 vetāla, v. 毘陀羅.

韋馱天 (韋馱) Weiduo, the guardian facing the main hall of a temple; the origin of Weiduo is uncertain.

Sound, note, that which is heard.

音教 Vocal teaching, Buddha's preaching.

音木 Sounding block, or board for keeping time or rhythm.

音樂 Music, a musical accompaniment to a service.

音義 Sound and meaning, i.e. a pronouncing dictionary.

音聲 Sound, note, preaching.

音聲佛事 Buddha's work in saving by his preaching.

音響忍 Sound and echo perseverance, the patience which realizes that all is as unreal as sound and echo.

風 vāyu. Wind, air; rumour, repute; custom; temper, lust.

風三昧 風奮三昧 A samādhi in which the whole body is conceived of as scattered.

風燈 (or風中燈 or 風前燈 or風燭 or 風中燭 or 風前燭) 'As a lamp (or candle) in the wind', such is the evanescence of the world and man.

風刀 The wind knife, i.e. the approach of death and its agonies.

風大 Wind or air as one of the four elements.

風天 The wind deva.

風界 The realm of wind, or air, with motion as its principle one of the 四大 q.v.

風災 The calamity of destruction by wind at the end of the third period of destruction of a world.

風色 Wind colour, i.e. nonexistent, like a rabbit's horns, tortoise-hair, or scent of salt.

風輪 The wheel, or circle, of wind below the circle of water and metal on which the earth rests; the circle of wind rests on space.

風際 (風輪際) The region of the wind-circle.

飛 To fly.

飛仙 (飛行仙) Flying genī.

飛化 Flying and changing.

飛行 Flying anywhere (at will).

飛行夜叉 Flying yakṣas, or demons.

飛帝 (飛行皇帝) Flying ruler, synonym for a sovereign.

飛錫 Flying staff, synonym for a travelling monk.

食 āhāra, 阿賀羅 food; to eat, feed. The rules are numerous, and seem to have changed; originally flesh food was not improper and vegetarianism was a later development; the early three rules in regard to 'clean' foods are

that 'I shall not have seen the creature killed, nor heard it killed for me, nor have any doubt that it was killed for me'. The five 'unclean' foods are the above three, with creatures that have died a natural death; and

creatures that have been killed by other creatures. The nine classes add to the five, creatures not killed for me; raw flesh, or creatures mauled by other creatures; things not seasonable or at the right time; things previously killed.

The Laṅkavātāra Sutra and certain other sutras forbid all killed food.

食前 Before food, i.e. before the principal meal at noon; but 食後 after food, especially after breakfast till noon.

食堂 (or 齋堂) The dining-hall of a monastery.

食時 The time of eating the principal meal, i.e. noon; nothing might be eaten by members of the Order after noon.

食欲 The lust for food, one of the four cravings.

食物五果 The five kinds of edible fruits and grains: those with stones (or pips), rinds, shells, seeds (e.g. grains), pods.

食?M032255 To eat some kind of poisonous herb.

食蜜 To eat honey, i.e. to absorb the Buddha's teaching.

食頃 The time of a meal, i.e. but a short time.

首 Head.

首圖馱那 輸頭檀 (or 閱頭檀) Śuddhodana, intp. 'pure food', king of Kapilavastu, husband of Mahāmāyā, and father of Śākyamuni.

首座 The chief seat, president, chief.

首悔 Voluntary confession and repentance.

首楞嚴 首楞伽摩 śūraṃgama, intp. 健相 heroic, resolute; the virtue or power which enables a buddha to overcome every obstacle, obtained in the 首楞嚴定 or 三昧 śūraṃgamadhyāna or samādhi; 首楞嚴經 is the sutra on the subject, whose

full title commences 大佛頂, etc.

首盧迦 (首盧 or首盧柯); 輸盧迦 (or 室盧迦 or輸盧迦波 or室盧迦波); 室路迦 śloka, a stanza of thirty-two syllables, either in four lines of eight each, or two of sixteen.

首羅 (or 周羅 or首羅髮 or周羅髮) Cūlaka, Cūḍa; one of the eight yakṣas, or demons.

首訶旣那 (or 首阿旣那) Śubhakṛtsna, the ninth brahmaloka, i.e. the third region of the third dhyāna of form.

首陀 (首陀羅); 戍陀羅 (or 戍達羅 or 戍捺羅) śūdra, the fourth of the four castes, peasants.

首陀婆 (or 私陀婆 or首陀娑婆 or 私陀娑婆) Śuddhāvāsa, the five pure abodes, or heavens.

首題 Heading or title (of a sutra).

gandha. Fragrance; incense; the sense of smell, i.e. one of the ṣaḍāyātana, six senses. Incense is one of the 使 Buddha's messengers to stimulate faith and devotion.

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香丸 Incense balls.

香嚴 (香光莊嚴) The one whose mind meditates on Buddha becomes interpenetrated and glorified by Buddha-fragrance (and light). There are several deva-sons and others called Xiangyan.

香入 The sense of smell and its organ, the nose.

香刹 An incense kṣetra, i.e. a monastery.

香廚 The fragrant kitchen, i.e. a monastery kitchen.

香塵 The atom or element of smell, one of the six guṇas.

香室 gandhakuṭī; house of incense, i.e. where Buddha dwells, a temple.

香山 Gandhamādana. Incense mountain, one of the ten fabulous mountains known to Chinese Buddhism, located in the region of the Anavatapta lake in Tibet; also placed in the Kunlun range. Among its great trees dwell

the Kinnaras, Indra's musicians.

香染 Incense-coloured, yellowish-grey, the colour of a monk's robe; also 香色; 香衣 (香複衣).

香樓 The fragrant pyre on which the body of Buddha was consumed.

香欲 The desire for fragrance, the lust of the nasal organ, one of the five desires.

香殿 The incense hall, especially the large hall of the triratna.

香水 Liquid scent, or perfume.

香水錢 Money given to monks.

香海 (香水海) The scented ocean surrounding Sumeru.

香湯 A fragrant liquid made of thirty-two ingredients, used by the secret sects in washing the body at the time of initiation.

香火Incense and candles (or lamps).

香炷 Thread incense (in coils); a lamp or candle giving a fragrant odour; incense and candles.

香爐 A censer.

香王 Gandharāja, a bodhisattva in whose image the finger tips are shown as dripping ambrosia. There is also a 香王 Guanyin.

香界 Incense region, a temple.

香神 香音神 The gods of fragrance (and music), i.e. the Gandharvas who live on Gandhamādana; the musicians of Indra, with Dhṛtarāṣṭra as their ruler.

香積 Xiangji, the Buddha of Fragrance-land 香國, described in the 維摩經. The inhabitants live on the odour of incense, which surpasses that of all other lands; cf. 香象; also the kitchen and food of a monastery.

香(竹/象) Incense made in coils and burnt to measure the time; also 香盤; 香印.

香華 Incense and flowers, offerings to Buddha.

香象 Gandhahastī. Fragrant elephant; one of the sixteen honoured ones of the Bhadra-kalpa; also a bodhisattva in the north who lives on the 香聚山 or 香醉山 with Buddha 香積; cf. 香集.

香象之文 A narrative in the Abhidharma-kośa; also a title for the Buddhist canon.

香象大師 The third patriarch of the Huayan school, Fazang 法藏.

香集 The name of the western Buddha-land in which Ākāśa Bodhisattva lives, described in the 虛空藏菩薩經 Ākāśagarbha Sutra; cf. 香象.

香風山 The abode of the Bodhisattva of fragrance and light.

香食 Fragrance for food; fragrant food.

香龍腦 Scented dragon's brains, camphor; v. 羯布羅.

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10. TEN STROKES

乘 Yāna 衍; 野那 a vehicle, wain, any means of conveyance; a term applied to Buddhism as carrying men to salvation. The two chief divisions are the 小乘 Hīnayāna and 大乘 Mahāyāna; but there are categories of one, two, three, four, and

five sheng q.v., and they have further subdivisions.

乘津 The vehicle and ford to nirvana, i.e. Buddha-truth.

乘種 The vehicle-seed, or seed issuing from the Buddha-vehicle.

借 To borrow, lend.

借花獻佛 To borrow a flower to offer to Buddha, i.e. to serve him with another's gift.

値 To meet; happen on; attend to; worth, valued at.

値遇 To meet, happen on unexpectedly.

俾 To cause, enable.

俾沙闍羅所 Bhaiṣajyarāja, the Buddha of medicine, or king of healing, v. 藥師 19.

俾禮多 preta, a hungry ghost, v. 鬼 10.

倍 Double, double-fold, a fold; to turn from or against, to revolt.

倍離 To turn from and depart from.

條 A length (of anything); a law, order.

條支 The Tajiks anciently settled 'near the Sirikol lake'. Eitel.

條衣 The monk's patch-robe.

倒 To fall, lie down; to pour; upside down, inverted, perverted; on the contrary.

倒凡 Perverted folk, the unenlightened who see things upside down.

倒合 A fallacious comparison in a syllogism.

倒懸 Hanging upside down; the condition of certain condemned souls, especially for whom the Ullambana (or Lambana, cf. 盂) festival is held in the seventh month; the phrase is used as a tr. of Ullambana, and as such seems meant for

Lambana.

倒我 The conventional ego, the reverse of reality.

倒見 Cf. 顚 19. Upside-down or inverted views, seeing things as they seem, not as they are, e.g. the impermanent as permanent, misery as joy, non-ego as ego, and impurity as purity.

倒離 The fallacy of using a comparison in a syllogism which does not apply.

修 To put in order, mend, cultivate, observe. Translit. su, sū. Cf. 須; 蘇.

修伽陀 Sugata, one who has gone the right way, one of a Buddha's titles; sometimes intp. as well-come (Svāgata). Also 修伽多; 修伽度; 修揭多 (or 蘇揭多); 沙婆揭多; 莎伽 (莎伽陀).

修利 Sūrya, 蘇利耶 the sun; also name of a yakṣa, the ruler of the sun.

修善 To cultivate goodness; the goodness that is cultivated, in contrast with natural goodness.

修堅 Firmness in observing or maintaining; established conviction, e.g. of the 別教 bodhisattva that all phenomena in essence are identical.

修多羅 Sutra; from siv, to sew, to thread, to string together, intp. as 綖, i.e. 線 thread, string; strung together as a garland of flowers. Sutras or addresses attributed to the Buddha, usually introduced by 如是我聞 thus have I

heard, Evam mayā śrutam It is intp. by 經 a warp, i.e. the threads on which a piece is woven; it is the sūtra-piṭaka, or first portion of the Tripiṭaka; but is sometimes applied to the whole canon. It is also intp. 契 or契經 scriptures.

Also 修單羅; 修妬路; 修多闌; 修單蘭多; 素呾纜 (or 素怛纜); 蘇多羅 (or 蘇呾羅). A clasp on the seven-piece robe of the 眞宗 Shin sect.

修性 To cultivate the nature; the natural proclivities.

修性不二門 The identity of cultivation and the cultivated.

修惡 To cultivate evil; cultivated evil in contrast with evil by nature.

修懺 To undergo the discipline of penitence.

修所斷 To cut of illusion in practice, or performance.

修惑 Illusion, such as desire, hate, etc., in practice or performance, i.e. in the process of attaining enlightenment; cf. 思惑.

修生 That which is produced by cultivation, or observance.

修禪六妙門 The six mysterious gates or ways of practising meditation, consisting mostly of breathing exercises.

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修羅 asura, demons who war with Indra; v. 阿修羅; it is also sura, which means a god, or deity.

修羅軍 The army of asuras, fighting on the 修羅場 asura battlefield against Indra.

修羅酒 surā, wine, spirits; but it is also intp. as asura wine, i.e. the nonexistent.

修羅道 (or 修羅趣) asura way, or destiny.

修習力 The power acquired by the practice of all (good) conduct; the power of habit.

修行 caryā, conduct; to observe and do; to end one's ways; to cultivate oneself in right practice; be religious, or pious.

修行住 A bodhisattva's stage of conduct, the third of his ten stages.

修跋拏 suvarṇa; 修越拏; 蘇伐剌 gold.

修道 To cultivate the way of religion; be religious; the way of self-cultivation. In the Hīnayāna the stage from anāgāmin to arhat; in Mahāyāna one of the bodhisattva stages.

修造局 A workshop (in a monastery).

修陀里舍那 sudarśana, intp. 善見 beautiful, given as the name of a yakṣa; cf. also 蘇.

倶 All, every; translit. ku, ko; cf. 拘; 鳩; 究; 居; 窟; 巨.

倶不成 (倶不極成) All incomplete; a fallacy in the comparison, or example, which leaves the syllogism incomplete.

倶不遣 A fallacy in the syllogism caused by introducing an irrelevant example, one of the thirty-three fallacies.

倶倶羅 kukkuṭa is a cock, or fowl; this is intp. As the clucking of fowls: cf. 究 and 拘.

倶倶羅部 Kaukkuṭikāḥ is described as one of the eighteen schools of Hīnayāna; cf. 拘; 鳩; 窟; 居.

倶利伽羅 A kind of black dragon; also 倶力迦 (倶力迦羅); 倶哩迦 (or 倶哩劒); 古力迦; 加梨加; 迦羅迦; 律迦, etc. It is one of the symbols of 不動明王, connected with his sword.

倶吠羅 Kuvera; Kubera; the god of riches, Vaiśravaṇa, regent of the north; having three legs and eight teeth; in Japan Bishamon. Also 倶乞羅 and numerous other names; cf. 毘.

倶夜羅 Things that go with the almsbowl, e.g. spoon, chopsticks, etc.

倶摩羅 kumāra, a boy, youth; cf. 拘.

倶摩羅天 A youthful deva.

倶攞 kūla, a slope, a shore; a mound; a small dagoba in which the ashes of a layman are kept. kula, a herd, family, household.

倶攞鉢底 kulapati, the head of a family, a householder.

倶有 Existing together; all being, existing, or having.

倶有依 倶有根 Things or conditions on which one relies or from which things spring, e.g. knowledge.

倶有因 sahabhūhetu, mutual causation, the simultaneous causal interaction of a number of things, e.g. earth, water, fire, and air.

倶有法 Co-existent, co-operative things or conditions.

倶毘留波叉 Defined variously, but in indicative of Virūpākṣa, the three-eyed Śiva; the guardian ruler of the West, v. 毘.

倶毘羅 (1) kumbhīra, crocodile; also鳩鞞羅; 倶尾羅. (2) Kuvera, Kubera, the guardian king of the north, v. 毘沙門 Vaiśravaṇa, the god of wealth.

倶毘陀羅 kovidāra, 拘鞞陀羅 Bauhinia variegata; also one of the trees of paradise. M.W. Said to be the tree of the great playground (where the child Śākyamuni played).

倶生 Natural, spontaneous, inborn as opposed to acquired.

倶生惑 Natural doubt, inborn illusion, in contrast to doubt or illusion acquired, e.g. by being taught.

倶生法 Spontaneous ideas or things.

倶生神 The spirit, born at the same time as the individual, which records his deeds and reports to Yama. Another version is the two spirits who record one's good and evil. Another says it is the ālaya-vijñāna.

倶生起 Arising and born with one; spontaneous.

倶留孫 Krakkucchanda, fourth of the seven ancient buddhas, first of the buddhas of the present age. Cf. 拘.

倶盧洲 Kurudvīpa; Uttarakuru. The northern of the four continents of a world; cf. 大洲 and 鬱.

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倶盧舍 krośa, the distance the lowing of an ox or the sound of a drum can be heard, circa 5 li. Cf. 拘.

倶睒彌 Kauśāmbī; 倶賞彌 (or 倶舍彌) Vatsapattana, an ancient city of central India, identified with the village of Kosam on the Jumna, 30 miles above Allahabad. These are old forms as are 拘深; 拘翼; 拘監惟, and forms with 巨 and 鳩; the newer

forms being 憍賞彌 (or 憍閃彌).

倶空 Both or all empty, or unreal, i.e. both ego and things have no reality.

倶緣果 bījapūra, or bījapūraka; described as a citron. M.W. A fruit held in one of the hands of Kunti Guanyin.

倶胝 koṭī, 倶致; 拘致; a crore, 10 millions; intp. as 100,000; 1,000,000; or 10,000,000.

倶舍 kośa, 句捨 cask, box, treasury; translated 藏 store, also 鞘 sheath, scabbard; especially the 倶舍論 Abhidharma-kośa-śāstra, v. 阿, composed by Vasubandhu, tr. by Paramārtha and Xuanzang.

倶舍宗 The Abhidharma or Piṭaka School.

倶蘇摩 kusuma, a flower, flowers; v. 拘.

倶蘇摩跋低 Kusumavatī; name of a buddha-realm.

倶蘇摩摩羅 kusumamālā, a wreath, garland.

倶蘇洛 (倶蘇洛迦) kuśūla; a 'bin' skirt, worn by nuns; also 厥蘇洛迦; 祇修羅 (or 瞿修羅 or 厥修羅).

倶蘭吒 kuraṇṭa; yellow amaranth; intp. as a red flower, among men with 10 leaves, among devas 100, among buddhas 1,000; also as a material thing, i.e. something with resistance. Cf. 拘.

倶解脫 Complete release, i.e. the freedom of the arhat from moral and meditative hindrances.

倶遜婆 kusumbha; safflower, saffron.

兼 Both; also; to unite, join, comprehend.

兼利 Mutual benefit; to benefit self and others.

兼但對帶 The first four of the five periods of Buddha's teaching are also defined by Tiantai as: (1) 兼 Combined teaching; including 圓 and 別教 doctrine, the period of the Avataṃsaka Sutra. (2) 但 Sole; i.e. 藏 or Hīnayāna

only, that of the agamas. (3) 對 Comparative; all four forms of doctrines being compared. 帶 Inclusive, that of the 般若 Prajñā, when the perfect teaching was revealed as the fulfilment of the rest.

冥 Darkness, obscurity; deep. Hades; used chiefly in the sense of 無知 ignorance, profound, secret, invisible, e.g. as opposed to 顯 open, manifest.

冥一 Entire obscurity, pristine darkness.

冥使 Lictors, or messengers of Hades.

冥利 冥益 Invisible benefit, or merit, i.e. within, spiritual.

冥初 The primitive darkness (at the beginning of existence).

冥加 The invisible aid of the spiritual powers.

冥官 The rulers in Hades.

冥府 The palace of darkness, Hades.

冥往 Going into the shades, death.

冥思 冥慮 The unfathomable thought or care of the buddhas and bodhisattvas, beyond the realization of men.

冥應 Response from the invisible.

冥熏 (or內熏) Fumigation within, inner influence.

冥界 Hades, or the three lower forms of incarnation, i.e. hell, preta, animal.

冥福 The happiness of the dead.

冥衆 The invisible powers-Brahmā, Śakra, Yama; the spirits in general.

冥諦 冥性; 自性 The Sāṅkhya doctrine of primordial profundity, beyond estimation, the original nature out of which all things arose.

冥資 Possession of or for the dead; their happiness.

冥道 冥途; 冥土 The dark way, or land of darkness, the shades, Hades, pretas, etc.

冥通 Mysterious, supernatural, omnipresent power.

冥陽會 The assembly (for offerings) of the spirits below and above, pretas, etc.

冥顯兩界 The two regions of the dead and of the living.

准 To permit, grant, acknowledge; used for 準 in 准提 q.v.

剝 To peel, flay; kill.

剝皮 To flay, or peel. In one of the previous incarnations of Śākyamuni he is said to have written a certain gāthā containing the Holy Law on a piece of his own flayed skin with one of his bones split into the shape of a pen, and his

blood instead of ink. 智度論 27.

剜 To scoop out.

剜燈 To scoop out (one's body) and turn (it) into a lamp, attributed to Śākyamuni in a former incarnation.

剡 Pointed, sharp.

剡浮 Jambūdvīpa, and Yama, v. 閻.

原 Origin, original.

原人論 (華嚴原人論) A treatise on the original or fundamental nature of man, by 宗密 Zongmi, the fifth patriarch of the Huayan school, explaining its doctrine, in one juan.

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哥 Elder brother.

哥大 skandha, v. 塞.

哥王 (哥利王) cf. 迦.

哥羅羅 kalala. The womb, uterus; an embryo shortly after conception.

哭 To weep.

哭泣 To weep.

哭啼 To weep and wail.

哦 Translit. ga; cf. 我, 誐, 伽, M003598, 疙.

哦哆也 gatayaḥ, nom. pl. of gati, intp. as going, coming.

唄 pāṭha; pāṭhaka; read, recite, intone, chant, hymns in praise of Buddha; 唄匿 is erroneously said to transliterate the Sanskrit root vi-ne and to be the same as 婆陟 (or 婆師), but these are bhāṣa.

唄器 Instruments for keeping time during chanting.

唄士 唄師 Leader of the chanting.

唄比丘 鈴聲比丘 A famous Buddhist singer of old, ugly but with bell-like voice.

唄讚 To sing hymns of praise.

城 A city (or defensive) wall; a city, a walled and moat and all they contain.

夏 Summer.

夏中 During the summer, the middle of the summer; the rainy reason spent by the monks of India in retirement.

夏坐 坐夏; 夏安居 The period of the summer retreat for meditation, known as varṣās, the rains.

夏末 夏滿; 夏竟; 夏解 The end of the summer (retreat), the 15th of the 7th month.

夏臘 法臘 The age of a monk as monk, the years of his ordination.

夏衆 The assembly of monks at the summer retreat.

夏首 The first day, or beginning, of the retreat.

娘 Lady, wife, mother, aunt.

師娘 A nun.

娜 Translit. da and na.

娜多 danta, tooth, tusk, fang.

娜伽 naga, mountain, hill.

娜耶 naya, conduct, course, leading.

娑 To play, careless, idle, easy going; translit. s, ś, chiefly sa, sā.

娑也地提嚩多 ? satyadevatā, intp. as 本尊 the fundamental, or original, or principal honoured one.

娑伽羅 Sāgara. 娑竭羅 The ocean. The nāga king of the ocean palace north of Mt. Meru, possessed of priceless pearls; the dragon king of rain; his eight-year-old daughter instantly attained Buddhahood, v. the Lotus Sutra.

娑呵 sahā, a herb in the Himālayas imparting immortality to the finder, v. 娑婆.

娑多吉哩 ? Śatakri, name of one of the yakṣa generals.

娑多婆那 (娑多婆漢那) Sadvāhana, Śātavāhana, name of a royal patron of Nāgārjuna.

娑婆 sahā; that which bears, the earth, v. 地; intp. as bearing, enduring; the place of good and evil; a universe, or great chiliocosm, Where all are subject to transmigration and which a Buddha transforms; it is

divided into three regions 三界 and Mahābrahmā Sahāmpati is its lord. Other forms: 娑婆世界; 娑界; 娑媻; 娑訶; 沙訶; 索訶.

娑訶樓陀 sahā-lokadhātu, the world.

娑婆訶 娑縛賀 svāhā, an oblation by fire, also Hail! a brahminical salutation at the end of a sacrifice.

娑底也 satya, true; satyatā, truth, a truth.

娑度 sādhu, good, virtuous, perfect, a sage, saint, tr. 善 good.

娑毘迦羅 劫毘羅 Kapila, possibly Sāṇkhya Kapila, the founder of the Sāṇkhya philosophy.

娑磨 Sama Veda, the third of the Vedas, containing the hymns.

娑羅 沙羅 śāla, sāla; the Sāl tree, 娑羅樹 Shorea robusta, the teak tree.

娑羅林 Śālavana, the grove of sāl trees near Kuśinagara, the reputed place of the Buddha's death.

娑羅王 (娑羅樹王) Śālendra-rāja, a title of a Buddha; also of Śubhavyūha, father of Guanyin.

娑羅娑 sārasa, the Indian crane.

娑羅梨弗? 'Salaribhu, an ancient kingdom or province in India. Exact position unknown.' Eitel.

娑路多羅 戍縷多 śrotra, the ear.

娑麽囉 smara, recollection, remembrance.

孫 Grandchild; grandson; translit. sun.

孫陀利 Sundharī, wife of Sundarananda; Sundari, name of an arhat; also a courtesan who defamed the Buddha.

孫陀羅難陀 Sundarananda, or Sunanda, said to be younger brother of Śākyamuni, his wife being the above Sundarī; thus called to distinguish him from Ānanda.

家 Family; home; school, sect; genus.

家世國 v. 呾 Takṣaśīlā, Taxila.

家主 kulapati, the head of a family.

家狗 A domestic dog, i.e. trouble, which ever dogs oneś steps.

害 hiṃsā; vihiṃsā; hurt, harm, injure.

害想 害覺 The wish, or thought, to injure another.

容 Contain; bear; allow; bearing, face, looks; easy.

容有釋 (or 容有說) An admissible though indirect interpretation; containing that meaning.

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宮 A palace, mansion; a eunuch.

宮毘羅 kumbhīra, v. 金毘羅 a crocodile.

宮胎 The palace-womb, where those who call on Amitābha but are in doubt of him are confined for 500 years, devoid of the riches of Buddha-truth, till born into the Pure Land; idem 疑城胎宮.

宴 A banquet; to repose; at ease.

宴坐 To sit in meditation.

宴寂 To enter into rest, to die.

宴默 Peaceful and silent.

尅 To overcome; successfully attain to.

尅實 To discover the truth.

尅果 To obtain the fruit of endeavour; the fruit of effort, i.e. salvation.

尅終 Successful end, certainty of obtaining the fruit of one's action.

尅聖 The certainty of attaining arhatship.

尅證 The assurance of success in attaining enlightenment.

尅識 The certainty of the knowledge (by the sprits, of men's good and evil).

展 To extend, expand, stretch.

展轉力 Powers of extension or expansion.

峨 High, commanding.

峨眉山 (or 峩眉山) Emei Shan or Mt. Omi in Sichuan. Two of its peaks are said to be like 峨眉 a moth's eyebrows, also pronounced O-mei; the monastery at the top is the 光相寺 where Puxian (Samantabhadra) is supreme.

差 To send; to differ, err; translit. ks.

差別 pariccheda. Difference, different, discrimination; opposite of 平等 on a level, equal, identical.

差利尼迦 kṣīriṇikā, sap-bearing, a tree of that kind.

差多羅 kṣetra, land, region, country.

差羅波尼 kṣārapānīya, alkaline water, caustic liquid; also said to be a kind of garment.

師 A host, army; a leader, preceptor, teacher, model; tr. of upādhyāya, an 'under-teacher', generally intp. as a Buddhist monk.

師子 siṃha, a lion; also 枲伽; idem獅子 Buddha, likened to the lion, the king of animals, in respect of his fearlessness.

師子乳 Lion's milk, like bodhi -enlightenment, which is able to annihilate countless ages of the karma of affliction, just as one drop of lion's milk can disintegrate an ocean of ordinary milk.

師子光 Siṃharaśmi. 'A learned opponent of the Yogācāra school who lived about A. D. 630.' Eitel.

師子吼 siṃhanāda. The lion's roar, a term designating authoritative or powerful preaching. As the lion's roar makes all animals tremble, subdues elephants, arrests birds in their light and fishes in the water, so

Buddha's preaching overthrows all other religions, subdues devils, conquers heretics, and arrests the misery of life.

師子國 Siṃhala, Ceylon, the kingdom reputed to be founded by Siṃha, first an Indian merchant, later king of the country, who overcame the 'demons' of Ceylon and conquered the island.

師子座 (or 師子牀) siṃhāsana. A lion throne, or couch. A Buddha throne, or seat; wherever the Buddha sits, even the bare ground; a royal throne.

師子奮迅 The lion aroused to anger, i.e. the Buddha's power of arousing awe.

師子尊者 師子比丘 Āryasiṃha, or Siṃha-bhikṣu. The 23rd or 24th patriarch, brahman by birth; a native of Central India; laboured in Kashmir, where he died a martyr A.D. 259.

師子王 The lion king, Buddha.

師子相 Siṃdhadhvaja; 'lion-flag,' a Buddha south-east of our universe, fourth son of Mahābhijña.

師子冑 or 師子鎧 Harivarman, to whom the 成實論 Satyasiddhi-śāstra is ascribed.

師子身中蟲 Just as no animal eats a dead lion, but it is destroyed by worms produced within itself, so no outside force can destroy Buddhism, only evil monks within it can destroy it.

師子遊戲三昧 The joyous samādhi which is likened to the play of the lion with his prey. When a Buddha enters this degree of samādhi he causes the earth to tremble, and the purgatories to give up their inmates.

師子音 Siṃhaghoṣa; 'lion's voice,' a Buddha south-east of our universe, third son of Mahābhijña.

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師子頬玉 Siṃhahanu. The paternal grandfather of Śākyamuni, a king of Kapilavastu, father of Śuddhodana, Śuklodana, Droṇodana, and Amṛtodana.

師孫 Disciple of a disciple.

師姑 A nun; also 尼姑.

師檀 Teacher and donor, or monk and patron.

師祖 The teacher of one's teacher.

師絃 or 師筋 A tiger's tendons as lute-strings, i.e. bodhi music silences all minor strings.

庫 Treasury; storehouse.

庫倫 K'urun, Urga, the Lamaistic center in Mongolia, the sacred city.

庫車 Kuche, or Karashahr, v. 屈.

庭 Court, hall, family; forehead.

庭儀 The ceremony on entering the hall for service.

座 āsana. A seat; throne; classifier of buildings, etc.

座主 上座; 首座; 座元 A chairman, president; the head of the monks; an abbot.

座光 光座 The halo behind the throne of an image; a halo throne.

座臘 The end of the summer retreat; the monastic end of the year.

徑 A short cut, a diameter.

徑山 A monastery at Linan Xian, Zhejiang.

徒 On foot; a follower, disciple; in vain; banishment.

徒弟 A disciple, neophyte, apprentice.

徒衆 The company of disciples.

Regret, repent.

悔懺法 The rules for repentance and confession.

悔過 To repent of error.

Hate, anger, rage.

恚怒 Hate and anger.

恚結 The fetter of hatred binding to transmigration.

息 To breathe; breath; rest, stop, settle, cease; produce, interest.

息化 To cease the transforming work (and enter nirvana as did the Buddha).

息心 To set the heart at rest; a disciple.

息忌伽彌 息忌陀伽迷 sakṛdāgāmin, he who is to be reborn only once before entering nirvana.

息慈 At rest and kind, an old translation of śramaṇa, one who has entered into the life of rest and shows loving-kindness to all.

息災 To cause calamities to cease, for which the esoteric sect uses magical formulae, especially for illness, or personal misfortune.

息苦 To put an end to suffering.

Respect, reverence.

恭御陀 Konyodha, a kingdom mentioned by Xuanzang as a stronghold of unbelievers; it is said to be in south, east Orissa, possibly Ganjam as suggested in Eitel; there is a Konnāda further south.

恭敬 Reverence, worship.

恭敬施 Worship as an offering, one of the three forms of giving.

恭畔茶 Kumbhāṇḍa, a demon, v. 鳩.

恭建那補羅 Koṅkaṇapura, 'An ancient kingdom on the West Coast of India,' including Konkan, Goa, and 'North Canara, between Lat. 14°37 N. and Lat. 18°N.' Eitel.

恩 Grace, favour.

恩度 One who graciously saves-a term for a monk.

恩愛 Grace and love; human affection, which is one of the causes of rebirth.

恩愛獄 The prison of affection, which holds men in bondage.

恩憐 Loving-kindness and pity.

恩河 The river of grace.

恩海 The sea of grace.

恩田 The field of grace, i.e. parents, teachers, elders, monks, in return for the benefits they have conferred; one of the 三福田.

悅 To please, pleased.

悅衆 Please all, name for the manager of affairs in a monastery, also called 知事 karmadāna.

悟 Awaken to, apprehend, perceive, become aware; similar to 覺, hence 覺悟.

悟入 To apprehend or perceive and enter into (the idea of reality). Name of a Kashmir monk, Sugandhara.

悟刹 The kṣetra or land of perception or enlightenment.

悟忍 The patience of enlightenment, obtained by Vaidehī, wife of Bimbisāra, 'on her vision of Amitābha,' also known as Joy-perseverance, or Faith-perseverance; one of the ten stages of faith.

悟道 To awaken to the truth.

扇 Fan; door-leaf; translit. ś, ṣ.

扇底迦 śāntika, propitiatory, producing ease or quiet; a ceremony for causing calamities to cease.

扇搋 扇搋半擇迦 (or 扇搋般荼迦) saṇḍhaka, a eunuch, sexually impotent; v. 般; 半.

振 To shake, rouse, restore.

振地 To shake the earth.

振鈴 To shake or ring a bell.

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挾 To clasp under the arm; to cherish; to presume on.

挾侍 脇士 The two assistants of a buddha, etc., right and left.

捃 v. 君.

捕 Arrest, catch.

捕喝 捕哺; 捕揭 Bukhara. The present Bokhara, 39° 47 N., 64° 25 E.

料 To measure (grain), calculate; control, direct; materials; glassware.

料簡 To expound, explain, comment upon; Tiantai uses the term for question and answer, catechism.

旁 A side, beside, adjoining, near.

旁生 傍生 Rebirth as an animal. In some parts of China 旁生 means the next life.

A flag on a bent pole; to warn; translit. generally can, rarely śan, ṣan, cin, kim.

旃丹 v. 震 China.

旃廷 v. 迦 abbrev. for Kātyāyana.

旃提羅 śaṇḍha or ṣaṇḍhaka, a eunuch.

旃檀娜 (旃檀) candana, from cand, to brighten, gladden; sandal-wood, either the tree, wood, or incense-powder, from southern India; there are various kinds, e.g. 牛頭旃檀 q.v.

旃檀耳 A fungus or fruit of the sandal tree, a broth or decoction of which is said to have been given to the Buddha at his last meal, by Cunda 純陀 q.v.; v. 長河含經 3. Also written 檀耳, 檀茸, and 檀樹耳.

旃簛迦 This term as listed in Soothill is most certainly incorrect regarding the second character, obvious because of its pronunciation, as well as the presence of the term 旃簸迦 in other lexicons.

旃簸迦 campaka, also 瞻蔔 (or 瞻博 or 瞻波). A tree with yellow fragrant flowers, Michelia champaka; a kind of perfume; a kind of bread-fruit tree; a district in the upper Punjab.

旃荼羅 caṇḍāla, v. 旃陀羅 below.

旃達羅婆伽 月分 Candrabhāgā. 'The largest Pundjab stream, the Acesines of Alexander, now called Chenab.' Eitel.

旃達羅 旃達提婆 Candradeva, the moon, the moon-deva, the male ruler of the moon.

旃遮 Ciñca-Māṇavikā, or Sundarī, also 旃闍, 戰遮 name of a brahmin woman who falsely accused the Buddha of adultery with her, 興起行經下 q.v.

旃陀羅 caṇḍāla, derived from violent, and intp. as a butcher, bad man 惡人.

旃陀利 caṇḍāla, 'an outcast,' 'a man of the lowest and most despised of the mixed tribes, born from a Śūdra father and Brāhman mother.' M.W. He bore a flag and sounded a bell to warn of his presence. Converts from this class were

admitted to ordination in Buddhism.

旃陀阿輸柯 Cāṇḍāśoka, Cruel Aśoka, a name given to Aśoka before his conversion.

時 Time, hour, period; constantly; as kāla, time in general, e.g. year, month, season, period; as samaya, it means kṣaṇa, momentary, passing; translit. ji.

時乞縛 jihvā, the tongue.

時分 Time-division of the day, variously made in Buddhist works: (1) Three periods each of day and night. (2) Eight periods of day and night, each divided into four parts. (3) Twelve periods, each under its animal, as in

China. (4) Thirty hours, sixty hours, of varying definition.

時外道 (時散外道) The non-Buddhist sect which regarded Time, or Chronos, as creator of all things.

時婆時婆迦 jīvajīvaka, v. 耆.

時媚鬼 (or 精媚鬼) One of the three classes of demons; capable of changing at the 子 zi hour (midnight) into the form of a rat, boy, girl, or old, sick person.

時宗 六時往生宗 A Japanese sect, whose members by dividing day and night into six periods of worship seek immortality.

時成就 The third of the six initial statements in a sutra, i.e. 一時 'at one time' or 'once', cf. 六成就.

時毘多迦羅 jīvitākāra, name of a spirit described as a devourer of life or length of days.

時縛迦 jīvaka, one of the eight principal drugs; living, making or seeking a living, causing to live, etc.; an 'illegitimate son of king Bimbisāra by Āmradārikā', who resigned his claim to the throne to Ajātaśātru and practised

medicine; a physician.

時處諸緣 The conditions or causes of time and place into which one is born.

時衆 The present company, i.e. of monks and laity; the community in general.

時衣 Garments suited to the time or occasion.

時食 Seasonable or timely food, especially roots used as food in sickness, part of the 五藥, i.e. turnip, onion, arrowroot, radish (or carrot), and a root curing poison.

書 likh; to write; pustaka, a writing, book; lekha, a letter, document.

書寫 To write, record; a recorder.

書記 A record.

案 A judge's desk; a case at law.

案達羅 Andhra, a kingdom in southern India, between the Krishnā and Godāvarī rivers, whose capital was Veṅgī; the country south-east of this was known as 大案達羅.

柴 Fuel, firewood, brushwood.

柴頭 The one who looks after it in a monastery.

校 Compare, collate, compared with, similar to 較.

校量 To compare, or collate, and measure; comparative.

校飾 To adorn, ornament.

桓 A tree whose hard, black seeds are used for beads; a pillar, post, tablet.

桓因 Indra, abbrev. for 釋提桓因.

格 A rule, line, pattern; reach, research, science.

格外 Extraordinary.

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栗 Chestnut; translit. l, hṛ.

栗呫毘 (栗呫婆毘) Licchavi, v. 梨.

栗馱 hṛd, hṛdaya, the heart, v. 汙.

桑 Mulberry.

桑渴耶 v. 僧 saṅgha.

桑門 v. 沙門 śramaṇa.

根 mūla, a root, basis, origin; but when meaning an organ of sense, indriyam, a 'power', 'faculty of sense, sense, organ of sense'. M.W. A root, or source; that which is capable of producing or growing, as the

eye is able to produce knowledge, as faith is able to bring forth good works, as human nature is able to produce good or evil karma. v. 五根 and 二十二根.

根上下智力 One of a buddha's ten powers, to know the capacities of all beings, their nature and karma.

根利 Of penetrative powers, intelligent, in contrast with 根鈍 dull powers.

根力 Organs and their powers, the five organs of sense and their five powers.

根器 Natural capacity, capacity of any organ, or being.

根境 The field of any organ, its field of operation.

根塵 The object or sensation of any organ of sense.

根性 Nature and character; the nature of the powers of any sense.

根本 Fundamental, basal, radical, original, elemental; when referring to a fundamental text, 根本經 mūlagrantha, it indicates a sutra supposed to contain the original words of the Buddha.

根本定 根本禪; 根本等至 The stages of dhyāna in the formless or immaterial realm.

根本心 Root or fundamental mind.

根本惑 根本煩惱 The fundamental illusions, passions, or afflictions-desire, hate, delusion (moha), pride, doubt, bad views (or false opinions); the first five are the 五鈍使; the last represents 五利使 q.v.

根本智 Fundamental, original, or primal wisdom, source of all truth and virtue; knowledge of fundamental principles; intuitive knowledge or wisdom, in contrast with acquired wisdom.

根本無明 無始無明 (or 元始無明) Primal ignorance, the condition before discernment and differentiation.

根本說一切有部 The Sarvāstivādins, v. 一切有.

根本識 Original or fundamental mind or intelligence, a name for the ālayavijñāna.

根敗 Decay of the powers, or senses.

根機 Motive power, fundamental ability, opportunity.

根淨 The purity of the six organs of sense.

根緣 Nature and environment; natural powers and conditioning environment.

根門 The senses as doors (through which illusion enters).

根闕 根缺 Defective in any organ of sense, e.g. blind or deaf.

根香 Putchuk, idem 木香.

殊 To kill, exterminate; different; very.

殊勝 Rare, extraordinary, surpassing, as the 殊勝殿 and 池 surpassing palace and lake of Indra.

殊妙身 Surpassingly wonderful body, i.e. Padtmottara, the 729th Buddha of the present kalpa.

殊底迦 (殊底色迦) Jyotiṣka, 殊底穡殊底; 聚底色迦; 樹提迦 'a luminary, a heavenly body.' M.W. Name of a wealthy elder of Rājagṛha, who gave all his goods to the poor.

殊微伽 One of the four kinds of ascetics who dressed in rags and ate garbage.

殊致阿羅婆 Jyotīrasa, tr. as光味 flavor of light, said to be the proper name of Kharoṣṭha, v. 佉.

殺 To kill, cut down, cut off.

殺三摩娑 Shaṭsamāsa, cf. 三.

殺業 The karma resulting from killing.

殺生 To take life, kill the living, or any conscious being; the taking of human life offends against the major commands, of animal life against the less stringent commands. Suicide also leads to severe

penalties.

殺者 The murderer, a name for Māra.

殺賊 Kṣīṇāsrava, thief-destroyer, i.e. conqueror of the passions, an arhat.

殺鬼 To slay demons; a ghost of the slain; a murderous demon; a metaphor for impermanence.

浮 Floating, drifting, unsettled.

浮孔 A hole in a floating log, through which a one-eyed turtle accidentally obtains a glimpse of the moon, the rarest of chances, e.g. the rareness of meeting a buddha.

浮囊 A floating bag, a swimming float, a lifebuoy.

浮圖 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮屠 Buddha; also a stūpa, v. 佛 and 塔.

浮塵 Floating dust or atoms, unstable matter, i.e. phenomena, which hide reality.

浮想 Passing thoughts, unreal fancies.

浮木 A floating log, v. 浮孔.

浮根 (浮塵根); 扶根 (扶塵根) indriya, the organs of sensation, eye, ear, etc., in contrast with 勝義根 the function or faculty of sensation.

浮雲 A drifting cloud, e.g. this life, the body, etc.

海 sāgara, the ocean, the sea.

海印 The ocean symbol, indicating the vastness of the meditation of the Buddha, the vision of all things.

海德 The eight virtues, or powers of the ocean, i.e. vastness, tidal regularity, throwing out of the dead, containing the seven kinds of pearls, absorption of all rivers, of all rain without increase, holding the most

mighty fish, universal unvarying saltness.

海會 The assembly of the saints; also a cemetery.

海潮音 The ocean-tide voice, i.e. of the Buddha.

海珠 Ocean pearls, things hard to obtain.

海衆 Ocean assembly, i.e. a great assembly of monks, the whole body of monks.

海龍王 The Ocean-nāga, or Dragon King of the Ocean; hence the 海龍王經 sutra of this name.

浩 Vast, great.

浩妙 Vast and mysterious.

消 Melt, disperse, expend, digest, dispose of.

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消滅 To put an end to, cause to cease.

消災 To disperse, or put an end to calamity.

消痩服 The monk's robe as putting an end to illusion.

消釋 To solve and explain.

消除 To eradicate.

流 Flow; float; spread; wander.

流來 Flowed or floated down: that which has come down from the past.

流來生死 Transmigration which has come down from the state of primal ignorance.

流支 An abbreviation for Bodhiruci, v. 菩.

流毘尼 流彌尼 Lumbinī, cf. 嵐.

流水 Flowing water, name of a former incarnation of Śākyamuni.

流沙 Floating or shifting sands.

流注 Continuous flow, ceaseless.

流漿 Liquid broth of molten copper, or grains of red-hot iron, in one of the hells.

流舍那 locana. Cf. 毘. Often regarded as the body of bliss of Vairocana.

流轉 saṃsāra, transmigration, flowing and returning, flowing back again.

流轉門 The way of transmigration, as contrasted with 滅門 that of nirvāṇa.

流轉眞如 The bhūtatathatā, or absolute, in transmigratory forms.

流通 Spread abroad; permeate; flowing through, or everywhere, without effective hindrance.

泰 Prosperous, exalted; many.

泰山 Tai Shan in Shandong, the eastern sacred mountain of China.

浴 To bathe, wash.

浴主 知浴; 浴頭 Bath-controller.

浴佛 浴像 To wash the image of the Buddha; this is a ceremony on his birthday, 8th of the 4th month.

浴室 A bath-house.

浴鼓 The bathing-drum, announcing the time for washing in the Chan monasteries.

涌 To well, spring up.

涌出 To spring forth.

涌泉 The springing fountain, i.e. the sutras.

涅 湼 Black mud at the bottom of a pool; muddy; to blacken, defile; the first form is more correct, but the second is more common.

涅哩底 nirṛti, destruction, the goddess of death and corruption regent of the south-west.

涅哩底方 The south-west quarter.

涅槃 nirvāṇa, 'blown out, gone out, put out, extinguished'; 'liberated-from existence'; 'dead, deceased, defunct.' 'Liberation, eternal bliss'; '(with Buddhists and Jainas) absolute extinction or [[Wikipedia:

annihilation|

annihilation]], complete extinction of individual existence.' M.W. Other forms are 涅槃那; 泥日; 泥洹; 泥畔 Originally translated 滅 to extinguish, extinction, put out (as a lamp or fire), it was also described as 解脫 release, 寂

tranquil extinction; 無爲 inaction, without effort, passiveness; 不生 no (re)birth; 安樂 calm joy; 滅度transmigration to 'extinction'. The meaning given to 'extinction' varies, e.g. individual extinction;

cessation of rebirth; annihilation of passion; extinction of all misery and entry into bliss. While the meaning of individual extinction is not without advocates, the general acceptation is the

extinction or end of all return to reincarnation with its concomitant suffering, and the entry into bliss. Nirvāṇa may be enjoyed in the present life as an attainable state, with entry into parinirvāṇa, or perfect

bliss to follow. It may be (a) with a 'remainder', i.e. the cause but not all the effect (karma), of reincarnation having been destroyed; (b) without 'remainder', both cause and effect having been extinguished. The

answer of the Buddha as to the continued personal existence of the Tathāgata in nirvāṇa is, in the Hīnayāna canon, relegated 'to the sphere of the indeterminates' (Keith), as one of the questions which are not essential

to salvation. One argument is that flame when blown out does not perish but returns to the totality of Fire. The Nirvāṇa Sutra claims for nirvāṇa the ancient ideas of 常樂我淨 permanence, bliss, personality purity in the

transcendental realm. Mahāyāna declares that Hīnayāna by denying personality in the transcendental realm denies the existence of the Buddha. In Mahāyāna final nirvāṇa is transcendental, and is also used as

a term for the absolute. The place where the Buddha entered his earthly nirvāṇa is given as Kuśinagara, cf. 拘.

涅槃佛 The nirvāṇa-form of Buddha; also 涅槃像 the 'sleeping Buddha', i.e. the Buddha entering nirvāṇa.

涅槃僧 nivāsana, an inner garment, cf. 泥.

涅槃八味 The eight rasa, i.e. flavours, or characteristics of nirvāṇa-permanence, peace, no growing old, no death, purity, transcendence, unperturbedness, joy.

涅槃分 The part, or lot, of nirvāṇa.

涅槃印 (涅槃寂靜印) The seal or teaching of nirvāṇa, one of the three proof that a sutra was uttered by the Buddha, i.e. its teaching of impermanence, non-ego, nirvāṇa; also the witness within to the attainment of nirvāṇa.

涅槃城 The nirvāṇa city, the abode of the saints.

涅槃堂 The nirvāṇa hall, or dying place of a monk in a monastery.

涅槃宗 The School based on the 大般涅槃經 Mahaparinirvāṇa Sutra, first tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D. 423. Under the 陳 Chen dynasty this Nirvāṇa school became merged in the Tiantai sect.

涅槃宮 The nirvāṇa palace of the saints.

涅槃山 The steadfast mountain of nirvāṇa in contrast with the changing stream of mortality.

涅槃忌 涅槃會The Nirvāṇa assembly, 2nd moon 15th day, on the anniversary of the Buddha's death.

涅槃月日 The date of the Buddha's death, variously stated as 2nd moon 15th or 8th day; 8th moon 8th; 3rd moon 15th; and 9th moon 8th.

涅槃樂 Nirvāṇa-joy or bliss.

涅槃洲 Nirvāṇa-island, i.e. in the stream of mortality, from which stream the Buddha saves men with his eight-oar boat of truth, v. 八聖道.

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涅槃界 nirvāṇa-dhātu; the realm of nirvāṇa, or bliss, where all virtues are stored and whence all good comes; one of the 三無爲法.

涅槃疊那 ? nidhāpana, nirdahana, cremation.

涅槃相 The 8th sign of the Buddha, his entry into nirvāṇa, i.e. his death, after delivering 'in one day and night' the 大般涅槃經 Mahaparinirvāṇa Sūtra.

涅槃經 Nirvāṇa Sūtra. There are two versions, one the Hīnayāna, the other the Mahāyāna, both of which are translated into Chinese, in several versions, and there are numerous treatises on them. Hīnayāna: 佛般泥洹經 Mahaparinirvāṇa

Sūtra, tr. by Po Fazu A.D. 290-306 of the Western Chin dynasty, B.N. 552. 大般涅槃經 tr. by Faxian, B.N. 118. 般泥洹經 translator unknown. These are different translations of the same work. In the Āgamas 阿含there is also a Hīnayāna Nirvāṇa

Sūtra. Mahāyāna: 佛說方等般泥洹經 Caturdāraka-samādhi Sūtra, tr. by Dharmarakṣa of the Western Chin A.D. 265-316, B. N. 116. 大般泥洹經 Mahaparinirvāṇa Sūtra, tr. by Faxian, together with Buddhabhadra of the Eastern Chin, A.D. 317-420, B.

N. 120, being a similar and incomplete translation of B. N. 113, 114. 四童子三昧經 Caturdāraka-samādhi Sūtra, tr. by Jñānagupta of the Sui dynasty, A. D. 589-618, B.N. 121. The above three differ, though they are the first part of the

Nirvāṇa Sūtra of the Mahāyāna. The complete translation is 大般涅槃經 tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D. 423, B.N. 113; v. a partial translation of fasc. 12 and 39 by Beal, in his Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, pp. 160-188. It is sometimes called 北

本 or Northern Book, when compared with its revision, the Southern Book, i.e. 南方大般涅槃經 Mahaparinirvāṇa Sūtra, produced in Jianye, the modem Nanjing, by two Chinese monks, Huiyan and Huiguan, and a literary man, Xie Lingyun.

B.N. 114. 大般涅槃經後分 The latter part of the Mahaparinirvāṇa Sūtra tr. by Jñānabhadra together with Huining and others of the Tang dynasty, B.N. 115, a continuation of the last chapter of B.N. 113 and 114.

涅槃縛 The fetter of nirvāṇa, i.e. the desire for it, which hinders entry upon the bodhisattva life of saving others; it is the fetter of Hīnayāna, resulting in imperfect nirvāṇa.

涅槃聖 Nickname of 道生 Daosheng, pupil of Kumārajīva, tr. part of the Nirvāṇa Sūtra, asserted the eternity of Buddha, for which he was much abused, hence the nickname.

涅槃色 Nirvāṇa-colour, i.e. black, representing the north.

涅槃門 The gate or door into nirvāṇa; also the northern gate of a cemetery.

涅槃際 The region of nirvāṇa in contrast with that of mortality.

涅槃風 The nirvāṇa-wind which wafts the believer into bodhi.

涅槃食 Nirvāṇa food; the passions are faggots, wisdom is fire, the two prepare nirvāṇa as food.

涅迦羅 niṣkala, without parts; seedless; indivisible; or perhaps niṣkāla, but a short time to live, intp. as 暫時 a shot time, temporary.

烝 To steam; advance; all.

烝砂作飯 Like cooking sand for food.

烈 Burning, fierce; virtuous, heroic.

烈士池 Tyāgihrada, Jīvakahrada, the lake of the renouncer, or of the hero, near to the Mrgadāva.

烟 Smoke; also tobacco, opium.

烟蓋 Smoke (of incense) like a canopy.

烏 The crow; black, not; ah! alas! translit. chiefly uu; cf. 優; 盂; 鬱; 鄥; 塢.

烏仗那 udyāna, a park or garden; the park (of Aśoka); an 'ancient kingdom in the north-west of India, the country along the Śubhavastu; the Suastene of the Greeks, noted for its forests, flowers, and fruits'. Eitel. Also 烏杖那; 烏場; 烏萇;

烏孫; 烏儞也曩; 烏耆延那said to be the present Yūsufzai.

烏倶婆誐 Ugra-bhaga, formidable or fierce lord, one of the eight servants of 不動明王 q.v.

烏剌尸 Urāśi, or Uraśā; anciently in Kashmir 'the region south-west of Serinagur, Lat. 33° 23 N., Long. 74° 47 E.' Eitel. The Hazāra district.

烏地多 'The king of an unknown country in Northern India who patronized Xuanzang (A.D. 640).' Eitel.

烏摩 Unmada, 優摩陀 a demon or god of craziness or intoxication.

烏摩妃 Umā, 'flax,' 'wife of Rudra and Śiva' (M.W.), intp. as wife of Śiva, and as a symbol of 貧 covetousness, desire, Umā being described as trampling Śiva under her left foot.

烏枕南 udāna, breathing upwards a solemn utterance, or song of joy, intp. as unsolicited or voluntary statements, i.e. by the Buddha, in contrast with replies to questions; it is a section of Buddhist literature.

烏沙斯 Uṣas. The dawn, but intp. as the planet Venus.

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烏波 upādāna, laying hold of, grasp; hence material, things; it transliterates bhāva and is intp. as 有 to have, be, exist, things, the resultant or karma of all previous and the cause of all future lives. v. 取 and 優.

烏波斯迦 優波夷 (or 優賜迦) upāsikā, female disciples who remain at home.

烏波提 upādhi; a condition; peculiar, limited, special; the upādhi-nirvana is the 苦or wretched condition of heretics.

烏波毱多 Upagupta, also 鄔 and優, a śūdra by birth, who became the fourth patriarch.

烏波第鑠 鄔烏提波; 優烏提舍 upadeśa, a section of Buddhist literature, general treatises; a synonym for the Abhidharma-piṭaka, and for the Tantras of the Yogācāra school.

烏波索迦 (or 烏波婆迦); 優婆塞; 優波婆迦 upāsaka, lay male disciples who remain at home and observe the moral commandments.

烏波陀耶 有波弟 耶夜; 和尚 (or 和闍 or 和闇) upādhyāya, originally a subsidiary teacher of the vedāṅgas; later, through Central Asia, it became a term for a teacher of Buddhism, in distinction from 律師disciplinists and 禪師

intuitionalists, but as heshang it attained universal application to all masters.

烏波難陀 Upananda (or 塢波難陀), a disciple of Śākyamuni; also one of the eight naga-kings in the Garbhadhātu.

烏波髻使者 烏婆計設尼 Upakeśinī, one of the messengers of Mañjuśrī.

烏洛迦旃檀 uraga(sāra)-candana, serpent-sandal, a kind of sandal wood, used as a febrifuge.

烏洛迦 烏羅伽 uraga, going on the belly, a serpent.

烏瑟膩沙 (烏瑟) uṣṇīṣa, a turban, diadem, distinguishing mark; intp. as 佛頂 the crown of the Buddha's head; and 肉髻 fleshy tuft or coif, one of the thirty-two lakṣaṇāni of a Buddha, generally represented as a protuberance on the frontal

crown. Also M046663瑟膩沙; 烏失尼沙; 鬱瑟膩沙 (or 嗢瑟膩沙).

烏耆 Agni, or Akni, an ancient kingdom north of Lop Nor, identified with Karashahr. Also 阿耆尼; M067729夷.

烏芻瑟摩 ? Ucchuṣma. One of the 明王ming wang; he presides over the cesspool and is described both as 'unclean' and as 'fire-head'; he is credited with purifying the unclean. Also 烏芻沙摩; 烏芻澁摩; 烏樞瑟摩 (or 烏樞瑟沙摩); 烏素沙摩.

烏荼 Uḍa, Uḍradeśa, Oḍra, Oḍivisa; an ancient country of eastern India with a busy port called 折利呾羅 Charitrapura (Xuanzang), probably the province of Orissa.

烏落 ulak; ulag; a Uigur term meaning horse, indicating relays of post-horses.

烏菴 om or aum; cf. 唵.

烏逋沙他 Upavasaṭha (Pali, Uposatha). A fast-day, originally in preparation for the brahminical soma sacrifice; in Buddhism there are six fast-days in the month.

烏鐸迦漢荼 ? Uṭabhāṇḍa, or Uḍakhāṇḍa, an ancient city of Gandhāra, on the northern bank of the Indus, identified with Ohind; Eitel gives it as 'the modern Attok'.

烏闍衍那 Ujjayinī, Ujjain, Oujein, 優禪那 the Greek Ozēnē, in Avanti (Mālava), one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, and the first meridian of their geographers, from which they calculate longitude; the modern

Ujjain is about a mile south of the ancient city. M.W.

烏陀愆那 Udayana, a king of Vatsa, or Kauśāmbī, 'contemporary of Śākyamuni,' of whom he is said to have had the first statue made.

特 A bull, stallion; outstanding, special, alone.

特勝 Special, extraordinary.

特尊 The outstanding honoured one.

特欹拏伽陀 dakṣiṇāgāthā, a song offering, or expression of gratitude by a monk for food or gifts.

狼 A wolf; fierce.

狼跡山 Wolf track hill, another name for 鷄足山q.v.

珠 mani. A pearl; a bead; synonym for buddha-truth.

珠利耶 Culya, Caula, Cola. 'An ancient kingdom in the north-east corner of the present Madras presidency, described A.D. 640 as a scarcely cultivated country with semi-savage and anti-Buddhistic inhabitants.' Eitel.

班 A class, rank, band; translit. pan.

班禪喇嘛 班禪頞爾德尼The Tibetan Panchen-lama.

留 Keep, detain; hand down.

留拏 ruṇṇa-paṇḍakas, castrated males.

留難 The difficulty of one's good deeds being hindered by evil spirits.

畔 A path between fields, or boundary; to trespass; translit. ban, van, par, pra. v. 般, 班, etc.

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畔喋婆 ? vātyā. A great calamitous wind 畔彈南.

畔睇 vandana, v. 和.

畜 To rear, feed, domesticate; restrain: cattle.

畜生 tiryagyoni, 底栗車; 傍生 'Born of or as an animal, ' rebirth as an animal; animals in general; especially domestic animals.

畜生因 The cause, or karma, of rebirth as an animal.

畜生界 The animal kingdom.

畜生道 畜生趣 The way, destiny, or gati of rebirth as animals, cf. 六道; 六趣.

Sickness, an attack of illness: haste, speedy: angry.

疾書 Hasty writing; a hurried note; write speedily, or at once.

病 Illness, disease; to hurt.

病子 Just as a mother loves the sick child most, so Buddha loves the most wicked sinner. Nirvana Sutra 30.

盎 A bowl; abundant; translit. ang.

盎哦囉迦 Aṅgāraka, the planet Mars.

盎窶利魔羅 aṅgulimālīya; 指鬘 A wreath, or chaplet, of fingerbones; a Śivaitic sect which practised assassination as a religious act.

眠 To close the eyes, to sleep.

眠藏 A monastic sleeping-room.

眞 True, real; verisimilitude, e.g. a portrait.

眞丹 震旦; 神丹 An ancient Indian term for China; v. 支那.

眞乘 The true vehicle, i.e. the true teaching or doctrine.

眞人 One who embodies the Truth, an arhat; a Buddha.

眞俗 Truth and convention; the true view and the ordinary; reality and appearance. 眞 is 空, and 俗 is 假.

眞佛 The real Buddha, i.e. the saṃbhogakāya, or reward body, in contrast to the nirmāṇakāya, or manifested body. Also the dharmakāya 法身 q.v.

眞佛子 A true Buddha son, i.e. one who has attained the first stage of bodhisattvahood according to the 別教 definition, i.e. the unreality of the ego and phenomena.

眞化 The teaching of the 眞宗 True (or Shin) sect.

眞化二身 The 眞 is the dharmakāya and saṃbhogakāya and the 化 the nirmāṇakāya; v. 三身.

眞因 The true cause; reality as cause.

眞境 The region of truth or reality.

眞妄 True and false, real and unreal. (1) That which has its rise in Buddha-truth, meditation, and wisdom is true; that which arises from the influences of unenlightenment is untrue. (2) The essential bhūtatathatā as the

real, phenomena as the unreal.

眞妄二心 The true and false minds i.e. (1) The true bhūtatathatā mind, defined as the ninth or amalavijñāna. (2) The false or illusion mind as represented by the eight vijñānas, 八識.

眞如 bhūtatathatā, 部多多他多. The眞 is intp. as 眞實 the real, 如 as 如常 thus always or eternally so; i.e. reality as contrasted with 虛妄 unreality, or appearance, and 不變不改 unchanging or immutable as contrasted with form and

phenomena. It resembles the ocean in contrast with the waves. It is the eternal, impersonal, unchangeable reality behind all phenomena. bhūta is substance, that which exists; tathatā is suchness, thusness, i.e.

such is its nature. The word is fundamental to Mahāyāna philosophy, implying the absolute, the ultimate source and character of all phenomena, it is the All. It is also called 自性淸淨心 self-existent pure Mind;

佛性 Buddha-nature; 法身 dharmakāya; 如來藏 tathāgata-garbha, or Buddha-treasury; 實相 reality; 法界 Dharma-realm; 法性Dharma-nature; 圓成實性 The complete and perfect real nature, or reality. There are categories of 1, 2,

3, 7, 10, and 12 in number: (1) The undifferentiated whole. (2) There are several antithetical classes, e.g. the unconditioned and the conditioned; the 空 void, static, abstract, noumenal, and the 不 空 not-void, dynamic, [[Wikipedia:

phenomenal|

phenomenal]]; pure, and affected (or infected); undefiled (or innocent), i.e. that of Buddhas, defiled, that of all beings; in bonds and free; inexpressible, and expressible in words. (3) 無相 Formless; 無生 uncreated; 無性 without

nature, i.e. without characteristics or qualities, absolute in itself. Also, as relative, i.e. good, bad, and indeterminate. (7, 10, 12) The 7 are given in the 唯識論 8; the 10 are in two classes, one of the 別教 cf. 唯識論 8; the

other of the 圓教, cf. 菩提心義 4; the 12 are given in the Nirvana Sutra.

眞如一實 bhūtatathatā the only reality, the one bhūtatathatā reality.

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眞如三昧 The meditation in which all phenomena are eliminated and the bhūtatathatā or absolute is realized.

眞如內熏 The internal perfuming or influence of the bhūtatathatā, or Buddha-spirituality.

眞如實相 The essential characteristic or mark (lakṣaṇa) of the bhūtatathatā i.e. reality. 眞如 is bhūtatathatā from the point of view of the void, attributeless absolute; 實相 is bhūtatathatā from the point of view of

phenomena.

眞如海 The ocean of the bhūtatathatā, limitless.

眞如法身 The absolute as dharmakāya, or spiritual body, all embracing.

眞如緣起 The absolute in its causative or relative condition; the bhūtatathatā influenced by environment, or pure and impure conditions, produces all things, v. 緣起.

眞如隨緣 The conditioned bhūtatathatā, i.e. as becoming; it accords with the 無明染緣 unconscious and tainting environment to produce all phenomena.

眞妙 The mysterious reality; reality in its profundity.

眞子 A son of the True One, i.e. the Tathāgata; a Buddha-son, one who embodies Buddha's teaching.

眞宗 The true sect or teaching, a term applied by each sect to its own teaching; the teaching which makes clear the truth of the bhūtatathatā. The True Sect, or Shin Sect of Japan, founded by Shinran in A. D. 1224, known

also as the Hongwanji sect; celibacy of priests is not required; Amida is the especial object of trust, and his Pure Land of hope.

眞實 tattva. Truth, reality; true, real.

眞實明 The Truth-wisdom, or Buddha-illumination, i.e. prajñā.

眞實智 tattvajñāna, knowledge of absolute truth.

眞實際 The region of reality, the bhūtatathatā.

眞寂 The true Buddha-nirvana as contrasted with that of the Hīnayāna.

眞常 True and eternal; the eternal reality of Buddha-truth.

眞影 A reflection of the true, i.e. a portrait, photograph, image, etc.

眞性 The true nature; the fundamental nature of each individual, i.e. the Buddha-nature.

眞應二身 The dharmakāya and nirmāṇakāya; v. 三身.

眞我 (1) The real or nirvana ego, the transcendental ego, as contrasted with the illusory or temporal ego. (2) The ego as considered real by non-Buddhists.

眞文 The writings of Truth, those giving the words of the Buddha or bodhisattvas.

眞明 True knowledge or enlightenment (in regard to reality in contrast with appearance).

眞智 Wisdom or knowledge of ultimate truth, or the absolute, also called 無智 knowledge of the no-thing, i.e. of the immaterial or absolute; also 聖智 sage wisdom, or wisdom of the sage.

眞普賢 A true P'u-hsien or Samantabhadra, a living incarnation of him.

眞法 The real or absolute dharma without attributes, in contrast to phenomena which are regarded as momentary constructs.

眞法界The region of reality apart from the temporal and unreal.

眞淨 The true and pure teaching of the Mahāyāna, in contrast to the Hīnayāna.

眞無漏智 The true knowledge of the Mahāyāna in its concept of mental reality, in contrast with Hīnayāna concepts of material reality.

眞理 Truth, the true principle, the principle of truth; the absolute apart from phenomena.

眞發明性 The spirit of true enlightenment, i.e. the discipline of the mind for the development of the fundamental spiritual or Buddha-nature.

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眞空 (1) The absolute void, complete vacuity, said to be the nirvana of the Hīnayāna. (2) The essence of the bhūtatathatā, as the 空眞如 of the 起信論, 唯識, and 華嚴. (3) The void or immaterial as reality, as essential or

substantial, the 非 空 之 空 not-void void, the ultimate reality, the highest Mahāyāna concept of true voidness, or of ultimate reality.

眞空妙有 The true void is the mysteriously existing; truly void, or immaterial, yet transcendentally existing.

眞色 The mystic or subtle form of the bhūtatathatā, or absolute, the form of the void, or immaterial, dharmakāya.

眞解脫 Release from all the hindrances of passion and attainment of the Buddha's nirvana, which is not a permanent state of absence from the needs of the living, but is spiritual, omniscient, and liberating.

眞見道 The realization of reality in the absolute as whole and undivided, one of the 見道位.

眞覺 The true and complete enlightenment, i.e. the perfect nirvana of the Buddha; the perception of ultimate truth.

眞言 True words, words of Truth, the words of the Tathāgata, Buddha-truth. The term is used for mantra, and dhāraṇī, indicating magical formulae, spells, charms, esoteric words. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas have

each an esoteric sound represented by a Sanskrit letter, the primary Vairocana letter, the alpha of all sounds being 'a' 阿, which is also styled 眞言救世者 the True World that saves the world.

眞言乘 The True Word, or Mantra Vehicle, called also the supernatural vehicle, because of immediate attainment of the Buddha-land through tantric methods.

眞言宗 The True-word or Shingon sect, founded on the mystical teaching 'of all Buddhas,' the 'very words ' of the Buddhas; the especial authority being Vairocana; cf. the 大日 sutra, 金剛頂經; 蘇悉地經, etc. The

founding of the esoteric sect is attributed to Vairocana, through the imaginary Bodhisattva Vajrasattva, then through Nāgārjuna to Vajramati and to Amoghavajra, circa A.D. 733; the latter became the effective

propagator of the Yogācāra school in China; he is counted as the sixth patriarch of the school and the second in China. The three esoteric duties of body, mouth, and mind are to hold the symbol in the hand,

recite the dhāraṇīs, and ponder over the word 'a' 阿 as the principle of the ungenerated, i.e. the eternal.

眞言智 The mantra wisdom, which surpasses all other wisdom.

眞言祕密 The mystic nature of the mantras and dhāraṇīs; the esoteric things of Shingon.

眞說 True speech or teaching; the words of the Buddha.

眞詮 Commentaries or treatises on reality.

眞語 True words, especially as expressing the truth of the bhūtatathatā; the words of the Tathāgata as true and consistent.

眞諦 The asseverations or categories of reality, in contrast with 俗諦 ordinary categories; they are those of the sage, or man of insight, in contrast with those of the common man, who knows only appearance and not reality.

眞諦三藏 Paramārtha 波羅末陀, also called ? Guṇarata 拘那羅陀 or Kulanātha, from Ujjain in western India, who came to China A.D. 546, and is famous as translator or editor, e.g. of the 起信論.

眞證 Real evidence, proof, or assurance, or realization of truth. The knowledge, concept, or idea which corresponds to reality.

眞識 Buddha-wisdom; the original unadulterated, or innocent mind in all, which is independent of birth and death; cf. 楞伽經 and 起信論. Real knowledge free from illusion, the sixth vijñāna.

眞身 The true body, corpus of truth, dharmakāya, Buddha as absolute.

眞道 The Truth; the true way; reality.

眞金 Pure gold.

眞金像 An image of pure gold; the body of the Buddha.

眞金山 A mountain of pure gold, i.e. Buddha's body.

眞門 The gateway of truth, or reality; the Truth; the school of perfect truth, in contrast with partial truth adapted to the condition of the disciple.

眞際 The region of reality, ultimate truth, idem 眞實際.

矩 A carpenter's square, a rule; translit. ku, cf. 姑, 拘, 鳩.

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矩奢揭羅補羅 Kuśāgrapura, v. 吉祥 and cf. 拘尸那.

矩拉婆 Kurava or Uttarakuru, v. 鬱 the northern of the four great continents.

矩矩吒 kukkuṭa, a cock, fowl.

矩矩吒翳說羅 Kukkuṭeśvara, Korea.

破 To break, disrupt, destroy, cause schism; solve, disprove, refute, negate.

破僧 To disrupt a monk's meditation or preaching, also to disrupt the harmony of the community of monks 破和合僧.

破和合僧 sanghabheda, disrupt the harmony of the community of monks, to cause schism e.g. by heretical opinions.

破地獄 To break open the gates of hell, by chants and incantations, for the release of a departed spirit.

破執 To refute (false) tenets, e.g. the belief in the reality of the ego and things.

破壞 To destroy.

破壞善 Destroyer of good, a name for Māra.

破夏 To neglect the summer retreat.

破戒 To break the commandments.

破有 To refute the belief in the reality of things; to break the power of transmigration as does the Buddha.

破正 That which denies the truth, e.g. heresy.

破正命 An incorrect or wrong form of livelihood.

破法 To break the (Buddha-) law e.g. by the adoption of heresy.

破相宗 The sects established by Yungming 永明, Ching-ying 淨影, and Hui-yuan 慧遠, which held the unreality of all things.

破立 also called 遮照 Refuting and establishing; by refuting to probe, or to establish, i.e. in refuting the particular to prove the universal, and vice versa.

破薩堤 upasanti, tranquility, calm.

破顯 (破邪顯正) To break, or disprove the false and make manifest the right.

破門 To break a door, leave a sect.

破闇滿願 To destroy darkness or ignorance and fulfill the Buddha-vow. i.e. that of Amitābha.

破顏微笑 To break into a smile, the mark of Kāśyapa's enlightenment when Buddha announced on Vulture Peak that he had a teaching which was propagated from mind to mind, a speech taken as authoritative by the

Institutional School.

破魔 To overcome the māras, exorcise demons.

破齋 To break the monastic rule of the regulation food, or time for meals, for which the punishment is hell, or to become a hungry ghost like the kind with throats small as needles and distended bellies, or to become an

animal.

祝 To invoke, either to bless or curse.

祝聖 To invoke blessings on the emperor's birthday.

祖 Grandfather; ancestor; patriarch; founder; origin. See 二十八祖.

祖師 A first teacher, or leader, founder of a school or sect; it has particular reference to Bodhidharma.

祠 The spring ancestral sacrifice; the spring; ancestral temple, tablet, etc.

祠堂 An ancestral temple or hall.

祠堂銀 An endowment for masses to be said for the departed, also 長生銀; 無盡財.

祇 To revere, venerate; only; translit. j in 祇園精舍; 祇樹給孤獨園 The vihāra and garden Jetavana, bought by Anāthapiṇḍaka from prince Jeta and given to Śākyamuni.

神 Inscrutable spiritual powers, or power; a spirit; a deva, god, or divinity; the human spirit; divine, spiritual, supernatural.

神人 Gods, or spirits, and men.

神仙 神僊 The genī, immortals, ṛṣi, of whom the five kinds are 天, 神, 人, 地, and 鬼仙, i.e. deva, spirit, human, earth (or cave), and preta immortals.

神供 Offerings placed before the gods or spirits.

神光 deva-light, the light of the gods.

神力 v. 神通.

神咒 ṛddhi-mantra, or dhāraṇī; divine or magic incantations.

神坐 deva or spirit thrones.

神域 The realm of spirit, of reality, surpassing thought, supra-natural.

神女 A devī, a female spirit; a sorceress.

神妙 Mysterious, mystic, occult, recondite, marvellous.

神我 puruṣa, or ātman. The soul, the spiritual ego, or permanent person, which by non-Buddhists was said to migrate on the death of the body. puruṣa is also the Supreme Soul, or Spirit, which produces

all forms of existence.

神明 The spirits of heaven and earth, the gods; also the intelligent or spiritual nature.

神智 Spiritual wisdom, divine wisdom which comprehends all things, material and immaterial.

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神根 The vital spirit as the basis of bodily life.

神識 The intelligent spirit, also called 靈魂 the soul; incomprehensible or divine wisdom.

神變 Supernatural influences causing the changes in natural events; miracles; miraculous transformations, e.g. the transforming powers of a Buddha, both in regard to himself and others; also his miraculous acts, e.g.

unharmed by poisonous snakes, unburnt by dragon fire, etc. Tantra, or Yogācāra.

神足 (神足通) deva-foot ubiquity. ṛddhipādaṛddhi-sākṣātkriyā. Also 神境智通; 如意通 Supernatural power to appear at will in any place, to fly or go without hindrance, to have absolute freedom; cf. 大教.

神足月 The first, fifth, and ninth months, when the devas go on circuit throughout the earth.

神通 (神通力) Ubiquitous supernatural power, especially of a Buddha, his ten powers including power to shake the earth, to issue light from his pores, extend his tongue to the Brahma-

heavens effulgent with light, cause divine flowers, etc., to rain from the sky, be omnipresent, and other powers. Supernatural powers of eye, ear, body, mind, etc.

神通月 idem 神足月.

神通乘 The supernatural or magic vehicle i.e. the esoteric sect of 眞言 Shingon.

神道 The spirit world of devas, asuras, and pretas. Psychology, or the doctrines concerning the soul. The teaching of Buddha. Shinto, the Way of the Gods, a Japanese national

religion.

神闇 The darkened mind without faith.

泰 The Ch'in state and dynasty 255-205 B. C.

大泰 Syria, the Eastern Roman Empire.

泰廣王 Ch'in-kuang, the first of the ten kings of Hades.

秣 To feed a horse; translit. ma.

秣免羅 Mathurā, v. 摩.

秣若瞿沙 Manojñaghoṣa, an ancient bhikṣu.

秣底補羅 Matipura, an 'ancient kingdom (and city) the kings of which in A.D. 600 belonged to the Śūdra caste, the home of many famous priests. The present Rohilcund (Rohilkhand) between the Ganges and Rāmagaṅgā.'

秣羅娑 Malasa. 'A mountain valley in the upper Pundjab.'

秣羅矩吒 Malakūṭa. 'An ancient kingdom of Southern India, the coast of Malabar, about A.D. 600 a noted haunt of the Nirgrantha sect.' Eitel.

祕 Secret, occult, esoteric; opposite of 顯.

祕印 Esoteric signs, or seals.

祕奥 Secret, mysterious.

祕宗 密教 The esoteric Mantra or Yogācāra sect, developed especially in眞言Shingon, with Vairocana 大日如來 as the chief object of worship, and the maṇḍalas of the Garbhadhātu and Vajra- dhātu.

祕密 Secret, occult, esoteric, mysterious, profound.

祕密乘 (祕密上乘) The esoteric (superior) vehicle, i.e. the above sect.

祕密主 Vajrasattva, cf. 金剛薩埵, who is king of Yakṣas and guardian of the secret of Buddhas.

祕密咒 The mantras, or incantations of the above sect.

祕密號 Its dhāraṇīs.

祕密壇 Its altars.

祕密宗 The (above) esoteric sect.

祕密戒 Its commandments.

祕教 (祕密教) Its teaching; the sect itself; one of the four modes of teaching defined by the Tiantai; a name for the 圓教.

祕密瑜伽 The yoga rules of the esoteric sect; also a name for the sect.

祕經 (祕密經) Its sutras.

祕密結集 The collection of mantras, dhāraṇīs, etc., and of the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu literature, attributed to Ānanda, or Vajrasattva, or both.

祕藏 (祕密藏) The treasury of the profound wisdom. or mysteries, variously interpreted.

祕決 or 祕訣 Secret, magical incantations.

祕法 The mysteries of the esoteric sect.

祕要 The essence, the profoundly important.

竝 Together, idem 並.

竝起 To arise together.

笈 A satchel, book-box; translit. g.

笈多 Upagupta, v. 優婆毱多.

笈房鉢底 憍梵波堤 Gavāṃpati, a monk with the feet and cud-chewing characteristic of an ox, because he had spilled some grains from an ear of corn he plucked in a former life.

粉 Flour, meal, powder.

粉骨碎身 Bones ground to powder and body in fragments.

紙 Paper.

紙葉 Palm-leaves.

紙衣 紙冠, 紙錢 Paper clothing, hats, money, etc., burnt as offerings to the dead.

純 One-coloured, unadulterated, pure, sincere.

純一 Pure, unmixed, solely, simply, entirely.

純眞 Sincere, true; name of a man who asked the Buddha questions which are replied to in a sutra.

純陀 Cunda, who is believed to have supplied Śākyamuni with his last meal; it is said to have been of 旃檀耳 q.v. but there are other accounts including a stew of flesh food; also 准純, 淳純, 周那.

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索 Cord; to extort, express; the cord or noose of Guanyin by which she binds the good; the cord of the vajra-king by which he binds the evil; translit. sa.

索哆 v. 薩 sattva.

索訶 阿 v. 娑 sahā, the world.

索語 索話 Express, expression (in words); forced statements, a demand or request(e.g. for information).

素 Original colour or state; plain, white; heretofore, usual; translit. su.

素具 Already prepared.

素嚩哩拏 蘇伐羅; 修跋拏 Suvarṇa; v. 金 gold.

素意 素懷 Ordinary thoughts, or hopes; the common purposes of the mind.

素怛纜 v. 修 sutra.

素法身 Possessing the fundamental dharmakāya nature though still in sin, i.e. the beings in the three lowest orders of transmigration.

素絹 Plain silk lustring, thin silk.

素豪 The ūrṇā, or white curl between the Buddha's eyebrows.

素食 素饌 Vegetarian food.

納 Offer: pay, give; receive, take; translit. na; cf. 衲.

納具 To accept all the commandments, or rules.

納加梨 v. 衲.

納受 納得 To receive, accept.

納帽 A cap made of bits of given material.

納幕 納莫; 納謨 v. 南無 Namaḥ.

納戒 To receive or accept the commandments.

納播 A stole worn during teaching.

納縛僧伽藍 Navasaṅghārāma. 'An ancient monastery near Baktra, famous for three relics of Śākyamuni (a tooth, basin, and staff).' Eitel.

納縛提媻矩羅 Navadevakula. 'An ancient city, a few miles south-east of Kanyākūbdja, on the eastern bank of the Ganges. The present Nobatgang.' Eitel.

納縛波 Na-fu-po, Hsuanzang's name for a city on the ancient site of I-hsun 伊循, capital of Shan-shan 鄯善 in the Former Han dynasty, afterwards known as Nob or Lop (in Marco Polo). It corresponds to the modern Charkhlik.

納蛇於筒 To put a snake into a tube i.e. meditation able to confine unruly thoughts.

納衣 Garments made of castaway rags, the patch-robe of a monk.

納骨 To bury bones, or a skeleton.

缺 Broken; deficient, lacking; a vacancy, a post.

缺漏 A breach and leakage, a breach of the discipline.

罣 See under Eleven Strokes.

翅 A wing, fin; translit. ke.

翅夷羅 Feather robes.

翅由邏 枳翅羅; 吉翅攞 keyūra, an armlet, necklace.

翅舍欽婆羅 keśakambala, a hair garment or covering; name of one of the ten heretical Indian schools.

耆 Old, 60 years of age, experienced; translit. ji, g.

耆婆 耆域; 時縛迦 Jīva, Jīvaka. Son of Bimbisāra by the concubine Āmrapālī. On his birth he is said to have seized the acupuncture needle and bag. He became famed for his medical skill.

耆婆天 Jīva, the deva of long life.

耆婆鳥 idem 命命鳥, also 耆婆耆婆 (耆婆耆婆迦); 闍婆耆婆 (闍婆耆婆迦) A bird of the partridge family; there is a fable about such a bird having two heads, called 迦嘍嗏 garuḍa, and 憂波迦嘍嗏 upagaruḍa; one ate a delicious flower while the other was asleep;

when the latter awoke, it was so annoyed at not sharing it that it ate a poisonous flower and the bird died; thus there is a Jekyll and Hyde in every one.

耆那 Jina, victor, he who overcomes, a title of every Buddha; also the name of various persons; the Jaina religion, the Jains.

耆闍 gṛdhra, a vulture, also an abbrev. for 耆闍崛; 伊沙堀; 揭梨 馱羅鳩胝; 姞栗陀羅矩叱 Gṛdhrakūṭa; a mountain near Rājagṛha said to be shaped like a vulture's head, or to be famous for its vultures and its caverns inhabited by ascetics, where

Piśuna(Māra), in the shape of a vulture, hindered the meditations of Ānanda. It has numerous other names.

耻 恥 Shame; ashamed.

耻小慕大 Ashamed of the small (Hīnayāna) and in love with the great (Mahāyāna).

脂 Fat, lard; soapstone; wealth; translit. ci, cai; see 支.

脂那 China; intp. as the country of culture, with a people clothed and capped; also as a frontier (of India), a place of banishment.

脂帝浮圖 caitya, a stupa, a mausoleum, a place or object of worship.

脇 The ribs, flanks, sides; forceful, to coerce.

脇侍 脅侍; 挾侍; 脇士 脅士 Bodhisattvas, or other images on either side of a Buddha.

脇尊 v. 波 Pārśva. 脅.

胸 The breast.

胸字 The svastika on Buddha's breast, one of the thirty-two marks.

胸行 Creatures that crawl on their bellies, like snakes.

能 śak. Able to, can; capability, power.

能人 An able man, i.e. Buddha as the all-powerful man able to transform the world.

能仁 Mighty in lovingkindness, an incorrect interpretation of Śākyamuni, but probably indicating his character.

能依 Dependent on, that which relies on something else, e.g. vegetation on land; 所依 is that on which it relies.

能信 Can believe, or can be believed, contrasted with 所信 that which is believed.

能大師 能行者 The sixth patriarch 慧能 Hui-neng of the Ch'an (Zen) School.

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能所 These two terms indicate active and passive ideas, e.g. ability to transform, or transformable and the object that is transformed.

能持 Ability to maintain, e.g. to keep the commandments.

能斷金剛經 Vajracchedikā Sutra, the 'Diamond Sutra', translated by Xuanzang, an extract from the Prajñāpāramitā Sutra.

能施太子 Prince 'Giver', a former incarnation of Śākyamuni, when he obtained the magic dragon, pearl and by its power relieved the needs of all the poor.

能立 A proposition in logic that can be established, or postulated.

能緣 The conditioning power in contrast with the conditioned, e.g. the power of seeing and hearing in contrast with that which is seen and heard.

臭 Stink, stinking; smell.

臭口鬼 (or臭毛鬼) Demons with stinking breath, or hair.

般 A sort, a kind: translit. par, pra, pan, pa, etc.

般利伐羅句迦 Parivrājaka, or Wanderer. 'A Śivaitic sect, worshippers of Mahēs`vara, who wear clothes of the colour of red soil and leave a little hair about the crown of the head, shaving off the rest.' Eitel. Also 波利呾羅拘迦; 簸利婆闍迦.

般刺蜜帝 Pramiti, Paramiti, a monk from Central India, tr. the Śūrangama Sutra 首楞嚴經 A.D. 705.

般泥洹 parinirvāṇa; v.般涅槃.

般涅槃 (般涅槃那) parinirvāṇa; 'quite extinguished, quite brought to an end; the final extinction of the individual.' M. W. The death of the Buddha. Nirvana may be attained in this life, parinirvāṇa after it; for the

meaning of 'extinction' v. 涅槃. It may also correspond to the suppression of all mental activity. It is also the second of the three grades of nirvana, parinirvāṇa, and mahānirvāṇa, which are later developments and have

association with the ideas of Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, and Mahāyāna, or the small, middle, and great vehicles; also with the three grades of bodhi which these three vehicles represent; and the three classes of śrāvakas,

pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas. Other forms are:般利涅槃那; 波利涅槃那; 般尼洹.

般羅颯迷 parasmaipada. 'The transitive or active verb and its terminations.' M. W.

般舟 pratyutpanna, present; multiplied.

般舟三昧 (般舟) pratyutpannasamādhi, the samadhi in which the Buddhas of the ten directions are seen as clearly as the stars at night. Also called 常行道 or 常行三昧 the prolonged samadhi, because of the length of time required,

either seven or ninety days. Its sutra is the般舟三昧經.

般茶迦 [Note: The middle character is erroneous; it should be 荼. Same with the next entry.] paṇḍaka. The general name for eunuchs. The five classes with various degrees of sexual impotence: (1) 扇搋 ṣaṇḍha (ṣaṇḍha paṇḍaka); by birth

impotent. (2) 留拏 rugṇa or ruṇḍa paṇḍaka; 'maimed, ' i.e. emasculated males. (3) 砂梨沙掌拏 īrṣyā (īrṣyā paṇḍaka); those whose sexual desires are only aroused by jealousy. (4) 半擇迦 paṇḍaka are eunuchs in general, but in this category are

described as hermaphrodites. (5) 博叉 pakṣa (pakṣa pāṇḍaka); impotent during one-half of the month. A newer classification distinguishes those with incomplete from those with complete organs; the incomplete being (1) ṣaṇḍha, or

jātipaṇḍaka as above; and (2) emasculated males; the complete are the others; the fifth being stimulated when bathing or evacuating. Other forms: 般吒; 半托; 半擇迦 tr. 黃門.

般茶[荼]慮伽法 The Pāṇḍaka and Lohitaka rule is that derived from the conduct of these two disciples in the Vinaya, and is against quarrelling and fighting.

般若 prajñā, 'to know, understand'; 'Wisdom. ' M. W. Intp. 慧 wisdom; 智慧 understanding, or wisdom; 明 clear, intelligent, the sixth pāramitā. The Prajñā-pāramitā Sutra describes it as supreme, highest,

incomparable, unequalled, unsurpassed. It is spoken of as the principal means, by its enlightenment, of attaining to nirvana, through its revelation of the unreality of all things. Other forms 般羅若; 般諄若; 鉢若; 鉢剌若; 鉢羅枳孃;

鉢腎禳; 波若, 波賴若; 波羅孃; 班若.

般若 (般賴若) Prajñā is also the name of a monk from Kabul, A.D. 810, styled 三藏法師; tr. four works and author of an alphabet.

般若佛母 Wisdom, or salvation through wisdom (prajñā-pāramitā), is the mother or source of all Buddhas. 智度論 34.

般若多羅 Prajñātāra. The 27th patriarch, native of eastern India, who laboured in southern India and consumed himself 'by the fire of transformation,' A.D. 457, teacher of Bodhidharma.

般若心經 The sutra of the heart of prajñā; there have been several translations, under various titles, the generally accepted version being by Kumārajīva, which gives the essence of the Wisdom Sutras. There are many

treatises on the心經.

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般若時 The prajñā period, the fourth of the (Tiantai) five periods of the Buddha's teaching.

般若毱多 Prajñāgupta. A Hīnayāna monk of southern India, who wrote against the Mahāyāna.

般若波羅蜜 (般若波羅蜜多) prajñā-pāramitā, The acme of wisdom, enabling one to reach the other shore, i.e. wisdom for salvation; the highest of the six paramitas, the virtue of wisdom as the notes a knowledge of the

illusory character of everything earthly, and destroys error, ignorance, prejudice, and heresy. For the sutra of this name see below.

般若湯 The soup of wisdom, a name for wine.

般若經 The wisdom sutras, especially the 大般若波羅密多經 tr. by Hsuanzang in 600 juan. A compendium of five wisdom sutras is 摩訶般若; 金剛般若; 天王問般若; 光讚般若 and 仁王般若; cf. the last. Another compendium contains eight books.

般若船 The boat of wisdom, the means of attaining nirvana.

般若菩薩 Prajñā-bodhisattva; wisdom as a female bodhisattva in the garbhadhātu group; also known as 智慧金剛.

般若鋒 The spear of wisdom (which is able to cut off illusion and evil.).

般若頭 The monk in charge of the prajñā sutras.

般遮 pañca, five; also 半者.

般遮子旬 pāñcika. Described as the gods of music, i.e. the gandharvas, also as 般遮旬 pañcābhijñāna, the five supernatural powers.

般遮于瑟 pañca-vārṣika; pañca-pariṣad; mokṣa-mahāpariṣad, the great quinquennial assembly instituted by Aśoka for the confession of sins, the inculcation of morality and discipline, and the distribution of charty; also 般遮婆瑟; 般遮跋瑟迦;

般遮越師; 般遮婆栗迦史; 般遮跋利沙; 般闍于瑟.

般那 prāṇa, exhalation, breathing out, cf. 阿那.

般那摩 padma, lotus, cf. 鉢.

茶 Tea; tea-leaves; translit. ja, jha.

茶湯 Tea and hot water, used as offerings to the spirits. 茶毘 v. 荼.

茶矩磨 Fragrant flowers, i.e. 鬱金 from Western or Central Asia for scenting wine, and for calling down the spirits.

茶闍他 jadata, coldness, apathy, stupidity.

荆 Thorns.

荆溪 Ching-ch'i throne-stream, name of the ninth Tiantai patriarch 湛然 Chan-jan.

芻 Hay, straw; translit. kṣ.

芻摩 蒭摩; 須摩 (須摩迦) kṣaumā, kṣaumaka, flax, linen, linen garment.

荒 Wild, waste; wilds; empty; famine; reckless; to nullify; an angry appearance.

荒野 荒郊 A wilderness, uncultivated.

荒空 Empty, deserted.

荅 To undertake; translit. ta, da. Tathāgata, v. 多.

荅攝蒲密卜羅牒瑟吒諦 daśabhūmi-prastiṣṭhite, 'Thou who art established in the ten stages. ' — said to the Tathāgatas in invocations.

荅秣蘇伐那 tāmasavana, 闇林 the dark forest. 'A monastery situated at the junction of the Vipāśā and Śatadru, 50 li south-east of Tchīnapati. It is probably identical with the so-called Djālandhara monastery in which the IV Synod

under Kanichka held its sessions. ' Eitel.

草 Grass, herbs, plants; rough; female (of animals, birds, etc. ).

草創 Newly or roughly built, unfinished.

草堂 The building in the 草堂寺 monastery at Ch'ang-an where Kumarājīva translated.

草座 Mats or cushions to sit on.

草庵 A thatched hut as a monastery or retreat.

草木 Herbs and trees— equally recipients of rain, as all humanity is of the Buddha's truth.

草木成佛 Even inanimate things, e.g. grass and tree, are Buddha, all being of the 一如 q.v., a T'ien-tai and Chen-yen (Shingon) doctrine.

草環 (or 草芽環) A grass finder-ring used by the esoteric sect.

草鞋 Straw shoes.

草飯 A coarse or rough meal.

Decay, fade, decline; frayed, i.e. mourning clothes.

衰相 The (five) indications of approaching death, v. 五衰.

衰患 The calamities of decadence, famine, epidemics, etc.

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衲 To patch, line, pad; a monk's garment, supposed to be made of rags.

衲伽梨 The saṅghātī, or coat of patches varying from 9 to 25.

衲子 A monk, especially a peripatetic monk.

衲衣 (or 納衣) A monk's robe.

衲袈裟 A monk's robe of seven pieces and upwards.

衲衆 Monks who wear these robes.

記 To remember, to record; to record as foretelling, prophesy.

記別 記莂; 授別 To record and differentiate, the Buddha's foretelling of the future of his disciples to Buddhahood, and to their respective Buddha-kalpas Buddha-realms, titles, etc.; see the 記別經 and 和伽羅那

Vyākaraṇa, predictions, one of the twelve divisions of the Canon.

記室 書記 Secretary's office, secretary, writer.

記心 Memory.

記論 Vyākaraṇa, a treatise on Sanskrit grammar, cf. 毘伽羅論.

訖 To finish, end, stop, to reach (an end); until; entirely; translit. k.

訖利多 kṛta, kṛtya, v. 吉; a slave, serf, bought or hired worker.

訖利多王 King Kṛta of Kashmir, whose descendants were opposed to Buddhism; they were dethroned by Kaniṣka, who restored Buddhism; but later the royal line regained the throne and drove out the Buddhist

monks.

訖里瑟拏 kṛṣna, black, dark. dark blue; Krishna, the hero-god of India, 'with Buddhists he is chief of the black demons, who are enemies of Buddha and the white demons.' M. W.

訓 To teach.

教訓 訓誨 To teach, instruct.

訕 Abuse, slander; translit. san, śan.

訕底 v. 扇 Śāntika.

訓若 Sañjana, 'entirely vanquishing' name of the founder of one of the ten heretical sects. Also, one of the six Tīrthyas, former teacher of Maudgālayayana and Śāriputra; also, a king of yakṣas; cf. 珊.

豺狼 A wolf.

豺狼地獄 one of the sixteen hells, where sinners are devoured by wolves.

貢 Tribute; best.

貢高 Elevated, proud.

財 vasu; artha. Wealth, riches.

財主 A wealthy man, rich.

財供養 財施 Offerings or gifts of material goods.

財慳 Meanness, stinginess.

財欲 The desire for wealth, one of the five wrong desires.

財神 Kuvera, v. 倶 Vaiśravaṇa, v. 毘the god of wealth.

財色 Wealth and beauty (i.e. woman).

起 To rise, raise, start, begin; uprising; tr. utpada.

起信 The uprise or awakening of faith.

起信論 Śraddhotpada Śāstra; it is one of the earliest remaining Mahāyāna texts and is attributed to Aśvaghoṣa; cf. 馬鳴; two tr. have been made, one by Paramārtha in A. D. 554, another by Śikṣānanda, circa 700; the first text is more

generally accepted, as Chih-i, the founder of Tiantai, was Paramārtha's amanuensis, and 法藏 Fazang (643-712) made the standard commentary on it, the 起信論義記, though he had assisted Śikṣānanda in his translation. It gives

the fundamental principles of Mahāyāna, and was tr. into English by Teitaro Suzuki (1900), also by T. Richard. There are several commentaries and treatises on it.

起信二門 Two characteristics of mind in the śāstra, as eternal and phenomenal.

起尸鬼 To resurrect a corpse by demoniacal influence and cause it to kill another person; v. 毘 vetāla; 起死人 is similar, i.e. to raise the newly dead to slay an enemy.

起止處 A latrine, cesspool.

起滅 Rise and extinction, birth and death, beginning and end.

起盡 Beginning and end, similar to the last.

起者 One who begins, or starts; one who thinks he creates his own welfare or otherwise.

起行 To start out (for the life to come).

起請 To call on the gods or the Buddhas ( as witness to the truth of one's statement).

迹 Traces, footsteps; external evidences or indications.

迹化 Teaching or lessons derived from external events, i.e. of the Buddha's life and work, shown in the first fourteen sections of the Lotus Sutra; the second fourteen sections of that work are called 本化 his direct teaching.

The lessons from the external indications are called 迹化十妙 the ten marvellous indications, cf. 十妙.

追 To pursue, follow after; to follow the dead with thoughts and services.

追修 To follow the departed with observances.

追福 To pursue the departed with rites for their happiness. 追薦 and 追善 have similar meaning; also 追嚴 for a sovereign.

迷 māyā; delude, deceive, confuse, mislead; delusion, illusion, etc.

迷事 Delusive phenomena, or affairs, deluded in regard to phenomena, cf. 迷理 infra.

迷人咒 Incantations to delude or confuse others.

迷倒 Deluded, confused, to delude and upset.

迷妄 Deluded and misled; deluding and false.

迷子 The deluded son who held a gold coin in his hand while starving in poverty; such is the man with Buddha-nature who fails to use it. v. 金剛三昧經.

迷岸 The shore of delusion.

迷底履 v. 彌 Maitreya.

迷心 A deluded mind.

迷惑 Deluded and confused, deceived in regard to reality.

迷悟 Illusion and enlightenment.

迷悟一如 the two are aspects of the one reality, as water and ice are the same substance, 迷悟不二 and fundamentally are the same.

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迷悟因果 In the four axioms, that of 'accumulation' is caused by illusion, with suffering as effect; that of 'the way' is caused by enlightenment, with extinction (of suffering) as effect.

迷沒 Deluded and sunk (in the passions).

迷津 The ford of delusion, i.e. mortality.

迷理 Deluded in regard to the fundamental principle, i.e. ignorant of reality; cf. 迷事.

迷生 All deluded beings.

迷界 Any world of illusion.

迷盧 v. 蘇迷盧 Sumeru.

迷隸耶 (or 迷麗耶) maireya, a kind of intoxicating drink.

迷黎麻羅 (and other forms) Confused sight; blurred.

逆 vāma. To go against, contrary, adverse, reverse, rebellious, oppose, resist.

逆修 豫修 To observe in contrary order; to observe before death the Buddhist rites in preparation for it.

逆化 (The ability of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas) to convert the heterodox or opponents.

逆喩 Argument by illustration from effect to cause, e.g. the source of the ocean is the river, of the river the streams, of these the ponds.

逆流 To go against the current, i.e. the stream of transmigration, and enter the path of Nirvana, also called 預流, the srota-āpanna, or śrāvaka first stage.

逆緣 Resisting accessory cause; as goodness is the 順 or accordant cause so evil is the resisting cause of the Buddha way.

逆觀 The inverse method in meditation.

逆謗 To resist and abuse.

逆路伽耶陀 Vāma-lokāyata; the Lokāyata were materialistic and 'worldly' followers of the Cārvāka school; the Vāma-lokāyata were opposed to the conventions of the world. An earlier intp. of Lokāyata is, Ill response to questions, the

sophistical method of Chuang Tzu being mentioned as comparison. Vāma-lokāyata is also described as Evil questioning, which is the above method reversed.

逆順 The adversatives, resisting and complying, opposing and according with, reverse or direct, backward or forward.

送 To escort, send, give as a present.

送亡 To escort or take the departed to the grave.

送葬 To escort for burial.

逃 To flee, escape.

逃禪 To escape in or from meditation or thought.

退 Retire, withdraw, backslide, recede, yield.

退大 To backslide from Mahāyāna (and revert to Hīnayāna).

退屈 To yield or recede, as is possible to a Bodhisattva facing the hardships of further progress.

退座 To withdraw from one's seat.

退沒 To be reborn in a lower stage of existence.

退轉 To withdraw and turn back, i.e. from any position attained.

酒 surā; maireya; madya. Wine, alcoholic liquor; forbidden to monks and nuns by the fifth commandment.

針 sūci; a needle.

針孔 A needle's eye: it is as difficult to be reborn as a man as it is to thread a needle on earth by throwing the thread at it from the sky.

針口鬼 Needle-mouth ghosts, with mouths so small that they cannot satisfy their hunger or thirst.

針毛鬼 Ghosts with needle hair, distressing to themselves and others.

針芥 Needle and mustard seed; the appearance of Buddha is as rare as hitting the point of a needle on earth by a mustard seed thrown from the sky.

針鋒 A needle's point, similar to the last.

閃 Flash; get out of the way.

閃多 A demon; one of Yama's names.

閃電光 Lightning-flashing, therefore awe-inspiring.

陞 To ascend: rise, raise.

陞座 To ascend the platform to expound the sutras.

院 ārāma, pleasaunce, garden, grove; a monastery, hall, court.

院主 The abbot of a monastery.

除 Get rid of.

除一切惡 To get rid of all evil.

除散 Get rid of and scatter away.

除斷 Get rid of completely, cut off.

除災 Get rid of calamity.

除疑 Eliminate doubt.

除蓋障 To dispose of hindrances.

除覺支 To get rid of mental effort and produce mental and physical buoyancy.

除饉 He (or she) who puts away want (by receiving alms), an intp. of bhikṣu and bhikṣuṇī.

馬 aśva, a horse; a stallion; one of the seven treasures of a sovereign.

馬勝 馬師 Aśvajit. Horse-breaker or Horse-master. The name of several persons, including one of the first five disciples.

馬鳴 阿濕縛窶抄Aśvaghoṣa, the famous writer, whose patron was the Indo-Scythian king Kaniṣka q. v., was a Brahmin converted to Buddhism; he finally settled at Benares, and became the twelfth patriarch. His name is attached to

ten works (v. Hōbōgirin 192, 201, 726, 727, 846, 1643, 1666, 1667, 1669, 1687). The two which have exerted great influence on Buddhism are 佛所行讚經 Buddhacarita-kāvya Sutra, tr. by Dharmarakṣa A. D. 414-421, tr. into

English by Beal, S.B.E.; and 大乘起信論 Mahāyāna śraddhotpāda-śāstra, tr. by Paramārtha, A.D.554, and by Śikṣānanda, A. D. 695-700, tr. into English by Teitaro Suzuki 1900, and also by T. Richard, v. 起. He gave to Buddhism the

philosophical basis for its Mahāyāna development. There are at least six others who bear this name. Other forms: 馬鳴; 阿濕縛窶抄馬鳴比丘; 馬鳴大士; 馬鳴菩薩, etc.

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馬曷麻諦 Mahāmati, 大慧, the bodhisattva addressed in the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra; v. 摩訶摩底.

馬祀 aśvamedha, the horse sacrifice, either as an annual oblation to Heaven, or for specific purposes.

馬祖 Ma Tsu, founder of the Southern Peak school of the Ch'an or Intuitional sect in Kiangsi, known as 江西道一.

馬耳山 Aśvakarṇa, v. 頞, one of the seven concentric rings around Meru.

馬苑 The horse park, i.e. 自馬寺 the White Horse Monastery at Loyang in the Later Han dynasty, where, according to tradition, the first missionaries dwelt.

馬陰藏 A retractable penis, e.g. that of the horse, one of the thirty-two signs of a Buddha.

馬頭 Horse-head.

馬頭羅刹 The horse-head rākṣasa in Hades.

馬頭觀音 馬頭大士; 馬頭明王 Hayagrīva, the horse-neck or horse-head Guanyin, in awe-inspiring attitude towards evil spirits.

馬麥 Horse-grain, Buddha's food when he spent three months with the Brahmin ruler Agnidatta with 500 monks, one of his ten sufferings.

骨 Bone: bones, relics.

骨人 Skeleton.

骨佛 A bone-buddha, a corpse.

骨塔 A dagoba for the ashes of the dead.

骨目 The bones and eyes, the essentials.

骨身 The bones of the body, the śarīra or remains after cremation.

骨鏁天 The bone-chain deva 商羯羅 Śaṅkara, i.e. Śiva.

高 High, lofty, eminent.

高士 Eminent scholar; old tr. for Bodhisattva.

高世耶 憍奢耶; 憍尸; kauseya, thin silk, lustring; wild silk-worms.

高僧 Eminent monks.

高昌 高車Karakhojo, the ancient town of Kao-ch'ang, which lay 30 li east of Turfan in Turkestan, formerly an important Buddhist centre, whence came scriptures and monks to China.

高祖 A founder of a sect or school.

高薩羅 v. 憍 Kośala.

高足 Superior pupils or disciples.

高麗 Korea.

高麗藏 The Korea canon of Buddhism, one of the three collections which still exists in the 海印寺 in 639 cases, 1521 部 and 6589 卷.

preta 薜荔多, departed, dead; a disembodied spirit, dead person, ghost; a demon, evil being; especially a 餓鬼 hungry ghost. They are of many kinds. The Fan-i ming i classifies them as poor, medium,

and rich; each again thrice subdivided: (1) (a) with mouths like burning torches; (b) throats no bigger than needles; (c) vile breath, disgusting to themselves; (2) (a) needle-haired, self-piercing; (b) hair sharp and

stinking; (c) having great wens on whose pus they must feed. (3) (a) living on the remains of sacrifices; (b) on leavings in general; (c) powerful ones, yakṣas, rākṣasas, piśācas, etc. All belong to the realm of Yama, whence they

are sent everywhere, consequently are ubiquitous in every house, lane, market, mound, stream, tree, etc.

鬼子母 Hāritī, 訶梨帝 intp. as pleased, or pleasing. A 'woman who having vowed to devour all the babies at Rādjagriha was reborn as a rākshasī, and gave birth to 500 children, one of which she was to devour every day. Converted by

Śākyamuni she entered a convent. Her image is to be seen in all nunneries'. Eitel. Another account is that she is the mother of 500 demons, and that from being an evil goddess or spirit she was converted to become a

protectress of Buddhism.

鬼子母神 A rākṣasī who devours men.

鬼城 The demon-city, that of the gandharva s.

鬼界 (鬼法界) The region or realm of demons; one of the ten regions.

鬼火 Spirit lights, ignis fatūs.

鬼病 Sickness caused by demons, or ghosts.

鬼神 Ghosts and spirits, a general term which includes the spirits of the dead, together with demons and the eight classes of spirits, such as devas, etc. 鬼 is intp. as 威 causing fear, 神 as 能 potent,

powerful.

鬼神食時 The time when they feed, i.e. night.

鬼見 Demon views, i.e. heterodox teaching.

鬼道 鬼趣 The way or destiny of yakṣas, rākṣasas, and hungry ghosts; 鬼道 also means in league with demons, or following devilish ways.

鬼錄 The iron record, containing the sins of men, in Yama's office in Hades.

鬼門 The north-east corner of a house, or of a city-gate enceinte, through which the spirits can come and go.

鬼魅 Imps or demons who cause sickness, especially malaria in certain regions.

11. ELEVEN STROKES

乾 Dry, dried up, clean; heaven, male, masculine, enduring, continual. Translit. gan and h.

乾屎橛 A stick used in India as 'toilet paper', in China paper, straw, or bamboo.

乾慧地 The dry or unfertilized stage of wisdom, the first of the ten stage.

乾栗陀耶 乾栗馱 hṛdaya, heart, soul, mind, core.

乾城 (乾達城) gandharva city, infra.

乾闥婆 乾沓婆 or 乾沓和; 健達婆(or 健闥婆); 健達縛; 健陀羅; 彦達縛 gandharva or gandharva kāyikās, spirits on Gandha-mādana 香 山 the fragrant or incense mountains, so called because the Gandharvas do not drink wine or eat meat,

but feed on incense or fragrance and give off fragrant odours. As musicians of Indra, or in the retinue of Dhṛtarāṣtra, they are said to be the same as, or similar to, the Kinnaras. They are, or according to M.W., Dhṛtarāṣtra

is associated with soma, the moon, and with medicine. They cause ecstasy, are erotic, and the patrons of marriageable girls; the Apsaras are their wives, and both are patrons of dicers.

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香山 the fragrant or incense mountains, so called because the Gandharvas do not drink wine or eat meat, but feed on incense or fragrance and give off fragrant odours. As musicians of Indra, or in the retinue of Dhṛtarāṣtra,

they are said to be the same as, or similar to, the Kinnaras. They are, or according to M. W., Dhṛtarāṣtra is associated with soma, the moon, and with medicine. They cause ecstasy, are erotic, and the patrons of

marriageable girls; the apsaras are their wives, and both are patrons of dicers.

乾闥婆城 A Gandharva city, i. e. a mirage city.

乾闥婆王 The king of the Gandharvas, named Citraratha (M W. ), but tr. as Druma, a tree.

乾陀 Yugamhdhara, cf. 踰乾陀羅, the first of the concentric mountains of a world; also name of a tree.

乾陀羅 (or 乾陀越 or 乾陀衞 or 乾陀婆那) Gandhāra, an ancient kingdom in the north of the Punjab, 'Lat. 35° 5N., Long. 71°16E. ' ( Eitel); famous as a centre of Buddhism. Śākyamuni, in a former life, is said to have lived there and torn

out his eyes to benefit others, 'probably a distortion of the story of Dharmavivardhana, who as governor of Gandhāra was blinded by order of a concubine of his father, Aśoka. ' Eitel. M. W. associates Gandhāra with Kandahar.

Also, name of a fragrant tree, and of a yellow colour.

乾陀訶提 Gandhahastin, 'fragrant elephant, ' name of a Bodhisattva.

停 To stop, rest, settle, delay.

停心 To fix or settle the mind in meditation, cf. 五停心觀.

偶 An image; a mate; unexpectedly.

偶像 An image, an idol.

偸 [偷] Remiss; to steal; stealthy.

偸婆 stūpa, cf. 塔.

偸盜 Steal, rob; one of the ten sins.

偸蘭 (偸蘭遮耶), 薩偸羅; 因蘭 sthūlātyaya, a great transgression, one of the major transgressions of a monk or nun.

偈 gāthā, metrical hymn or chant, often occurring in sutras and usually of 4, 5, or 7 words to the line. Also 偈他 cf. 伽陀.

偈讚 To sing in verse the praises of the object adored.

偈頌, 偈陀 Hymn, chant; to hymn.

健 Sturdy, strong, hard, bold; unwearied; translit. ga, gha.

健勇坐 The heroic posture of the Buddha with his feet on his thighs soles upward.

健南 ghana, a mass, also 健男; 鍵南 (or 蹇南 or 羯南) ; it is intp. as a hard, solid lump, the human embryo formed from the fourth to the seventh day.

健拏驃訶 Gandha-vyuha, tr. by 華嚴 q. v.

健陀 健杜; 健達 gandha, smell, scent; a tree producing incense; the first and last also mean (as do 乾陀 and 乾馱) kaṣāya, a colour composed of red and yellow, the monk's robe, but the sounds agree better with kanthā, the patch-

robe. Also used for skandha, v. 塞建陀, the five constituents; also for gandharvas, v. 乾闥婆.

健陀倶知 gandhakuṭī, the house of scent, or incense, a temple.

健陀摩陀摩羅 Gandhamādanamāla, the hill of intoxicating perfume.

健達縛 Gandharva, v. 乾.

健馱梨 ? gandhārī, a spell that gives power to fly.

健馱羅 Gandhāra, v. 乾陀羅.

假 To borrow, pretend, assume, suppose; unreal, false, fallacious. In Buddhism it means empirical; nothing is real and permanent, all is temporal and merely phenomenal, fallacious, and unreal; hence the term is used

in the sense of empirical, phenomenal, temporal, relative, unreal, seeming, fallacious, etc. The three fundamental propositions or 三諦 are 空假中 the void, or noumenon; the empirical, or phenomenal; and the

mean.

假合 假和合Phenomena, empirical combinations without permanent reality.

假合之身 The empirical body.

假名 Unreal names, i. e. nothing has a name of itself, for all names are mere human appellations.

假名世間 The world of unreal names, i. e. the phenomenal world of sentient beings.

假名有 Things which exist only in name, i. e. all things are combinations of other things and are empirically named.

假名菩薩 One who may be called a bodhisattva because he has attained the 十信 q. v.

假實 False and true, unreal and real, empirical and real, etc.

假我 The empirical ego of the five skandhas.

假有 The phenomenal, which in reality no more exists than turtle's hair or rabbit's horns.

假色 Invisible, or internal form, i. e. spiritual form.

假觀 The meditation on relative truth, or phenomenal and therefore illusory existence, in comparison with 空 and 中 q. v.

假設 prajñapti; ordinary teaching, doctrines derived from the phenomenal.

假門 The sects which rely on externals, i. e. on 'works' for salvation, in contrast with faith in Amitābha.

偏 To or on one side, deflected, one-sided, biased, partial, prejudiced.

偏圓 Partial and all-embracing, relative and complete, e. g. Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna, also the intermediate schools (between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna) and the perfect school of Tiantai.

偏執 To hold firmly to a one-sided interpretation; bigoted.

偏小 The partial and minor teaching of the Buddha during the first twelve years of his ministry.

偏小情 The partial or narrower Hīnayāna idea that though the ego is unreal, things are real.

偏教 權教 Partial or relative teaching; Tiantai regarded its own teachings the complete, or final and all-embracing teaching of the Buddha, while that of the 法相, 三論, etc., was partial and imperfect; in like manner, the three

schools, 藏,通 and 別, piṭaka,intermediate, and separate, were partial and imperfect.

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偏眞, 偏空, 單空The Hīnayāna doctrine of unreality, a one-sided dogma in contrast with the transcendental reality of Mahāyāna.

偏衫 The monk's toga, or robe, thrown over one shoulder, some say the right, other the left.

偏袒 Bare on one side, i. e. to wear the toga, or robe, over the right shoulder, baring the other as a mark of respect.

偏門 A side door, one through which offenders are expelled.

兜 Helmet, hood; pocket, bag; translit. tu.

兜夜 The Tuṣita and the Yama heavens.

兜婆 A stūpa.

兜沙 tuṣāra, frost.

兜牟盧 tumburu, probably gandharvas.

兜樓婆 妬路婆 ? turuṣka; olibanum; Indian incense.

兜率陀 (兜率 or 兜率哆); 兜術; 珊都史多, 珊覩史多; 鬭瑟多 Tuṣita, from tuṣ, contented, satisfied, gratified; name of the Tuṣita heaven, the fourth devaloka in the 欲界 passion realm, or desire realm between the Yama and Nirmāṇ

arati heavens. Its inner department is the Pure Land of Maitreya who, like Śākyamuni and all Buddhas, is reborn there before descending to earth as the next Buddha; his life there is 4,000 Tuṣita

years (each day there being equal to 4000 earth-years) 584 million such years.

兜率天子 The prince, i. e. Śākyamuni, whose light while he was in Tuṣita shone into hell and saved all its occupants to that heaven; hence he is also called 地獄天子 Prince of Hades.

兜羅 妬羅 (or 堵羅 or 蠧羅) tūla, floss, e. g. willow-floss, wild silk; cotton, also called兜羅綿 (or 兜羅M016820); also a tree producing such floss.

減 减 Diminish, decrease, abate, reduce, abbreviate; opp. 增.

減劫 The decreasing kalpas in which the period of life is gradually reduced, as the 增減 are the kalpas of increase; together they form twenty kalpas, ten diminishing and ten increasing; but there are other definitions.

減費 To cut down one's personal expenditure (for the sake of charity).

副 To aid, assist, second; a deputy

副寮 Deputy in a monastery.

勘 To investigate, examine, collate.

勘辨 To examine and define.

勒 Rein; extort, force; a left stroke; to draw in.

勒沙 lākṣā, lac; a reddish colour, probably cochineal.

勒沙婆 Ṛṣabha, described as one of three famous ṛṣi, before the days of Śākyamuni, of the Nirgrantha type of naked ascetics.

勒那摩提 勒那婆提 ? Ratnamati, a monk from Central India, circa A. D. 500, who translated three works of which two remain.

動 Move, stir, motion, mutable; movement arises from the nature of wind which is the cause of motion.

動不動法 The mutable and the immutable, the changing and the unchanging, the kamadhātu, or realms of metempsychosis and the two higher realms, rupadhātu and arupadhātu. Cf. 不動.

厠 A privy, cesspool; also called 西淨; 東淨; 東司; 雪隱; 後架; 起止處, etc. Ucchuṣma, v. 烏, is the guardian spirit of the cesspool.

參 Reflect on, counsel, visit superior. An assembly a gathering for the purpose of meditation, preaching, worship. Read shen, the twenty-first constellation, α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ, η, and k in Orion.

早參 Morning assembly.

晩參 evening assembly.

小參 a special meeting; a discussion following an address.

參前 Before the evening assembly.

參後 參退 after the evening assembly.

參問 To seek instruction— generally as a class.

參堂 The initiation to the services of one newly ordained.

參禪 To inquire, discuss, seek religious instruction.

參詣 To approach the gods or Buddhas in worship.

參請 To request instruction, or discussion.

參頭 One versed in the ceremonies and capable of leading others.

啓 To open, begin, inform.

啓白 idem 表白 To inform, make clear, especially to inform the Buddhas.

唱 To cry out, sing.

唱名 To cry out names; to call (on) the name (of Buddha).

唱寂 To cry out nirvāṇa, as the Buddha is said to have done at his death.

唱導 To preach to people and lead them to conversion.

唱禮 To announce the ceremonial duty.

唱衣 To cry for sale the robes of a deceased monk, or person.

唱道師 A preacher; the president of a monastic assembly.

唱食 To give the 'blessing' at meals.

唵 oṃ; auṃ; 'a word of solemn affirmation and respectful assent (sometimes translated by yes, verily, so be it, and in this sense compared with Amen). 'M. W. It is 'the mystic name for the Hindu triad', and has other

significations. It was adopted by Buddhists, especially by the Tantric school, as a mystic spell, and as an object of meditation. It forms the first syllable of certain mystical combinations, e. g. 唵?呢叭

061971 吽 oṃ maṇi padme huṃ, which is a formula of the Lamaistic branch, said to be a prayer to Padmapani; each of the six syllables having its own mystic power of salvation from the lower paths of transmigration,

etc.; the formula is used in sorcery, auguries, etc.; other forms of it are 唵?呢鉢頭迷吽; 唵麽抳鉢訥銘吽.

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啞 eḍa, dumb; eḍamūka, deaf and dumb, unable to express oneself; translit. a, v. 阿.

啞咓囉孤答尼耶 Aparagodana, the Western continent, see 阿.

啞子得夢 A dumb man who has had a dream — but cannot tell it.

啞密哩達 amṛta, ambrosia v. 阿.

啞撇釋該而 abhiṣeka, 'consecrate me by sprinkling, ' said in prayer.

啞曷囉啞曷囉馬麻藹由而傘塔囉尼 āhāra āharaṇam āyuḥ, saṃtāraṇe 'Give me, give me old age, oh protector'.

啞法 The doctrine of a deaf and dumb person, which he cannot proclaim.

啞羊 (啞羊僧) A dumb sheep (monk), stupid, one who does not know good from bad, nor enough to repent of sin.

問 To ask, inquire, question; to adjudicate, sentence.

問法印 The manual sign indicating the putting of a question.

問訉 To make inquiry; ask about another's welfare, orally or by folding the hands; interrogate; try a case.

商 To consult arrange; trade, a merchant; translit. śaṇ, saṃ, śa, śā.

商佉 商迦 śaṅkha, 餉佉 (or 傷佉, 勝佉, 儴佉, ?佉, 霜佉) ; 勝伽; 企羅; 償起羅 A conch, shell.

商羯羅 Śaṅkara, 'auspicious' (M. W. ), a name for 'Śiva', and intp. as 骨鏁 bone-chains; name of 商羯羅阿闍梨 Śaṅkaracarya, the celebrated Indian philosopher of the eighth century A. D. who is known as a great opponent of Buddhism.

商諾迦縛婆 (商諾縛婆) ; 商那和修; 舍那和修 (or 舍那波私) Sanakavisa; Sanavasa; a younger brother of Ānanda. Also an arhat, whom Eitel gives as the third patriarch, a native of Mathurā, and says: 'A Tibetan tradition identifies him with

Yaśas, the leader of the II Synod. ' Because of his name he is associated with a hemp or linen garment, or a covering with which he was born.

商賈 A trader, one of the vaiśya caste.

商量 To consult, discuss together, e. g. as master and pupil.

唯 eva. Affirmative, yes; to answer, respond; said to interpret mātratā, and is defined as discrimination, decision, approval. It is also used for only, alone, but.

唯名 nāma-mātra; name only.

唯境無識 Realism as opposed to 唯識無境 Idealism; implying that the four elements are real and permanent.

唯心 Idealism, mind only, the theory that the only reality is mental, that of the mind. Similar to 唯識q. v. and v. Lankavatara sutra.

唯心偈 The eight-line verse of the older 華嚴 sutra, which summarizes the idealistic idea.

唯色 All things are matter, because mind and matter are identical, for matter is mind.

唯識 vijñānamatra(vada) cittamatra. Idealism, the doctrine that nothing exists apart from mind, 識外無法.

唯識中道 The madhya, or medial doctrine of idealism as held by the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school, that all things are of mind, evolution, and are neither in themselves real nor unreal.

唯識修道五位 The five stages of attaining enlightenment in the idealistic sect: stage of reason and speculation; of asceticism; of apprehension of truth; of practice of contemplation from the first to the tenth stage; of

complete comprehension of truth.

唯識圓教 The third of the three divisions of the Buddha's teaching as defined by Tao-hsuan of Nan-shan, the perfect doctrine of idealism.

唯識宗 The Dharmalakṣana sect 法相宗, which holds that all is mind in its ultimate nature.

唯識家 Same as 唯識宗.

唯識觀 The three subjects of idealistic refection: that the ego and things are realities; that things are produced by cause and circumstance; that the bhūtatathatā is the only reality. Also called 唯識三性觀, cf. 三性.

唯識論 Vijnaptimatrāṣiddhi-śāstra, also called the 成唯識論.

唯識二十論 Vidyamatrāṣiddhi-vimsakakarikaśāstra; another is the 唯識三十論 Vidyamatrāṣiddhitridasakarika-śāstra. There are numerous commentaries and treatises on the subject. See de la Vallée Poussin's version.

國 A country, a nation; national.

國僧正 National superintendent of the clergy, an office which at one time existed.

國土 A country, land, native land, abode of a race, or races.

國土世間 The world of countries on which people depend for existence.

國土身 The Buddha as Buddhakṣetra, or abode of the living; the world as the body of Vairocana.

國師 Imperial preceptor a title conferred on certain Buddhist monks, especially on 慧能 Hui-neng, q. v.

國王 A king, prince, i. e. one who has attained to his present high estate consequent on keeping all the ten commandments in a previous incarnation; and being protected by devas 天, he is called 天子 deva son, or Son of

Heaven.

域 Frontier, limit; region; tomb.

域心 域懷 The limits of the mind, natural endowment.

域龍 Dignāga, Diṅnāga, a celebrated Buddhist philosopher 陳那, author of a famous treatise on logic.

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堆 A heap, a pile.

堆壓地獄 The hell of crushing, also 衆合地獄, the third great hell in which sinners are crushed to death.

堂 prāsāda. A hall, temple, court.

堂頭 The head of the hall, the abbot of a monastery.

堂主 The head of a hall on specific occasion.

堂司 The controller of the business in a monastery.

堂塔 Temples and monasteries in general.

堂達 The distributor of the liturgies, etc.

堅 dṛḍha. sthira : firm, firmly fixed, reliable.

堅固 Firm and sure.

堅固意 Firm-willed, name of a bodhisattva in the Garbhadhatu.

堅固慧 Strong in wisdom, ditto.

堅林 (堅固林) The grove of Sala trees, in which Sakyamuni died.

堅牢 Firm and stable ; that which is stable, the earth.

堅牢地神 (or 堅牢地天, or 堅牢地祇) The earth-goddess, or deity, or spirits.

堅實 Firm and solid.

堅實心 With firm heart.

堅意 堅慧 Sthiramati of firm mind, or wisdom. An early Indian monk of the Mahāyāna; perhaps two monks.

堅智 Firm knowledge, or wisdom, a name of Vajrapāṇi.

堅法 The three things assured to the faithful (in reincarnation)—a good body, long life, and boundless wealth.

堅滿菩薩 Dhṛtiparipūrṇa, the firm and complete Bodhisattva, who is to be Buddha Padma-vṛṣabha-vikrāmin, attending on Padmaprabha.

堅誓師子 The firmly vowing lion, i.e. Sakyamuni in a previous incarnation.

執 grah, grabh ; graha. To seize, grasp, hold on to, maintain; obstinate.

執事 To manage, control ; a manager.

執受 Impressions, ideas grasped and held.

執取相 Retention of memories of past joys and sorrows as if they were realities and not illusions, one of the 六麤 in the Awakening of Faith.

執師子國 Siṃhala, Ceylon.

執心 The mind which clings to (things as real).

執情 The foolish passion of clinging to the unreal.

執持 To hold firmly.

執持識 adana-vijñāna, a name for the ālaya-vijñāna.

執曜 graha, the planets, nine or seven.

執著 To cling to things as real ; used for abhiniveśa.

執見 Views obstinately held, with consequent delusion; bigoted.

執金剛神 vajrapāṇi, vajradhara. Any deva-holder of the vajra. (1) Indra, who in a former incarnation took an oath to defend Buddhism, was reborn as king of the yakṣas, hence he and his yakṣas carry vajras. (2)

Mañjuśrī as the spiritual reflex of the Dhyāni Buddha Akṣobhya. (3) A popular deity, the terror of all enemies of Buddhist believers, specially worshipped in exorcisms and sorcery by the Yoga school.

執障 The holding on to the reality of self and things and the consequent hindrance to entrance into nirvana.

婦 A woman; a wife.

婦人 "Nothing is so dangerous to monastic chastity as woman"; she is the root of all misery, hindrance, destruction, bondage, sorrow, hatred, blindness, etc.

婬 Licentious, lewd ; adultery, fornication: similar to 淫 q.v.

婬怒癡 The three poisons of sexual desire, anger, and ignorance (or heedlessness).

婬戒 The commandment against adultery.

婬欲 Sexual desire.

婬火 The fire of sexual passion. 婬羅綱 Its net.

婆 A dame, mother, wife, granny, crone ; translit. pa, ba, va, pha, bha, and similar labial sounds.

婆利 vaḍiśa, valiśa, or vakrī, a hook, bent.

婆利師 varṣās, v. 雨, the rainy season of retreat.

婆利師迦 婆利史迦羅 v. 婆師迦.

婆利耶 bhāryā, a wife.

婆利質羅 (婆利質多羅) ? Pārijāta, v. 波, a tree in Indra's heaven.

婆利闍多迦 pārijātaka, a deva flower.

婆叉 Vākṣu; Vaṅkṣu; the Oxus ; Vaṅkṣu is also a small branch of the Ganges, idem 縛芻.

婆伽 bhāga, a portion division, fraction.

婆伽婆 (帝) bhagavat, or 婆伽梵; 婆伽伴 ; 婆誐鑁; 薄伽梵 bhagavān, "fortunate," "excellent," "revered, sacred," "the holy one" (M.W.); generally intp. by 世尊 world-honoured, but there are other intps.; an epithet of a Buddha.

婆哩野 bhāryā, a dependent, a wife; also 婆利耶 (or 婆梨耶) ; 婆利廋.

婆喝那 vāhana, 10 quadrillions. 大婆喝那 100 quadrillions.

婆嚩誐帝 bhagavat, v. 婆伽.

婆城 A gandharva city, a mirage, an illusion city, v. 乾沓婆.

婆婆伽利 Pāpakārin; evil-doer, name of a prince.

婆差優婆差 upāsaka-upāsikā , male and female disciples dwelling at home; lay disciples.

婆師波 Vāṣpa, Bāṣpa; one of the first five disciples, Daśabala-Kāśyapa, identified with Mahākāśyapa; also 婆師婆 (or 婆濕婆) 婆沙波.

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婆師 (婆師迦) vārṣika, the flower that blooms in the rains, the aloe, agallochum; also 婆利師 (婆利師迦) q.v.; 婆利史迦羅; 婆使迦; 婆師波利 varṣākāla, varṣipālī.

婆捺囉婆捺麽洗 Bhādrapadamāsa, the sixth month, middle of August to middle of September; the third and fourth nakṣatras or lunar mansions, pūrva and uttara; also 跋婆捺囉娜; 跋陀娜婆娜; 婆達羅鉢陀.

婆提 Bhadrika, one of the first disciples; cf. 跋. Also vana, a grove; or vanī.

婆斯仙 One of the fire devas and his 后 wife in the Garbhadhātu group; perhaps Vasu.

婆梨 vāri; water; fluidity; also 婆利; 波利.

婆樓那 Varuṇa, v. 水天.

婆檀陀 bhadanta, 大德, laudable, praiseworthy, blessed, of great virtue-a term of respect for a buddha, or for monks, especially of the Hīnayāna school.

婆毘吠伽 Bhāvaviveka, a learned monk who retired from the world to await the coming of Maitreya, v. 西域記 10.

婆沙 v. 毘 Vibhāṣā.

婆沙波 婆敷 Bāṣpa, v. 婆師波.

婆珊婆演底 vasanta-vayantī, spring-weaving, but the description is of a guardian of the night or of sleep.

婆瘦 vāyu, wind, god of the wind. Also 婆牖; 縛叟.

婆盧枳底濕伐羅 Avalokiteśvara, see 觀音.

婆私吒 (婆私) Vasiṣṭha, a brahman who is said to have denied the eternity of nirvana, and maintained that plants had lives and intelligence; Nirvana Sutra 39. One of the seven ancient ṛṣis of Brahmanic

mythology, one of the champions in the Ṛg Veda of the priesthood. Name of a brahman whose mother lost her six sons, she became mad, wandered naked, met the Buddha, was restored and became a disciple. Also 婆吒; 私婆吒; 婆

私瑟搋 or 婆私瑟柁.

婆稚 bandhi, or bali, the origin and meaning are obscure, defined as 'bound' and also as round, full-orbed, complete. Bandhiasura, an asura -king. Also, 婆梨; 跋稚; 跋塀; 跋移; 末利.

婆羅 pāla; keeper, guardian, warden; vihārapāla, warden of a monastery. bala; power, strength, especially the 五力 five powers, pañca bālani, i.e. 五根; also the 十力 daśabala, ten powers. Name of the sister of Ānanda

who offered milk to Śākyamuni. bāla; 'young,' 'immature,' 'simpleton, fool,' 'hair' (M.W.); ignorant, unenlightened, see bālapṛthagjana, below.

婆羅吸摩補羅 Brahmapura. "An ancient kingdom of Northern India, the dynastic title of which was entailed upon the female line exclusively"; hence styled 女國. Said to be Garhwal.

婆羅奢 phalasa, the breadfruit tree; intp. as a tree with red flowers.

婆羅必栗託仡那 婆羅必哩他仡那; 婆羅必利他伽闍那 bālapṛthagjana, low, foolish people; natural-minded, as children, of common intelligence and ideas, a man in his natural state, unilluminated, unenlightened.

婆羅捨佉 鉢羅奢佉 praśākha, a fetus of five to seven days.

婆羅提木叉 pratimokṣa, v. 波.

婆羅捺寫 Vārāṇasī, an ancient kingdom and city, noted (A.D. 640) as the headquarters of Śivaism; Bemares; cf. 波.

婆羅訶 (婆羅) Balāhaka, a king of horses, or possessing horses.

婆羅賀磨 or 婆羅賀摩 Brahmā; 婆羅賀磨拏; 婆羅欱末拏 Brāhmaṇa; see below.

婆羅那馱 Varanāda, a bellowing yakṣa.

婆羅門 跋濫摩; 沒囉憾摩 Brāhmaṇa; Brāhmanical; Brāhman; 淨行; 婆志 of pure life or mind; the highest of the four castes, those who serve Brahma, his offspring, the keepers of the Vedas.

婆羅門國 Brāhmaṇarāṣtra, the realm of the brahmans, India.

婆羅門城 A city of brahmans, from which the Buddha returned with his begging bowl empty.

婆羅門書 brahman writing; the alphabet.

婆羅門邑 Brāhmaṇapura, "a city northeast of the capital of Mālava." Eitel.

婆耶 payas; liquid, fluid, juice, water.

婆致迦 sphātika, v. 水玉.

婆舍斯多 Basiasita (Sk. Vāsi-Asita) or Naśaśata, the twenty-fifth Patriarch who laboured in Central India; the date of his death is given as A.D. 325.

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婆舍跋提 Vaśavartin, the sixth desire-heaven, the abode of Māra, the god of lust, sin, and death; its occupants avail themselves of the merits of others for their own pleasure; it is also called the abode of

Śikhin (Brahma) as lord of fire; also 他化自在天 and 婆羅尼密婆舍跋提 Paranirmitavaśavartin.

婆藪 vasu 婆萸; good; rich; sweet; dry; according to Monier-Williams, eight personifications of natural phenomena; eight; the sun, etc.; father of Kṛṣṇa; intp. as the first to offer slain sacrifices to Heaven, to

have been cast into hell, but after countless kalpas to have become a disciple of Buddha. Also called Vasudeva. Also name of certain devas, e.g. Viṣṇu; and other beings whom men serve, e.g. a father.

婆藪槃豆 婆藪槃陀; 婆藪盤豆; 婆修盤頭; 伐蘇畔徒; 筏蘇畔徒 or筏蘇盤豆 Vasubandhu, known as 天親 q.v., and 世親 kinsman of devas, or of the world.

婆訶 vāha; it means bearing, carrying, a beast of burden, but is used in the sense of a large grain-container of twenty bushels 斛; supernatural life, or adbhuta, is compared to a vāha full of hemp seed, from which one seed

is withdrawn every century. Also婆訶摩.

婆誐 bhaṅga, breaking, fracture, fragment, broken. Also 婆伽; 薄伽.

婆蹉 vatsa, a calf, offspring, a term of endearment for a child. The founder of the Vātsīputrīyāḥ school.

婆蹉婆 A term for śakra.

婆蹉富羅 (婆蹉富多羅) The above school, a branch of the Sarvāstivādins, v. 犢.

婆蹉那婆 vatsanābha, a strong poison, "from the root of a kind of aconite." M.W.

婆那 vana, a wood, grove; also 飯那; 嚩泥.

婆里旱 balin, intp. 力士 a strong man, hero.

婆闍羅波尼婆里旱 Vajrapāṇibalin, the powerful one with the thunderbolt, one of the two gate-guardians.

婆陀 baddha, bound, tied, fettered, fixed; also 縛馱; also an abbrev. for 阿波陀那 avadāna.

婆雌子部 Vātsīputra, also 婆麤富羅, v. 婆蹉 and 犢子.

婆須蜜 (婆須蜜多) Vasumitra, v. 筏蘇密呾羅.

婆頗裟 prabhāsa, light, bright.

寃 To oppress, wrong; a grievance; enmity.

寃親 Enmity and friendship.

寃親平等心 A mind that knows neither enmity nor friendship, no discrimination of persons.

寄 To go or put under cover, lodge, confide to, deliver, convey, transfer; to enter, put in a list.

寄庫 To convey to the treasury, i.e. as paper money or goods are transferred to credit in the next world not only of the dead, but also by the living in store for themselves.

密 Closed in; close together; intimate; quiet, still; secret, occult, esoteric; fine, small; contrasted with 顯 open, exoteric. Cf. 祕.

密付 To pass down esoterically, or by word of mouth.

密印 The esoteric digital sign of a buddha or bodhisattva indicative of his vow.

密咒 A dhāraṇī, or esoteric incantation.

密號 The esoteric name of Vairocana; also any 'true word' (Shingon) or esoteric spell.

密嚴國 密嚴淨土 The Pure Land of Vairocana; also in the Huayan Sutra called the 華藏 world; the doctrine is found in this sutra.

密因 The esoteric, occult, recondite cause.

密字 The esoteric letter of Vairocana, or of a buddha or bodhisattva.

密宗 The esoteric, mantra, Shingon, or 'True word' sect, especially prevalent in Japan, where its two chief texts are 毘盧遮那成佛經 and 金剛頂經 founded by Kōbō Daishi, it developed the two maṇḍalas of the Garbhadhātu and

Vajradhātu, q.v.

密家 idem the last.

密教 idem, also esoteric teaching in general; the two classes are divided into the密教 esoteric or Yoga school, and 顯教 the open schools or teaching, comprising all the sects of Buddhism, except the esoteric sect. The密教三

藏 Tripiṭaka of the esoteic sect are, as its sutra, the 大毘盧舍那金剛頂經; as its vinaya, the 蘇婆呼經根本部; as its śāstras, the 莊嚴菩提心經, etc., q.v.

密機 The motive power, or fundamental element, in the esoteric; the opportunity of learning a mantra.

密法 Esoteric methods.

密灌 The baptism of the esoteric sect.

密經 The foundation texts of the esoteric school, i.e. the 大日經 and 金剛頂經 and various sutras, especially but not exclusively those with mantras; another group is the first two and the 蘇悉地經.

密義Esoteric meaning, or doctrine.

密藏 The esoteric canon.

密衆 The followers of the esoteric school.

密行 Esoteric practice, or discipline, the origin of which is attributed to Rāhula.

密語 Occult, or esoteric expressions.

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密迹 密跡 Secret or invisible tracks.

密迹金剛力士 Vajrapāṇi, guardian of buddhas, driving away all yakṣa disturbers, a form of Indra; his dhāraṇīs have been twice translated into Chinese, v. B.N. The 密奢兜 esoteric 'Cintya' is a mantra said to have

been used by all the seven buddhas down to and including Śākyamuni.

宿 A halting-place; to pass the night, sojourn, stay; early, former; left over; nakṣatra, the constellations.

宿世 A former existence.

宿作 The deeds of a former life.

宿作外道 One of the ascetic sects who sought release from penalties for the deeds of a former life by severe austerities now.

宿住 pūrva-nivāsa, former abidings, or habitations, hence宿住通 (宿住隨念智證通), i.e. Buddha-knowledge of the former incarnations of himself and others.

宿債 The unrepaid debts from, or sins of, former incarnations.

宿哈 idem 婆訶 svāhā.

宿命 Previous life, or lives; v. 宿住.

宿命力 Buddha-power to know all previous transmigrations.

宿命明 The knowledge of the arhat of his own and other previous transmigrations.

宿命通 (宿命智通) pūrvanivāsānusmṛti-(jñāna); buddha-knowledge of all forms of previous existence of self and others; one of the 六通 (六神通).

宿善 Good deeds done in previous existence.

宿因 Good or evil cause in previous existence.

宿執 The character acquired in a previous existence and maintained.

宿執開發 The present fruition of the meritorious character developed in previous existence.

宿報 The consequence of deeds done in former existence.

宿夜 To stay the night; the previous night, e.g. the night before any special service.

宿忌 The night before a fast-day.

宿意 A former intention, or vow.

宿曜 The twenty-eight constellations and seven luminaries.

宿根 宿植 The root of one's present lot planted in previous existence.

宿業 Former karma, the karma of previous existence.

宿王戲 nakṣatra-rāja-vikrīḍita, the play of the star-king, or king of the constellations, one of the samādhi in the Lotus Sutra.

宿王華 Nakṣatra-rāja-saṅkusumitābhijña, king of the star-flowers, a bodhisattva in the Lotus Sutra.

宿福 Happy karma from previous existence.

宿緣 Causation or inheritance from previous existence.

宿習 The practices, habits, or deeds of or inherited from former existence.

宿願 The vow made in a former existence.

宿願力 The power of an ancient vow.

寂 praśama; vivikta; śānti. Still, silent, quiet, solitary, calm, tranquil, nirvāṇa.

寂光 Calm and illuminating as are Truth and Knowledge; the hidden truth illuminating.

寂光土 (寂光) The land (of buddhas) where is calm illumination.

宿命智 buddha-knowledge of the transmigratory forms of all beings.

寂定 Tranquil concentration; contemplation in which disturbing illusion is eliminated.

寂岸 The shore of peace, nirvāṇa.

寂常 Peace eternal, eternal nirvāṇa.

寂忍 Calmness and endurance, quiet patience.

寂念 Calm thoughts; to calm the mind; contemplation.

寂業師子 The lion of nirvāṇa, Śākyamuni.

寂滅 Calmness and extinction, nirvāṇa.

寂滅忍 nirvāṇa-patience; the patience of the nirvāṇa (the suppression of all passion).

寂滅法 The nirvāṇa-method.

寂滅無二 Nirvāṇa as absolute without disunity or phenomena.

寂滅相 Nirvāṇa considered independently of the phenomenal.

寂滅道場 (寂場) The place where a buddha attains the truth of nirvāṇa, especially where Śākyamuni attained it.

寂災 To quell calamities (by spells, or ceremonies).

寂然 In calmness, quietude, silence; undisturbed.

寂然界 The Hīnayāna nirvāṇa-realm or border.

寂照 nirvāṇa-illumination; ultimate reality shining forth.

寂照慧 Buddha-wisdom which comprehends nirvāṇa reality and its functioning.

寂用湛然 Character (nirvāṇa-like) and function concomitant in the absolute and relative, in being and becoming, etc.

寂種 The nirvāṇa class, i.e. the Hinayanists who are said to seek only their own salvation.

寂靜 Calm and quiet; free from temptation and distress; nirvāṇa.

寂靜法 Ceremonies for restoring peace from calamity.

寂靜行 Hīnayāna discipline to ensure nirvāṇa.

寂靜門 Nirvāṇa, or the absolute 一切諸法, as the door of release from trouble and suffering.

寂默外道 Ascetics vowed to silence who dwell among tombs or in solitude.

專 Single; special; solely.

專心 With single mind; whole-heartedly.

專念 To fix the mind, or attention, upon; solely to invoke (a certain buddha).

專想 To think wholly, or only, of or upon.

專精 Solely and purely (to advance in the Way).

屛 Screen: to exclude, expel, turn away.

屛莎 Bimbisāra, v. 苹.

崛 Lofty, distinguished.

崛山 Vulture peak, abbrev. for 耆閣崛山.

崛多 Abbrev. for Upagupta, cf. 優.

崇 Lofty, eminent, honourable; to reverence, adore.

崇信 Reverence and faith, to revere and trust.

崇敬 To reverence and respect.

崑崙 Kunlun, or Pulo Condore Island, or islands generally in the southern seas, hence崑崙子 or崑崙奴 is a native of those islands of black colour, and崑崙國 is described as Java, Sumatra, etc.

崑崙山 The Kunlun range north of Tibet, the 香山 dhamādana.

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帶 A girdle, belt, bandage, tape, appendage; connect; implicate; take along.

帶刀卧 帶刀睡 To take one's sword to bed, which being worn on the left side compels the wearer to sleep on the right, or proper side.

帶塔尊 帶塔德菩薩 Maitreya, bearer of the pagoda.

常 nitya; śāśvata. Prolonged, constant, always, unceasing, permanent, perpetual, ever, eternal; normal, ordinary, regular.

常不輕 Sadāparibhūta, the monk who never slighted others, but assured all of buddhahood, a former incarnation of Śākyamuni; Lotus Sutra 20.

常住 Permanent, always abiding, eternal.

常住一相 The eternal unity or reality behind all things.

常光 The unceasing radiance of the Buddha's body, represented as a halo.

常力 Unfailing powers.

常啼菩薩 v. 薩陀.

常境 The eternal realm.

常寂 Eternal peace, nirvāṇa.

常寂光土 The realm (of spirit) where all are in perpetual peace and glory; Tiantai's fourth Buddhakṣetra.

常恒 Constantly.

常念 Always remembering; always repeating.

常智 Knowledge sub specie aeternitatis, not conditioned by phenomena, abstract.

常樂我淨 The four pāramitās of knowledge: eternity, bliss, personality, purity, the four transcendental realities in nirvāṇa, v. Nirvāṇa Sutra.

常沒 Ever drowning in the sea of mortality.

常波羅蜜 The first of the four pāramitās, eternity.

常眼 The ordinary physical eye.

常立勝幡 An-avanāmita-vaijayanta. With ever erect victorious banner; name of Ānanda's future buddha-realm.

常行 Constantly doing, or practicing; ordinary procedure.

常見 The view that (personality) is permanent.

常身 The eternal Buddha-body, the dharmakāya.

常途 Regular ways, or methods.

常道 Eternal Tao; the way of eternity; regular ways, the regulation path.

庵 A thatched hut, shelter, place of retirement from the world; a small temple; especially a nunnery, hence庵室; 庵寺 generally applies to such, and庵主 is the abbess.

庶 A multitude; all; the; a concubine; so that; nearly so.

庶類 The common people.

庶迦羅 (庶迦) cakra, a wheel, hence Cakravartī or wheel-king.

康 At ease, in repose; undisturbed; well, hale.

康居 Samarkand, or Soghdiana, cf. 西域記 1.

康僧鎧 or 康僧會 Saṅghavarman, also said to be Saṅghapāla; an Indian monk supposed to be of Tibetan descent; but Saṅghapāla is described as the eldest son of the prime minister of Soghdiana, and is probably a different person.

Saṅghavarman tr. at the White Horse Temple, Luoyang, in A.D. 252; inter alia the 無量壽經 is accredited to him, but a more reliable tradition of the Canon ascribes the tr. to Dharmarakṣa A.D. 308.

徙 Remove, flit.

徙多 v. 私 Śītā.

從 To follow, agree with, obey; from; followers, secondary.

從地踊出 Springing out of the earth, chapter 15 in the Lotus Sutra.

從容 Of calm demeanour, easy and natural, unperturbed.

從僧 A 'half-monk', a neophyte.

得 prāp; prāpta. To get, obtain, attain to; got, obtained, etc.

得入 To attain entry, e.g. to buddha-truth.

得勝 To obtain the victory.

得大勢 勢至 (大勢至) Mahāsthāmaprāpta, he who has obtained great power, or stability, who sits on the right of Amitābha, controlling all wisdom.

得度 To obtain transport across the river of transmigration, to obtain salvation; to enter the monastic life.

得意 To obtain one's desires, or aims; to obtain the meaning (of a sutra).

得戒 To obtain the commandments; to attain to the understanding and performance of the moral law.

得戒沙彌 A monk who is restored, or not unfrocked, on confession of his sin.

得果 To obtain the fruit of deeds or life.

得眼林 Āptanetravana, the forest of recovered eyes.

得繩 The cord, or bond, of attaining; the bondage of possessing.

得羅盧迦 trailokya, 三界 q.v.

得藏 Śrīgarbha, idem 淨眼 Vimalanetra.

得脫 To attain to deliverance (from the miseries of reincarnation).

得道 To obtain the way, or the religion; by obedience to the commandments, practice of meditation, and knowledge, to attain enlightenment.

得髓 To obtain the marrow, the secret, the essence.

惛 Confused, stupefied.

惛沈 Sunk in stupor.

惜 To care for, regard, compassionate, pity; spare.

惛囊 To be as careful of (the monastic law as of) the skin-floats when swimming a river.

惟 To reflect on; but, only; verbal particle; of. 唯.

惟予頗羅 or惟于頗羅 Bṛhatphala 廣果, 'great fruit,' or abundant merits; the twelfth brahmaloka, or second region of the fourth dhyāna.

情 The feelings, passions, desires, affections, sensations; sentient; affinities; affairs, facts. Particular affections, duties, or affairs.

情塵 The six guṇas or objects of sensation of the six organs of sense; sensation and its data; sensation-data; passion-defilement.

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情有 The realm of feeling, i.e. any world of sentience or feeling, especially this world as empirically considered; 有情 is to have consciousness, the conscious, or sentient.

情有理無 Empirically or sentiently existing, in essence or reality non-existent.

情欲 The passions, desires.

情猿 The passions like an ape, never still.

情見 The perverted views produced by passion or affection.

悉 Investigate thoroughly; fully, minutely; all; translit. si, sa, s, sr.

悉伽羅 śṛgāla, 野干 a jackal.

悉他薜攞 悉替耶 sthavira, an elder, a term applied to a monk of 20-50 years of age and of ten years' standing; the Sthaviranikāya悉他陛攞尼迦耶 or 上坐部 q.v., one of the four branches of the Vaibhāṣika school.

悉利 idem 室利 q.v. 悉地 siddhi, accomplishment, complete attainment, perfection, proof, truth, final emancipation, supreme felicity, magical or supernatural powers; cf. M.W. As supernatural power it

is used to end calamities, subdue demons, etc.

悉多頞他 Siddhārtha, see below.

悉底 siddhi, see above.

悉怛多般怛羅 sitātapatra, a white umbrella, or canopy.

悉曇 悉檀; 悉談 siddha(m), accomplished, finished, v. siddhi above; and next.

悉曇章 siddhavastu, the first of twelve chapters of a syllabary attributed to Brahmā, originating the thirty-six letters of the alphabet, later said to be expanded to as many as fifty-two.

悉檀 悉談 siddhānta, an established conclusion, proved fact, axiom, dogma, at text or authoritative work, cf. M.W.; intp. as 成就 complete, and incorrectly as the Buddha's unstinted gift of the 四法 q.v.

悉耻羅末底 Sthiramati, one of the 唯識 writers.

悉達多 (悉達) Siddhārtha, Sarvāthasiddha, also悉多 (悉多頞他); 悉陀 the realization of all aims, prosperous; personal name of Śākyamuni.

悉阤 idem 私多.

掘 To dig.

掘倫 ? Kulun, i.e. Pulo Condore, also called 崑崙.

掘具羅 A kind of western incense.

捫打勒 maṇḍala, v. 曼.

捺 To press down; a pen-stroke to the right; translit. na.

捺地迦葉波 Nadī-Kāśyapa, also 那提 a brother of Mahā-Kāśyapa, to be reborn as Buddha Samanta-prabhāsa.

捺落迦 or 那落迦 naraka, hell, the hells, v. 地獄; 捺落迦 sometimes refers to the place of torment, and 那落迦 nāraka to the sufferer there.

捺謨 捺麻 namaḥ, v. 南.

捧 To hold in both hands, offer, receive: a double handful.

捧物 To bear or offer gifts in both hands.

掃 To sweep.

掃地 To sweep the floor, or ground, an act to which the Buddha is said to have attributed five kinds of merit; v. 毘奈耶雜事.

探 To feel for, explore, investigate, search; to spy, inquire into.

探水 To sound the depth of water, the lower part of a staff, i.e. for sounding depth.

掉 To shake, change, arrange; to fall.

掉悔 Discontent and regret, ambition and repining.

掉散 Unsteady in act, word, and thought; unreliable.

掉擧 Ambitious, unsettled.

推 To push away, recede from, decline, resign, push, put, put of; investigate.

推功歸本To put off minor merit for the sake of fundamentals.

推究 To search out, investigate.

推却 To decline.

採 To pick, gather, choose.

採花 採華 To pick flowers.

採菽氏 Bean-picker, a tr. of the name of Maudgalyāyana, from mudga, kidney-beans.

掩 To cover (with the hand), screen, shut up.

掩土 To bury, inter.

掩室 To shut (oneself) in a room, as did the Buddha for meditation.

掩色 To cover the form, or face, i.e. the death of the Buddha, or a noted monk, referring to the covering, of the face.

掛 To hang, suspend.

掛子 A peg for a garment.

掛搭 掛褡; 掛單 One who hangs up all his possessions, i.e. a wandering monk who stays for the night in a monastery.

掛眞 To hang up a picture (of a Buddha, etc.).

掛絡 掛落; 掛羅 A short garment, or cover; a waistcoat.

掛錫 To hang up one's staff, similar to掛搭; to dwell in a place.

接 To receive, take; join on; graft.

接引 To receive and lead, to welcome.

接待 To receive and treat, or wait upon.

接生 To receive the living; also to receive at birth as a midwife does.

接足作禮 To embrace the (Buddha's) feet in reverence or pleading, or to extend the arms in that posture.

授 To give, confer, deliver, communicate to, hand down.

授事 karmadāna, the director of duties, the one who gives out the work.

授手 To proffer the hand, to come in person to welcome the dying, as e.g. does Guanyin in certain cases.

授決 To give decisions, idem授記.

授衣 To give out winter garments in the ninth month.

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授記 和伽羅 vyākaraṇa, vyākarā; the giving of a record, prediction; foretelling; the prophetic books of the Canon predicting the future glory of individuals and groups of disciples, both final and temporary, and the various

stages of progress. There are several classifications, v. 二 and 八記. Cf. 憍.

捨 upekṣā, neglect, indifference, abandoning, M.W. To relinquish, renounce, abandon, reject, give. One of the chief Buddhist virtues, that of renunciation, leading to a state of "indifference without pleasure or

pain" (Keith), or independence of both. v. 舍. It is defined as the mind 平等 in equilibrium, i.e. above the distinction of things or persons, of self or others; indifferent, having abandoned the world and all

things and having no affections or desires. One of the seven bodhyaṅgas. Translit. sa, śa, s(r).

捨囉梵 śarāva, a shard, an earthenware vessel.

捨心 The mind of renunciation.

捨念淸淨地 The pure land or heaven free from thinking, the fifth of the nine brahmalokas in the fourth dhyāna region.

捨攞馱 śraddhā, faith, confidence, trust, belief.

捨受 The state of renunciation, or indifference to sensation.

捨家棄欲 To leave home and cast off desire, i.e. to become a monk.

捨無量心 upekṣā, one of the four forms of the unsparing or unlimited mind, complete abandonment, absolute indifference, renunciation of the mental faculties.

捨身 Bodily sacrifice, e.g. by burning, or cutting off a limb, etc.

救 To save, rescue, prevent from ill.

救世To save the world; a saviour of the world, i.e. 救世者 or 救世尊; 救世菩薩 Buddhas and bodhisattvas as world-saviours, especially 救世觀世音 Guanyin, also called 救世圓滿 complete saviour of the world.

救世輪 The wheel of salvation.

救世闡提 The world-saving icchanti, q. v., the bodhisattva who defers entry into Buddhahood to fulfil his vow of saving all beings.

救拔 To save and drag out of suffering, e.g. hell.

救脫 To save and set free; to be saved and freed.

救苦 To save from suffering, to save the suffering.

救護 To save and protect.

敏 Clever, active, ingenious, witty.

敏倶理 ? Hingulā, an Indian name doubtfully intp. as Korea.

聰敏 Wise, clever.

敗 Subvert, defeat, ruin, spoil, destroy.

敗壞菩薩 Bodhisattvas who defeat their proper end of becoming buddha, and who are reborn in lower positions, e.g. as kings or princes, of as dragon-kings, etc.

敗根 敗種 Spoiled roots, or seed, i.e. Hīnayānists who do not seek buddhahood, but are content with the rewards of asceticism.

教 pravacana, to teach, instruct, inculcate; śāśana, teaching, precept, doctrine; āgama, sect, school, church.

教主 The founder of a religion, e.g. the Buddha.

教令 To instruct, command; the commands of a sect or school.

教內 Within instruction; in the sect or church; especially those who receive normal instruction from the written canon, opposite of 教外.

教典 The sacred books of a religion, or sect.

教判 The various divisions of teaching or doctrine, such as the Tiantai theory of the five periods of Śākyamuni's life, the four classes of doctrine, the four styles of teaching, etc.

教勅 The commands of a master or father.

教化 To transform by instruction; teach and convert; to cause another to give alms.

教外 Outside the sect, or school, or church; also not undergoing normal instruction i.e. the intuitive school which does not rely on texts or writings, but on personal communication of its tenets, either oral or otherwise,

including direct contact with the Buddha or object of worship, e.g. 'guidance'.

教導 To instruct and lead.

教授 To instruct, give instruction.

教授師 教授阿闍梨 An ācārya, or instructor, preceptor.

教會 An assembly, for instruction; a congregation; a church.

教理 The fundamental principles of a religion; its doctrines, or dogmas, e.g. the four truths, the tweIve nidānas, the eightfold noble path.

教理行果 The fruit or results arising from the practice of a religion.

教相 The particular teaching of a sect.

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教網 The teaching (of Buddha) viewed as a net to catch and save mortals.

教義 The meaning of a teaching, or doctrine.

教行 Instruction and conduct; teaching and practice; also the progress of the teaching, or doctrine.

教行證 Teaching, practice and its realization, its evidential results.

教觀 Teaching and meditation; the Buddha's doctrine and meditation on it; also教觀二門.

教語 The words of Buddhism; words of instruction.

教證 Teaching and evidence, doctrine and its evidential results, or realization.

教迹 The vestiges, or evidences of a religion; e.g, the doctrines, institutions, and example of the teachings of Buddha and the saints.

教道 To teach a way, or religion; a taught way contrasted with an intuitional way; the way of teaching.

教門 A religion, a sect, different religious teachings.

教體 The body, or corpus of doctrine; the whole teaching.

斛 droṇa, a tub, or wooden vessel; a measure of capacity. A square wooden vessel, a bushel, a picul.

斛飯 droṇodana, cf. 途.

旋 Revolve, turn round, whirl.

旋嵐 A whirlwind, cyclone.

旋火輪 A whirling wheel of fire, a circle yet not a circle, a simile of the seeming but unreal, i.e. the unreality of phenomena.

旋陀羅尼 A spell which endows with extensive powers of evolution; also varied involutions of magical terms.

晝 Day, daytime, daylight.

晝暗林 The grove of daylight darkness, a cemetery.

晨 Dawn, morning.

晨朝 The morning period, the first of the three divisions of the day.

晦 The last day of the moon; night; dark, obscure; unlucky.

昏晦 Obscure, dark.

晩 Sunset, evening, twilight; late.

晩參 The evening service.

晩粥 The evening gruel, which being against the rule of not eating after midday is styled medicine.

晤 Clear; to meet; to explain.

晤恩 Wusi, founder of the 山外 external school of the Tiantai, died A.D. 986.

曹 Company, class; used as the plural of pronouns, etc.

曹山 Caoshan in Jiangsu, where the Caodong sect曹洞宗, a branch of the Chan school, was founded by Dongshan 洞山; Caoshan was the name of the second patriarch of this sect.

曹溪 Caoqi, a stream, south-east of Shaozhou, Guangdong, which gave its name to 慧能 Huineng.

曼 Long, prolonged, extended, widespread.

曼供 Offerings of mandārava flowers, cf. below.

曼勝尊 A title of a buddha.

曼怛羅 or 曼特羅 v. below and 滿怛羅 are also used for mantra, an incantation, spell, magical formula, or muttered sound.

曼殊室利 or 曼殊尸利 Mañjuśrī, v. 文殊, and the 曼殊室利經.

曼殊沙 曼殊顏 mañjūṣaka, the " Rubia cordifolia, the roots of which yield the madder of Bengal called Munjeeth", Eitel.

曼荼羅 曼怛羅; 曼特羅; 曼陀羅; 曼拏羅; 蔓陀囉; 滿荼邏 maṇḍala, a circle, globe, wheel ring; "any circular figure or diagram" (M.W.); a magic circle; a plot or place of enlightenment; a round or square altar on which buddhas and

bodhisattvas are placed; a group of such, especially the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu groups of the Shingon sect; these were arranged by Kōbō Daishi to express the mystic doctrine of the two dhātu by way of

illustration, the garbhadhātu representing the 理 and the 因 principle and cause, the vajradhātu the 智 and the 果 intelligence (or reason) and the effect, i.e. the fundamental realm of being, and mind as

inherent in it; v. 胎 and 金剛. The two realms are fundamentally one, as are the absolute and phenomenal, e.g. water and wave. There are many kinds of maṇḍalas, e.g. the group of the Lotus Sutra; of the 觀經; of the nine

luminaries; of the Buddha's entering into nirvana, etc. The real purpose of a maṇḍala is to gather the spiritual powers together, in order to promote the operation of the dharma or law. The term is commonly applied

to a magic circle, subdivided into circles or squares in which are painted Buddhist divinities and symbols. Maṇḍalas also reveal the direct retribution of each of the ten worlds of beings (purgatory, pretas,

animals, asuras, men, devas, the heavens of form, formless heavens, bodhisattvas, and buddhas). Each world has its maṇḍala which represents the originating principle that brings it to completion.

The maṇḍala of the tenth world indicates the fulfilment and completion of the nine worlds.

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曼荼羅教 maṇḍala doctrine, mantra teaching, magic, yoga, the True word or Shingon sect.

曼陀羅 or 曼阤羅; 漫陀羅 mandāra(va), the coral-tree; the erythrina indica, or this tree regarded as one of the five trees of Paradise, i.e, Indra's heaven; a white variety of Calotropis gigantea. Name of a noted

monk, and of one called Mandra.

曼首 idem 文殊.

望 To look at, or for; expect, hope; towards; the full moon.

失望 To lose hope.

盼望 To hope for.

梅 The plum.

梅呾利耶 (梅呾利); 梅呾利曳那; 梅呾囉曳尼; 梅呾黎; 梅呾麗藥; 昧怛履曳 v. 彌勒 Maitreya, friendly, benevolent; the expected Buddhist Messiah.

梖 pattra; 梖多葉 the palm-leaves used for writing; the梖多樹 is erroneously said to be the borassus flabelliformis, described as 60 or 70 feet high, not deciduous, the bark used for writing.

梯 A ladder, stairs.

梯隥 Ladder rungs, or steps, used for the 漸教 school of gradual revelation in contrast with the 頓教 full and immediate revelation.

桶 A tub, bucket, barrel.

桶頭 The monk who looks after these things in a large establishment.

梨 The pear.

梨耶 v. 阿 ārya.

梨車 黎車; 離車; 栗呫媻 Licchavi, the ancient republic of Vaiśālī, whose people were among the earliest followers of Śākyamuni.

梁皇懺 The litany of Liang Wudi for his wife, who became a large snake, or dragon, after her death, and troubled the emperor's dreams. After the litany was performed, she became a devi, thanked the emperor, and

departed.

Brahman (from roots bṛh, vṛh, connected with bṛṃh, "religious devotion," "prayer," "a sacred text," or mantra, "the mystic syllable om"; "sacred learning," "the religious life," "the

Supreme Being regarded as impersonal," "the Absolute," "the priestly or sacerdotal class," etc. M.W. Translit.

梵摩 梵覽摩 or 梵覽磨; 勃?摩; 婆羅賀摩; 沒羅憾摩; intp. as Brahmā, see 梵天; and brahman, or priest; it is used both in a noble and ignoble sense, ignoble when disparaging brahman opposition; it is intp. by 淨 pure, also by 離欲淸淨

celibate and pure.

梵世界 The brahmaloka of the realm of form; also 梵世天.

梵乘 The brahmayāna, i.e. the noblest of the vehicles, that of the bodhisattva.

梵僧 A monk from India. Also a monk who maintains his purity.

梵典 Buddhist sutras, or books.

梵刹 brahmakṣetra, Buddha-land; a name for a Buddhist: monastery, i.e. a place of purity.

梵唄 Buddhist hymns, cf. 唄. They are sung to repress externals and calm the mind within for religious service; also in praise of Buddha.

梵土 brahman-land, India.

梵壇 or 梵怛 brahmadaṇda, brahma-staff 梵杖, the brahma (i.e. religious) punishment (stick), but the derivation is uncertain; the explanation is "to send to Coventry" a recalcitrant monk, the forbidding of any

conversation with him, called also 默擯 exclusion to silence.

梵天 Brahmadeva. Brahmā, the ruler of this world. India. brahmaloka, the eighteen heavens of the realm of form, divided into four dhyāna regions (sixteen heavens in Southern Buddhism). The first three

contain the 梵衆天 assembly of brahmadevas, i.e. the brahmakāyika; the 梵輔天 brahmspurohitas, retinue of Brahmā; and 大梵天 Mahābrahman, Brahman himself.

梵天外道 brahmadeva heretics; the brahmans consider Brahmā to be the Creator of all things and the Supreme Being, which is heresy with Buddhism.

梵天后 The queen, or wife of Brahmā.

梵天女 A devi in the garbhadhātu group.

梵天王 Brahmā v. above, and cf. 梵王. 梵天界 His realm.

梵夾 Palm-leaf scriptures; also 梵筴; 梵篋; 梵挾; 經夾.

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梵女 A noble woman, a woman of high character.

梵學 The study of Buddhism; the study of Brahmanism.

梵宇 A sacred house, i.e. a Buddhist monastery, or temple.

梵字 Brahma letters; saṃskṛtam; Sanskrit: also梵書 The classical Aryan language of India, systematized by scholars, in contradistinction to prākrit, representing the languages as ordinarily spoken. With the exception

of a few ancient translations probably from Pali versions, most of the original texts used in China were Sanskrit. Various alphabets have been introduced into China for transliterating Indian texts, the devanāgarī

alphabet, which was introduced via Tibet, is still used on charms and in sorcery. Pali is considered by some Chinese writers to be more ancient than Sanskrit both as a written and spoken language.

梵室 A dwelling where celibate discipline is practised, a monastery, temple.

梵宮 Brahmā's palace; a Buddhist temple.

梵富樓 brahmapurohita, the ministers, or assistants of Brahmā; the second brahmaloka; the second region of the first dhyāna heaven of form. Also梵輔.

梵延 Brahmā and Nārāyaṇa.

梵德 The power, or bliss, of Brahmā.

梵心 The noble or pure mind (which practises the discipline that ensures rebirth in the realm without form).

梵志 brahmacārin. 'studying sacred learning; practising continence or chastity.' M.W. A brahmacārī is a 'young Brahman in the first āśrama or period of his life' (M. W.); there are four such periods. A Buddhist

ascetic with his will set on 梵 purity, also intp. as nirvana.

梵摩 Brahmā; brahman, etc., v. 梵; 梵天, etc.

梵摩三鉢 Brahmāsahāṃpati, or Mahābrahmāsahāṃpati; Brahmā, lord of the world.

梵摩尼 Brahma-maṇi, pure pearl, or the magic pearl of Brahmā.

梵摩羅 Brahman, i.e. Brahmā; or Brahmā and Māra; or both as one.

梵摩達 Brahmadatta, a king of Kanyākubja. A king of Vārāṇaśi, father of Kāśyapa.

梵服 The kaṣāya or monk's robe; the garment of celibacy.

梵本 Sutras in the Indian language.

梵王 Brahmā, cf. 梵天. The father of all living beings; the first person of the Brahminical trimūrti, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, recognized by Buddhism as devas but as inferior to a Buddha, or enlightened man.

梵王宮 The palace of Brahmā.

梵宮 The realm of Brahmā; the first dhyāna heaven of the realm of form.

梵皇 The Indian Emperor, Buddha.

梵相 Brahmadhvaja, one of the sons of Mahābhijña; his Buddha domain is south-west of our universe.

梵章 Brahmavastu, a Sanskrit syllabary in twelve parts.

梵網 Brahmajāla; Brahma-net.

梵網宗 The sect of Ritsu 律宗, brought into Japan by the Chinese monk 鑑眞 Chien-chen in A.D. 754.

梵網經 Brahmajāla Sutra, tr. by Kumārajīva A.D. 406, the infinitude of worlds being as the eyes or holes in Indra's net, which is all-embracing, like the Buddha's teaching. There are many treatises on it.

梵網戒品 A name for the above, or the next.

梵網戒本 菩薩戒經 The latter part of the above sutra.

梵聲 The voice of Buddha.

梵苑 A monastery or any place where celibate discipline is practised.

梵衆 Monks, so called because of their religious practices.

梵衆天 brahmapāriṣadya (or brahmapārṣadya), belonging to the retinue of Brahmā; the first brahmaloka; the first region of the first dhyāna heaven of form.

梵行 Pure living; noble action; the discipline of celibacy which ensures rebirth in the brahmaloka, or in the realms beyond form.

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梵衍那 Bayana, 'an ancient kingdom and city in Bokhara famous for a colossal statue of Buddha (entering nirvana) believed to be 1,000 feet long. ' Eitel. The modern Bamian.

梵語 Brahma language, Sanskrit, the Sanskrit alphabet; 'the language of India'; supposed to come from Brahmā.

梵身 The pure spiritual body, or dharmakāya, of the Buddha, v. 法身.

梵身天 The brahmakāyika, or retinue of Brahma.

梵輪 The brahma-wheel, the wheel of the law, or pure preaching of the Buddha; his four梵行 v. 四無量心; the first sermon at the request of Brahma; the doctrine or preaching of the Brahmans.

梵迦夷 brahmakāyikas; the Brahma-devas; v. 梵天.

梵道 The way of purity, or celibacy; the brahmanway.

梵釋 Brahmā, the lord of the form-realm, and Śakra of the desire-realm.

梵釋四天 Brahmā, Śakra, and the four Mahārājas.

梵鐘 A temple or monastery bell.

梵難 The difficulty of maintaining celibacy, or purity.

梵面佛 A Buddha with Brahma's face, said to be 23,000 years old.

梵音 (1) Brahma voice, clear, melodious, pure, deep, far-reaching, one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha. (2) Singing in praise of Buddha.

梵響 The sound of Buddha's voice; his preaching.

梵魔 Brahmā and Māra, the former lord of the realm of form, the latter of desire or passion.

欲 rājas, passion. Also kāma, desire, love. The Chinese word means to breathe after, aspire to, desire, and is also used as 慾 for lust, passion; it is inter alia intp. as 染愛塵 tainted with the dust (or

dirt) of love, or lust. The three desires are for beauty, demeanour, and softness; the five are those of the five physical senses.

欲刺 The sharp point of desire.

欲塵 The dust, or dirt, or infection of the passions; the guṇas, or qualities, or material factors of desire regarded as forces. Also the six desires and the five guṇas 六欲五塵.

欲天 The six heavens of desire or passion, the kāmadhātu.

欲天五婬 The five methods of sexual intercourse in the heavens of desire; in the heaven of the Four Great Kings and in Trayastriṃśas the method is the same as on earth; in the Yamadevaloka a mere embrace is sufficient;

in the Tuṣita heaven, holding hands; in the Nirmāṇarati heaven, mutual smiles; in the other heavens of Transformation, regarding each other.

欲心 A desirous, covetous, passionate, or lustful heart.

欲性 Desire-nature, the lusts.

欲愛 Passion-love; love inspired by desire, through any of the five senses; love in the passion realm as contrasted to 法愛 the love inspired by the dharma.

欲愛住地 One of the five fundamental conditions of the passions, v. 五住 (五住地).

欲有 The realm of desire, one of the 三有.

欲有見無明 The unenlightened condition of desire; kāma-bhava-dṛṣṭi-avidyā are the four constituents which produce 漏 q.v.

欲染 The tainting, or contaminating influence of desire.

欲樂 The joys of the five desires.

欲氣 Desire-breath, passion-influence, the spirit or influence of desire, lust.

欲泥 The mire of desire, or lust.

欲河 The river of desire, or lust (which drowns).

欲海 The ocean of desire, so called because of its extent and depth.

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欲流 The stream of the passions, i.e. the illusions of cupidity, anger, etc., which keep the individual in the realm of desire; the stream of transmigration, which results from desire.

欲漏 The stream or flow of existence, evoked by desire interpenetrated by unenlightened views and thoughts; these stimulating desires produce karma which in turn produces reincarnation; v. 三漏.

欲火 The fire of desire.

欲界 kāmadhātu. The realm, or realms, of in purgatory, hungry spirits, animals, asuras, men, and the six heavens of desire. so called because the beings in these states are dominated by desire. The

kāmadhātu realms are given as: 地居 Bhauma. 虛曇天 Antarikṣa. 四天王天 Caturmaharājakayika [i.e. the realms of 持國天 Dhṛtarāṣtra, east; 增長天 Virūḍhaka, south; 廣目天 Virūpakṣa, west; 多聞天 Vai śramaṇa (Dhanada), north]. 忉利天 Trayastriṃśa. 兜率天

Tuṣita. 化樂天 Nirmāṇarati. 他化自在天 Paranirmitavaśavarin.

欲箭 The arrows of desire, or lust. Also the darts of the bodhisattva 欲金剛, who hooks and draws all beings to Buddha.

欲色 The two realms of desire and form, or the passions and the sensuous.

欲苦 The sufferings of desire, or in desire-realms.

欲覺 Passion-consciousness; the consciousness of desire.

欲貪 Desire and coveting, or coveting as the result of passion; craving.

欲邪行 Adulterous conduct, prohibited in the five commandments.

欲鉤 The hook of desire; the bodhisattva attracts men through desire, and then draws them to the enlightenment of Buddha.

欲魔 The evil demon of lust.

殑伽 Gaṅgā, the Ganges; also殑河 v. 恒.

殑耆 Gaṅgā, the goddess of the Ganges.

毫 Down, soft hair; minute, trifling, tiny.

毫眉 The white hair between Buddha's eyebrows, the毫相, i.e. one of the thirty-two signs of a Buddha.

混 Turbid, intermingled, confused, chaotic.

混沌 Mixed, confused, in disorder.

淋 To drip, sprinkle, soak.

淋汗 Dripping sweat; to sprinkle or pour water on the body to cleanse it.

淚 Tears.

淚墮 Falling tears.

淘 To scour, swill, wash, cleanse; tricky, playful.

淘汰 The fourth of the five periods of Buddha's teaching, according to Tiantai, i.e. the sweeping away of false ideas, produced by appearance, with the doctrine of the void, or the reality behind the seeming.

添 Add, additional, increase.

添品 Additional chapter, or chapters.

淫 Excess, excessive; licentious, lewd; adultery, fornication.

淫欲 Sexual passion.

淫欲火 Its fire, or burning.

淫欲病 The (spiritual) disease it causes.

淫湯 A kind of rice soup, or gruel.

淫羅 The net of passion. Also 婬羅.

淺 Shallow; superficial; light in colour; simple, easy.

淺略 Superficial, simple, not profound.

淺臘 Of few years, i.e. youthful in monastic years.

深 Deep, profound, abstruse.

深入 Deep entering, or the deep sense. i.e. 貪desire, covetousness, cupidity.

深奥 深妙; 深密; 深秘 Deep, profound, abstruse.

深坑 A deep or fathomless pit.

深信 Deep faith.

深心 A mind profoundly engrossed (in Buddha-truth, or thought, or illusion, etc. ).

深摩舍那 śmaśāna, v. 尸, place for disposing of the dead.

深智 Profound knowledge or wisdom.

深法 (深法門) Profound truth, or method.

深法忍 Patience, or perseverance, in faith and practice.

深淨 Profoundly pure.

深玄 Deep, abstruse, dark, deep black.

深理 Profound principle, law, or truth.

深經 深藏 The profound sutras, or texts, those of Mahāyāna.

深行 Deep or deepening progress, that above the initial bodhisattva stage.

amala. Pure, clear.

淸信士 or淸信男 and淸信女 upāsaka and upāsikā, male and female lay devotees.

淸揚 Clear and resonant.

淸明 Clear and bright; the Chinese spring festival on the 19th of the 2nd moon, when honour is paid to departed spirits.

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淸梵 Pure Sanskrit; Buddha's resonant voice, or pure enunciation.

淸涼 淸凉 Clear and cool; clear, pure.

淸涼國師 Pure-minded preceptor of the State, title of the fourth patriarch of the Huayan school.

淸涼寺 A monastery at Wu-tai shan.

淸涼山 A name for Wu-tai in north Shansi; also the abode of Mañjuśrī north-east of our universe.

淸涼月 The pure moon, i.e. the Buddha.

淸涼池 The pure lake, or pool i.e. nirvana.

淸淨 pariśuddhi; viśuddhi. Pure and clean, free from evil and defilement, perfectly clean.

淸淨人 The pure and clean man, especially the Buddha.

淸淨光明身 The pure, shining body or appearance (of the Buddha).

淸淨園 Pure garden, or garden of purity, i.e. a monastery or convent.

淸淨心 A pure mind free from doubt or defilement.

淸淨智 Undefiled knowledge.

淸淨本然 Purely and naturally so, spontaneous.

淸淨業處 The state which one who has a pure karma reaches.

淸淨法 dharmavirāja, pure truth.

淸淨法界 The pure Buddha truth (realm).

淸淨法眼 The pure dharma-eye, with which the Hīnayāna disciple first discerns the four noble truths, and the: Mahāyāna disciple discerns the unreality of self and things.

淸淨眞如 One of the seven Chan-ju, q. v.

淸淨覺海 The pure ocean of enlightenment, which underlies the disturbed life of all.

淸淨解脫三昧 A samadhi free from all impurity and in which complete freedom is obtained.

淸淨識 amalavijñāna, pure, uncontaminated knowledge; earlier regarded as the ninth, later as the eighth or ālayavijñāna.

淸白 Pure and white, pure white, as Buddha-truth, or as pure goodness.

淸辯 Bhāvaviveka, a noted Buddhist philosopher circa A.D. 600, a follower of Nāgārjuna.

淸齋 Pure observance of monastic rules for food; to eat purely, i.e. vegetarian food; fasting.

淨 vimala. Clean, pure; to cleanse, purify; chastity. In Buddhism it also has reference to the place of cleansing, the latrine, etc. Also 浄 and 净.

淨主 The donor, of chastity, i.e. of an abode for monks or nuns.

淨住 A pure rest, or abode of purity, a term for a Buddhist monastery.

淨佛 Pure Buddha, perfect Buddhahood, of the dharmakāya nature.

淨侶 The company of pure ones, i.e. monks or nuns.

淨信 Pure faith.

淨刹 The pure kṣetra, i.e. Buddha-land.

淨命 Pure livelihood, 正命, i.e. that of the monk. Also the life of a pure or unperturbed mind.

淨國 The pure land, i.e. Buddha-land.

淨圓覺心 Pure and perfect enlightened mind: the complete enlightenment of the Buddha.

淨土 Sukhāvatī. The Pure Land, or Paradise of the West, presided over by Amitābha. Other Buddhas have their Pure Lands; seventeen other kinds of pure land are also described, all of them of moral or spiritual

conditions of development, e.g. the pure land of patience, zeal, wisdom, etc.

淨土宗 The Pure-land sect, whose chief tenet is salvation by faith in Amitābha; it is the popular cult in China, also in Japan, where it is the Jōdo sect; it is also called 蓮宗(蓮花宗) the Lotus sect. Established by

Hui-yuan 慧遠 of the Chin dynasty (317— 419), it claims P'u-hsien 普賢 Samantabhadra as founder. Its seven chief textbooks are 無量淸淨平等覺經; 大阿彌陀經; 無量壽經; 觀無量壽經; 阿彌陀經; 稱讚淨土佛攝受經; and 鼓音聲三陀羅尼經. The淨土眞宗 is the Jōdo-Shin, or Shin

sect of Japan.

淨地 Pure locality, i.e. where a chaste monk dwells.

淨域 The Pure Lands of all Buddhas.

淨天 Pure heaven, or pure devas; śrotāpannas to pratyekabuddhas are so called.

淨天眼 The pure deva eye, which can see all things small and great, near and far, and the forms of all beings before their transmigration.

淨宗 idem淨土宗.

淨家 The Pure-land sect.

淨居天 The five heavens of purity, in the fourth dhyāna heaven, where the saints dwell who will not return to another rebirth. Also Śuddhāvāsadeva, 'a deva who served as guardian angel to Śākyamuni and brought about his

conversion. ' Eitel.

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淨屋 House of chastity, i.e. a monastery or convent.

淨心 The pure heart or mind, which is the original Buddha-nature in every man.

淨心住 The pure heart stage, the third of the six resting-places of a bodhisattva, in which all illusory views are abandoned.

淨戒 The pure commandments, or to keep the in purity.

淨方 The Pure Land of Amitābha, v. 淨土.

淨施 Pure charity, which does not seek fame or blessing in this world, but only desires to sow nirvana-seed.

淨梵王 Brahmā, as the pure divine ruler. Also淨飯王 q.v.

淨業 Good karma; also the deeds which lead to birth in the Pure Land.

淨法界 The realm of pure dharma, the unsullied realm, i.e. the bhūtatathatā.

淨波羅蜜 The fourth pāramitā of the Nirvana Sutra, 常樂我淨 v. 常.

淨潔五欲 The five pure desires, or senses, i.e. of the higher worlds in contrast with the coarse senses of the lower worlds.

淨瑠璃世界 The pure crystal realm in the eastern region, the paradise of Yao Shih 藥師 Buddha; it is the Bhaiṣajyaguruvaiḍūrya-prabhāsa.

淨眼 The clear or pure eyes that behold, with enlightened vision, things not only as they seem but in their reality. Also Vimalanetra, second son of Śubhavyūha in the Lotus Sutra.

淨聖 Pure saint, the superior class of saints.

淨肉 Pure flesh, the kind which may be eaten by a monk without sin, three, five, and nine classes being given.

淨菩提心 Pure bhūtatathatā bodhi mind, or mind of pure enlightenment, the first stage of the practitioner in the esoteric sect.

淨華衆 The pure flower multitude, i.e. those who are born into the Pure Land by means of a lotus flower. '

淨藏 Vimalagarbha, eldest son of Śubhavyūha in the Lotus Sutra.

淨衆 Pure assembly, the company of the chaste, the body of monks.

淨行者 One who observes ascetic practices; one of pure or celibate conduct; a Brahman; also 梵志.

淨裔 Of pure descent, or line; a young Brahman; an ascetic in general.

淨覺 Pure enlightenment.

淨觀 Pure contemplation, such as the sixteen mentioned in the 無量壽經.

淨語 Pure words; words that express reality.

淨諸根 Undefiled senses; i.e. undefiled eye, ear, mouth, nose, body.

淨道 The pure enlightenment of Buddha.

淨邦 idem淨土.

淨門 Gate of purity to nirvana, one of the 六妙.

淨頭 The monk who controls the latrines.

淨飯王 Pure rice king, Śuddhodana, the father of Śākyamuni; v. 首.

淨髮 To cleanse the hair, i.e. shave the head as do the monks.

牽 To haul, drag, influence, implicate.

牽引因 sarvatraga-hetu, 'omnipresent causes, like false views which affect every act. ' Keith.

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牽道八道行城 To advance on the city from all sides as in chess 波羅塞 prāsaka, i.e. to employ the omnipresent dharmas (sarvatraga) for salvation.

猊 A fabulous beast like a lion, of extraordinary powers.

猊下 A kind of lion-throne for Buddhas, etc.; a term of respect like 足下.

猊座 A lion-throne.

猛 Fierce, violent; determined; sudden.

猛利 Fierce, sudden.

猛火 Fierce fire, conflagration.

率 A net with handle; to pursue, follow after; lead on; suddenly; generally.

率都婆 stūpa, a mound, v. 塔.

率祿勤那 Srughna. 'An ancient kingdom and city near the upper course of the Yamunā, probably the region between' Saharanpur and Srinagar. Eitel.

現 Appear, apparent; manifest, visible; now; present; ready.

現世 The present world.

現前 Now present, manifest before one.

現前地 The sixth of the ten stages of the bodhisattva, in which the bhūtatathatā is manifested to him.

現喩 A comparison consisting of immediate facts, or circumstances.

現圖曼陀羅 The two revealed or revealing maṇḍalas, the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu.

現在 Now, at present, the present.

現在世 The present world.

現在賢劫 The present bhadrakalpa.

現在過去未來 Present, past, and future.

現報 Present-life recompense for good or evil done in the present life.

現成 Manifest, existing, evident, ready-made, self-evident or self-existing.

現生 The present life.

現生利益 Benefits in the present life (from serving Buddha).

現相 Manifest forms, i.e. the external or phenomenal world, the 境界相, one of the三細 q.v. of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

現當 Present and future (i.e. 當來).

現益 Benefit in the present life.

現行 Now going, or proceeding; present or manifest activities.

現行法 Things in present or manifested action, phenomena in general.

現觀 Insight into, or meditation on, immediate presentations; present insight into the deep truth of Buddhism.

現證 The immediate realization of enlightenment, or nirvana; abhisamaya, inner realization; pratyakṣa, immediate perception, evidence of the eye or other organ.

現識 Direct knowledge, manifesting wisdom, another name of the ālayavijñāna, on which all things depend for realization, for it completes the knowledge of the other vijñānas. Also the 'representation-consciousness' or

perception of an external world, one of the 五識 q.v. of the 起信論.

現過未 (or 現過當) Present, past, and future.

現起光 The phenomenal radiance of Buddha which shines out when circumstances require it, as contrasted to his noumenal radiance which is constant.

現身 The present body. Also the various bodies or manifestations in which the Buddhas and bodhisattvas reveal themselves.

現量 Reasoning, from the manifest, pratyakṣa. (1) Immediate, or direct reasoning, whereby the eye apprehends and distinguishes colour and form, the ear sound, etc. (2) Immediate insight into, or

direct inference in a trance (定) of all the conditions of the ālayavijñāna.

現量相違 A fallacy of the major premise in which the premise contradicts experience, e.g. sound is something not heard, this being one of the nine fallacies of the major premise.

理 siddhānta; hetu. Ruling principle, fundamental law, intrinsicality, universal basis, essential element; nidāna, reason; pramāṇa, to arrange, regulate, rule, rectify.

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理事 Noumena and phenomena, principle and practice, absolute and relative, real and empirical, cause and effect, fundamental essence and external activity, potential and actual; e.g. store and distribution, ocean

and wave, static and kinetic.

理事無礙 Unimpeded interaction of noumenon and phenomenon, principle and practice, etc.; no barrier in either of the two. Cf. 十門.

理佛 The fundamental or intrinsic Buddha, i.e. the dharmakāya; also the Tiantai doctrine of Buddha as immanent in all beings, even those of the three lowest orders; which doctrine is also called 素法身 the plain, or

undeveloped dharmakāya.

理佛性 The fundamental Buddha-nature in contrast with 行佛性the Buddha-nature in action or development.

理入 Entry by the truth, or by means of the doctrine, or reason, as 行入 is entry by conduct or practice, the two depending one on the other, cf. 二入.

理具 Wholly noumenal or all things as aspects of the absolute, a doctrine of the Tiantai 'profounder' school, in contrast with the 事造 of the 'shallower' school, which considered all things to be phenomenally produced.

理具三千 The things of a 三千大千世界 great chiliocosm considered as noumenal throughout, or all dharmakāya.

理卽 (理卽佛) The underlying truth of all things is Buddha; immanent reason; Buddhahood; the Tiantai doctrine of essential universal Buddhahood, or the undeveloped Buddha in all beings.

理在絶言 Truth is in eliminating words; it is independent of words; it does not require words to express it.

理性 Absolute nature, immutable reality, fundamental principle or character.

理惑 Illusion in regard to fundamental truth, e.g. the reality of the ego and things; as 事惑 is illusion in regard to things themselves. Also, fundamental illusion; reality and illusion.

理智 Principle and gnosis (or reason); the noumenal in essence and in knowledge; the truth in itself and in knowledge; li is also the fundamental principle of the phenomenon under observation, chih the observing

wisdom; one is reality, the other the knower or knowing; one is the known object, the other the knower, the knowing, or what is known; each is dependent on the other, chih depends on lili is revealed by chih. Also

knowledge or enlightenment in its essence or purity, free from incarnational influences.

理智五法 v. 五法.

理曼陀羅 The noumenal maṇḍala, i.e. the garbhadhātu in contrast with the 智 or vajradhātumaṇḍala.

理法身 The dharmakāya as absolute being, in contrast with 智法身 the dharmakāya as wisdom, both according to the older school being 無爲 noumenal; later writers treat 理法身 as noumenal and 智法身 as kinetic or active.

理法界 One of the 四界, that of the common essence or dharmakāya of all beings.

理界 The realm of li in contrast with 智界; cf. 理智.

理禪 The dhyāna of or concentration on absolute truth free from phenomenal contamination.

理觀 The concept of absolute truth; the concentration of the mind upon reality.

理論 Reasoning on, or discussion of, principles, or fundamental truth.

理身理土 The dharmakāya in the dharmakṣetra, e.g. the spiritual Vairocana in the eternal light.

理障 The hindrance caused by incorrect views of truth.

理體 The fundamental substance or body of all things.

甁 A bottle, vase, jar, pitcher, etc.

天德甁 The vase of divine virtue, i.e. bodhi; also a sort of cornucopia.

甁沙王 Bimbisāra, v. 頻.

甁窣都渡 droṇastūpa, a stupa said to contain a jar of relics of Śākyamuni's body, surreptitiously collected after his cremation by a Brahman.

甁耆羅 Eitel gives this as Viṅgila, Viṅkila, Varaṅgala; the ancient capital of Andhra, cf. 案; but it is doubtful.

略 To mark off, define: abridge, outline, sketch; summarize in general; rather, somewhat.

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要略 An outline of the important points.

略戒 The first period of general moral law, before the detailed commandments became necessary; i.e. the first twelve years of the Buddha's ministry.

畢 To end, final, complete, all; translit. p, v.

畢利叉 畢洛叉; 畢剌叉 vṛkṣa is a tree; here it is described as the tree i.e. the Jonesia aśoka, a tree under which the Buddha is said to have been born.

畢利多 preta, hungry ghost.

畢力迦 (or 畢栗迦) pṛkkā, spṛkkā, a fragrant plant, said to be the trigonella corniculata.

畢勒支底迦 (畢勒支底迦佛); 畢支佛; 辟支佛; 鉢攞底迦佛 pratyeka(-buddha) . Cf. 辟. Singly, individually, one 'who lives in seclusion and obtains emancipation for himself only'. M. W. It is intp. as 獨覺 lonely (or alone) enlightenment,

i.e. for self alone; also 緣覺 enlightened in the 十二因緣 twelve nidānas; or 圓覺 completely enlightened. i.e. for self.

畢境 atyanta. At bottom, finally, at last, fundamental, final, ultimate. [Note: Here, and in the following entries, 境 seems to be mistakenly used for 竟.]

畢境依 A final trust, ultimate reliance, i.e. Buddha.

畢境智 Ultimate, or final wisdom, or knowledge of the ultimate.

畢境無 Never, fundamentally not, or none.

畢境空 Fundamentally unreal, immaterial, or void, see 空.

畢境覺 The ultimate enlightenment, or bodhi, that of a Buddha.

畢舍遮 毘畢畢; 毘畢闍; 臂奢柘 piśāca, demons that eat flesh, malignant sprites or demons.

畢鉢 (畢鉢羅) pippala, one of the names of the Ficus religiosa; also the name of Mahā-Kāśyapa.

畢陵 (畢陵伽婆蹉) Pilindavatsa, who for 500 generations had been a Brahman, cursed the god of the Ganges, became a disciple, but still has to do penance, for his ill-temper.

異 pṛthak. Different, separate, unlike, not the same; diverse, diversity; strange; heterodox; extraordinary.

異人 Different person, another.

異口同音 Different or many mouths, but the same response, unanimous.

異品 Of different order, or class.

異因 A different cause, or origin.

異執 A different tenet; to hold to heterodoxy.

異學 Different studies; heterodoxy.

異心 Different mind; heterodox mind; amazed.

異慧 Heterodox wisdom.

異方便 Extraordinary, or unusual adaptations, devices, or means.

異熟 vipāka, different when cooked, or matured, i.e. the effect differing from the cause, e. g. pleasure differing from goodness its cause, and pain from evil. Also, maturing or producing its effects in another

life.

異熟因 vipāka-hetu heterogeneous cause, i.e. a cause producing a different effect, known as 無記 neutral, or not ethical, e.g. goodness resulting in pleasure, evil in pain.

異熟果 Fruit ripening differently, i.e. in another incarnation, or life, e.g. the condition of the eye and other organs now resulting from specific sins or otherwise in previous existence.

異熟等五果 The five fruits of karma; pañcaphalāni, or effects produced by one or more of the six hetus or causes. They are as follows: (1) 異熟果 vipāka-phala, heterogeneous effect produced by heterogeneous cause. (2) 等流果

niṣyanda-phala, uniformly continuous effect. (3) 士用果 puruṣakāra-phala, simultaneous effect produced by the sahabhū-hetu and the saṃprayukta-hetu; v. 六因. (4) 增上果 adhipati-phala, aggregate effect produced by the

karma-hetu. (5) 離繫果 visaṃyoga-phala, emancipated effect produced by, the six causes.

異熟生 A difference is made in Mahāyāna between 異熟 (異熟識) which is considered as ālaya-vijñāna, and 異熟生 the six senses, which are produced from the ālaya-vijñāna.

異生 pṛthagjana; bālapṛthagjana, v. 婆; an ordinary person unenlightened by Buddhism; an unbeliever, sinner; childish, ignorant, foolish; the lower orders.

異生羝羊心 Common 'butting goat', or animal, propensities for food and lust.

異相 Difference, differentiation.

異端 Heterodoxy.

異緣 ālambana-pratyaya, things distracting the attention, distracting thoughts; the action of external objects conditioning consciousness.

異見 A different view, heterodoxy.

異解 A different, or heterodox, interpretation.

異說 A different, or heterodox, explanation.

異部 Of a different class, or sect; heterodox schools, etc.

眷 Regard, love; wife; family; relatives; retainers.

眷屬 Retinue, retainers, suite, especially the retinue of a god, Buddha, etc.

眼 cakṣuh, the eye.

眼入 The eye entrance one of the twelve entrances i.e. the basis of sight consciousness.

眼智 Knowledge obtained from seeing.

眼根 The organ of sight.

眼界 The element or realm of sight.

眼目 The eye, eyes.

眼識 Sight-perception, the first vijñāna.

眼識界 cakṣur-vijñāna-dhātu, the element or realm of sight-perception.

祭 Sacrifice, sacrificial.

祭文 齋文. The prayer or statement read and burnt at a funeral.

祭祠論 The Yajurveda, v. 韋.

祥 Felicitous.

祥月 Felicitous month, an anniversary.

祥瑞 Auspicious.

祥草 The felicitous herb, or grass, that on which the Buddha sat when he attained enlightenment.

移 To transplant, transpose, transmit, convey, remove.

移山 To remove mountains.

移龕 To remove the coffin to the hall for the masses for the dead on the third day after the enconffinment.

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章 A section, chapter; finished, elegant; essay, document; rule, according to pattern.

章服 Regulation dress.

笯赤建 Nujkend, or Nujketh in Turkestan, between Taras and Khojend.

第 Number, degree, sign of the ordinals; only.

第一 The first, chief, prime, supreme.

第一乘 The supreme vehicle, Mahāyāna.

第一句 The first and supreme letter, a, the alpha of all wisdom.

第一寂滅 The supreme reality, nirvāṇa.

第一義 The supreme, or fundamental meaning, the supreme reality, i. e. enlightenment.

第一義悉檀 The highest siddhānta, or Truth, the highest universal gift of Buddha, his teaching which awakens the highest capacity in all beings to attain salvation.

第一義智 The highest knowledge, or wisdom.

第一義樂 The highest bliss, i.e. nirvāṇa.

第一義空 The highest Void, or reality, the Mahāyāna nirvāṇa, though it is also applied to Hīnayāna nirvāṇa.

第一義觀 The highest meditation of Tiantai, that on 中 the Mean.

第一義諦 The supreme truth, or reality in contrast with the seeming; also called Veritable truth, sage-truth, surpassing truth, nirvāṇa, bhūtatathatā, madhya, śūnyatā, etc.

第三禪 The third dhyāna, a degree of contemplation in which ecstasy gives way to serenity; also a state, or heaven, corresponding to this degree of contemplation, including the third three of the rūpa heavens.

第三能變 The third power of change, i. e. the six senses, or vijñānas, 能變 means 識.

第七仙 The seventh 'immortal', the last of the seven Buddhas, Śākyamuni.

第七情 A seventh sense; non-existent, like a 十三入 thirteenth base of perception, or a 十九界 19th dhātu.

第二月 A double or second moon, which is an optical illusion, unreal.

第二禪 The second dhyāna, a degree of contemplation where reasoning gives way to intuition. The second three rūpa heavens.

第二能變 The second power of change, the kliṣṭamano-vijñāna, disturbed-mind, consciousness, or self-consciousness which gives form to the universe. The first power of change is the ālaya-vijñāna.

第五大 A fifth element, the nonexistent.

第六陰 A sixth skandha: as there are only five skandhas it means the non-existent.

第八識 The eighth, or ālaya-vijñāna, mind-essence, the root and essence of all things.

第十八願 The eighteenth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, the one vowing salvation to all believers.

第四禪 The fourth dhyāna, a degree of contemplation when the mind becomes indifferent to pleasure and pain; also the last eight rūpa heavens.

第耶那 v. 禪 dhyāna.

第黎多曷羅殺吒羅 Dhṛtarāṣṭra, one of the four mahārājas, the white guardian of the east, one of the lokapālas, a king of gandharvas and piśacas; cf. 提.

紹 To continue, hand down.

紹隆 To continue (or perpetuate) and prosper Buddhist truth, or the triratna.

終 End, termination, final, utmost, death, the whole; opposite of 始.

終南山 Zhongnan Shan, a mountain in Shanxi; a posthumous name for Du Shun 杜順, founder of the Huayan or Avataṃsaka School in China.

終教 The 'final teaching', i.e. the third in the category of the Huayan School, cf. 五教 the final metaphysical concepts of Mahāyāna, as presented in the Laṅkāvatāra sūtra, Awakening of Faith, etc.

終歸於空 All things in the end return to the Void.

累 To tie; accumulate; repeatedly; to implicate, involve.

累七齋 The sevenfold repetition of masses for the dead.

累劫 Repeated, or many kalpas.

累形 The body as involved in the distresses of life.

累障 The hindrances of many vexations, responsibilities or affairs.

紺 A violet or purplish colour, a blend of blue and red; also called紺靑 and紺璢璃, the colour of the roots紺髮 or 紺頂 of the Buddha's hair.

紺宇 紺園; 紺坊; 紺殿 Names for a Buddhist monastery.

紺睫 The Buddha's violet or red-blue eyebrows.

紺蒲 kamboja, described as a round, reddish fruit, the Buddha having something resembling it on his neck, one of his characteristic marks.

紺蒲國 The country of Kamboja.

細 Fine, small, minute, in detail: careful.

細四相 The four states of 生住異滅 birth, abiding, change, extinction, e.g. birth, life, decay, death.

細心 Carefully, in detail, similar to 細意議 the vijñāna of detailed, unintermitting attention.

細滑欲 Sexual attraction through softness and smoothness.

細色 Refined appearance. Cf. 徵.

罣 A snare; impediment; cause of anxiety, anxious.

罣念 To be anxious about.

罣礙 A hindrance, impediment.

習 Repetition, practice, habit, skilled; u.f. 習氣 intp. vāsanā.

習因習果 The continuity of cause and effect, as the cause so the effect.

習氣 Habit, the force of habit; the uprising or recurrence of thoughts, passions, or delusions after the passion or delusion has itself been overcome, the remainder or remaining influence of illusion.

習滅 To practise (the good) and destroy (the evil).

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脚 Foot, leg.

脚布 A bath towel, foot-towel.

脫 To take the flesh from the bones; to strip, undress, doff; to escape, avoid; let go, relinquish.

脫珍著弊 To doff jewels and don rags, as did the Buddha, on leaving home, but it is intp. as a kenosis, the putting off of his celestial body for an incarnate, earthly body.

解脫 v. 解.

脫闍 dhvaja, a banner, flag.

脫體 To strip the body, naked; to get rid of the body.

臯 A marsh, pool, bank; high; the fifth month.

臯諦 Kuntī, name of one of the rākṣasī, a female demon.

船 A boat, ship.

船師 Captain, i.e. the Buddha as captain of salvation, ferrying across to the nirvāṇa shore.

船筏 A boat, or raft, i.e. Buddhism.

莽 Jungle; wild; rude; translit. ma, cf. 摩; intp. as 無 and 空.

荷 A small-leaved water-lily, a marshmallow; to carry bear.

荷力皮陀 v. 吠 The Ṛigveda.

荷擔 To carry, bear on the back or shoulder.

荼 A bitter herb; weeds; to encroach; translit. da, dha, dhya, dhu.

荼吉尼 ḍākinī, also荼枳尼; 吒吉尼; 拏吉儞 yakṣas or demons in general, but especially those which eat a man's vitals; they are invoked in witchcraft to obtain power.

荼毘 闍毘 (or 闍維, or 闍鼻多); also 耶維; 耶旬 jhāpita; cremation.

荼矩磨 kuṅkuma, saffron, or turmeric, or the musk-root.

莎 A species of grass, or sedge; cf. 娑.

莎揭哆 svāgata 善來 'well come', a term of salutation; also 善逝 'well departed'. It is a title of every Buddha; also 莎迦陀 (or 莎伽陀); 沙伽陀 (or 沙竭陀); 裟婆羯多; 蘇揭多.

沙羅樹 The Sala-tree.

沙髻 A crown of grass put on the head of 不動尊 q.v. as a servant of the Buddhas.

莫 Not; none; no; do not; translit. ma, mu; cf. 摩.

莫伽 magha, donation, wealth; maghā, seven stars; M. W. says a constellation of five stars α, γ, ζ, η, ν Leonis.

莫訶 mahā, cf. 摩; Mahī, or Mahānada, a small river in Magadha, and one flowing into the gulf of Cambay.

莫訶僧祇尼迦耶 Mahāsāṅghika-nikāya, cf. 摩.

莫訶婆伽 The musk deer.

莫訶衍磧 The great Shamo (Gobi) desert.

莫賀延 The great Shamo (Gobi) desert; also called 'Makhai'. Eitel.

莫醯 v. 摩 Maheśvara, i. e. Śiva.

莊 Sedate, serious, proper, stern.

莊王 v. 妙 Śubhavyūha, reputed father of Guanyin.

莊嚴 alaṃkāraka. Adorn, adornment, glory, honour, ornament, ornate; e.g. the adornments of morality, meditation, wisdom, and the control of good and evil forces. In Amitābha's paradise twenty-nine forms of adornment

are described, v. 淨土論.

莊嚴劫 The glorious kalpa to which the thousand Buddhas, one succeeding another, bring their contribution of adornment.

莊嚴王 Vyūharāja, a bodhisattva in the retinue of Śākyamuni.

莊嚴王經 Vyūharāja sūtra, an exposition of the principal doctrines of the Tantra school.

莊嚴門 The gate or school of the adornment of the spirit, in contrast with external practices, ceremonies, asceticism, etc.

處 To dwell, abide; fix, decide, punish; a place, state. āyatana, 阿耶怛那, also tr. 入, place or entrance of the sense, both the organ and the sensation, or sense datum; hence the 十二處 twelve āyatana, i. e. six organs, and [[six

sense]] data that enter for discrimination.

處不退 Not to fall away from the status attained.

處中 To abide in the via media, which transcends ideas both of existence and non-existence.

蛇 sarpa, a serpent, snake.

毒蛇 A poisonous snake.

佛口蛇心 A Buddha's mouth but a serpent's heart.

蛇繩麻 The seeming snake, which is only a rope, and in reality hemp.

蛇藥 Snake-medicine, name of the Sarpāuṣadhi monastery in Udyāna, where Śākyamuni in a former incarnation appeared as an immense snake, and by giving his flesh saved the starving people from death.

蛇行 To crawl, go on the belly.

蛇足 Snake's legs, i.e. the nonexistent.

術 Way or method; art; trick, plan.

術婆迦 Śubhakara, a fisherman who was burnt up by his own sexual love.

被 A quilt, coverlet; to cover; to suffer; sign of the passive.

被位 Covered seats for meditation.

被葉衣觀音 Guanyin clad in leaves.

袈裟 kaṣāya, the monk's robe, or cassock. The word is intp. as decayed, impure (in colour), dyed, not of primary colour, so as to distinguish it from the normal white dress of the people. The patch-robe, v. 二十五條. A dyed

robe 'of a colour composed of red and yellow' (M. W. ); it has a number of poetic names, e. g. robe of patience, or endurance. Also 迦沙曳 (迦邏沙曳).

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袍 a robe.

袍休羅蘭 Bahularatna, Prabhūtaratna, abundance of precious things, the 多寳 Buddha of the Lotus Sūtra.

袍裳 袍服 Upper and lower garments.

許 Grant, permit, admit, promise; very.

許可 Grant, permit, admit.

設 To set up, establish, institute; arrange, spread; suppose; translit. ś.

設利 (設利羅) śarīra, relics, remains, see 舍.

設利弗怛羅 Śāriputra, v. 舍.

設多圖盧 Satadru, 'an ancient kingdom of northern India, noted for its mineral wealth. Exact position unknown.' Eitel. Also, the River Sutlej.

設施 Śacī, Śakti, v. 舍.

設覩嚕 Śatru, an enemy, a destroyer, the enemy, also 設咄嚕; 設都嚧; 捨覩嚧 (or 轢覩嚧); 窣覩喚; 婆訥嚕.

設賞迦 Śaśāṅka. 'A king of Karṇasuvarṇa, who tried to destroy the sacred Bodhidruma. He was dethroned by Śīladitya.' Eitel.

貨 Goods, wares.

貨利習彌迦 Khārsmiga, an 'ancient kingdom on the upper Oxus, which formed part of Tukhāra, the Kharizm of Arabic geographers.' Eitel.

貫 To string, thread, pass through.

貫花 A string of flowers, a term for the gāthās in sūtras, i. e. the prose recapitulated in verse.

貫首 貫頂 A superintendent, head.

貧 Poor, in poverty.

貧女 A poor woman.

貧女寳藏 The poor woman in whose dwelling was a treasure of gold of which she was unaware, v. Nirvāṇa sūtra 7. Another incident, of a poor woman's gift, is in the 智度論 8, and there are others.

貧窮 Poor, poverty.

貧道 The way of poverty, that of the monk and nun; also, a poor religion, i.e. without the Buddha-truth.

貪 rāga; colouring, dyeing, tint, red; affection, passion, vehement longing or desire; cf. M. W. In Chinese: cupidity, desire; intp. tainted by and in bondage to the five desires; it is the first in order of

the 五鈍使 pañca-kleśa q. v., and means hankering after, desire for, greed, which causes clinging to earthly life and things, therefore reincarnation.

貪使 (貪欲使) The messenger, or temptation of desire.

貪恚痴 v. 貪欲瞋恚愚痴, 貪瞋痴.

貪惜 To begrudge; be unwilling to give.

貪愛 Desire, cupidity.

貪染 The taint of desire, or greed.

貪欲 Desire for and love of (the things of this life).

貪欲卽是道 Desire is part of the universal law, and may be used for leading into the truth, a tenet of Tiantai.

貪欲瞋恚愚痴 rāga, dveṣa, moha; desire, anger, ignorance (or stupidity), the three poisons.

貪欲蓋 The cover of desire which overlays the mind and prevents the good from appearing.

貪毒 The poison of desire.

貪水 Desire is like water carrying things along.

貪濁 The contamination of desire.

貪煩惱 The kleśa, temptation or passion of desire.

貪狼 Greedy wolf, wolfish desire or cupidity.

貪瞋痴 rāgadveṣamoha, the three poisons.

貪結 The bond of desire, binding in the chain of transmigration.

貪縛 The tie of desire.

貪習 The habit of desire, desire become habitual.

貪習因 Habitual cupidity leading to punishment in the cold hells, one of the 十因.

貪著 The attachment of desire.

貪見 The illusions or false views caused by desire.

赦 To pardon.

赦儞娑 The son of Vaiśravaṇa, see 毘.

趺 To sit cross-legged.

趺坐, cf. 跏.

躭摩栗底 Tamluk, v. 多.

軟 soft, yielding.

軟語 Soft or gentle words adapted to the feelings of men.

這 This; these.

這裏 This place here.

這箇 This.

逍 To roam, saunter.

逍遙自在 To go anywhere at will, to roam where one will.

連 To connect, continue; contiguous; and, even.

連河 The Nairaṅjanā river v. 尼; 希.

逐 To drive, urge; expel; exorcise.

逐機頓 Immediate accordance with opportunity; 逐is used as 遂; i.e. to avail oneself of receptivity to expound the whole truth at once instead of gradually.

速 Haste, quick; speedily, urgent.

速得 Speedily obtain, or ensure.

速成 Speedily completed.

速疾鬼 Hurrying demons, rākṣasa.

速香 Quickly burnt inferior incense.

途 A road, way, method.

途慮諾檀那 (途慮檀那) Droṇodana, a prince of Magadha, father of Devadatta and Mahānāma, and uncle of Śākyamuni.

逗 Delay, loiter; skulk; beguile.

逗會 逗機 Adaptation of the teaching to the taught.

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逝 Pass away, depart, die, evanescent.

逝多 jeta; jetṛ; v. 祇.

逝宮 The transient mansions of Brahmā and of men. Astronomical 'mansions'.

逝瑟吒 The month Jyaiṣṭha (May-June), when the full moon is in the constellation Jyeṣṭhā.

逋 Abscond, default, owe; translit. po, pu, va.

逋利婆鼻提賀 Pūrvavideha, the eastern of the 四大洲 four continents.

逋多 (逋多羅) Potalaka, v. 補.

逋沙 puruṣa, v. 布.

逋沙他 upavasatha, a fast day.

逋盧羯底攝伐羅 Avalokiteśvara, v. 觀音.

造 Create, make, build. Hurried, careless.

造像 To make an image; the first one made of the Buddha is attributed to Udayana, king of Kauśāmbī, a contemporary of Śākyamuni, who is said to have made an image of him, after his death, in sandalwood, 5 feet high.

造化 To create; to make and transform.

造書天 The deva-creator of writing, Brahmā.

造花 To make flowers, especially paper flowers.

通 Permeate, pass through, pervade; perceive, know thoroughly; communicate; current; free, without hindrance, unimpeded universal; e.g. 神通 supernatural, ubiquitous powers. There are categories of 五通, 六通

, and 十通, all referring to supernatural powers; the five are (1) knowledge of the supernatural world; (2) deva vision; (3) deva hearing; (4) knowledge of the minds of all others; (5) knowledge

of all the transmigrations of self and all others. The six are the above together with perfect wisdom for ending moral hindrance and delusion. The ten are knowing all previous transmigrations, having deva

hearing, knowing the minds of others, having deva vision, showing deva powers, manifesting many bodies or forms, being anywhere instantly, power of bringing glory to one's domain, manifesting a

body of transformation, and power to end evil and transmigration.

通利 Intelligence keen as a blade, able to penetrate truth.

通別二序 The general and specific introductions to a sūtra; 如是我聞 being the 通序 general introduction in every sūtra.

通力 The capacity to employ supernatural power without hindrance. Buddhas, bodhisattvas, etc., have 神力 spiritual or transcendent power; demons have 業力 power acquired through their karma.

通化 Perspicacious, or influential teaching; universal powers of teaching.

通夜 The whole night, i.e. to recite or intone throughout the night.

通念佛 To call on the Buddhas in general, i.e. not limited to one Buddha.

通惑 The two all-pervading deluders見 and 思 seeing and thinking wrongly i.e. taking appearance for reality.

通慧 Supernatural powers and wisdom, the former being based on the latter.

通教 Tiantai classified Buddhist schools into four periods 藏, 通, 別, and 圓. The 藏 Piṭaka school was that of Hīnayāna. The 通Tong, interrelated or intermediate school, was the first stage of Mahāyāna, having in it elements of

all the three vehicles, śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva. Its developing doctrine linked it with Hīnayāna on the one hand and on the other with the two further developments of the 別 'separate', or 'differentiated'

Mahāyāna teaching, and the 圓 full-orbed, complete, or perfect Mahāyāna. The 通教 held the doctrine of the Void, but had not arrived at the doctrine of the Mean.

通明慧 The six 通, three 明, and three 慧 q.v.

通會 To harmonize differences of teaching.

通行 The thoroughfare, or path which leads to nirvāṇa.

通途 Thoroughfare, an open way.

通達 To pervade, perceive, unimpeded, universal.

通達心 通達菩提心 To attain to the enlightened mind; the stage of one who has passed through the novitiate and understands the truth.

部 A group, tribe, class, division, section; a board, office; school, sect; a work in volumes, a heading or section of a work.

部引陀 or 部引陁 The planet Mercury, i.e. Buddha.

部主 The founder of a sect, or school, or group.

部執 The tenets of a sect or school.

部多 bhūta, 'been, become, produced, formed, being, existing,' etc. (M. W. ); intp. as the consciously existing; the four great elements, earth, fire, wind, water, as apprehended by touch; also a kind of demon

produced by metamorphosis. Also, the 眞如 bhūtatathatā.

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部教 The sūtras, or canon, and their exposition.

野 The country, wilderness, wild, rustic, uncultivated, rude.

野寐尼 Yamani, Java.

野布施 To scatter offerings at the grave to satisfy hungry ghosts.

野干 śṛgāla; jackal, or an animal resembling a fox which cries in the night.

野狐 A wild fox, a fox sprite.

野狐禪 Wild-fox meditation, i.e. non-Buddhist ascetics, heterodoxy in general.

野盤僧 A roaming monk without fixed abode.

野葬 Burial by abandoning the corpse in the wilds.

釣 To angle, fish.

釣語 Angling words or questions, to fish out what a student knows.

閉 To close, stop, block.

閉尸 peśī v. A 八位胎藏 A piece of flesh; a mass; a foetus.

閉爐 To cease lighting the stove (in spring).

閉關 To shut in; to isolate oneself for meditation.

閉黎多 preta, hungry ghost, see 薜.

陵 A mound, tomb; cf. 畢陵.

陪 To accompany, associated with; add to, assist.

陪食 To keep one company at meals.

陪臚 陪囉嚩 Bhairava, the terrible, name of Śiva, also of Viṣṇu and other devas, also of a 金剛神.

陶 Pottery, kiln.

陶家輪 A potter's wheel.

陳 Arrange, marshal, spread, state; old, stale.

陳棄藥 腐爛藥 Purgative medicines.

陳那 Dignāga, Dinnāga; a native of southern India, the great Buddhist logician, circa A. D. 500 or 550, founder of the new logic, cf. 因明; he is known also as 童授 and 域龍. Also used for Jina, victorious, the overcomer, a

title of a Buddha.

陰 Shade, dark, the shades, the negative as opposed to the positive principle, female, the moon, back, secret. In Buddhism it is the phenomenal, as obscuring the true nature of things; also the aggregation of [[Wikipedia:

phenomenal|

phenomenal]] things resulting in births and deaths, hence it is used as a translation like 蘊 q.v. for skandha, the 五陰 being the five skandhas or aggregates.

陰入界 The five skandhas, the twelve entrances, or bases through which consciousness enters (āyatana), and the eighteen dhātu or elements, called the 三科.

陰境 The present world as the state of the five skandhas.

陰妄 The skandha-illusion, or the unreality of the skandhas.

陰妄一念 The illusion of the skandhas like a passing thought.

陰幻 The five skandhas like a passing illusion.

陰界 The five skandhas and the eighteen dhātu.

陰藏 A retractable penis — one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha.

陰錢 Paper money for use in services to the dead.

陰魔 The five skandhas considered as māras or demons fighting against the Buddha, nature of men.

雪 Snow.

雪山 雪嶺 The snow mountains, the Himālayas.

雪山大士 雪山童子The great man, or youth of the Himālayas, the Buddha in a former incarnation.

雪山部 Haimavatāḥ, the Himālaya school, one of the five divisions of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ.

頂 Top of the head, crown, summit, apex, zenith; highest; to rise; oppose; an official's 'button'.

頂光 The halo round the head of an image.

頂巢 Contemplation so profound that a bird may build its nest on the individual's head.

頂珠 The gem in the head-dress, or coiffure; the protuberance on the Buddha's brow.

頂生王 Mūrdhaja-rāja, the king born from the crown of the head, name of the first cakravartī ancestors of the Śākya clan; the name is also applied to a former incarnation of Śākyamuni.

頂相 The protuberance on the Buddha's brow, one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha; also an image, or portrait of the upper half of the body.

頂石 Like a heavy stone on the head, to be got rid of with speed, e.g. transmigration.

頂禮 To prostrate oneself with the head at the feet of the one reverenced.

頂輪 A wheel or disc at the top, or on the head, idem 金輪佛頂 q.v.

頂門眼 The middle upstanding eye in Maheśvara's forehead.

魚 matsya. Fish.

魚兎 Like a fish or a hare, when caught the net may be ignored, i.e. the meaning or spirit of a sūtra more valuable than the letter.

魚子 Spawn, vast in multitude compared with those that develop.

魚板 The wooden fish in monasteries, beaten to announce meals, and to beat time at the services.

魚母 The care of a mother-fish for its multitudinous young, e.g. Amitābha's care of all in leading them to his Pure Land.

魚鼓 Similar to魚板.

鳥 A bird.

鳥迹 The tracks left in the air by a flying bird, unreal.

鳥道 The path of the birds, evasive, mysterious, difficult, as is the mystic life. Also a fabulous island only reached by flight.

鳥鼠僧 A 'bat monk', i. e. one who breaks the commandments, with the elusiveness of a creature that is partly bird and partly mouse; also who chatters without meaning like the twittering of birds or the squeaking of rats.

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鹿 mṛga; a deer; as Śākyamuni first preached the four noble truths in the Deer-garden, the deer is a symbol of his preaching.

鹿仙 Śākyamuni as royal stag: he and Devadatta had both been deer in a previous incarnation.

鹿戒 Deer morals i.e. to live, as some ascetics, like deer.

鹿苑 鹿野園 Mṛgadāva, known also as 仙人園, etc., the park, abode, or retreat of wise men, whose resort it formed; 'a famous park north-east of Vārāṇasī, a favourite resort of Śākyamuni. The modern Sārnāth (Śāraṅganātha) near Benares.'

M. W. Here he is reputed to have preached his first sermon and converted his first five disciples. Tiantai also counts it as the scene of the second period of his teaching, when during twelve years he delivered the Āgama sūtras.

鹿車 Deer carts, one of the three kinds of vehicle referred to in the Lotus Sūtra, the medium kind; v. 三車.

麥 yava. 耶婆 corn, wheat, barley, etc. Corn, especially barley; a grain of barley is the 2,688,000th part of a yojana.

麻 Hemp, flax, linen, translit. ma, cf. 牟, 麽, etc.

麻蹉 matsya, a fish.

麻豆瞿羅 madhugola, sweet balls, or biscuits.

12. TWELVE STROKES

傅 To superintend, teach; a tutor; to paint; a function; annex.

傅訓 The instructions of a teacher: to instruct.

傀 Gigantic, monstrous, part man part devil; a puppet.

傀儡子 A puppet, marionette.

傍 Near, adjoining, side, dependent.

傍生 tiryagyoni, 'born of or as an animal' (M. W.); born to walk on one side, i.e. belly downwards, because of sin in past existence.

傍生趣 The animal path, that of rebirth as an animal, one of the six gati.

囘鶻 高車; 高昌. M067729彝 Uighurs, M067729胡; A branch of the Turks first heard of in the seventh century in the Orkhon district where they remained until A. D. 840, when they were defeated and driven out by the Kirghiz; one group went to

Kansu, where they remained until about 1020; another group founded a kingdom in the Turfan country which survived until Mongol times. They had an alphabet which was copied from the Soghdian. Chingis Khan adopted it for writing

Mongolian. A. D. 1294 the whole Buddhist canon was translated into Uighur.

割 To cut, gash, sever.

割斷 To cut off.

勞 Toil, labour, trouble; to reward.

勞侶 Troublesome companions, e.g. the passions.

勞怨 The annoyance or hatred of labour, or trouble, or the passions, or demons.

勞結 The troublers, or passions, those which hold one in bondage.

jina, victorious, from ji, to overcome, surpass.

勝乘 The victorious vehicle, i.e. Mahāyāna.

勝友 Jinamitra, friend of the Jina, or, having the Jina for friend; also the name of an eloquent monk of Nālandā, circa A. D. 630, author of Sarvāstivādavinaya-saṅgrāha, tr. A. D. 700.

勝士 Victor, one who keeps the commandments.

勝子樹 v. 祇. The Jeta grove, Jetavana.

勝宗 v. 勝論宗.

勝州 Uttarakuru, v. 鬱 the continent north of Meru.

勝心 The victorious mind, which carries out the Buddhist discipline.

勝應身 A Tiantai term for the superior incarnational Buddha-body, i.e. his compensation-body under the aspect of 他受用身 saving others.

勝林 v. 祇 The Jeta grove, Jetavana.

勝果 The surpassing fruit, i.e. that of the attainment of Buddhahood, in contrast with Hīnayāna lower aims; two of these fruits are transcendent nirvāṇa and complete bodhi.

勝業 Surpassing karma.

勝神州 Pūrvavideha, Videha, the continent east of Meru.

勝義 Beyond description, that which surpasses mere earthly ideas; superlative, inscrutable.

勝義根 The surpassing organ, i.e. intellectual perception, behind the ordinary organs of perception, e.g. eyes, ears, etc.

勝義法 The superlative dharma, nirvāṇa.

勝義空 nirvāṇa as surpassingly real or transcendental.

勝義諦 The superior truth, enlightened truth as contrasted with worldly truth.

勝義諦論 Paramārtha-satya-śāstra, a philosophical work by Vasubandhu.

勝者 Pradhāna, pre-eminent, predominant.

勝論 v. 吠 Vaiśeṣika-śāstra.

勝論宗 The Vaiśeṣika school of Indian philosophy, whose foundation is ascribed to Kaṇāda (Ulūka); he and his successors are respectfully styled 論師 or slightingly 論外道; the school, when combined with the Nyāya, is also known as Nyāya-

vaiśeṣika .

勝軍 Prasenajit, conquering army, or conqueror of an army; king of Kośala and patron of Śākyamuni; also one of the Maharājas, v. 明王.

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勝鬘夫人 Mālyaśrī, daughter of Prasenajit, wife of the king of Kośala (Oudh), after whom the Śrīmālādevi-siṃhanāda 會 and 經 are named.

博 Wide, universal; widely read, versed in; to cause; gamble; barter.

博叉 Vaṅkṣu; Vakṣu; v. 縛 the Oxus.

博叉般荼迦 博叉半擇迦 pakṣa-paṇḍakās; partial eunuchs, cf. 半.

博吃蒭 pakṣa, half a lunar month; also used for Māra's army.

厥 Third personal pronoun; demonstrative pronoun; also used instead of 倶.

Source

mahajana.net