The 8th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
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ñāṇa: 'knowledge, comprehension, intelligence, insight', is a synonym for paññā (q.v.); see also vipassanā.
Ñāṇa (nt.) [from jānāti. See also jānana. *genē, as in Gr. gnw_ -- sis (cp. gnostic), gnw/mh; Lat. (co)gnitio; Goth. kunpi; Ogh. kunst; E. knowledge] knowledge, intelligence, insight, conviction, recognition, opp. añāṇa & avijjā, lack of k. or ignorance. -- 1. Ñāṇa in the theory of cognition: it occurs in intensive couple -- compounds with terms of sight as cakkhu (eye) & dassana (sight, view), e. g. in cakkhu -- karaṇa ñāṇa -- karaṇa "opening our eyes & thus producing knowledge" i. e. giving us the eye of knowledge (a mental eye) (see cakkhu, jānāti passati, & cpd. ˚karaṇa): Bhagavā jānaŋ jānāti passaŋ passati cakkhu -- bhūto ñāṇa -- bhūto (=he is one perfected in knowledge) M i.111=Nd2 2353h; natthi hetu natthi paccayo ñāṇāya dassanāya ahetu apaccayo ñāṇaŋ dassanaŋ hoti "through seeing & knowing," i. e. on grounds of definite knowledge arises the sure conviction that where there is no cause there is no consequence S v.126. Cp. also the relation of diṭṭhi to ñāṇa. This implies that all things visible are knowable as well as that all our knowledge is based on empirical grounds; yāvatakaŋ ñeyyaŋ tāvatakaŋ ñāṇaŋ Nd2 2353m; yaŋ ñāṇaŋ taŋ dassanaŋ, yaŋ dassanaŋ taŋ ñāṇaŋ Vin iii.91; ñāṇa+dassana (i. e. full vision) as one of the characteristics of Arahantship: see arahant ii.D. Cp. BSk. jñānadarśana, e. g. AvŚ i.210. -- 2. Scope and
character of ñāṇa: ñ. as faculty of understanding is included in paññā (cp. wisdom=perfected knowledge). The latter signifies the spiritual wisdom which embraces the fundamental truths of morality & conviction (such as aniccaŋ anattā dukkhaŋ: Miln 42); whereas ñ. is relative to common experience (see Nd2 2353 under cakkhumā, & on rel. of p. & ñ. Ps i.59 sq.; 118 sq.; ii.189 sq.). -- Perception (saññā) is necessary to the forming of ñāṇa, it precedes it (D i.185); as sure knowledge ñ. is preferable to saddhā (S iv.298); at Vin iii.91 the definition of ñ. is given with tisso vijjā (3 kinds of knowledge); they are specified at Nd2 266 as aṭṭhasamāpatti -- ñāṇa (consisting in the 8 attainments, viz. jhāna & its 4 succeeding developments), pañc' abhiññā˚ (the 5 higher knowledges, see paññā & abhi˚), micchā˚ (false k. or heresy). Three degrees of k. are distinguished at DA i.100, viz. sāvaka -- pāramī -- ñāṇa, paccekabuddha˚, sabbaññuta˚ (highest k. of a relig. student, k. of a wise man, & omniscience). Four objects of k. (as objects of truth or sammādiṭṭhi) are enumd as dhamme ñāṇaŋ, anvaye ñ., paricchede ñ., sammuti ñ. at D iii.226, 277; other four as dukkhe ñ. (dukkha -- ) samudaye ñ., nirodhe ñ., magge ñ. (i. e. the knowledge of the paṭicca -- samuppāda) at D iii.227; Ps i.118; Vbh 235 (=sammādiṭṭhi). Right knowledge (or truth) is contrasted with false k. (micchā -- ñāṇa=micchādiṭṭhi): S v.384; M ii.29; A ii.222; v.327; Vbh 392. <-> 3.Ñāṇa in application: (a) Vin i.35; D ii.155 (opp. pasāda); S i.129 (cittamhi susamāhite ñāṇamhi vuttamānamhi); ii.60 (jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇan ti ñ.: see ñ -- vatthu); A i.219 (on precedence of either samādhi or ñ.); Sn 378, 789, 987 (muddhani ñāṇaŋ tassa na vijjati), 1078 (diṭṭhi, suti, ñ.: doctrine, revelation, personal knowledge, i. e. intelligence; differently expl. at Nd2 266), 1113; Pv iii.51 (Sugatassa ñ. is asādhāraṇaŋ) Ps i.194 sq.; ii.244; Vbh 306 sq. (ñ -- vibhanga), 328 sq. (kammassakataŋ ñ.); Nett 15 sq.; 161 (+ñeyya), 191 (id.). -- (b) ñāṇaŋ hoti or uppajjati knowledge comes to (him) i. e. to reason, to arrive at a conclusion (with iti=that . . .) S ii.124=iii.28 (uppajjati); D iii.278 (id.); A ii.211≈; iv.75; v.195; S iii.154.
See also arahant ii.D. -- (c) Var. attributes of ñ.: anuttariya A v.37; aparapaccayā (k. of the non -- effect of causation through lack of cause) S ii.17, 78; iii.135; v.179, 422 sq. (=sammādiṭṭhi), same as ahetu -- ñāṇa S v.126; asādhāraṇa (incomparable, uncommon k.) A iii.441; PvA 197; akuppa D iii.273; ariya A iii.451;pariyodāta S i.198; bhiyyosomatta S iii.112; yathā bhūtaŋ (proper, definite, right k.) (concerning kāya, etc.) S v.144; A iii.420; v.37. -- (d) knowledge of, about or concerning, consisting in or belonging to, is expressed either by loc. or -- ˚ (equal to subj. or obj. gen.). -- (a) with loc.: anuppāde ñ. D iii.214, 274; anvaye Diii.226, 277; kāye D iii.274; khaye D iii.214, 220 (āsavānaŋ; cp. M i.23, 183, 348; ii.38), 275; S ii.30; Nett 15; cutûpapāte D iii.111, 220; dukkhe (etc.) D iiii.227; S ii.4; v.8, 430; dhamme D iii.226; S ii.58; nibbāne S ii.124 (cp. iv.86). -- (b) as -- ˚: anāvaraṇa˚ DA i.100; ariya S i.228; A iii.451; khanti Ps i.106; jātissara Ji.167; cutûpapāta M i.22, 183, 347; ii.38, etc.; ceto -- pariya D iii.100, & ˚pariyāya S v.160; dibbacakkhu Ps i.114; dhammaṭṭhiti S ii.60, 124; Ps i.50; nibbidā Psi.195; pubbe -- nivāsânusati M i.22, 248, 347; ii.38, etc.; Buddha˚ Nd2 2353; Ps i.133; ii.31, 195; DA i.100; sabbaññuta Ps i.131 sq.; DA i.99 sq.; PvA 197; sekha S ii.43, 58, 80, & asekha S iii.83. -- (e) aññāṇa wrong k., false view, ignorance, untruth S i.181; ii.92; iii.258 sq.; v.126; A ii.11; Sn 347, 839; Ps i.80; Pug 21; Dhs 390, 1061; see avijjā & micchādiṭṭhi.
-- indriya the faculty of cognition or understanding Dhs 157; -- ûpapanna endowed with k. Sn 1077 (=Nd2 266b ˚upeta); -- karaṇa (adj.) giving (right) understanding, enlightening, in combn w. cakkhukaraṇa (giving (in) -- sight, cp. "your eyes shall be opened and ye shall be knowing good and evil" Gen. 35): kusalavitakkā anandha -- karaṇā cakkhu˚ ñāṇa˚ It 82; f. -- ī (of majjhimā -- paṭipadā) S iv.331; -- cakkhu the eye of k. PvA 166; -- jāla the net of k., in phrase ñāṇajālassa anto paviṭṭha coming within the net, i. e. into the range of one's intelligence or mental eye (clear sight) DhA i.26; ii.37, 58, 96; iii.171, 193; iv.61; VvA 63; -- dassana "knowing and seeing," "clear sight," i. e. perfect knowledge; having a vision of truth, i. e. recognition of truth, philosophy, (right) theory of life, all -- comprising knowledge. Defined as tisso vijjā (see above 2) at Vin iv.26; fully discussed at DA i.220, cp. also def. at Ps ii.244. -- Vin ii.178. (parisuddha˚;+ājīva, dhammadesanā, veyyākaraṇa); iii.90 sq.; v.164, 197; D i.76≈(following after the jhānas as the first step of paññā, see paññā -- sampadā); iii.134, 222 (˚paṭilābha), 288 (˚visuddhi); M i.195 sq.; 202 sq., 482; ii.9, 31; Nett 17, 18, 28; see also vimutti˚; -- dassin one who possesses perfect k. Sn 478; -- patha the path of k. Sn 868; -- phusanā experience, gaining of k. DhA i.230; -- bandhu an associate or friend of k. Sn 911; -- bhūta in comb" w. cakkhubhūta, having become seeing & knowing, i. e. being wise S ii.255; iv.94; A v.226 sq.; -- vatthūni (pl.) the objects or items of (right) knowledge which means k. of the paṭiccasamuppāda or causal connection of phenomena. As 44 (i. e. 4 X 11, all constituents except avijjā, in analogy to the 4 parts of the ariyasaccāni) S ii.56 sq., as 77 (7 X 11) S ii.59 sq.; discussed in extenso at Vbh 306 -- 344 (called ñāṇavatthu); -- vāda talk about (the attainment of supreme) knowledge D iii.13 sq.; A v.42 sq.; -- vippayuttadisconnected with k. Dhs 147, 157, 270; -- vimokkha emancipation through k. Ps ii.36, 42; -- visesa distinction of k., superior k. PvA 196; -- sampayuttaassociated with k. Dhs 1, 147, 157, etc.; Vbh 169 sq., 184, 285 sq., 414 sq.