The 7th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
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[[File:Rigdan Tagpa.jpg|thumb|200px|Rigden Trakpa or Manjushríkírti, King of Shambhala)] Manjushrikirti or Manjughoshikirti (Skt. Mañjuśrīkīrti; Chinese: 妙吉祥稱; pinyin: Miàojíxiángchēng; Wylie: Jam-dpal Grags-pa, ZYPY: Qambai Chagba). Manjushrikirti is said to have been the eighth king of Shambhala and is considered to be the second incarnation in the lineage of the Panchen Lamas of Tibet. As his name indicates, is considered to have been an incarnation of Manjushri, the Bodhisattva of Wisdom.
Manjushrikirti was born in Shambhala, the son of King Deva-Indra and his queen, Kauśikí. His rule is said to have extended over "hundreds of petty kings and a hundred thousand cities." He is said to have expelled 300,510 followers of heretical doctrine of the Mlechhas or "materialistic barbarians", some of whom worshipped the sun, but after reconsidering, he brought them back and they asked for his teachings. Next he united all the castes, or religious factions, of Shambala into one Vajra or 'Diamond' Caste. Consequentially, he was the first king of Shambhala to be given the title Kalki (Tib. Rigden), meaning "Holder of the Castes" or "Wisdom Holder."
He is said Tibetan sources to have taken the throne 674 years after the death of Gautama Buddha. Following the Tibetan sources, which place the parinirvana in 833 BCE, he would have become king of Shambhala in 159 BCE. There is, however, no consensus on the date of the death of the Buddha. Modern scholars have proposed dates of 563, 483, 410 or 400 BCE. These would suggest dates for his accession of 111, 191, 264 or 274 CE respectively.
Lineage of the Panchen Lamas
In the lineage of the Panchen Lamas of Tibet there were considered to be four "Indian" and three Tibetan incarnations of Amitabha Buddha before Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, who is recognised as the 1st Panchen Lama. The lineage starts with Subhuti, and Manjushrikirti is considered the second incarnation.