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Schools of Buddhism

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Buddhism (Pali/Sanskrit: बौद्ध धर्म Buddha Dharma) is an ancient ideological system that originated in Nepal, referred to variously throughout history by one or more of a myriad of concepts – including, but not limited to any of the following: a Dharmic religion, a philosophy or quasi-philosophical tradition, a spiritual schema, or a culturally dynamic psychological method of self-improvement.

The Buddhist faith was founded by the teacher Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama), known honorifically as the eponymic Buddha (born in Lumbini (Present day Nepal)), around the 6th or 5th century BCE.

The classification and nature of various doctrinal, philosophical or cultural facets or schools of Buddhism is vague and has been interpreted in many different ways, often due to the sheer number (perhaps thousands) of different sects, subsects, movements, etc. that have made up or currently make up the whole of Buddhist traditions.

The sectarian and conceptual divisions of Buddhic thought are part of the modern framework of Buddhist studies, as well as comparative religion in Asia.

From a largely English language standpoint, and to some extent in most of Western academia, Buddhism is separated into two groups at its foundation: Theravāda literally, "the Teaching of the Elders" or "the Ancient Teaching" and Mahāyāna.

The most common classification among scholars is threefold, with Mahāyāna split into East Asian (also known simply as Mahāyāna) and Vajrayāna, which includes Tibetan Buddhism and the Japanese Shingon school.



Classifications



The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Religion distinguishes three types of classification of Buddhism, separated into "Movements", "Nikāyas" and "Doctrinal schools":



Schools:


        Theravada
        Mahāyāna
        Vajrayāna


    Nikāyas, or monastic fraternities, three of which survive at the present day:


        Theravāda, in Southeast Asia
        Dharmaguptaka, in China, Korea and Vietnam
        Mūlasarvāstivāda, in the Tibetan tradition


    Doctrinal schools


Terminology


The terminology for the major divisions of Buddhism can be confusing, as Buddhism is variously divided by scholars and practitioners according to geographic, historical, and philosophical criteria, with different terms often being used in different contexts. The following terms may be encountered in descriptions of the major Buddhist divisions:

Gandhara Buddha.jpeg

"Conservative Buddhism"
    an alternative name for the early Buddhist schools.
"Early Buddhist schools"

    the schools into which Buddhism became divided in its first few centuries; only one of these survives as an independent school, Theravāda
"East Asian Buddhism"

    a term used by scholars to cover the Buddhist traditions of Japan, Korea, Singapore and most of China and Vietnam
"Eastern Buddhism"

    an alternative name used by some scholars for East Asian Buddhism; also sometimes used to refer to all traditional forms of Buddhism, as distinct from Western(ized) forms.

"Esoteric Buddhism"

    usually considered synonymous with "Vajrayāna". ] Some scholars have applied the term to certain practices found within the Theravāda, particularly in Cambodia.

"Hīnayāna"

    literally meaning "lesser vehicle." It is considered a controversial term when applied by the Mahāyāna to mistakenly refer to the Theravāda school, and as such is widely viewed as condescending and pejorative.

Moreover, Hīnayāna refers to the now non extant schools with limited set of views, practices and results, prior to the development of the Mahāyāna traditions.

The term is currently most often used as a way of describing a stage on the path in Tibetan Buddhism, but is often mistakenly confused with the contemporary Theravāda tradition, which is far more complex, diversified and profound, than the literal and limiting definition attributed to Hīnayāna .

Its use in scholarly publications is now also considered controversial.



"Lamaism"



    an old term, still sometimes used, synonymous with Tibetan Buddhism; widely considered derogatory.


"Mahāyāna"


    a movement that emerged out of early Buddhist schools, together with its later descendants, East Asian and Tibetan Buddhism. Vajrayāna traditions are sometimes listed separately. The main use of the term in East Asian and Tibetan traditions is in reference to spiritual levels, regardless of school.


"Mainstream Buddhism"


    a term used by some scholars for the early Buddhist schools.




"Mantrayāna"



    usually considered synonymous with "Vajrayāna". The Tendai school in Japan has been described as influenced by Mantrayana.
"Newar Buddhism"


    a non-monastic, caste based Buddhism with patrilineal descent and Sanskrit texts.

"Nikāya Buddhism" or "schools"

    an alternative term for the early Buddhist schools.



"Non-Mahāyāna"



    an alternative term for the early Buddhist schools.

"Northern Buddhism"

    an alternative term used by some scholars for Tibetan Buddhism. Also, an older term still sometimes used to encompass both East Asian and Tibetan traditions. It has even been used to refer to East Asian Buddhism alone, without Tibetan Buddhism.

"Secret Mantra"
    an alternative rendering of Mantrayāna, a more literal translation of the term used by schools in Tibetan Buddhism when referring to themselves.
 
"Sectarian Buddhism"
    an alternative name for the early Buddhist schools.

"Southeast Asian Buddhism"
    an alternative name used by some scholars for Theravāda.

"Southern Buddhism"
    an alternative name used by some scholars for Theravāda.

"Śravakayāna"
    an alternative term sometimes used for the early Buddhist schools.



"Tantrayāna" or "Tantric Buddhism"



    usually considered synonymous with "Vajrayāna". However, one scholar describes the tantra divisions of some editions of the Tibetan scriptures as including Śravakayāna, Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna texts (see Buddhist texts). Some scholars , particularly François Bizot, have used the term "Tantric Theravāda" to refer to certain practices found particularly in Cambodia.




"Theravāda"



    the traditional Buddhism of Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and parts of Vietnam, China, India, Bangladesh and Malaysia. It is the only surviving representative of the historical early Buddhist schools. The term "Theravāda" is also sometimes used to refer to all the early Buddhist schools.




"Tibetan Buddhism"




    usually understood as including the Buddhism of Tibet, Mongolia, Bhutan and parts of China, India and Russia, which follow the Tibetan tradition.
"Vajrayāna"

    a movement that developed out of Indian Mahāyāna, together with its later descendants. There is some disagreement on exactly which traditions fall into this category. Tibetan Buddhism is universally recognized as falling under this heading; many also include the Japanese Shingon school. Some scholars , also apply the term to the Korean milgyo tradition, which is not a separate school. One scholar says, "Despite the efforts of generations of Buddhist thinkers, it remains exceedingly difficult to identify precisely what it is that sets the Vajrayana apart."





Early schools

An image of Gautama Buddha with a swastika, a traditional Buddhist symbol of infinity, on his chest. Ananda, the Buddha's disciple, appears in the background. This statue is from Hsi Lai Temple.



Main articles: Nikaya Buddhism and Early Buddhist schools



139368.jpg

    Sthaviravāda
        Pudgalavāda ('Personalist') (c. 280 BCE)
        Sarvāstivāda
            Vibhajyavāda (prior to 240 BCE; during Aśoka)
                Theravāda (c. 240 BCE)
                    Theravāda subschools (see below)
                Mahīśāsaka (after 232 BCE)
                    Dharmaguptaka (after 232 BCE)
                Kāśyapīya (after 232 BCE)

                Vatsīputrīya (under Aśoka) later name: Saṃmitīya
                    Dharmottarīya
                    Bhadrayānīya
                    Sannāgarika


            Mūlasarvāstivāda (third and fourth centuries)
            Sautrāntika (between 50 BCE and c. 100 CE)


    Mahāsāṃghika ('Majority', c. 380 BCE
)
        Ekavyahārikas (under Aśoka
)
            Lokottaravāda

        Golulika (during Aśoka)

            Bahuśrutīya (late third century BCE)

            Prajñaptivāda (late third century BCE)

                Cetiyavāda

        Caitika (mid-first century BCE)

            Apara Śaila
            Uttara Śaila




Twenty sects



GandharaBodhisattva.jpg

The following lists the twenty sects described as Hīnayāna, as the classification is understood in some Mahāyāna texts:

Sthaviravāda split into the 11 sects:

    Sarvāstivādin
    Haimavata
    Vatsīputrīya
    Dharmottara
    Bhadrayānīya
    Sammitiya
    Channagirika
    Mahīśāsaka
    Dharmaguptaka
    Kāśyapīya
    Sautrāntika


Influences on East Asian schools



The following later schools used the vinaya of the Dharmaguptaka:



    Chinese Buddhism, especially the Vinaya School
    Korean Buddhism, especially Gyeyul
    Vietnamese Buddhism
    Japanese Ritsu


The following involve philosophical influence:


15image005.jpg

    The Japanese Jojitsu is considered by some an offshoot of Sautrāntika; others consider it to be derived from Bahuśrutīya
    The Chinese/Japanese Kusha school is considered an offshoot of Sarvāstivāda, influenced by Vasubandhu.




Theravāda subschools



Samādhi Buddha statue at Mahamevuna Park in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka carved in the 4th century AD.

The different schools in Theravāda often emphasize different aspects (or parts) of the Pāli canon and the later commentaries, or differ in the focus on and recommended way of practice. There are also significant differences in strictness or interpretation of the vinaya.



    Bangladesh:


        Sangharaj Nikaya
        Mahasthabir Nikaya



    Burma:

        Thudhamma Nikaya

            Vipassanā tradition of Mahasi Sayadaw and disciples

        Shwegyin Nikaya
        Dvaya Nikaya or Dvara Nikaya (see Mendelson, Sangha and State in Burma, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1975)




    Sri Lanka:

        Siam Nikaya

            Waturawila (or Mahavihara Vamshika Shyamopali Vanavasa Nikaya)



        Amarapura Nikaya

            Kanduboda (or Swejin Nikaya)
            Tapovana (or Kalyanavamsa)



        Ramañña Nikaya
            Sri Kalyani Yogasrama Samstha (or ‘Galduwa Tradition’)
            Delduwa
        forest nikaya



    Thailand

        Maha Nikaya
            Dhammakaya Movement
            [[Mahasati meditation (mindfulness meditation)
        Thammayut Nikaya
            Thai Forest Tradition



                Tradition of Ajahn Chah



Gandharan Athena.jpg



Mahāyāna schools



Chinese Glazed stoneware of a Buddhist monk, or Future Buddha, dated to the 20th year of the Chenghua Emperor, or 1468 AD.


    Tibetan Buddhism

    Mādhyamaka

        Prāsangika
        Svātantrika
        Sanlun (Three Treatise school)
            Sanron


        Mahā-Mādhyamaka (Jonangpa)


    Yogācāra


        Cittamātra in Tibet



        Wei-Shi (Consciousness-only school) or Faxiang (Dharma-character school)

            Beopsang
            Hossō



    Tathāgatagarbha



        Daśabhūmikā (absorbed into Huayan)

        Huayan (Avataṃsaka)
            Hwaeom
            Kegon

    Chan / Zen / Seon / Thien


        Caodong

            Sōtō
                Keizan line
                Jakuen line
                Giin line

        Linji

            Rinzai
            Ōbaku
            Fuke

            Won Buddhism: Korean Reformed Buddhism
    Pure land (Amidism)
        Jōdo-shū
        Jōdo Shinshū

    Tiantai (Lotus Sutra School)
        Cheontae
        Tendai (also contains Vajrayana elements)


    Nichiren

        Nichiren Shū
        Nichiren Shōshū
        Nipponzan Myōhōji
        Sōka Gakkai


27851 o.jpg

Tantric schools


See also: Vajrayāna


Subcategorised according to predecessors

    Nyingma

        New Bön (synthesis of Yungdrung Bön and Nyingmapa)
        Kadam
        Sakya

            Ngor-pa
            Tsar-pa

        Jonang
        Gelug

        Kagyu:

            Shangpa Kagyu
            Marpa Kagyu:
                Rechung Kagyu


                Dagpo Kagyu:


                    Karma Kagyu (or ]]Kamtshang Kagyu)])
                    Tsalpa Kagyu
                    Baram Kagyu

                    Pagtru Kagyu (or Phagmo Drugpa Kagyu):

                        Taklung Kagyu
                        Trophu Kagyu
                        Drukpa Kagyu
                        Martsang Kagyu
                        Yerpa Kagyu
                        Yazang Kagyu
                        Shugseb Kagyu
                        Drikung Kagyu

        Rime movement (ecumenical movement)

    Newar Buddhism


    Japanese Mikkyo


        Shingon
        Tendai (derived from Tiantai but added tantric practices)
        Shinnyo-en


Parinibbana2.jpg

New Buddhist movements

    Aum Shinrikyo (now known as Aleph)
    Diamond Way
    Triratna Buddhist Community
    New Kadampa Tradition
    Share International
    True Buddha School
    Vipassana movement
    Shambhala Buddhism

Source

Wikipedia:Schools of Buddhism










 
<poem>
Written by Thư Viện Quang Minh

Friday, 16 April 2010 10:14

Schools of Buddhism are classified in various ways. Normal English-language usage (as given in dictionaries) divides Buddhism into Theravāda (also known by the name "Hīnayāna", which many consider pejorative) and Mahāyāna.

The most common classification among scholars is threefold, with Mahāyāna split into East Asian (also known simply as Mahāyāna) and Vajrayāna, or Tibetan Buddhism (although Vajrayāna properly includes the Japanese Shingon school).




Classifications



The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Religion distinguishes three types of classification of Buddhism:

    Movements:


        Hīnayāna
        Mahāyāna
        Vajrayāna

    Nikayās, or monastic fraternities, three of which survive at the present day:


        Theravāda, in Southeast Asia
        Dharmaguptaka, in China, Korea and Vietnam
        Mūlasarvāstivāda, in the Tibetan tradition


    Doctrinal schools


Terminology

The terminology for the major divisions of Buddhism can be confusing, as Buddhism is variously divided by scholars and practitioners according to geographic, historical, and philosophical criteria, with different terms often being used in different contexts.

The following terms may be encountered in descriptions of the major Buddhist divisions:

"Conservative Buddhism" an alternative name for the early Buddhist schools.

"Early Buddhist Schools" the schools into which Buddhism became divided in its first few centuries; only one of these survives as an independent school, Theravāda

"East Asian Buddhism" a term used by scholars[1] to cover the Buddhist traditions of Japan, Korea, Singapore and most of China and Vietnam



"Eastern Buddhism" an alternative name used by some scholars[2][page needed] for East Asian Buddhism; also sometimes used to refer to all traditional forms of Buddhism, as distinct from Western(ized) forms.

"Esoteric Buddhism" usually considered synonymous with "Vajrayāna".[3] Some scholars have applied the term to certain practices found within the Theravāda, particularly in Cambodia.[4][page needed]



"Hīnayāna" often interpreted as a pejorative term, used in Mahāyāna doctrine to denigrate its opponents.[5] It is sometimes used to refer to the early Buddhist schools, including the contemporary Theravāda, although the legitimacy of this is disputed.[6] Its use in scholarly publications is controversial.[7]

By the Mahāyāna schools and groups in China, Korea, Tibet, and Japan the term is felt to be only slightly pejorative, or not pejorative at all.[8]

By some it is used with respect proper to teachings coming direct from the Buddha. The main use of the term in East Asian and Tibetan traditions is in reference to spiritual levels[9] regardless of school.

The literal meaning of "Hīnayāna" can also be "the small vehicle," referring to a raft meant to carry one person, as an arhat, to nirvana through their own effort, in contrast to the "large vehicle" of Mahāyāna meant to carry many there at once, piloted by a bodhisattva.




"Lamaism" an old term, still sometimes used, synonymous with Tibetan Buddhism; widely considered derogatory.


"Mahāyāna" a movement that emerged out of early Buddhist schools, together with its later descendants, East Asian and Tibetan Buddhism. Vajrayāna traditions are sometimes listed separately.

The main use of the term in East Asian and Tibetan traditions is in reference to spiritual levels,[10][page needed] regardless of school.



"Mainstream Buddhism" a term used by some scholars for the early Buddhist schools.

"Mantrayāna" usually considered synonymous with "Vajrayāna".[11] The Tendai school in Japan has been described as influenced by Mantrayana.[10][page needed]

"Newar Buddhism" a non-monastic, caste based Buddhism with patrilineal descent and Sanskrit texts.

"Nikāya Buddhism" or "schools" an alternative term for the early Buddhist schools.

"Non-Mahāyāna" an alternative term for the early Buddhist schools.



"Northern Buddhism" an alternative term used by some scholars[2][page needed] for Tibetan Buddhism.

Also, an older term still sometimes used to encompass both East Asian and Tibetan traditions.

It has even been used to refer to East Asian Buddhism alone, without Tibetan Buddhism.

"Secret Mantra" an alternative rendering of Mantrayāna, a more literal translation of the term used by schools in Tibetan Buddhism when referring to themselves.[12]



"{Sectarian Buddhism" an alternative name for the early Buddhist schools.

"{Southeast Asian Buddhism" an alternative name used by some scholars[13][page needed] for Theravāda.

"Southern Buddhism" an alternative name used by some scholars[2][page needed] for Theravāda.

"Śravakayāna" an alternative term sometimes used for the early Buddhist schools.

"Tantrayāna" or "Tantric Buddhism" usually considered synonymous with "Vajrayāna".[11]

However, one scholar describes the tantra divisions of some editions of the Tibetan scriptures as including Śravakayāna, Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna texts[14] (see Buddhist texts).

Some scholars[15][page needed], particularly François Bizot,[16] have used the term "Tantric Theravāda" to refer to certain practices found particularly in Cambodia.

"Theravāda" the traditional Buddhism of Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and parts of Vietnam, China, India, Bangladesh and Malaysia.



It is the only surviving representative of the historical early Buddhist schools. The term "Theravāda" is also sometimes used to refer to all the early Buddhist schools.[17]

"Tibetan Buddhism" usually understood as including the Buddhism of Tibet, Mongolia, Bhutan and parts of China, India and Russia, which follow the Tibetan tradition.

"Vajrayāna" a movement that developed out of Indian Mahāyāna, together with its later descendants.

There is some disagreement on exactly which traditions fall into this category. Tibetan Buddhism is universally recognized as falling under this heading; many also include the Japanese Shingon school.

Some scholars[18][page needed], also apply the term to the Korean milgyo tradition, which is not a separate school.

One scholar says, "Despite the efforts of generations of Buddhist thinkers, it remains exceedingly difficult to identify precisely what it is that sets the Vajrayana apart."[19]
Early schools

An image of Gautama Buddha with a swastika, a traditional Buddhist symbol of infinity, on his chest.

Ananda, the Buddha's disciple, appears in the background.


This statue is from Hsi Lai Temple.



Main articles: Nikaya Buddhism and Early Buddhist schools



    Sthaviravāda
        Pudgalavāda ('Personalist') (c. 280 BCE)
        Sarvāstivāda

            Vibhajjavāda (prior to 240 BCE; during Aśoka)
        Theravāda (c. 240 BCE)



            Theravāda subschools (see below)


        Mahīśāsaka (after 232 BCE)

            Dharmaguptaka (after 232 BCE)


        Kāśyapīya (after 232 BCE)


        Vatsīputrīya (under Aśoka) later name: Saṃmitīya


            Dharmottarīya
            Bhadrayānīya
            Sannāgarika


        Mūlasarvāstivāda (third and fourth centuries)
        Sautrāntika (between 50 BCE and c. 100 CE)


    Mahāsaṃghika ('Majority', c. 380 BCE)
    Ekavyahārikas (under Aśoka)

        Lokottaravāda


    Golulika (during Aśoka)

        Bahuśrutīya (late third century BCE)
        Prajñaptivāda (late third century BCE)

            Cetiyavāda

    Caitika (mid-first century BCE)

        Apara Śaila
        Uttara Śaila

Twenty sects

The following lists the twenty sects described as Hīnayāna in some Mahāyāna texts:

Sthaviravāda (上座部) split into the 11 sects:

    說一切有部(Sarvāstivādin)
    雪山部(Haimavata)
    犢子部(Vatsīputrīya)
    法上部 (Dharmottara)
    賢冑部(Bhadrayānīya)
    正量部(Sammitiya)
    密林山部(Channagirika)
    化地部 (Mahīśāsaka)
    [[法藏部(Dharmaguptaka)
    飲光部(Kāśyapīya)
    經量部(Sautrāntika)

Mahāsaṃghika (大眾部) split into 9 sects:

    一說部(Ekavyahārika)
    說出世部(Lokottaravādin)
    雞胤部 (Kaukkutika)
    多聞部(Bahuśrutīya)
    說假部(Prajñaptivāda)
    制多山部(Caitika)
    西山住部 (Aparaśaila)
    北山住部(Uttaraśaila).


Influences on East Asian schools


The following later schools used the vinaya of the Dharmaguptaka:



    Chinese Buddhism, especially the Vinaya School
    Korean buddhism, especially Gyeyul
    Vietnamese Buddhism
    Japanese Ritsu



The following involve philosophical influence:



    The Japanese Jojitsu is considered by some an offshoot of Sautrāntika; others consider it to be derived from Bahuśrutīya
    The Chinese/Japanese Kusha school is considered an offshoot of Sarvāstivāda, influenced by Vasubandhu.



Theravāda subschools


The different schools in Theravāda often emphasize different aspects (or parts) of the Pāli canon and the later commentaries, or differ in the focus on and recommended way of practice. There are also significant differences in strictness or interpretation of the Vinaya .



    Bangladesh

        Sangharaj Nikaya
        Mahasthabir Nikaya


    Burma:

        Thudhamma Nikaya

            Vipassana tradition of Mahasi Sayadaw and disciples


    Shwekyin Nikaya

    Dvaya Nikaya or Dvara Nikaya (see Mendelson, Sangha and State in Burma, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1975)


    Sri Lanka:

        Siam Nikaya

            Waturawila (or Mahavihara Vamshika Shyamopali Vanavasa Nikaya)

        Amarapura Nikaya

            Kanduboda (or Swejin Nikaya)

            [[Tapovana[[ (or Kalyanavamsa)

        Ramañña Nikaya

            Galduwa (or Kalyana Yogashramaya Samsthava)

            Delduwa




        Forest Nikaya



    Thailand

        Maha Nikaya

            Dhammakaya Movement

        Thammayut Nikaya

            Thai Forest Tradition

                Tradition of Ajahn Chah



Mahāyāna schools

    Mādhyamaka

        Prāsangika

        Svātantrika
        Sanlun (Three Treatise school)

            Sanron

        Mahā-Mādhyamaka (Jonangpa)




    Yogācāra

        Cittamātra in Tibet

        Wei-Shi (Consciousness-only school) or Faxiang (Dharma-character school

            Beopsang

            Hossō

    Tathāgatagarbha

        Daśabhūmikā (absorbed into Huayan)

        Huayan (Avataṃsaka)
            Hwaeom
            Kegon



    Chan / Zen / Seon / Thien

        Caodong

            Sōtō

                Keizan line
                Jakuen line
                Giin line


        Linji


            Rinzai
            Ōbaku
            Fuke

            Won Buddhism: Korean Reformed Buddhism




    Pure Land (Amidism)

        Jodo Shu
        Jodo Shinshu

    Tiantai (Lotus Sutra School)


        Cheontae Tendai (also contains Vajrayana elements)

        Tendai (also contains Vajrayana elements)


    Nichiren

        Nichiren Shū
        Nichiren Shōshū
        Nipponzan Myōhōji
        Soka Gakkai


Tantric schools


see also: Vajrayāna Subcategorised according to predecessors


    Tibetan Buddhism

        Nyingma
        New Bön (synthesis of Yungdrung Bön and Nyingmapa)
        Kadam
        Sakya


            Ngor-pa
            Tsar-pa

        Jonang

        Gelug

        Kagyu:

            Shangpa Kagyu
            Marpa Kagyu:

                Rechung Kagyu
                Dagpo Kagyu:

                    Karma Kagyu (or Kamtshang Kagyu)

                    Tsalpa Kagyu
                    Baram Kagyu

                    Pagtru Kagyu (or Phagmo Drugpa Kagyu):


                        Taglung Kagyu
                        Trophu Kagyu
                        Drukpa Kagyu
                        Martsang Kagyy
                        Yerpa Kagyu
                        Yazang Kagyu
                        Shugseb Kagyu
                        Drikung Kagyu


        Rime movement (ecumenical movement)


    Japanese Mikkyo


        Shingon
        Tendai (derived from Tiantai but added tantric practices)
        Shinnyo-en


New Buddhist movements


    Aum Shinrikyo (now known as Aleph)
    Diamond Way

    Friends of the Western Buddhist Order
    New Kadampa Tradition
    Share International
    True Buddha School
    Vipassana movement
    Shambhala Buddhism



References


    ^ B & G, Gethin, R & J, P & K
    ^ a b c Penguin, Harvey
    ^ Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York, volume 2, page 440
    ^ Indian Insights, Luzac, London, 1997

    ^ "Hinayana (literally, 'inferior way') is a polemical term, which self-described Mahāyāna (literally, 'great way') Buddhist literature uses to denigrate its opponents." - p. 840, MacMillan Library Reference Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004


    ^ "Hinayana is a designation that has no clearly identifiable external referent" - p. 840, MacMillan Library Reference Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004
    ^ "The supposed Mahayana-Hinayana dichotomy is so prevalent in Buddhist literature that it has yet fully to loosen its hold over scholarly representations of the religion." - p. 840, MacMillan Library Reference Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004


    ^ "It is also certain that Buddhist groups and individuals in China, Korea, Tibet, and Japan have in the past, as in the very recent present, identified themselves as Mahayana Buddhists, even if the polemical or value claim embedded in that term was only dimly felt, if at all.": Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 492

    ^ Penguin Handbook, pages 378f
    ^ a b Penguin Handbook
    ^ a b Harvey, pages 153ff
    ^ Hopkins, Jeffrey (1985) The Ultimate Deity in Action Tantra and Jung's Warning against Identifying with the Deity Buddhist-Christian Studies, Vol. 5, (1985), pp. 159-172
    ^ R & J, P & K

    ^ Skilling, Mahasutras, volume II, Parts I & II, 1997, Pali Text Society, Lancaster, page 78
    ^ Indian Insights, loc. cit.
    ^ Crosby, Kate( 2000)Tantric Theravada: A bibliographic essay on the writings of François Bizot and others on the yogvacara Tradition. In Contemporary Buddhism, 1:2, 141—198[1]
    ^ Encyclopedia of Religion, volume 2, Macmillan, New York, 1987, pages 440f; Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, sv Buddhism ^ Harvey
    ^ Lopez, Buddhism in Practice, Princeton University Press, 1995, page 6

    Coleman, Graham, ed. (1993). A Handbook of Tibetan Culture. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.. ISBN 1-57062-002-4.

    Warder, A.K. (1970). Indian Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Source

www.quangminh.org.au