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4 pārājikas

From Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
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pārājika 1

"yo pana bhikkhu bikkhūnaṃ sikkhāsājīva samāpanno sikkhaṃ appaccakkhaya dubbalyaṃ anāvikatvā methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭiseveyya, antamaso tiracchāna gatāyapi, pārājiko hoti asaṃvāso."

Not to have sexual intercourse. If a bhikkhu puts his sex in the sex, anus or mouth of a human being, man or woman – as well as in his own anus or in his own mouth –, an animal (male or female) or a dead body even if it is of the length of a sesame seed, he looses his status as a bhikkhu (for life).

Even if he does it while having his sex in plaster, in a condom, wearing the clothes of a layman, or being fully naked or not feeling any sensation (due to loss of tactile sensation on the sexual parts of the body for example), in the same way, he looses his status as a bhikkhu.

There are six cases when the pārājika 1 is not committed:

  1. When the bhikkhu is sleeping or in all other cases when he is not aware of the sexual intercourse when it takes place.
  2. When the bhikkhu is not consenting.
  3. When the bhikkhu has fallen into unconsciousness or is in a state of insanity.
  4. When the bhikkhu, being possessed by another spirit, can no longer control himself.
  5. When the bhikkhu is afflicted by an unbearable pain.
  6. When the bhikkhu has committed this action before the rules have been established.

Note: This rule is partly included within the third among the ten precepts.

pārājika 2

"yo pana bhikkhu gāmā vā araññā vā adinnaṃ theyyasiṅkhātaṃ ādiyeyya, yathārūpe adinnādāne rājāno coraṃ gahetvā haneyyuṃ vā bandheyyuṃ vā pabbajeyyuṃ vā corosi bālosi mūḷhosi thenosīti, tathārūpaṃ bhikkhu adinnaṃ ādiyamāno ayampi pārājiko hoti asaṃvāso."

Not to steal. If a bhikkhu, with an intention of theft, takes away others' possessions, has at the time and on the spot of the theft a minimum value of a quarter of the currency used during the Buddha's time (1.06 grams of gold + 1.06 grams of silver + 2.12 grams of copper, so approximately 10 euros in 2002 - 9,50), he looses his status as a bhikkhu for life.

If a bhikkhu takes possession of an object left behind by his owner or belonging to an animal, he does not commit the pārājika 2.

As soon as a bhikkhu takes an object with an intention of theft (even if he takes a single hair, even if at this particular moment he did not have the intention of taking it, or even if he afterwards abandons it), he commits the pārājika 2.

If a bhikkhu gets someone else to steal an object for him, he commits the pārājika 2.

If by common agreement, several bhikkhus decide that the one who will have the chance to steal an object will do it, and that only one bhikkhu conceals it, all bhikkhus commit pārājika 2.

The pārājika 2 is so subtle that a bhikkhu can commit it without even being aware of it.

If knowingly a bhikkhu smuggles or gets someone else to smuggle, through customs, a prohibited object (precious stones, drugs, etc.), if he lies to pay a smaller amount, travels without a valid ticket or if, out of mercy, he sets free an animal without his owner's consent, in all of these cases he commits the pārājika 2.

Several bhikkhus steal together something that they share. Each share is less than the critical sum (the quarter of the currency used in the times of Buddha, around 10 euros). However, by assembling all the shares that constitute the object of the theft, we do obtain a total value that exceeds this critical sum. All these bhikkhus have then committed the pārājika 2.

If a bhikkhu, either out of insanity, or owing to complete absentmindedness, or under the influence of an extremely painful disease, takes someone else's possession, he does not commit pārājika 2.

As soon as these five factors are present, the pārājika 3 is committed:

  1. The stolen object belongs to a human being.
  2. The bhikkhu knows that the object belongs to someone else other than himself.
  3. The stolen object has a minimum value of 1.06 grams of gold + 1.06 grams of silver + 2.12 grams of copper (in the concerned region).
  4. The bhikkhu has the intention to steal.
  5. The theft is done.

Note: This rule corresponds with the second of the ten precepts.

pārājika 3

"yo pana bhikkhu sañcicca manussaviggahaṃ jīvitā voropeyya,sattahārakaṃ vāssa pariyeseyya, maraṇavaṇṇaṃ vā saṃvaṇṇayya, maraṇāya vā samādapeyya, " ambo purisa kiṃ tuyhiminā dujjīvitena mataṃ te jīvitā seyyo " ti, iti cittamano cittasiṅkappo anekapariyayena maraṇavaṇṇaṃ vā saṃvaṇṇayya, maraṇāya vā samādapeyya, ayampi pārājiko hoti asaṃvāso."

Not to commit murder. If, with an intention of murder, a bhikkhu kills a human being, if he deliberately hands to a person who wants to die, a weapon likely to kill (even by believing sincerely that he is doing a favour) and this person uses it to put an end to his life, or if he expounds to a sick person the advantages of death and under this influence, the sick patient dies by not taking the medicines or food that he needed to save his life, he looses the status as a bhikkhu for life.

By ordering someone to murder someone else, by encouraging a woman to abort - and she follows this advise, by giving contraception to a pregnant woman who uses it successfully, or by requesting someone to murder an agonising person (even with the simple thought of relieving the suffering of the patient) and actually causing that person's death, in each of these cases, a bhikkhu commits pārājika 3.

By committing suicide, a bhikkhu commits pārājika 3 and thus passes away as a lay man.

If a bhikkhu asks a second bhikkhu to kill a person and the latter kills him or her, both bhikkhus commit pārājika 3. If the second bhikkhu kills a person other than the one the first bhikkhu had asked him to kill, the first bhikkhu does not commit pārājika 3. Only the second bhikkhu commits it.

The first bhikkhu asks a second bhikkhu to kill a person (or requests another person to do so). And on his behalf, this second bhikkhu hands over the work to a third bhikkhu and so on. All the bhikkhus, from the first to the last, commit pārājika 3.

With the intention to kill, a bhikkhu finds a way to kill someone (hole, trap, mine, etc.). If this has caused the death of a person, he commits pārājika 3.

As soon as these five factors are present, the pārājika 3 is committed:

  1. The victim is a human being.
  2. The bhikkhu knows that the victim is a human being.
  3. The bhikkhu has an intention to kill.
  4. The bhikkhu commits or orders a murder to be committed by someone else.
  5. The murder is done.

Note: This rule partly corresponds to the first of the ten precepts.

pārājika 4

"yo pana bhikkhu anabhijānaṃ uttariranussadhammaṃ attupanāyikaṃ alamariyañāṇadassanaṃ samudācareyya "itti jānāmi, itti passāmī" ti, tato aparena samayena samanuggāhīyamāno vā asamanuggāhīyamāno vā āpanno visuddhā pekkho evaṃ vadeyya "ajānamevaṃ āvuso avacaṃ jānāmi apassaṃ passāmi, tucchaṃ musā vilapi" nti aññatra adhimānā, āyapi, pārājiko hoti asaṃvāso."

Not to claim attainments of stages of pure mental concentration that have not been achieved. If with a boastful intention, a bhikkhu claims on purpose that he has eradicated the kilesās, or that he has reached some realisations (one of the four jhānas; one of the four psychic powers or one of the four stages of ariyā) although knowing that it is false; being asked or not being asked to do so, if in the field of these realisations, he asserts to know what he doesn't, if he claims to have seen something he has not, if he claims such things connected with it (for example: "I can see my previous lives"; "I can see beings dwelling in other worlds": "I definitely got rid of desire"), in each of these cases he looses his status as a bhikkhu for life.

If the person whom the bhikkhu addresses does not understand the meaning of his speech, he does not commit pārājika 4.

If a bhikkhu claims a realisation that he has really achieved, he does not commit a pārājika 4. In the same way, if a bhikkhu mentions to others a false realisation that he sincerely believes to have achieved, he does not commit pārājika 4.

As soon as these five factors are present, the pārājika is committed:

  1. The bhikkhu claims - in one way or another - to have achieved a realisation pertaining to the category of jhānas or the entrance into the four stages of ariyā that he has not experienced.
  2. The bhikkhu has the intention to boast (knowing that he has not achieved this realisation).
  3. The bhikkhu specifies that he is the one who achieved this realisation (if he uses an indirect way for instance: "The disciples of my teacher are the arahantas", he does not commit pārājika 4).
  4. The person whom the bhikkhu is addressing is a human being.
  5. The person whom the bhikkhu is addressing must immediately understand (if he or she does understand only a long time after, the bhikkhu does not commit pārājika 4).

Source

en.dhammadana.org