The 8th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
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dukha (dukka or tong-ka) is usually translated as suffering or stressful, but is meant to represent the unsatisfactoriness of life in samsara. The first of the Four Noble Truths taught by the Buddha.
The eight types of dukha are:
4) sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair;
5) association with what one does not want;
6) separation from what one loves;
7) not getting what one wants; and
8) intrinsic to existence (the five skandhas or aggregates).
One of the “eight winds.”
See also; Maha-satipatthana Sutta.
See also; Dukkha