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A bilingual index of Nyaya-bindu. Prepared and edited by Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana
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A bilingual index of Nyaya- bindu
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY WILLIAM H. DONNER COLLECTION THE DONNER CANADIAN FOUNDATION BIBLIOTHECA INDICA: A BILINGUAL INDEX OF NYAYA-BINDU.
SIRWIUJAM JONES PREPARED AND EDITED BY MAHAMAHOPADHYAYA SATIS CHANDRA VIDYABHUSANA, M.A., PH.D.,
Advaitachinta Kaustabha, Faao. 1-3 @ /10/ eaoh
AitarSya Bralimana, Vol. I, Faao. 1-6; Vol. II, Faac. 1-5;
III, Faso. 1-6, Vol. IV, Faso. 1-8 @ /!(>/ each Aitareyaloeana ... ... ... ...
Amarakosha, Fasc. 1-2 ...
Anumana Uidhiti Prasariui, FaaC. 1-3 @ /10/ ... ...
Aftasihaarika Prajniiparamita, Faso. 1 6 @ /10/ each Atmatattvaviveka, Faso. 1-2 ... ... ,,,
Acvavaidyuha, Faao. 1-5 @ /10/ each ... ...
II, Faso. 1-11 @ I/ eaoh
Balam Bbat^i, Vol. I, Faeo. 1-2, Vol. II, Faso. 1, @ /10/ each Bandhnyana tfrautu Sutra, FHBO. 1-3; Vol. IT, Faso. 1-5; Vol. Ill,
Fasc. 1, @ /10/ each ... Bhasavritty*
Bhatta Dipikn, Vol. I, Faso. 1-6; Vol. IF, Faso. 1-2 (g /IO/ each Baaddhastotrasangraha ... ... ... ...
Brhaddevati, Fase. 1-4 @ /10/ eaob
Brhaddharma Parana, Faso. 1-6 @ /IO/ eaob ...
Bodhioaryavatara of Qautideva, Faso. 1-7 @ /10/ enob
Ori Cantinatba Charita, Faso. 1-4 ... ... -iarts,-^ag5ft* i^**
9atadu?ani, Faso. 1-2 @ /10/ enob
Qatapatha Br&hmana, Vol. I, Faso. 1-7; Vol. IT, E aso. 1-5 ;
ITT, FWBO. 1-7 ; Vol. V, Faso. 1-4 @ /10/ each .,
Ditto Vol. VI, Faso. 1-3 @ 1/4/eaob 1 1 ,.,
Ditto Vol. VII, Faso. 1-5 @ /10/ ^
Ditto Vol. IX, Faso. 1-2
atasibasrikii-prajanpai-amita, Part I, Faso. 1-18, Part II, Fasc. 1,
Catnrvrga Cbintamani, Vol. II, Faso. 1-25 ; Vol. Ill, Part I, Faao. 1-18, Part IT, Faso. 1-10 5 Vol. IV, Faso. 1-6 @ /10/ each Ditto Vol. IV, Faso. 7, Ccb 1/4/ each
Ditto Vol. IV, Faso. 8-10 @ /10/
fllokavartika (Englisb), Faso. 1-7 @ 1/4/ each
- 0ranta Sutra of ^ankbayana, Vo4. I, Faso. 1-7 ; Vol. II, Faao. 1-4;
Vol. Ill, Fao. 1-4 ; Vol. 4, Faao. 1 @ /10/ eaob ^Jri Bhisbyara, Faso. 1-3 @ /10/ eaob Dana Kriyi Kaumndl, Faso. 1-2 @ /10/ each ... Gadadhara Paddbati Kilasara, Vol. 1, Faso. 1-7 @ /10/ eaob
Ditto Aoarasiira, Vol. II, Faso. 1-4 ...
OobhiUya Grbya Sutra, Vol. I, @ /IO/ eaob ...
Ditto Vol. II, Fuse. 1-2 @ 1/4 /eaob
Ditto (Appendi^) Gobhila Parisista ...
Karmapradiph, Faso. 1 ...
Kala Viveka, Faso. 1-7 @ /IO/ eaob
Katantra, Faso. 1-R (& /12/ eaoh
Kavi KalpA Lata, Fasc. 1
Kavindravacana Samuceayab ... ... ... ..
Kurma Parana, Fasc. 1 9 (8> /IO/ each Kiranavali, Faso. 1-3, @ /IO/ ... .
Madana Parijita, Faao l-ll @ /IO/ oaob ... Maha-bbisya-pradipodyota, Vol. I, Faso. 1-9; Vol.
Vol. Ill, Faso. 1-10 @ /IO/ eaoh Ditto Vol. IV, Faso. 1 -3 O " * each Maitra, or Maitrayaniya Upanishad, Faso. 1 ... Maimtiki Saycrralm, Faeo. 1-H @ /IO/ eaoh Mlrkantjeya PUI-II, (Knglieli ) Kaao 1-9 (fl? I /- each " Mngdhahodha Vyakarana, Vol. I, Faso 1-7, @ /IO/ eaoh . Nirokta, (2nd edition) Vol. I, Faso. 1-2, @ Es. 1-4 ^ityloirapaddhati, Faso. 1-7 @ /IO/ enob Kityaoira-pradipa, Vol. I, Faso. 1-8, Vol. 11, Faso. 1-4 ^ Nyiyabindutika, Faso. 1 @ /IO/ eaoh Nvava Vnrtifca Tatparva Pnrisndhi, Page. 1-4 <W n f(\c
The present volume contains an Index of Sanskrit and Tib etan words occurring in the original text of the Nyaya-bindu and its Tibetan version respectively. To enable scholars to interpret accurately the technical philosophical words in Sanskrit ai>d Tibetan, I have taken great pains to show the mutual correspon dence between words of the two languages as used in the two texts of the Nyaya-bindu.
The Nyaya-bindu was a stranger to Brahmanic India until it was discovered among the palm-leaf manuscripts preserved in the Jaina temple of S antinatha, Cambay, and published in the Bibliotheca Indica series of Calcutta under the editorship of Professor P. Peterson in A.D. 1889. The Tibetan version which existed in the Tangyur (Mdo, Ce, leaves 347-355) has been pub lished in the Bibliotheca Buddhica series of St. Petersburgh (Petrograd) under the editorship of Professor F. J. Sherbatski. The Index presented herewith is based upon the Sanskrit text of the Nyaya-bindu as edited by Professor Peterson as also on the Tibet in version as edited by Professor Sherbatski.
Professor Peterson has also edited a Sanskrit commentary on the Nyaya-bindu called Nyaya-bindu-tika by Dharmottaracaryya, while Professor Sherbatski has edited the Tibetan version of it. A bilingual Index of this commentary is" under preparation.
Another edition of the Tibetan version of the Nyaya-bindu together with the commentary of Vinlta-deva has lately been pub lished in the Bibliotheca Indica series of Calcutta under the editor ship of Professor Louis De La Vallee Poussin of Ghent, Belgium. While engaged in preparing my Index I was informed that Profes sor Sherbatski was publishing a new edition of the Sanskrit Nyaya- bindu. During his visit to Calcutta in 1911, the Professor very kindly asked me to publish my Index of the Nyaya-bindu in the Bibliotheca Buddhica series of St. Petersburgh When I was expecting Professor Sherbatski s Sanskrit edition and making arrangements for sending the copy of my Index to St. Petersburgh, the great European War broke out on the 1st August 1914, and I was obliged to abandon the project of having my work published in the Bibliotheca Buddhica series. The Council of the Asiatic Society of Bengal having kindly agreed to include my aforesaid Index in the Bibliotheca Indica series, I bring out the present odition without further delay.
Nyaya-bindu. . .
It is divided into three chapters dealing espectively with (1) perception ( sn^TisJ &JC& $!5| V (j?) inference for one s self ( ^rofgWT ^^ ^ jj !^ ^^ *! ) and (3) inference for the sake of others ( TO*lff *TH
besides this work, wrote a number of excellent treatises on Logic such as Pramana-vartika-karika, Pramana-vartika-vrtti, Pratnana-viniscaya, Hetubindu-vivarana, Vada-nyaya (or Tarka nyaya), Santanantara-siddhi, Sambandha-pariksa and Sambandha-pariksa-vrtti.
The colophon to the Pramana-vartika-karika runs as follows r
(Tangyur, Mdo, Ce, leaf 258).
"Here is finished the Pramanavartika-karika which is a work of S rl Dharmakirti who was born in a family of the Deccan, who exposed largely the errors of all the vicious texts (of the [[Trthi- kas]]), whose fame filled the entire earth and who as a great sage had no rival."
cording to all accounts of earlier sages,
was born in the south in the kingdom of Cudamani which he identifies with Trimalaya. Dharmakirti, whose father was a Tirthika of the Brahmana caste, was well versed in the Vedas, Vedangas, art of healing, etc. By occasionally attending lectures of the Buddhist preachers, he was so much impressed with the purity of Buddhism that he became a convert to it. He came to Magadha where he was received into the fraternity of Acarya Dharmapala. Gradually he attained to great proficiency in the three Pitakas and knew in all 500 sutras and dharanisby heart. According to some Tibetan authorities Dharmakirti was a nephew of Kumarila Bhntta the great philo-
Dharmakirti and ,. ,, AT _ _ . . , -, m , -,
K gopher or the Mimamsa school. Though
Taranatha does not attach much value to
this tradition, he affirms that Dharmakirti lived in disguise for a long time with Kumarila from whom he acquired all the secret doctrines of the Brahrnanas. Tradition goes so far as to say that Kumarila, being defeated by Dharmakirti in a debate, adopted the Buddhistic faith at the last stage of his life. This tradition is recorded not only in the " Chos-byun " but is repeated also in the Dpag-bsam-ljon-bzan" as follows :
apr jpry o^pv g-q
(Dpag bsam-ljon-bzan, edited by Sarat Chandra Das, p. 106).
Latna Tiratiatha s Geschichte des Baddhismns von Schiefuer, pp. 175-185.
Dharmakirti further withstood the Nirgranthas, Rahuvratin and others, who lived within the range of
ing there he was invited by a neighbouring king who as a token of honour had the following inscription recorded at his gate :
(Dpag-bsam-ljon-bzan, p. 106).
Returning to the south Dharmakirti challenged by criers those who were ready for debate. The majority of the Tirthikas fled ; and some actually confessed that they were not equal to the fight. After defeating all his rivals in the Deccan and some parts of Northern India, he, towards the end of his life, built a monas tery in the land of Kalinga where he died.
DharmakTrti was a contemporary of the Tibetan King Sron-
btsan-sgam-po, and must therefore have Age of Dharmakirti. ; .
lived early in the 7th century A.D. This
is borne out by the fact that he was a pupil of Dharmapala who retired from the university of Nahinda by A.D. 635, when Silabhadra was at the head of the university. Hwen-thsang, who visited Kausambi in December, A.D. 636, found there the ruins of a monastery where Dharmapala had refuted the arguments of the heretics. It seems that in A.D. 635 Dharmakirti was very young as Hwen-thsang does not mention him. On the other hand Itsing, who travelled over India during A.D. 671-695, declares eloquently how Dharmakirti " made further development in Logic after Dignaga." l
did not sometimes refrain from opposing
Dharmakirti opposes . r^. -i ~*.T -
. - a him. Uignaga in his JVyaya-pravesa * men
and ano ther called the " con tradiction of the middle term to the implied major term " ( 5;^-
Contradiction of the Because it is a product of effort. middle term to the real .
major term. Here there is contradiction between
"product of effort" which is the middle
term and "eternal" which is the real major term, and therefore the reasoning is fallacious.
An illustration of the second fallacy is given below :
The eyes etc. are for the use of another, Contradiction of the Becauge they are compos ite things, middle term to the implied major term. Like a bed > seat > etc -
Here the major term "another" is
ambiguous in as much as it may signify either a composite thing (e.g. the body) or a non composite thing (e.g. the soul). There would be a contradiction between the middle term and the major term if the word " another " were used by the speaker in the sense of a non-composite thing, but understood by the listener in the sense of a composite thing. This reasoning which involves a "contradiction of the middle term to the desired or implied major term," is fallacious.
Dharmakirti in his Nyaya-bindu 2 does not recognize this second fallacy in as much as it is, in his opinion, included in the first. A word, which is the major term of a proposition, can as such admit of only one meaning, and if there is ambiguity between the meaning expressed and the meaning implied the real meaning is to be ascertained from the context. 2
1 Taugyur, Mdo, Ce, leaf 186.
- Nyaya-bindo, A.S.B., Chap, III, pp. 113 114.
Non-erratic contradiction. contradiction " ( f^sn^fH^Tift ^ Z ^|^*^" wj &J M^p] H ) which he includes among the " fallacies of uncer tainty." It takes place when two contradictory conclusions are supported by what appear to be valid reasons, e.g. A Vaisesika philosopher says :
Sound is non-eternal,
Because it is a product.
The reasons employed in the above cases are supposed both to be correct according, respectively, to the tenets of the Vaisesika and Mlmamsa schools, but as they lead to contradictory conclu sions they are uncertain and as such fallacious.
Dharmakfrti in the Nyaya-bindu 2 rejects this fallacy of " non- erratic contradiction," on the ground that it does not arise in connection with inference and is not based even on the scripture. A reason or middle term, which is valid, must stand to the major term in the relation of identity, causality or non-perception, and must lead to correct conclusion. Two conclusions which are con tradictory cannot therefore be supported by reasons which are valid. Two different sets of scripture too cannot be of any help in the establishment of two contradictory conclusions inasmuch as a scripture cannot override perception and inference, and is authoritative only in the ascertainment of supersensuous objects. The non-erratic contradiction is therefore impossible.
Vada-vidhi s (same as Vada-nyaya) and discusses at length the Bud-
2 Nynya-bindn, Chap. Ill, p 115.
3 i^fa ^rs[fV^ ^rsfrfa^T^" ^rf?f?rf?f ^ff^iST^r^ T^s^j i
(Nyaya-vartiku. 1-33, p. 121, A.S.B.).
(Yadii-nyiya in the Tangyur, Mdo, Co, leaf 399).
dhist definition l of siidhya (major term). Dharmakirti in the Nyaya-bindu defends his own position against the attack of Uddyo- takara who is designated as a S astrakara. 2 There is no doubt that Uddyotakara and DharmakTrti were contemporaries and that the Vada-nyaya preceded the Nyaya-vartika which was followed by the Nyaya-bindu.
SANSKRIT COLLEGE. CALCUTTA. >
rm, I K ,L n 4. I. imp ( & ATIS CHANDRA VlDYABHUSANA.
The 15th October, 1916.
1 Nyavartika, 1-33, pp. 116-121. A.S.B
Digniiga defines a " sadliya" or " annmeya" as follows :
(Pramana-SMmuccaya. Chap. III).
Nymyasarah ... ... Rs. 2
Padumiwati, Faso. 1-6 @ 2/ each . . ... ... J
Prafcrita-Paingalam, Faso. 1-7 @/10/ each ... ... ... *
PafrScam Smrti, Vol. I, Faso. 2-8, Vol. II, Faso. 1-6; Vol. Ill, Faso. 1$6 @ /IO/ each ... ... ... *\
Par|S9ara, Institutes of (English) @ I/- each ... ... ... 1
PatfikBa0iukha Sutram ... ... 1
Pr;}lmndhaoiiitamani (English) Faso. 1-3 1/4/ each
Prijna Pradip ... ... ... - - \
hviraja Vijaya, Fasc. 1 anmvain, Faso. 1-3 ... iaiddKanta Manjari, Fasc. 1 ... ... ...
ukti-fcarna-mrita, Faso. 1-2, @ /10/ each ... dar8iia-8aninooaya, Faso. 1-3 @ /10/ each arsfoca Kaha, Fnso. 1-7, @ /10/ each Si^khya Siitra Vrtti, Faao. 1-4 @/lO/euoh ...
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S.ri Snrisavvasvain, Faso. 1-3, @ /10/ each
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S&iddlii Kiiuimidi, Faso. 1-4 @ /10/ each
StinduJsaTiandam Kavyam ... ... .
c uryya Siddhanta, Faso. 1-2 @ 1-4 each
riinUa Sastra 1 sntra 7artiUa (English) Faso. 1-14 @ /1/4 ... ... ... 17
- Tattvt.!Cintamani, Vol. I, Faso. 1-9 ; Vol II, Faso. 2-10; Vol. Ill, Faso. 1-2; Vol. lV, Faso. 1 ; Vol. V, Faso. 1-5; Part IV, Vol. II, Faso. 1-12 @./10/ each rattva Cintamani Didhiti Vivriti, Vol. I, Fasc. 1-8; Vol.11, Fasc.1-3,
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Tattva C intamani Didhiti Prakas, Fasc. 1-6 @ /10/ each ... I irtbaciiitainoni, Fasc. 1-4, @ /10/ each "Ji?riki9da-Matidanain, Faso. 1-8 @ /10/ T ttl ai fcJatsai, Faso. 1-5 @ /10/
Cfparajta-blmva-prnpanca-katha, Faso. 1-2, 5-14 @ /10/ eaoli Ha^ndasao. (Text and English) Faso. 1-6 @ I/- Hpggam, Fasc. 1 ... ...
flflMTcarita, Faso. 1 (3} /10/
VaVan KriyaKanmndT, Faso. 1-6 /10/
\J, T idhana Parijata, Faso. 1-8 ; Vol. II, Faso. 1 @ /IO/
it.to Vol. II, Faso. 2-5 @ 1/4 ... ... 5
- ,*itto Vol. Ill, Fasc. 1... ... ... ...
ahJtam, Faso. 1 ... ... ... ... ...
Vivadarutniikara, Faso. 1-7 @ /IO/ eacli ... ... ... 4
Vrhafc avayamhhu Parana, Faao. 1-6 @ /IO/ ...
VogaspRtra, Faec. 1-3 ... ... ... ... , ... 3
Amarskosah ... ...
Atnart ka Kamdhenuh ... ... ... ... ... 1
BauddonstotrasHngraha, Vol. I ... ... ... ... 2
&. Lower Ladakhi version of Kesarsaga, Faso. 1-4, @ I/- each
JSyayi bindu of Diiarmakirti, Faao. 1-2 ... ... ... 2
Pag-Sam S lii Tin, Faso. 1-4 @ I/, each ... ... ... 4
Praj ui Pradipah ... .. ... ... ... 1
togs br\od <ipag 7tkhri S in (Tib. & Sana. AvadiBa KalpalafcS) Vol. I,
Faac. 1-11, Vol. IF, Faso. l-ll@ I/- each ... ... ...22:
iSher-Phyin, Vol. I, Faso. 1-6; Vol. II, Faso. 1-3; Vol. Ill, Faso. 1-6
8. if l/eaoh ... ... ... ... ... 14
iTimed-Knn-Din ... ... > ... ... ... 1
Amnl-i-Salih, or Shah Jahan Namah, Fasc. 1-2 ... ...
il-Muqaddasi (EnKliah) Vol. I, Faso. 1-4 @ I/- ... ...
- Xin-i-AkbarT, Fnsc, 1-22 (ct> 1/8/ each ... ... ... 3
..Ditto (English) Vol. II, Faso. 1-5, Vol. Ill, Fasc. 1-6,
Index to Vol. II, @ 2/- each ... ... ... 2
. Akbnrnihuali, with Index, Faso. 1-37 I /8/ eaoh ... ....66
1 Akbarnainah.English Vol.1, Fasc. 1-8 Vol. II, Faso. 1-7; Vol. Ill,
^asc. 1-7, (S> I HI each ....... ... ... 27 S
Conquest of Syria, Faso. 1-9 @ /IO/ eaoh
Dnrrul Mukhtar Fi Sharh-i-Tanvirul ... ... ... 3
F;iridatu L- Asr ... ... ... ... ... 10
Faras Nama, of Hashini ... ... ... ... 1
Ditto of Zabardast Khan ... ... ... ... 1
Farnang-i-Kashidi, Faso. 1-14 @ 1/8/ each ... ... ... 21
- The other Fasciculi of theafl.w- 1 - ~~Siplete copies cannot
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Hadiqatn L, Haqiqat, (Text & Eng.)
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Iqalnamah-i-Jatiangiri, Faao; 1-3 @ /10/ each Isahah, with Supplement, 51 Fasc. (IS I/- each ...
Kashf al-FJnjub wal Astar, Fasc. 1-2
List of Arabic and Persian MSS. 1903- 1907 and 1906-1910, Ma agir-i-Hahimi, Part I, Faso. 1-4 @ 2 each ... MHljir-nl-Umara, Vol. I, Fnac. 1-9; Vol II, li aso. 1-9; Vol. l| Index to Vol. 1, Fasc. 10-1 1 ; Index to Vol 10-12 : hide* to Vol. Ill, Fnso. 11-12 (it /Ij
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Memoirs of Tahmasp ... Marhamu L-Iluli L-Mu Dila, Faso. 1-3 Mntitakhahn-t-Tawnrikh, Faao. 1-15 (ft 10/ ench
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A bilingual index of Nyaya bindu
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