Articles by alphabetic order
 Ā Ī Ñ Ś Ū Ö Ō
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms-005

From Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

stages, or in action, arising from right observances; (3) 相似覺 bodhisattva. attainment of bodhi in action, in the 十信; (4) 隨分覺 further bodhisattva-enlightenment according to capacity, i. e. the stages 十住, 十行, and

十廻向; (5) 究竟覺 final or complete enlightenment, i. e. the stage of 妙覺, which is one with the first, i. e. 本覺. The 本覺 is bodhi in the potential, 始覺 is bodhi in the active state, hence (2), (3), (4), and (5) are all the

latter, but the fifth has reached the perfect quiescent stage of original bodhi.

五觀 The five meditations referred to in the Lotus Sutra 25: (1) 眞 on the true, idem 空觀, to meditate on the reality of the void or infinite, in order to be rid of illusion in views and thoughts; (2) 淸淨

觀 on purity, to be rid of any remains of impurity connected with the temporal, idem 假觀; (3) 廣大智慧觀 on the wider and greater wisdom, idem 中觀, by study of the 'middle' way; (4) 悲觀 on pitifulness, or the pitiable condition of

the living, and by the above three to meditate on their salvation; (5) 慈觀 on mercy and the extension of the first three meditations to the carrying of joy to all the living.

五解脫輪 The five wheels of liberation, or salvation, i. e. the five maṇḍalas in which are the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, see 五智如來; also called五大月輪 and五輪塔婆.

五說 idem 五種說人.

五論 It idem 五部大論.

五調子 idem 五音.

五諦 The five axioms: (1) 因諦 the cause, which is described as 集諦 of the Four Noble Truths; (2) 果諦 the effect as 苦諦; (3) 智諦 or 能知諦 diagnosis as 道諦; (4) 境諦 or 所知諦 the end or cure as 滅諦; to these add (5) 勝諦 or 至諦, the supreme

axiom, i. e. the 眞如; v. 四諦.

五識 The five parijñānas, perceptions or cognitions; ordinarily those arising from the five senses, i. e. of form-and-color, sound, smell, taste, and touch. The 起信論 Awakening of Faith has a

different set of five steps in the history of cognition; (1) 業識 initial functioning of mind under the influence of the original 無明 unenlightenment or state of ignorance; (2) 轉識 the act of turning towards the

apparent object for its observation; (3) 現識 observation of the object as it appears; (4) 知識 the deductions derived from its appearance; (5) 相續識 the consequent feelings of like or dislike, pleasure or pain, from

which arise the delusions and incarnations.

五趣 The five gati, i. e. destinations, destinies: the hells, hungry ghosts, animals, human beings, devas; cf. 五惡趣 and 五道.

五趣生死輪 A series of pictures to show the course of life and death, ascribed in the Sarvāstivāda Vinaya 34 to the Buddha.

五身 see 五種法身.

五輪 The five wheels, or things that turn: I. The 五體 or five members, i. e. the knees, the elbows, and the head; when all are placed on the ground it implies the utmost respect. II. The five foundations of the world. first and

lowest the wheel or circle of space; above are those of wind; of water; the diamond, or earth; on these rest the nine concentric circles and eight seas. III. The esoteric sect uses the term for the 五大 five elements,

earth, water, fire, wind, and space; also for the 五解脫輪 q. v. IV. The five fingers (of a Buddha).

五輪六大 The five are the 五大 five elements, to which the sixth 大 is added, i. e. the six elements, earth, water, fire, air and space, and 識 intelligence or mind.

五輪塔婆 (五輪率塔婆) A stūpa with five wheels at the top; chiefly used by the Shingon sect on graves as indicating the indwelling Vairocana.

五輪觀 五輪三摩地 A meditation of the esoteric school on the five elements, earth, water, fire, air, and space, with their germ-words, their forms (i. e. square, round, triangular, half-moon, and spherical), and their

colors (i. e. yellow, white, red, black, and blue). The five wheels also represent the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, v. 五智. The object is that 五輪成身 the individual may be united with the five Buddhas, or Vairocana.

五輪際 The fifth wheel limit, or world foundation, i. e. that of space.

五轉 The five evolutions, or developments; (1) resolve on Buddhahood; (2) observance of the rules; (3) attainment of enlightenment; (4) of nirvana; (5) of power to aid others according to need.

五轉成身 idem 五相成身.

五轉色 The above five developments are given the colors respectively of yellow, red, white, black, and blue (or green), each color being symbolic, e. g. yellow of Vairocana, red of Mañjuśrī, etc.


五辛 The five forbidden pungent roots, 五葷 garlic, three kinds of onions, and leeks; if eaten raw they are said to cause irritability of temper, and if eaten cooked, to act as an aphrodisiac; moreover, the breath of the

eater, if reading the sutras, will drive away the good spirits.

五逆 pañcānantarya; 五無間業 The five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, killing an arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity. The above definition is common

both to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. The lightest of these sins is the first; the heaviest the last. II. Another group is: (1) sacrilege, such as destroying temples, burning sutras, stealing a Buddha's or a monk's things,

inducing others to do so, or taking pleasure therein; (2) slander, or abuse of the teaching of śrāvaka s, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas; (3) ill-treatment or killing of a monk; (4) any one of the five deadly sins given

above; (5) denial of the karma consequences of ill deeds, acting or teaching others accordingly, and unceasing evil life. III. There are also five deadly sins, each of which is equal to each of the first set of five:

(1) violation of a mother, or a fully ordained nun; (2) killing a bodhisattva in a sangha; (5) destroying a Buddha's stūpa. IV. The five unpardonable sin of Devadatta who (1) destroyed the harmony of the

community; (2) injured Śākyamuni with a stone, shedding his blood; (3) induced the king to let loose a rutting elephant to trample down Śākyamuni; (4) killed a nun; (5) put poison on his finger-nails and saluted Śākyamuni

intending to destroy him thereby.

五通 v. 五神通.

五通仙 One who by non-Buddhistic methods has attained to the five supernatural powers 五通.

五通神 Spirits possessed of the five supernatural powers. They are also identified five bodhisattvas of the 雞頭摩: monastery in India, who, possessed of supernatural powers, went to the Western Paradise and

begged the image of Maitreya, whence it is said to have been spread over India.

五道 idem 五趣.

五道六道 There is difference of statement whether there are five or six gati, i. e. ways or destinies; if six, then there is added the asura, a being having functions both good and evil, both deva and demon.

五道冥官 An officer in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades.

五道將軍 A general in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades, who keeps the book of life.

五道轉輪王 One of the ten kings of Hades who retries the sufferers on their third year of imprisonment.

五邉 The five alternatives, i. e. (things) exist; do not exist; both exist and non-exist; neither exist nor non-exist: neither non-exist nor are without non-existence.

五遍行 The five universal mental activities associated with every thought— the idea, mental contact, reception, conception, perception, 作意, 觸, 受, 想, 思; cf. 五蘊.

五那含天 idem 五淨居天.

五邪命 (五邪) The five improper ways of gain or livelihood for a monk, i. e. (1) changing his appearance, e. g. theatrically; (2) advertising his own powers and virtue; (3) fortuning by physiognomy, etc.; (4)

hectoring and bullying; (5) praising the generosity of another to induce the hearer to bestow presents.

五部 The five classes, or groups I. The 四諦 four truths, which four are classified as 見道 or theory, and 修道 practice, e. g. the eightfold path. II. The five early Hīnayāna sects, see 一切有部 or Sarvastivadah. III. The five groups of

the Vajradhātu maṇḍala.

五部合斷 To cut off the five classes of misleading things, i. e. four 見 and one 修, i. e. false theory in regard to the 四諦 four truths, and erroneous practice. Each of the two classes is extended into each of the three divisions of

past, three of present, and three of future, making eighteen mental conditions.

五部大乘經 The five chief Mahāyāna sutras according to Tiantai are: 華嚴經; 大集經; 大品般若經; 法華經, and 涅槃經, i. e. Avataṃsaka, Mahāsanghāta, Mahāprajñāpāramitā, Lotus, and Nirvana sutras.

五部大論 Asaṅga, founder of the Yogācāra school, is said, by command of Maitreya, to have edited the five great śāstras, 瑜伽師地論, 分別瑜伽論, 大乘莊嚴經論, 辨中邉論頌論, and 金剛般若論.

五部尊法 五種壇法 (or 五部護摩 or 五部悉地). Ceremonials of the esoteric cult for ridding from calamity; for prosperity; subduing evil (spirits); seeking the love of Buddhas; calling the good to aid; cf. 五種修法.

五部座 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas, v. 五智如來.

五部律 The first five Hīnayāna sects— Dharmagupta, Sarvāstivāda, Mahīśāsaka, Kāśyapīya, and Vātsīputrīya; see 五師.

五部教主 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas v.五 智 如 來.

五部法 idem 五部尊法.

五部淨 (居 炎 摩 羅) Yama as protector in the retinue of the thousand-hand Guanyin.

五部秘藏 idem 五部尊法.


五重世界 The five graduated series of universes: (1) 三千大千世界 tri-sahasra-mahā-sahasra-loka-dhātu; a universe, or chiliocosm; (2) such chiliocosms, numerous as the sands of Ganges, form one Buddha-universe; (3)

an aggregation of these forms a Buddha-universe ocean; (4) an aggregation of these latter forms a Buddha-realm seed; (5) an infinite aggregation of these seeds forms a great Buddha-universe, 智度論 50. Another

division is (1) a world, or universe; (2) a Buddha-nature universe, with a different interpretation; and the remaining three areas above, the sea, the seed, and the whole Buddha-universe.

五重滯 The five heavy blockages, or serious hindrances; see 五鈍使 infra.

五重雲 The five banks of clouds or obstructions for a woman, see 五障.

五鈍使 pañca-kleśa 五重滯; 五惑 The five dull, unintelligent, or stupid vices or temptations: 貪 desire, 嗔 anger or resentment, 癡 stupidity or foolishness, 慢 arrogance, 疑 doubt. Overcoming these constitutes the

pañca-śīla, five virtues, v. 尸羅. Of the ten 十使 or agents the other five are styled 五利 keen, acute, intelligent, as they deal with higher qualities.

五鈷金剛杵 (五股金剛杵, 五鈷金剛) The five-armed vajra, 五智金剛杵; 五峯金剛杵, 五峯光明; emblem of the powers of the 五智如來 q. v.

五門禪 idem 五停心觀; there is also a fivefold meditation on impermanence, suffering, the void, the non-ego, and nirvana.

五間色 The five compound colours, v. 五色.

五闡提羅 The five ṣaṇḍhilās, i. e. five bad monks who died, went to the hells, and were reborn as ṣaṇḍhilās or imperfect males; also 五扇提羅.

五阿含 (五阿含經) The five Agamas, 五阿笈魔, i. e. (1) 長阿含經 Dīrghāgama; (2) 中阿含經 Madhyamāgama; (3) 僧育多阿含經 Samyuktāgama; (4) 鴦掘多羅阿含經 Ekottarikāgama, and (5) 屈陀伽阿合經 Kṣudrakāgama.

五陰 五衆 see 五蘊. 陰 is the older term.

五陰世間 idem 五蘊世間.

五陰苦 (五陰盛苦) idem 五盛陰苦.

五陰魔 idem 五蘊魔.

五障 The five hindrances, or obstacles; also 五礙; 五雲. I. Of women, i. e. inability to become Brahma-kings, Indras, Māra-kings, Caikravarti-kings, or Buddhas. II. The hindrances to the five 五力 powers, i. e.

(self-) deception a bar to faith, as sloth is to zeal, anger to remembrance, hatred to meditaton, and discontent to wisdom. III. The hindrances of (1) the passion-nature, e. g. original sin; (2) of

karma caused in previous lives; (3) the affairs of life; (4) no friendly or competent preceptor; (5) partial knowledge.

五障三從 The five hindrances to woman, see above, and her three subordinations, i. e. to father, husband. and son.

五雲 v. 五障.

五音 The five musical tones, or pentatonic scale— do, re, mi, sol, la; also 五聲; 五調子.

五頂 pañcaśikha, the five locks on a boy's head; also used for 五佛頂尊 q. v.

五頂輪王 idem 五佛頂尊.

五頂山 idem Wu-Tai Shan 五臺.

五類天 The five kinds of devas: (1) 上界天 in the upper realms of form and non-form; (2) 虛空天 in the sky, i. e. four of the six devas of the desire-realm; (3) 地居天 on the earth, i. e. the other two of the six

devas, on Sumeru; (4) 遊虛天空 wandering devas of the sky, e. g. sun, moon, starvas, (5) 地下天 under-world devas, e. g. nāgas, asuras, māras, etc. Of. 五大明王.

五類聲 The five groups of five each of the consonants in the syllabary called 悉曇 Siddha.

五類說法 The five preachers in the Huayan sutra: the Buddha; bodhisattvas; śrāvakas; the devas in their praise songs; and material things, e. g. the bodhi-tree; v. 五種說人.

五食 The five kinds of spiritual food by which roots of goodness are nourished: correct thoughts; delight in the Law; pleasure in meditation; firm resolve, or vows of self-control; and

deliverance from the karma of illusion.

五香 The incense composed of five ingredients (sandalwood, aloes, cloves, saffron, and camphor) offered by the esoteric sects in building their altars and in performing their rituals. Cf. 五分香.

五體 and 五體投地 v. 五輪.


五髻 The five cūḍā, topknots or locks, emblems of the 五智 q. v.

五髻冠 A five-pointed crown with a meaning similar to 五髻.

五髻文殊 Mañjuśrī of the five locks.

今 Now, at present, the present.

今圓 A Tiantai term indicating the present 'perfect' teaching, i. e. that of the Lotus, as compared with the 昔圓 older 'perfect ' teaching which preceded it.

今家 The present school, i. e. my school or sect.

介 scales, mail: important; resolute, firm; an attendant; petty, small.

介爾 A transient thought, see kṣaṇa 刹.

Kindness, benevolence, virtue.

仁者 Kind sir!

仁尊 Benevolent and honored, or kindly honored one, i. e. Buddha.

仁王 The benevolent king, Buddha; the name Śākya is intp. as 能仁 able in generosity. Also an ancient king, probably imaginary, of the 'sixteen countries' of India, for whom the Buddha is said to have dictated the 仁王經,

a sutra with two principal translations into Chinese, the first by Kumārajīva styled 仁王般若經 or 佛說仁王般若波羅蜜經 without magical formulae, the second by Amogha (不空) styled 仁王護國般若波羅蜜經, etc., into which the magical formulae

were introduced; these were for royal ceremonials to protect the country from all kinds of calamities and induce prosperity.

仁王供 Service of the 仁王曾 (or 仁王講) the meeting of monks to chant the above incantations.

仁王咒 仁王陀羅尼 The incantations made in the 仁王供.

仁王尊 The two Vajrapāṇi 阿 and 吽 who act as door guardians of temples, variously known as 密跡菩薩, 密修力士, 執金剛神, and 那羅延金剛.

什 A file of ten; sundry, what.

什物 Things (in general), oddments.

什肇 The 什 is Kumārajīva and the 肇 his disciple 僧肇 Sengzhao.

什麽 idem 甚麽 What ? What.

允 Sincere, true; to assent.

允堪 Yun-k'an, a famous monk of the Sung dynasty.

允若 Yun-jo, a famous monk of the Yuan dynasty.

元 Beginning, first, original, head; dollar; Mongol (dynasty).

元吉樹 The tree of the origin of felicity, i. e. the bodhi-tree or ficus religiosa, also styled 佛樹; 道樹, and 菩提樹.

元品無明 Primal ignorance; the original state of avidya, unenlightenment, or ignorance; original innocence. Also 根本無明; 無始無明.

元因 原因 The original or fundamental cause which produces phenomena, e. g. karma, reincarnation, etc.; every cause has its fruit or consequences. The idea of cause and effect is a necessary condition of

antecedent and consequence; it includes such relations as interaction, correlation, interdependence, co-ordination based on an intrinsic necessity.

元妙 The original or fundamental marvel or mystery, i. e. the conception of nirvana.

元始 Prabhū, 波羅赴; 鉢利部 beginning, in the beginning, primordial. Prabhū is a title of Viṣṇu as a personification of the sun.

元心 The original or primal mind behind all things, idem the 一心 of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith, the 森羅萬象之元 source of all phenomena, the mind which is in all things.

元明 本明 Original brightness or intelligence; the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā as the source of all light or enlightenment.

元曉 Yuan-hsiao, a famous Korean monk who traveled, and studied and wrote in China during the Tang dynasty, then returned to Korea; known as 海東師 Hai-tung Shih.

元照 Name of 湛然 Chan-jan, the seventh head of the Tiantai School; he died 1116.

元祖 The original patriarch, or founder of a sect or school; sometimes applied to the Buddha as the founder of virtue.

元藏 The Yuan tripiṭaka, compiled by order of Shih Tsu (Kublai), founder of the Yuan dynasty, and printed from blocks; begun in 1277, the work was finished in 1290, in 1, 422 部 works, 6, 017 卷 sections, 558 凾 cases or covers. It

contained 528 Mahayanist and 242 Hinayanist sutras; 25 Mahāyāna and 54 Hīnayāna vinaya; 97 Mahāyāna and 36 Hīnayāna śāstras; 108 biographies; and 332 supplementary or general works. In size, and generally, it was similar

to the Sung edition. The 元藏目錄 or Catalogue of the Yuan tripiṭaka is also known as 大普寧寺大藏經目錄.

元辰星 元神星 A star that controls the attainment of honors, and the riddance of sickness and distresses. The star varies according to the year star of the suppliant which is one of the seven stars in Ursa Major.

内 Within, inner.

内乞 The bhikṣu monk who seeks control from within himself, i. e. by mental processes, as compared with the 外乞 the one who aims at control by physical discipline. e. g. fasting, etc.

内供奉 (内供) A title for the monk who served at the alter in the imperial palace, instituted in A. D. 756; also called 供奉.

内典 Buddhist scriptures; of. 外典 non-Buddhist scriptures. There are also divisions of internal and external in Buddhist scriptures.


內凡 The inner or higher ranks of ordinary disciples as contrasted with the 外凡 lower grades; those who are on the road to liberation; Hīnayāna begins the stage at the 四善根位 also styled 內凡位; Mahāyāna with the 三賢位 from the 十住

upwards. Tiantai from the 相似卽 of its 六卽 q. v.

內塵 The inner, or sixth 塵 guṇa associated with mind, in contrast with the other five guṇas, qualities or attributes of the visible, audible, etc.

內史 The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also 內記.

內外 Internal and external: subjective and objective.

內外兼明 Inner and outer both 'ming '; the first four of the 五明 q. v. are 'outer' and the fifth 'inner'.

內外空 Internal organ and external object are both unreal, or not material.

內外道 Within and without the religion; Buddhists and non-Buddhists; also, heretics within the religion.

內學 The inner learning, i. e. Buddhism.

內宿 Food that has been kept overnight in a monastic bedroom and is therefore one of the 'unclean' foods; v. 內煮.

內寺 The Buddhist shrines or temples in the palace, v. 內道塲.

內心 The mind or heart within; the red lotus is used in the 大日經 as its emblem.

內心曼荼羅 (or 祕密曼荼羅) The 'central heart ' maṇḍala of the 大日經 or the central throne in the diamond realm lotus to which it refers.

內我 The antarātman or ego within, one's own soul or self, in contrast with bahirātman 外我 an external soul, or personal, divine ruler.

內教 Buddhism, in contrast with 外教 other cults.

內明 adhyatmāvidyā, a treatise on the inner meaning (of Buddhism), one of the 五明 q. v.

內法 Buddhism, as contrasted with other religions.

內無爲 Inner quiescence, cf. the six 妙門.

內煮 Cooked food in a monastic bedroom, becoming thereby one of the 'unclean' foods; v. 內宿食.

內界 The realm of mind as contrasted with 外界 that of the body; also the realm of cognition as contrasted with externals, e. g. the 五界 five elements.

內祕 The inner mystic mind of the bodhisattva, though externally he may appear to be a śrāvaka.

內種 The seed contained in the 八識, i. e. ālayavijñāna, the basis of all phenomena.

內空 Empty within, i. e. no soul or self within.

內緣 The condition of perception arising from the five senses; also immediate, conditional, or environmental causes, in contrast with the more remote.

內薰 Inner censing; primal ignorance, or unenlightenment; perfuming, censing, or acting upon original intelligence causes the common uncontrolled mind to resent the miseries of mortality and to seek nirvana;

v. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

內胎 The inner garbhadhātu, i. e. the eight objects in the eight leaves in the central group of the maṇḍala.

內衆 The inner company, i. e. the monks, in contrast with 外俗 the laity.

內衣 antaravāsaka, one of the three regulation garments of a monk, the inner garment.

內記 The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also 內史.

內證 The witness or realization within: one's own assurance of the truth.

內識 Internal perception, idem 心識.


內道塲 A place for Buddhist worship in the palace, v. 内齋 and 内寺.

內門轉 The psychological elements in the 八識, viz. the seventh and eighth categories.

內陣 The inner ranks, i. e. the part of a temple near the altar, where the monks sit.

內院 The inner court— of the Tusita heaven, where Maitreya dwells and preaches; also 善法堂.

內障 Internal, or mental hindrances, or obstacles.

內齋 Buddhist ceremonies in the palace on the emperor's birthday, v. 內道塲.

公 Public, general, official; a duke, grandparent, gentleman; just, fair.

公案 J. kōan; 因緣 A dossier, or case-record; a cause; public laws, regulations; case-law. Problems set by Zen masters, upon which thought is concentrated as a means to attain inner unity and illumination.

公界 A public place; in public.

六 ṣaṭ, ṣaḍ. Six.

六事成就 The six things which enable a bodhisattva to keep perfectly the six pāramitās — worshipful offerings, study of the moral duties, pity, zeal in goodness, isolation, delight in the law; these are described as

corresponding to the pāramitās seriatim; v. 莊嚴經 12.

六住 The sixth of the 十住 q. v.

六作 idem 六受.

六位 The six stages of Bodhisattva development, i. e. 十信位; 十住位; 十廻向位; 十地位; 等覺位; 佛地位; these are from the order Huayan jing.

六供具 The six articles for worship— flowers, a censer, candles, hot liquid, fruits, tea.

六依 The six senses on which one relies, or from which knowledge is received; v. 六情.

六入 ṣaḍāyatana; 六阿耶怛那 (or 六阿也怛那) the six entrances, or locations, both the organ and the sensationeye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind; sight, hearing, smell, taste,

touch, and perception. The six form one of the twelve nidanas, see 十二因緣. The 六根 are the six organs, the 六境 the six objects, and the 六塵 or guṇas, the six inherent qualities. The later term is 六處 q. v.

六八弘誓 The forty-eight great or surpassing vows of Amitābha, also 六八超世本願.

六决定 v. 六種决定; also 七深信.

六凡 The six stages of rebirth for ordinary people, as contrasted with the saints 聖者: in the hells, and as hungry: ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas.

六到彼岸 The six things that ferry one to the other shore, i. e. the six pāramitās, v. 六度.

六劍 六箭 The six swords (or arrows), i. e. the six senses, v. 六塵, which are defined as the qualities of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and mind.

六十 ṣaṣṭi, sixty.

六十二見 The sixty-two 見 or views, of which three groups are given: The 大品般若經 in the 佛母品 takes each of the five skandhas under four considerations of 常 time, considered as time past, whether each of the five has had permanence,

impermanence, both, neither, 5 x 4 = 20; again as to their space, or extension, considered as present time, whether each is finite, infinite, both, neither =20; again as to their destination, i. e. future, as to whether each

goes on, or does not, both, neither (e. g. continued personality) = 20, or in all 60; add the two ideas whether body and mind 神 are a unity or different = 62. The Tiantai School takes 我見, or personality, as its basis

and considers each of the five skandhas under four aspects, e. g (1) rūpa, the organized body, as the ego; (2) the ego as apart from the rūpa; (3) rūpa as the greater, the ego the smaller or inferior, and the ego

as dwelling in the rūpa; (4) the ego as the greater, rupa the inferior, and the rupa in the ego. Consider these twenty in the past, present, and future = 60, and add 斷 and 常 impermanence and permanence as

fundamentals = 62. There is also a third group.

六十卷 The 60 rolls: the Tiantai 三大部, or three collections of fundamental texts of that school.

六十四書 The sixty-four classes of Indian writing or literature, Brahmi, Kharosthi, etc.

六十四梵音 The sixty-four Aryan or noble characteristics of a Buddha's tones or voice, e. g. snigdha 流澤聲 smooth; mṛdukā 柔軟聲 gentle, etc.

六十四眼 Eighteen lictors in the avīci hell each with sixty-four eyes.

六十心 The sixty different mental positions that may occur to the practitioner of Yoga, see 大日經, 住心品; examples of them are desire, non-desire, ire, kindness, foolishness, wisdom, decision, doubt, [[Wikipedia:


depression]], brightness, contention, dispute, non-contention, the spirit of devas, of asuras, of nāgas, of humanity, woman (i. e. lust), mastery, commercial, and so on.


六卽 The six stages of Bodhisattva developments as defined in the Tiant 'ai 圓教, i. e. Perfect, or Final Teaching, in contrast with the previous, or ordinary six developments of 十信, 十住, 十行, etc., as found in the 別教 Differentiated or

Separate school. The Tiantai six are: (1) 理卽 realization that all beings are of Buddha-nature; (2) 名字卽 the apprehension of terms, that those who only hear and believe are in the Buddha. law and potentially Buddha;

(3) 觀行卽 advance beyond terminology to meditation, or study and accordant action; it is known as 五品觀行 or 五品弟子位; (4) 相似卽 semblance stage, or approximation to perfection in purity, the 六根淸淨位, i. e. the 十信位; (5) 分證卽

discrimination of truth and its progressive experiential proof, i. e. the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地, and 等覺位 of the 別教 known also as the 聖因 cause or root of holiness. (6) 究竟卽 perfect enlightenment, i. e. the 妙覺位 or 聖

fruition of holiness. (1) and (2) are known as 外凡 external for, or common to, all. (1) is theoretical; (2) is the first step in practical advance, followed by (3) and (4) styled 内凡 internal for all, and (3), (4), (5), and (6) are

known as the 八位 the eight grades.

六卽佛 Buddha in six forms; (1) 理佛 as the principle in and through all things, as pan-Buddha— all things being of Buddha-nature; (2) 名字佛 Buddha as a name or person. The other four are the last four forms above.

六受 The six vedanas, i. e. receptions, or sensations from the 六根 six organs. Also 六作.

六合釋 v. 六離釋.

六和敬 (六和) The six points of reverent harmony or unity in a monastery or convent: 身 bodily unity in form of worship, 口 oral unity in chanting, 意 mental unity in faith, 戒 moral unity in observing the

commandments, 見 doctrinal unity in views and explanations, and 利, 行, 學, or 施 economic unity in community of goods, deeds, studies, or charity.

六和合 The six unions of the six sense organs with the six objects of the senses, the eye with the object seen, etc.

六味 The six tastes, or flavors — bitter, sour, sweet, acrid, salt, and insipid.

六喩 The six illustrations of unreality Diamond Sutra: a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning. Also 六如.

六因 The six causations of the 六位 six stages of Bodhisattva development, q. v. Also, the sixfold division of causes of the Vaibhāṣikas (cf. Keith, 177-8); every phenomenon depends upon the union of 因 primary cause and

緣 conditional or environmental cause; and of the 因 there are six kinds: (1) 能作因 karaṇahetu, effective causes of two kinds: 與力因 empowering cause, as the earth empowers plant growth, and 不障因 non-resistant cause,

as space does not resist, i. e. active and passive causes; (2) 倶有因 sahabhūhetu, co-operative causes, as the four elements 四大 in nature, not one of which can be omitted; (3) 同類因 sabhāgahetu, causes of the same

kind as the effect, good producing good, etc.; (4) 相應因 saṃprayuktahetu, mutual responsive or associated causes, e. g. mind and mental conditions, subject with object; Keith gives 'faith and [[Wikipedia:


intelligence]]'; similar to (2); (5) 遍行因 sarvatragahetu, universal or omnipresent cause, i. e. of illusion, as of false views affecting every act; it resembles (3) but is confined to delusion; (6) 異熟因

vipākahetu, differental fruition, i. e. the effect different from the cause, as the hells are from evil deeds.

六地 Six bodhisattvas in the Dizang group of the garbhadhātu, each controlling one of the 六道 or ways of sentient existence. They deal with rebirth in the hells, as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and


六垢 (六垢法) Six things that defile: 誑 exaggeration, 謟 flattery, 憍 arrogance, 惱 vexation, 恨 hatred, 害 malice.

六城部 Ṣaṇṇagarikāḥ, 山拖那伽梨柯部; or 密林山部. One of the twenty Hīnayāna sects, connected with the Vātsīputtrīyāḥ 犢子部.

六境 The six fields of the senses, i. e. the objective fields of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea (or thought); rūpa, form and color, is the field of vision; sound, of hearing;

scent, of smelling; the five flavors, of tasting; physical feeling, of touch; and mental presentation, of discernment; cf. 六入; 六處 and next.


六塵 The six guṇas, qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense, i. e. sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea; the organs are the 六根, 六入, 六處, and the perceptions or discernments the 六識; cf. 六境

. Dust 塵 is dirt, and these six qualities are therefore the cause of all impurity. Yet 六塵說法 the Buddha made use of them to preach his law.

六大 The six great or fundamental things, or elementsearth; water; fire; wind (or air); space (or ether); and 識 mind, or perception. These are universal and creative of all things, but the inanimate 非情

are made only of the first five, while the animate 有情 are of all six. The esoteric cult represents the six elements, somewhat differently interpreted in the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu. Also 六大界.

六大法性 The unity in variety of the six elements and their products; ordinary eyes see only the differentiated forms or appearances, the sage or philosopher sees the unity.

六大無礙 The six elements unimpeded, or interactive; or 六大體大 the six elements in their greater substance, or whole. The doctrine of the esoteric cult of tran-substantiation, or the free interchangeability of the six

Buddha elements with the human, like with like, whereby yoga becomes possible, i. e. the Buddha elements entering into and possessing the human elements, for both are of the same elemental nature.

六大煩惱 The six great kleśa, passions, or distressers: desire, resentment, stupidity, pride, doubt, and false views.

六大神 The spirits of the six elements.

六大觀 Meditation on the six elements; in the exoteric cult, that they are unreal and unclean; in the esoteric cult, that the Buddha and human elements are of the same substance and interchangeable, see


六大賊 v. 六賊.

六天 The six devalokas, i. e. the heavens with sense organs above Sumeru, between the brahmalokas and the earth, i. e. 四王天; 忉利天; 夜摩天; 兜率天; 樂變化天; and 他化自在天. The sixth is the heaven of Mara, v. 六欲天.

六夷 The six pārājikas, v. 波羅夷.

六如 The six 'likes' or comparisons, like a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning, v. 六喩.

六妄 The six misleaders, i. e. the six senses.

六妙行 idem 六行觀.

六字 The six words or syllables, 南無阿彌陀佛 Namo Amitābha.

六字名號 a name for Mañjuśrī. See 六字文殊.

六字文殊 The six-word dhāraṇī of Mañjuśrī 闇婆髻駄那麽 (or 闇婆計陀那麽) or 唵縛鷄淡納莫. There are also the esoteric (Shingon) six words connected with the six forms of Guanyin and the 六字法, 六字供, 六字河臨法, and六字護摩 ceremonials, some connected

with Mañjuśrī, and all with Guanyin. There are several 六字 dhāraṇīs, e. g. the Ṣaḍakṣara-vidyāmantra. The six words generally associated with Guanyin are 安荼詈般茶詈 (or 安荼隸般茶詈). There is also the six word Lamaistic charm oṃ maṇi

padme hūṃ 唵?呢叭 M061971 吽.

六宗 The six schools, i. e. 三論宗; 法相宗; 華嚴宗; 律宗; 成實宗, and 倶舍宗 q. v.; the last two are styled Hīnayāna schools. Mahāyāna in Japan puts in place of them 天台宗 and 眞言宗 Tendai and Shingon.

六師 The six tīrthikas or heterodox teachers— Pūraṇa-Kāśyapa, Maskarin, Sañjayin, Ajita-keśakambala, Kakuda-Kātyāyana, and Nirgrantha; see 外道.

六師迦王 Name of the king who, thirteen years after the destruction of the Jetavana vihāra. which had been rebuilt 'five centuries ' after the nirvana, again restored it.

六年苦行 The six years of Śākyamuni's austerities before his enlightenment.

六度 The six things that ferry one beyond the sea of mortality to nirvana, i. e. the six pāramitās 波羅蜜 (波羅蜜多): (1) 布施 dāna, charity, or giving, including the bestowing of the truth on others; (2) 持戒 śīla, keeping the command

rents; (3) 忍辱 kṣānti, patience under insult; (4) 精進 vīrya, zeal and progress; (5) 闡定 dhyāna, meditation or contemplation; (6) 智慧 prajñā; wisdom, the power to discern reality or truth. It is the last

that carries across the saṃsāra (sea of incarnate life) to the shores of nirvana. The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, a distracted mind, and ignorance. The 唯識論 adds four

other pāramitās: (7) 方便 upāya, the use of appropriate means; (8) 願 praṇidhāna, pious vows; (9) 力 bala, power of fulfillment; (10) 智 jñāna knowledge.


六度果報 The reward s stimulated by the six pāramitās are 富 enrichment; 具色 all things, or perfection; 力 power; 壽 long life; 安 peace (or calmness); 辯 discrimination, or powers of exposition of the


六度無極 The six infinite means of crossing the sea of mortality, i. e. the six pāramitās 六度.

六德 The six characteristics of a bhagavat, which is one of a Buddha's titles: sovereign, glorious, majestic, famous, propitious, honored.

六念 (六念法) The six thoughts to dwell upon: Buddha, the Law, the Order, the commands, almsgiving, and heaven with its prospective joys.

六念處 The six stages of the six kinds of mindfulness 六念.

六情 The emotions arising from the six organs of sense 六根 for which term 六情 is the older interpretation; v. 六依.

六慧 The six kinds of wisdom. Each is allotted seriatim to one of the six positions 六位 q. v. (1) 聞慧 the wisdom of hearing and apprehending the truth of the middle way is associated with the 十住; (2) 思慧 of thought

with the 十行; (3) 修慧 of observance with the 十廻向; (4) 無相慧 of either extreme, or the mean, with the 十地; (5) 照寂慧 of understanding of nirvana with 等覺慧; (6) 寂照慧 of making nirvana illuminate all beings associated with 佛果

Buddha-fruition. They are a 別教 Differentiated School series and all are associated with 中道 the school of the 中 or middle way.

六成就 Six perfections (some say five, some seven) found in the opening phrase of each sutra: (1) 'Thus' implies perfect faith; (2) ' have I heard, ' perfect hearing; (3) 'once, 'the perfect time; (4) 'the Buddha, ' the

perfect lord or master; (5) 'on Mt. Gṛdhrakūṭa, ' the perfect place; (6) 'with the great assembly of bhikṣus, ' the perfect assembly.

六方 The six directions— E. W. N. S. above and below.

六方禮 The brahman morning act of bathing and paying homage in the six directions; observing the 'well-born' do this; the Buddha is said to have given the discourse in the 善生經.

六方護念, 六方證明 (or 六方證誠) The praises of Amitābha proclaimed by the Buddhas of the six directions.

六時 The six 'hours' or periods in a day, three for night and three for day, i. e. morning noon, evening; night, midnight, and dawn. Also, the six divisions of the year, two each of spring, summer, and winter.

六時懺 six daily periods of worship.

六時三昧 six daily periods of meditation.

六時不斷 six daily periods of unintermitting devotions.

六時禮讚 six daily periods of worship of ceremonial.

六染心 The six mental 'taints' of the Awakening of Faith 起心論. Though mind-essence is by nature pure and without stain, the condition of 無明 ignorance, or innocence, permits of taint or defilement

corresponding to the following six phases: (1) 執相應染 the taint interrelated to attachment, or holding the seeming for the real; it is the state of 執取相 and 名字相 which is cut off in the final pratyeka and śrāvaka stage and the

bodhisattva 十住 of faith; (2) 不斷相應染 the taint interrelated to the persisting attraction of the causes of pain and pleasure; it is the 相續相 finally eradicated in the bodhisattva 初地 stage of purity; (3) 分別智相應染

the taint interrelated to the 'particularizing intelligence' which discerns things within and without this world; it is the first 智相, cut off in the bodhisattva 七地 stage of spirituality; (4) 現色不相應染 the non-

interrelated or primary taint, i. e. of the 'ignorant' mind as yet hardly discerning subject from object, of accepting an external world; the third 現相 cut of in the bodhisattva 八地 stage of [[Wikipedia:


emancipation]] from the material; (5) 能見心不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint of accepting a perceptive mind, the second 轉相, cut of in the bodhisattva 九地 of intuition, or emancipation from mental

effort; (6) 根本業不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint of accepting the idea of primal action or activity in the absolute; it is the first 業相, and cut of in the 十地 highest bodhisattva stage, entering on

Buddhahood. See Suzuki's translation, 80-1.

六相 The six characteristics found in everything— hole and parts, unity and diversity, entirety and (its) fractions.

六根 The six indriyas or sense-organs: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. See also 六入, 六境, 六塵, and 六處.

六根五用 Substitution of one organ for another, or use of one organ to do the work of all the others, which is a Buddha's power.

六根功德 The powers of the six senses, i. e. the achievement by purification of their interchange of function.

六根懺悔 A penitential service over the sins of the six senses.

六根淸淨 The six organs and their purification in order to develop their unlimited power and interchange, as in the case of a Buddha. This full development enables e. g. the eye to see everything in a great

chiliocosm from its highest heaven down to its lowest hells and all the beings past, present, and future, with all the karma of each.


六根淸淨位 The state of the organs thus purified is defined by Tiantai as the 十信位 of the 別教, or the 相似卽 of the 圓教, v. 六卽.

六欲 The six sexual attractions arising from color; form; carriage; voice (or speech); softness (or smoothness); and features.

六欲天 The devalokas, i. e. the heavens of desire, i. e. with sense-organs; the first is described as half-way up Mt. Sumeru, the second at its summit, and the rest between it and the Brahmalokas; for list v. 六天.

Descriptions are given in the 智度論 9 and the 倶舍論 8. They are also spoken of as 六欲天婬相, i. e. as still in the region of sexual desire.

六欲四禪 the six heavens where sexual desire continues, and the four dhyāna heavens of purity above them free from such desire.

六法戒 The six prohibition rules for a female devotee: indelicacy of contact with a male; purloining four cash; killing animals; untruthfulness; food after the midday meal; and wine-drinking. Abbreviated as 六法.

六法 is also a term for 六法念.

六波 The six pāramitās, v. 波羅密.

六無常六譬 v. 六喩.

六煩惱 v. 六大煩惱.

六物 The six things personal to a monk— saṅghāṭī, the patch robe; uttarā saṅghāṭī, the stole of seven pieces; antara-vaasaka, the skirt or inner garment of five pieces; the above are the 三衣 three garments: paatra, begging bowl;

ni.siidana, a stool: and a water-strainer: the six are also called the 三衣六物.

六瑞 The six auspicious indications attributed to the Buddha as a preliminary to his delivery of the Lotus Sutra, see 法華經, 序品: (1) his opening address on the infinite; (2) his samādhi; (3) the rain of flowers; (4) the

earthquake; (5) the delight of the beholders; (6) the Buddha-ray.

六界 The six elements: earth, water, fire, air (or wind), space, and mind; idem 六大.

六界聚 The (human) body, which is composed of the six elements 六界.

六畜 The six animals likened to the six organs 六根, v. 六衆生.

六神通 The six transcendental, or magical, powers, v. 六通.

六祖 The six patriarchs of the Ch'an (Zen) school 禪宗, who passed down robe and begging bowl in succession i. e. Bodhidharma, Huike, Sengcan, Daoxin, Hongren, and Huineng 達摩, 慧可, 僧璨, 道信, 弘忍, and 慧能.

六種住 The six Bodhisattva-stages in the Bodhisattva-bhumi sutra 菩薩地持經 are: (1) 種性住 the attainment of the Buddha-seed nature in the 十住; (2) 解行住 of discernment and practice in the 十行 and 十廻向; (3) 淨心住 of purity by

attaining reality in the 初地見道; (4) 行道迹住 of progress in riddance of incorrect thinking, in the 二地 to the 七地; (5) 決定住 of powers of correct decision and judgment in the eighth and ninth 地; (6) 究竟住 of the perfect

Bodhisattva stage in the tenth 地 and the 等覺位, but not including the 妙覺位 which is the Buddha-stage.

六種倶生惑 The six deceivers common to all the living— greed, anger, torpor, ignorance, doubt, and incorrect views.

六種決定 The six kinds of certainty resulting from observance of the six pāramitās: 財成決定 the certainty of wealth; 生勝決定 of rebirth in honorable families; 不退決定 of no retrogression (to lower conditions); 修習決定 of progress in

practice; 定業決定 of unfailingly good karma; 無功用決定 of effortless abode in truth and wisdom. 大乘莊嚴論 12.

六種印 The six seals, or proofs, i. e. the six pāramitās, 六度.

六種因 v. 六因.

六種外道 The six kinds of ascetics; also 六種苦行外道; 六術; v. 六行.

六種巧方便 The six able devices of Bodhisattvas: (1) preaching deep truths in simple form to lead on people gladly to believe; (2) promising them every good way of realizing their desires, of wealth, etc.; (3)

showing a threatening aspect to the disobedient to induce reform; (4) rebuking and punishing them with a like object; (5) granting wealth to induce grateful offerings and almsgiving; (6) descending from heaven,

leaving home, attaining bodhi, and leading all to joy and purity. 菩薩地持經 8.


六種性 For the first five see 五種道; the sixth is the Buddha stage of 妙覺性. Cf. 六種位.

六種觀 The meditation on the six natures 六種性.

六種正行 The fifth of the 五種正行 q. v. is expanded into six kinds of proper practice: reading and intoning, studying, worshipping, invoking, praising, and making offerings.

六種釋 idem 六離合釋.

六種震動 The six earthquakes, or earth-shakings, also 六種動相, of which there are three different categories. I, Those at the Buddha's conception, birth, enlightenment, first preaching, when Māra besought him to live, and

at his nirvana; some omit the fifth and after 'birth' add 'leaving home '. II. The six different kinds of shaking of the chiliocosm, or universe, when the Buddha entered into the samādhi of joyful wandering, see 大品般若

經 1, i. e. east rose and west sank, and so on with w. e., n. s., s. n., middle and borders, borders and middle. III. Another group is shaking, rising, waving, reverberating, roaring, arousing, the first three referring to motion, the

last three to sounds; see the above 般若經; which in later translations gives shaking, rising, reverberating, beating, roaring, crackling.

六窗一猿 Six windows and one monkey (climbing in and out), i. e. the six organs of sense and the active mind.

六箭 The six arrows, i. e. the six senses; v. 六塵.

六結 A cloth or cord tied in six consecutive double loops and knots. The cloth represents the fundamental unity, the knots the apparent diversity. v. 楞伽經 5.

六罪人 The six kinds of offender, i. e. one who commits any of the 四重 four grave sins, or destroys harmony in the order, or sheds a Buddha's blood.

六羅漢 The six arhats i. e. Śākyamuni and his first five disciples, cf. 五羅漢.

六群比丘 The six common-herd bhikṣus, to whose improper or evil conduct is attributed the laying down of many of the laws by Śākyamuni; also 六衆; different lists of names are given, the generally accepted list indicating Nanda,

Upananda, Aśvaka, Punarvasu, Chanda, and Udāyin. Udāyin is probably Kalodayin, a name given in other lists.

六自在王 The six sovereign rulers, i. e. the six senses, see 六根.

六舟 The six boats, i. e. the six pāramitās 六度 for ferrying to the bank beyond mortality.

六般神足 The six supernatural signs; idem 六瑞.

六苦行 The heretics of the six austerities are referred to as 六苦行外道; v. 六行.

六萬藏 The sixty thousand verses of the Buddha-law which Devadatta could recite, an ability which did not save him from the avīci hell.

六著心 (六著) The six bonds, or the mind of the six bonds: greed, love, hate, doubt, lust, pride.

六蔽 The six sins that smother the six pāramitās: grudging, commandment-breaking, anger, family attachment, confused thoughts, and stupid ignorance.

六處 ṣaḍāyatana. The six places, or abodes of perception or sensation, one of the nidānas, see 十二因緣; they are the 六根 or six organs of sense, but the term is also used for the 六入 and 六境 q. v.; also 六塵.

六衆 idem 六羣比丘.

六衆生 The six senses 六根 are likened to six wild creatures in confinement always struggling to escape. Only when they are domesticated will they be happy. So is it with the six senses and the taming power of Buddha

truth. The six creatures are a dog, a bird, a snake, a hyena, a crocodile (śiśumāra), and a monkey.

六行 Among Buddhists the term means the practice of the 六度 six pāramitās; it is referred, among outsiders, to the six austerities of the six kinds of heretics: (1) 自餓 starvation; (2) 投淵 naked cave-dwelling (or, throwing oneself down

precipices); (3) 赴火 self-immolation, or self-torturing by fire; (4) 自坐 sitting naked in public; (5) 寂默 dwelling in silence among graves; (6) 牛狗 living as animals.


六行觀 The six meditations, also called 厭欣觀; 六妙行 comparing the 下地 lower realms with the 上地 higher, the six following characters being the subject of meditation: the three lower represent 麤 coarseness, 苦

suffering, and 障 resistance; these in meditation are seen as distasteful: while the higher are the 靜 calm, 妙 mystic, 離 free, which are matters for delight. By this meditation on the distasteful and the

delectable the delusions of the lower realms may be overcome.

六術 idem 六種外道; see 六行.

六衰 The six ruiners, i. e. the attractions of the six senses, idem 六塵, 六賊 q. v.

六裁 The six decisions, i. e. the concepts formed through the mental contact of the six senses; later called 六觸.

六親 The six immediate relations— father and mother, wife and child, elder and younger brothers.

六觀法 (六觀) cf. 六種性 and 六位.

六觀音 The six kinds of Guanyin. There are two groups— I. That of Tiantai: 大悲 most pitiful; 大慈 most merciful; 師子無畏 of lion-courage; 大光普照 of universal light; 天人丈夫 leader amongst gods and men; 大梵深遠 the

great omnipresent Brahma. Each of this bodhisattva's six qualities of pity, etc., breaks the hindrances 三障 respectively of the hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, and devas. II. As thousand-

handed; the holy one; horseheaded; eleven-faced; Cundī (or Marīci); with the wheel of sovereign power.

六解一亡 'When the six knots are untied the unity disappears. ' The six knots represent the six organs 六根 causing mortality, the cloth or cord tied in a series of knots represents nirvana. This illustrates the interdependence of

nirvana and mortality. Cf. 六結; v. 梯伽經 5.

六觸 idem 六裁.

六論 The six 外道論 vedāṇgas, works which are 'regarded as auxiliary to and even in some sense as part of the Veda, their object being to secure the proper pronunciation and correctness of the text and the right employment of

the Mantras of sacrifice as taught in the Brāhmaṇas '. M. W. They are spoken of together as the 四皮陀六論 four Vedas and six śāstras, and the six are Sikṣā, Chandas, Vyākarana, Nirukta, Jyotiṣa, and Kalpa.

六譬 The six metaphors, v. 六衆生.

六諦 The six logical categories of the Vaiśeṣika philosophy: dravya, substance; guṇa, quality; karman, motion or activity; sāmānya, generality; viśeṣa, particularity; samavāya, inherence: Keith, Logic, 179. Eitel has

'substance, quality, action, existence, the unum et diversum, and the aggregate'.

六賊 The six cauras, or robbers, i. e. the six senses; the 六根 sense organs are the 媒 'matchmakers', or medial agents, of the six robbers. The 六賊 are also likened to the six pleasures of the six sense organs. Prevention is

by not acting with them, i. e. the eye avoiding beauty, the ear sound, nose scent, tongue flavors, body seductions, and mind uncontrolled thoughts.

六趣 The six directions of reincarnation, also 六道: (1) 地獄趣 naraka-gati, or that of the hells; (2) 餓鬼趣 preta-gati, of hungry ghosts; (3) 畜生趣 tiryagyoni-gati, of animals; (4) 阿修羅趣 asura-gati, of

malevolent nature spirits; (5 ) 人趣 manuṣya-gati, of human existence; (6) 天趣 deva-gati, of deva existence. The 六趣輪廻經 is attributed to Aśvaghoṣa.

六足尊 The six-legged Honored One, one of the five 明王 fierce guardians of Amitābha, i. e. 大威德, who has six heads, faces, arms, and legs; rides on an ox; and is an incarnation of Mañjuśrī. The 六足阿毘曇摩 Jñāna-prasthāna-saṭpādābhidharma

is a philosophical work in the Canon.

六輪 The six kinds of cakravartī, or wheel-kings, each allotted to one of the 六位; the iron-wheel king to the 十信位, copper 十住, silver 十行, gold 十廻向, crystal 十地, and pearl 等覺.

六通 abhijñā, or ṣaḍ abhijñā. The six supernatural or universal powers acquired by a Buddha, also by an arhat through the fourth degree of dhyāna. The 'southern' Buddhists only have the first five, which are also

known in China; v. 五神通; the sixth is 漏盡通 (漏盡智證通) āsravakṣaya-jñāna, supernatural consciousness of the waning of vicious propensities.


六道 The six ways or conditions of sentient existence; v. 六趣; the three higher are the 上三途, the three lower 下三途.

六道佛菩薩 The Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the six gati, i. e. the six dizang 六地藏 q. v.; also the 六觀音 q. v.; the six dizang are also styled 六道能化菩薩 Bodhisattvas who can change the lot of those in the six gati.

六道四生 The four modes of the six rebirthswomb, egg, moisture, or transformation.

六道四聖 The six ways of rebirth, see above, and the four holy ways of rebirth, the latter being respectively into the realms of śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas; the ten are known as the 十界.

六道集經 A sutra dealing with the six ways of rebirth.

六道伽陀經 A sutra dealing with the six ways of rebirth.

六部大乘經 The six works chosen by Cien 慈恩 as authoritative in the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, i. e. 大方廣佛華嚴經 of which there are three translations; 解深密經4 tr.; 如來出現功德莊嚴經 untranslated; 阿毘達磨經 untranslated; 楞伽經 3 tr.; 厚嚴經 (also called 大乘


六離合釋 Ṣaṭ-samāsa; also 六種釋 (or 六合釋) the six interpretations of compound terms, considered in their component parts or together. (1) 持業釋 or 同依釋 karmadhāraya, referring to the equality of dependence of both terms, e. g. 大乘 Mahāyāna,

'great' and 'vehicle'), both equally essential to 'Mahāyāna' with its specific meaning; (2) 依主釋 (or 六士釋) tatpuruṣa, containing a principal term, e. g. 眼識 eye-perception, where the eye is the qualifying term; (3) 有財釋 (or 多財

釋) bahuvrīhi, the sign of possession, e. g. 覺者 he who has enlightenment; (4) 相違釋 dvandva, a term indicating two separate ideas, e. g. 教觀 teaching and meditation; (5) 鄰近釋 avyayībhava, an adverbial compound, or a term

resulting from 'neighboring' association, e. g. 念處 thought or remembering place, i. e. memory; (6) 帶數釋 dvigu, a numerative term, e. g. 五蘊 pañcaskandha, the five skandhas. M. W. gives the order as 4, 3, 1, 2, 6, and 5.

六難 The six difficult things— to be born in a Buddha-age, to hear the true Buddha-law, to beget a good heart, to be born in the central kingdom (India), to be born in human form, and to be perfect; see, [[Nirvana

Sutra]] 23.

六震 idem 六種震.

六面尊 idem 六足尊.

六麤 The six 'coarser' stages arising from the 三細 or three finer stages which in turn are produced by original 無明, the unenlightened condition of ignorance; v. Awakening of Faith 起信論. They are the states of (1) 智相

knowledge or consciousness of like and dislike arising from mental conditions; (2) 相續相 consciousness of pain and pleasure resulting from the first, causing continuous responsive memory; (3) 執取相

attachment or clinging, arising from the last; (4) 計名字相 assigning names according to the seeming and unreal with fixation of ideas); (5) 起業 the consequent activity with all the variety of deeds; (6) 業繋苦相 the

suffering resulting from being tied to deeds and their karma consequences.

六齋 The six monthly poṣadha, or fast days: the 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th. They are the days on which the Four Mahārājas 四天王 take note of human conduct and when evil demons are busy, so that great care is required

and consequently nothing should be eaten after noon, hence the 'fast', v. 梵王經 30th command. The 智度論 13 describes them as 惡日 evil or dangerous days, and says they arose from an ancient custom of cutting of the flesh and

casting it into the fire.

切 To cut, carve; a whole; urgent; the 反切 system of spelling, i. e. the combination of the initial sound of one Chinese word with the final sound of another to indicate the sound of a third, a system introduced by

translators of Buddhist works; v. 反.

切勝 A title of Aśvaghoṣa.

分 To divide. separate; a fractional part: a share: a duty.

分位 avasthaa; defined as 時分 time and 地位 position; i. e. a state, e. g. the state of water disturbed into waves, waves being also a state of water; a dependent state.

分別 vibhajya, or vibhaaga; parikalpana; vikalpa; divide, discriminate, discern, reason; to leave. See also 三分別.

三分別 three forms of discrimination (1) 自性分別 natural discrimination, e. g. of present objects; (2) 計度分別 calculating discrimination (as to future action); (3) 隨念分別 discriminating by remembrance of

affairs that are past.

分別事識 The third of the three kinds of perception 識, i. e. real (or abstract), manifest, and reasoned (or inferred); it includes all the eight 識 except the ālayavijñāna.

分別智 viveka. Differentiating knowledge, discrimination of phenomena, as contrasted with 無分別智 the knowledge of the fundamental identity of all things.


分別智相應染 The taint on mind following upon the action of discriminating, i. e. one of the six 染心; v. Awakening of Faith 起信論.

分別經 There are several sutras and śāstras with various 分別 titles.

分別說三 The One Vehicle discriminated as 'three' for the sake of the ignorant.

分別說部 The Vibhajyavādins. A school the origin of which is obscure. The meaning of the term, not necessarily limited to this school, is the method of particularization in dealing with questions in debate. It is suggested that this

school was established to harmonize the differences between the Sthavirās and Mahāsāṅghikas. The Abhidharma Pitaka 'as we have it in the Pali Canon, is the definite work of this school ', Keith, 153.

分別識 The discriminating perception, i. e. of 意 mind, the sixth 根 organ.

分別起 Delusions arising from reasoning and teaching, in contrast with 倶生起 errors that arise naturally among people.

分喩 A metaphor only correct in part, e. g. a face like the moon.

分散 visarj. To dismiss, scatter, separate, as an assembly.

分析 To divide, separate, leave the world, v. 析.

分歲 New Year's eve, the dividing night of the year, also styled 歲夜.

分段 bhāgya. Lot, dispensation, allotment, fate.

分段生死, 分段死, 分段身, 分段三道 all refer to the mortal lot, or dispensation in regard to the various forms of reincarnation.

分段同居 Those of the same lot, or incarnation, dwelling together, e. g. saints and sinners in this world.

分段輪廻 The wheel of fate, or reincarnation.

分段變易 Includes (1) 分段生死, the condition and station resulting from good or bad karma in the three realms (desire, form, and formlessness) and in the six paths; (2) 變易生死 the condition and station resulting

from good karma in the realms beyond transmigration, including arhats and higher saints.

分相門 The doctrine which differentiates the three vehicles from the one vehicle; as 該攝門 is that which maintains the three vehicles to be the one.

分眞卽 idem 分證卽.

分衛 piṇḍapāta, 賓荼波多; 儐荼夜 food given as alms; piṇḍapātika means one who lives on alms; it is also interpreted as 團墮 lumps (of food) falling (into the begging bowl); the reference is to the Indian method of

rolling the cooked food into a bolus for eating, or such a bolus given to the monks.

分證卽 One of the Tiantai 六卽 q. v. Also 分眞卽.

分身 Parturition: in Buddhism it means a Buddha's power to reproduce himself ad infinitum and anywhere.

分那柯 pūrṇaka, i. e. 滿 full; name of a yakṣa, or demon.

分陀利迦 (also see 分陀利) puṇḍarīka, 芬陀; 分荼利迦, 分荼利華, 奔荼利迦, 奔荼利華; 本拏哩迦; the 白蓮花 white lotus (in full bloom). It is also termed 百葉華 (or 八葉華) hundred (or eight) leaf flower. For Saddharma-puṇḍarīka, the Lotus Sutra, v. 妙法蓮華經.

The eighth and coldest hell is called after this flower, because the cold lays bare the bones of the wicked, so that they resemble the whiteness of this lotus. It is also called 隨色花; when a bud, it is known as 屈摩羅; and when

fading, as 迦摩羅.

屈摩羅 the budding phase of the white lotus (puṇḍarīka).

迦摩羅 the fading phase of the white lotus (puṇḍarīka) .

勿 Not; do not; translit. m and v.

勿伽 mudga; 'phaseolus mungo (both the plant and its beans),' M. W.; intp. as 胡豆 and 綠豆 kidney beans by the Fanyi mingyi.

勿伽羅子 Maudgalyāyana or Maudgalaputra, idem Mahāmaudgalyāyana 目蓮.

勿力伽難提 Mṛgānandi, or 蜜利伽羅 Mṛgala; rejoicing deer; a śramaṇa called 鹿杖 Lu-chang, who was satisfied with the leavings of other monks; also a previous incarnation of Śākyamuni, and of Devadatta, who are both represented as

having been deer.

勿哩訶婆跋底 B.rhaspati, Jupiter-lord, 木星 Jupiter.

勾 A hook to entangle, inveigle, arrest; a tick, mark.

勾當 An employee in a monastery, especially of the Shingon sect. In Japan, the second rank of official blind men.

化 To transform, metamorphose: (1) conversion by instruction, salvation into Buddhism; (2) magic powers 通力 of transformation, of which there are said to be fourteen mental and eight formal kinds. It also has the meaning

of immediate appearance out of the void, or creation 無而忽起; and of giving alms, spending, digesting, melting, etc.


化主 The lord of transformation, or conversion, i. e. a Buddha; also one who exhorts believers to give alms for worship: also an almsgiver.

化人 A deva or Buddha transformed into human shape.

化女 is 化人 in female form.

化他 To save others.

化他壽 A Buddha's long or 'eternal' life spent in saving others; implying his powers of unlimited salvation.

化佛 nirmāṇabuddha, an incarnate, or metamorphosed Buddha: Buddhas and bodhisattvas have universal and unlimited powers of appearance, v. 神通力.

化作 To transform (into), create, make.

化俗結緣 For the sake of converting the people.

化儀 The rules or methods laid down by the Buddha for salvation: Tiantai speaks of 化儀 as transforming method, and 化法 q. v. as transforming truth; its 化儀四教 are four modes of conversion or enlightenment: 頓 direct or

sudden, 漸 gradual, 祕密 esoteric, and 不定 variable.

化制二教 The twofold division of the Buddha's teaching into converting or enlightening and discipline, as made by the Vihaya School, v. 化行.

化前 In the Amitābha cult the term means before its first sutra, the 觀無量壽經, just as 爾前 in the Lotus School means 'before the Lotus.'

化前序 the preface to the 觀經疏 by 善導 Shandao of the Tang dynasty.

化前方便 All the expedient, or partial, teaching suited to the conditions before the Wuliangshou jing 無量壽經.

化功歸己 The merit of converting others becomes one's own in increased insight and liberation); it is the third stage of merit of the Tiantai five stages of meditation and action 觀行五品位.

化土 one of the 三土 three kinds of lands, or realms; it is any land or realm whose inhabitants are subject to reincarnation; any land which a Buddha is converting, or one in which is the transformed body of a

Buddha. These lands are of two kinds, pure like the Tusita heaven, and vile or unclean like this world. Tiantai defines the huatu or the transformation realm of Amitābha as the Pure-land of the West, but other schools

speak of huatu as the realm on which depends the nirmāṇakāya, with varying definitions.

化地部 Mahīśāsakah, 磨醯奢婆迦部; 彌喜捨婆阿; 彌婆塞部, 正地部 an offshoot from the 說一切有部 or Sarvāstivāda school, supposed to have been founded 300 years after the nirvana. The name Mahisasakah is said to be that of a ruler who 'converted his

land' or people; or 正地 'rectified his land'. The doctrines of the school are said to be similar to those of the 大衆部 Mahāsāṅghika; and to have maintained, inter alia, the reality of the present, but not of the past and

future; also the doctrine of the void and the non-ego; the production of taint 染 by the five 識 perceptions; the theory of nine kinds of non-activity, and so on. It was also called 法無去來宗 the school which denied

reality to past and future.

化城 The magic, or illusion city, in the Lotus Sutra; it typifies temporary or incomplete nirvana, i. e. the imperfect nirvana of Hīnayāna.

化境 The region, condition, or environment of Buddha instruction or conversion: similar to 化土.

化壇 The altar of transformation, i. e. a crematorium.

化宮殿 The magical palace, or, palace of joy, held in the fortieth left hand of: Guanyin of the thousand hands; the hand is styled 化宮殿手 or 寶殿手.

化導 To instruct and guide.

三輪化導 three sovereign powers for converting others are those of 神變 supernatural transformation (i. e. physical 身); 記心 memory or knowledge of all the thoughts of all beings (i. e. mental 意 ); and 教誠 teaching

and warning (i. e. oral 口).

化導力 Power to instruct and guide, one of the 三力.

化尼 The power of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, to be transformed into a nun.

化屬 The converted followers— of a Buddha, or bodhisattva.

化度 To convert and transport, or save.


化心 The mind in the transformation body of a Buddha or bodhisattva, which apprehends things in their reality.

化教 see 化行二教.

化樂天 Nirmāṇarati, 樂變化天 the fifth of the six desire-heavens, 640, 000 yojanas above Meru; it is next above the Tuṣita, or fourth deva. loka; a day is equal to 800 human years; life lasts for 8, 000

years; its inhabitants are eight yojanas in height, and light-emitting; mutual smiling produces impregnation and children are born on the knees by metamorphosis, at birth equal in development to human children of twelve—

hence the 'joy-born heaven'.

化法 Instruction in the Buddhist principles, as 化儀 is in practice, Tiantai in its 化法四教 divides the Buddha's teaching during his lifetime into the four periods of 藏, 通, 別, and 圓 Pitaka, Interrelated, Differentiated, and

Complete, or All-embracing.

化源 The fount of conversion, or salvation, the beginning of the Buddha's teaching.

化現 Metamorphosis and manifestation; the appearance or forms of a Buddha or bodhisattva for saving creatures may take any form required for that end.

化理 The law of phenomenal change— which never rests.

化生 aupapādaka, or aupapāduka. Direct metamorphosis, or birth by transformation, one of the 四生, by which existence in any required form is attained in an instant in full maturity. By this birth bodhisattvas

residing in Tuṣita appear on earth. Dhyāni Buddhas and Avalokiteśvara are likewise called 化生. It also means unconditional creation at the beginning of a kalpa. Bhuta 部多 is also used with similar meaning. There are

various kinds of 化生, e. g. 佛菩薩化生 the transformation of a Buddha or bodhisattva, in any form at will, without gestation, or intermediary conditions: 極樂化生, birth in the happy land of Amitābha by transformation

through the Lotus; 法身化生 the dharmakāya, or spiritual body, born or formed on a disciple's conversion.

化疏 A subscription list, or book; an offering burnt for ease of transmission to the spirit-realm.

化相 The transformation form or body (in which the Buddha converts the living).

化相三寶 The nirmāṇakāya Buddha in the triratna forms; in Hīnayāna these are the human 16-foot Buddha, his dharma as revealed in the four axioms and twelve nidānas, and his sangha, or disciples, i. e. arhats

and pratyekabuddhas.

化米 Rice obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction, similarly化炭 charcoal and化茶 tea; sometimes used with larger connotation.

化炭 charcoal obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction.

化茶 tea obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction.

化緣 The cause of a Buddha's or bodhisattva's coming to the world, i. e. the transformation of the living; also, a contribution to the needs of the community.

化色 A Buddha's or bodhisattva's metamorphoses of body, or incarnations at will.

化菩薩 A Buddha or bodhisattva transformed: into a (human) bodhisattva; or a bodhisattva in various metamorphoses.

化行 (化行二教) The two lines of teaching: i. e. in the elements, for conversion and admission, and 行教 or 制教 in the practices and moral duties especially for the Order, as represented in the Vinaya; cf. 化制.

化誘 To convert and entice (into the way of truth).

化身 nirmāṇakāya, 應身, 應化身; 變化身 The third characteristic or power of the trikāya 三身, a Buddha's metamorphosic body, which has power to assume any shape to propagate the Truth. Some interpret the term as connoting

pan-Buddha, that all nature in its infinite variety is the phenomenal 佛身 Buddha-body. A narrower interpretation is his appearance in human form expressed by 應身, while 化身 is used for his manifold other

forms of appearances.

化生 q. v. means direct 'birth' by metamorphosis. It also means the incarnate avaatara of a deity.

化生八相 The eight forms of a Buddha from birth to nirvana, v. 八相.

化轉 To transform, convert (from evil to good, delusion to deliverance).

化迹 The traces or evidences of the Buddha's transforming teaching; also 教迹.


化道 The way of conversion, transformation, or development; also 教道.

午 Noon.

午供 The noon offering (of incense).

反 To turn over, turn or send back; contrary; to rebel.

反出生死 One of the seven kinds of mortality, i. e. escape from it into nirvana.

反切 The system of indicating the initial and final sounds of a character by two others, ascribed to Sun Yen 孫炎 in the third century A D., arising out of the translit. of Sanskrit terms in Buddhist translation.

反叉合掌 One of the twelve forms of folded hands, i. e. with interlocking fingers.

太 very, great.

太子 Kumaararāja. Crownprince. An epithet of Buddhas, and of Mañjuśrī.

太子和休經 太子刷護經 There are several 太子, etc. 經. One named the Subaahu-parip.rcchaa was translated under the first title between 265-316 A. D., four leaves; under the second title by Dharmarakṣa during the same period.

太孤危生 Life perilous as the (unscaleable) top of the loneliest peak.

太虛空 Space, where nothing exists; also 頑空; 偏空.

太麤生 A ruffian, a rough fellow.

夫 A man; a sage, officer, hero; a husband, mate; a fellow; a particle, i. e. for, so, etc.

夫人 A wife; the wife of a king, i. e. a queen, devi.

凡夫 The common people, the unenlightened, hoi polloi, a common fellow.

Heaven; the sky; a day; cf. dyo, dyaus also as 提婆 a deva, or divine being, deity; and as 素羅 sura, shining, bright.

三種天 The three classes of devas: (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyeka-buddhas. 智度論 7.

四種天 The four classes of devas include (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyekabuddhas, and (4) 義天 all

bodhisattvas above the ten stages 十住. The Buddhas are not included; 智度論 22.

五種天 (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyekabuddhas, and (4) 義天 all bodhisattvas above the ten stages

十住, and (5) 第一義天 a supreme heaven with bodhisattvas and Buddhas in eternal immutability; 涅槃經 23. Cf. 天宮.

天上 The heavens above, i. e. the six devalokas 六欲天 of the region of desire and the rupalokas andarupalokas, i. e. 色 and 無色界.

天上天下唯我獨尊 The first words attributed to Śākyamuni after his first seven steps when born from his mother's right side: 'In the heavens above and (earth) beneath I alone am the honoured one. 'This announcement is ascribed to every

Buddha, as are also the same special characteristics attributed to every Buddha, hence he is the 如來 come in the manner of all Buddhas. In Mahayanism he is the type of countless other Buddhas in countless realms and


天中天 devaatideva: deva of devas. The name given to Siddhartha (i. e. Śākyamuni) when, on his presentation in the temple of 天王 Maheśvara (Siva), the statues of all the gods prostrated themselves before


天主 Devapati. The Lord of devas, a title of Indra.

天主教法 Devendra-samaya. Doctrinal method of the lord of devas. A work on royalty in the possession of a son of Raajabalendraketu.

天乘 devayāna. The deva vehicle— one of the 五乘 five vehicles; it transports observers of the ten good qualities 十喜 to one of the six deva realms of desire, and those who observe dhyāna meditation to the higher

heavens of form and non-form.

天人 devas and men; also a name for devas.

天人師 `saastaa devamam.syaanaam 舍多提婆摩菟舍喃, teacher of devas and men, one of the ten epithets of a Buddha, because he reveals goodness and morality, and is able to save.

天人散花身上 The story of the man who saw a disembodied ghost beating a corpse which he said was his body that had led him into all sin, and further on an angel stroking and scattering: lowers on a corpse, which he said was the

body he had just left, always his friend.

天人道師 idem 天人師.

天仙 deva-ṛṣi, or devas and rsis, or immortals. Nāgārjuna gives ten classes of ṛṣis whose lifetime is 100, 000 years, then they are reincarnated. Another category is fivefold: 天仙 deva-ṛṣis in the mountains round Sumeru: 神仙

spirit-ṛṣis who roam the air: 人仙 humans who have attained the powers of immortals; 地仙 earth ṛṣis, subterranean; 鬼仙 pretas, or malevolent ṛṣis.

天使 Divine messengers, especially those of Yama; also his 三天使 three messengers, or lictors— old age, sickness, death; and his 五天使 or 五大使, i. e. the last three together with rebirth and prisons or punishments on


天界力士 (天力士) idem 那羅延 Narayana.


天冠 A deva-crown, surpassing human thought.

天口 The mouth of Brahma, or the gods, a synonym for fire, as that element devours the offerings; to this the 護摩 homa, or fire altar cult is attributed, fire becoming the object of worship for

good fortune. Fire is also said to speak for or tell the will of the gods.

天台山 The Tiantai or Heavenly Terrace mountain, the location of the Tiantai sect; its name is attributed to the 三台 six stars at the foot of Ursa Major, under which it is supposed to be, but more likely because of its height

and appearance. It gives its name to a xian 縣 in the Zhejiang taizhou 浙江台州 prefecture, south-west of Ningbo. The monastery, or group of monasteries, was founded there by 智顗 Zhiyi, who is known as 天台大師.

天台三教 The three modes of Śākyamuni's teaching as explained by the Tiantai sect: (1) the sudden, or immediate teaching, by which the learner is taught the whole truth at once 頓教; (2) the gradual teaching 漸教; (3) the undetermined

or variable method-whereby he is taught what he is capable of receiving 不定. Another category is 漸 gradual, 頓 direct, and 圓 perfect, the last being found in the final or complete doctrine of the 法華經 Lotus Sutra. Another is:

(1) 三藏教 the Tripiṭaka doctrine, i. e. the orthodox Hīnayāna; (2) 通教 intermediate, or interrelated doctrine, i. e. Hīnayāna-cum-Mahāyāna; (3) 別教 differentiated or separated doctrine, i. e. the early Mahāyāna as a cult or

development, as distinct from Hīnayāna.

天台九神 The nine patriarchs of the Tiantai sect: 龍樹 Nāgārjuna; 慧文 Hui-wen of the 北齊 Northern Qi dynasty; 慧思 Huici of 南嶽 Nanyue; 智者 (or 智顗) Zhizhe, or Zhiyi; 灌頂 Guanding of 章安 Changan; 法華 Fahua; 天宮 Tiangung; 左溪 Zuoxi; and

湛然 Zhanran of 荊溪. The ten patriarchs 十祖 are the above nine with 道邃 Daosui considered a patriarch in Japan, because he was the teacher of Dengyo Daishi who brought the Tendai system to that country in

the ninth century. Some name Huiwen and Huici as the first and second patriarchs of the school of thought developed by Zhiyi at Tiantai; v. 天台宗.

天台八教 八教 The 化法四教 or four periods of teaching, i. e. 藏, 通, 別, and 圓 Hīnayāna, Interrelated, Differentiated, and Complete or Final; the 化儀四教 q, v. are the four modes of teaching, direct, gradual, esoteric, and indefinite.

天台四教 The four types each of method and doctrine, as defined by Tiantai; see 天台八教.

天台大師 The actual founder of the Tiantai 'school' 智顗 Zhiyi; his 字 was 德安 De-an, and his surname 陳 Chen, A. D. 538-597. Studying under 慧思 Huici of Hunan, he was greatly influenced by his teaching; and found in the Lotus Sutra

the real interpretation of Mahayanism. In 575 he first came to Tiantai and established his school, which in turn was the foundation of important Buddhist schools in Korea and Japan.

天台宗 The Tiantai, or Tendai, sect founded by 智顗 Zhiyi. It bases its tenets on the Lotus Sutra 法華經 with the 智度論, 涅盤經, and 大品經; it maintains the identity of the Absolute and the world of phenomena, and

attempts to unlock the secrets of all phenomena by means of meditation. It flourished during the Tang dynasty. Under the Sung, when the school was decadent, arose 四明 Ciming, under whom there came the division of 山家 Hill

or Tiantai School and 山外 the School outside, the latter following 悟恩 Wuen and in time dying out; the former, a more profound school, adhered to Ciming; it was from this school that the Tiantai doctrine spread to [[Wikipedia:


Japan]]. The three principal works of the Tiantai founder are called 天台三部, i. e. 玄義 exposition of the deeper meaning of the Lotus; 文句 exposition of its text; and 止觀 meditation; the last was directive and practical; it was

in the line of Bodhidharma, stressing the 'inner light'.

天台律 The laws of the Tiantai sect as given in the Lotus, and the ten primary commandments and forty-eight secondary commandments of 梵網經 the Sutra of Brahma's Net 梵網經 (Brahmajāla); they are ascribed as the 大乘圓頓戒 the

Mahāyāna perfect and immediate moral precepts, immediate in the sense of the possibility of all instantly becoming Buddha.

天台韶國師 Tiantai Shao guoshi, a Chekiang priest who revived the Tiantai sect by journeying to Korea, where the only copy of Zhiyi's works existed, copied them, and returned to revive the Tiantai school. 錢俶 Qianshu (A.

D. 960 -997), ruler of 吳越 Wuyue, whose capital was at Hangchow, entitled him Imperial Teacher.

天后 Queen of Heaven, v. 摩利支.

天地鏡 The mirror of heaven and earth, i. e. the Prajñāpāramitā-sūtra, see 般若經.

天堂 The mansions of the devas, located between the earth and the Brahmalokas; the heavenly halls; heaven. The Ganges is spoken of as 天堂來者 coming from the heavenly mansions.

天堂地獄 The heavens and the hells, places of reward or punishment for moral conduct.

天女 devakanyā; apsaras; goddesses in general; attendants on the regents of the sun and moon; wives of Gandharvas, the division of the sexes is maintained throughout the devalokas 六 天.


天子 A son of Heaven. The Emperor-Princes, i. e. those who in previous incarnations have kept the middle and lower grades of the ten good qualities 十善 and, in consequence, are born here as princes. It is the title of one of the

four mara, who is 天主 or lord of the sixth heaven of desire; he is also known as 天子魔 (天子業魔) and with his following opposes the Buddha-truth.

天宮 devapura; devaloka; the palace of devas, the abode of the gods, i. e. the six celestial worlds situated above the Meru, between the earth and the Brahmalokas. v. 六天.

天宮寳藏 A library of the sutras. The treasury of all the sutras in the Tuṣita Heaven in Maitreya's palace. Another collection is said to be in the 龍宮 or Dragon's palace, but is associated with Nāgārjuna.

天尊 The most honoured among devas, a title of a Buddha, i. e. the highest of divine beings; also used for certain maharāja protectors of Buddhism and others in the sense of honoured devas. Title applied by the

Daoists to their divinities as a counterpart to the Buddhist 世尊.

天師 Preceptor of the emperor, a title of the monk 一行 Yixsing, and of the so-called Daoist Pope.

天帝 King, or emperor of Heaven, i. e. 因陀羅 Indra, i. e. 釋 (釋迦); 釋迦婆; 帝 (帝釋); Śakra, king of the devaloka 忉利天, one of the ancient gods of India, the god of the sky who fights the demons with his

vajra, or thunderbolt. He is inferior to the trimūrti, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, having taken the place of Varuṇa, or sky. Buddhism adopted him as its defender, though, like all the gods, he is considered inferior to a

Buddha or any who have attained bodhi. His wife is Indrāṇī.

天帝生驢胎 Lord of devas, born in the womb of an ass, a Buddhist fable, that Indra knowing he was to be reborn from the womb of an ass, in sorrow sought to escape his fate, and was told that trust

in Buddha was the only way. Before he reached Buddha his life came to an end and he found himself in the ass. His resolve, however, had proved effective, for the master of the ass beat her so hard that she dropped her

foal dead. Thus Indra returned to his former existence and began his ascent to Buddha.

天帝釋城 The city of Śakra, the Lord of devas, called 善見城 Sudarśana city good to behold, or 喜見城 city a joy to behold.

天弓 The deva-bow, the rainbow.

天德甁 The vase of deva virtue, i. e. the bodhi heart, because all that one desires comes from it, e. g. the 如意珠 the talismanic pearl. Cf. 天意樹.

天愛 devānāṃpriya. 'Beloved of the gods, 'i. e. natural fools, simpletons, or the ignorant.

天意樹 The tree in each devaloka which produces whatever the devas desire.

天授 Heaven-bestowed, a name of Devadatta, v. 提.

天有 Existence and joy as a deva, derived from previous devotion, the fourth of the seven forms of existence.

天根 The phallic emblem of Śiva, which Xuanzang found in the temples of India; he says the Hindus 'worship it without being ashamed'.

天梯山 The ladder-to-heaven hill or monastery, i. e. 天台 Tiantai mountain in Chekiang.

天樂 Heavenly music, the music of the inhabitants of the heavens. Also one of the three 'joys'— that of those in the heavens.

天機 Natural capacity; the nature bestowed by Heaven.

天樹王 The pārijāta tree 波利質多 which grows in front of Indra's palace— the king among the heavenly trees.

天狗 ulkā, 憂流迦the 'heavenly dog' i. e. a meteor. Also 'a star in Argo' according to Williams.

天獄 The heavens and hells; devalokas and purgatories.

天王 Maharāja-devas; 四天王 Caturmahārāja. The four deva kings in the first or lowest devaloka, on its four sides. E. 持國天王 Dhṛtarāṣṭra. S. 增長天王 Virūḍhaka. W. 廣目天王 Virūpākṣa. N. 多聞天王 Dhanada, or Vaiśravaṇa. The four are said to have

appeared to 不空 Amogha in a temple in Xianfu, some time between 742-6, and in consequence he introduced their worship to China as guardians of the monasteries, where their images are seen in the hall at the entrance, which is

sometimes called the 天王堂 hall of the deva-kings. 天王 is also a designation of Siva the 大白在, i. e. Maheśvara 摩醯首羅, the great sovereign ruler.


天王如來 Devarāja-tathāgata, the name by which Devadatta, the enemy of Śākyamuni, will be known on his future appearance as a Buddha in the universe called 天道 Devasopāna; his present residence in hell being temporary

for his karmaic expurgation.

天界 idem天道.

天畫 deva lines or pictures.

天皇 Deva-king; the Tang monk 道悟 Daowu of the 天皇 Tianhuang monastery at 荊州 Jingzhou.

天眞 bhūtatathatā, permanent reality underlying all phenomena, pure and unchanging e. g. the sea in contrast with the waves; nature, the natural, 天然之眞理, 非人之造作者 natural reality, not of human creation.

天眞佛 The real or ultimate Buddha; the bhūtatathatā; another name for the Dharmakāya, the source of all life.

天眞獨朗 The fundamental reality or bhūtatathatā, is the only illumination. It is a dictum of 道邃 Daosui of the Tang to the famous Japanese monk 傳教 Dengyō. The apprehension of this fundamental reality makes all things

clear, including the universality of Buddha- hood. It also interprets the phrase 一心三觀 that 空中假 the void, the 'mean ', the seeming, are all aspects of the one mind.

天眼 divyacakṣṣus. The deva-eye; the first abhijñā, v. 六通; one of the five classes of eyes; divine sight, unlimited vision; all things are open to it, large and small, near and distant, the destiny of all beings

in future rebirths. It may be obtained among men by their human eyes through the practice of meditation 修得: and as a reward or natural possession by those born in the deva heavens 報得. Cf 天耳, etc.

天眼力 The power of the celestial or deva eye, one of the ten powers of a Buddha.

天眼明 One of the three enlightenments 三明, or clear visions of the saint, which enables him to know the future rebirths of himself and all beings.

天眼智 The wisdom obtained by the deva eye.

天眼智證通 (天眼智通) The complete universal knowledge and assurance of the deva eye.

天眼智通願 The sixth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that he would not enter the final stage until all beings had obtained this divine vision.

天眼通 idem 天眼; also a term used by those who practise hypnotism.

天督 Tiandu, an erroneous form of 天竺, or 印度 Yindu, India.

天祠 devālaya, devatāgāra, or devatāgṛha. Brahminical temples.

天神 deva 提婆 or devatā 泥縛多. (1) Brahma and the gods in general, including the inhabitants of the devalokas, all subject to metem-psychosis. (2) The fifteenth patriarch, a native of South India, or Ceylon and

disciple of Nāgārjuna; he is also styled Devabodhisattva 提婆菩薩, Āryadeva 聖天, and Nilanetra 靑目 blue-eyed, or 分別明 clear discriminator. He was the author of nine works and a famous antagonist of Brahmanism.

天神地祇 The spirits 天神 are Indra and his retinue; devas in general; the 地祇 are the earth spirits, nāgas, demons, ghosts, etc.

天童 Divine youths, i. e. deva guardians of the Buddha-law who appear as Mercuries, or youthful messengers of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

天童山 天潼山 A famous group of monasteries in the mountains near Ningpo, also called 太白山 Venus planet mountain; this is one of the five famous mountains of China.

天竺 (天竺國) India; 竹 zhu is said to have the same sound as 篤 tu, suggesting a connection with the 度 tu in 印度 Indu; other forms are 身毒 Sindhu, Scinde; 賢豆 Hindu; and 印持伽羅. The term is explained by 月 moon, which is the meaning

of Indu, but it is said to be so called because the sages of India illumine the rest of the world: or because of the half-moon shape of the land, which was supposed to be 90, 000 li in circumference, and placed among other

kingdoms like the moon among the stars. Another name is 因陀羅婆他那 ? Indravadana, or Indrabhavana, the region where Indra dwells. A hill and monastery near Hangchow.

天竺三時 (or 天竺三際). The three seasons of an Indian year: Grīṣma, the hot season, from first month, sixteenth day, to fifth month, fifteenth; Varṣākāla, the rainy season, fifth month, sixteenth, the to ninth month, fifteenth; Hemanta,

the cold season, ninth month, sixteenth, to first month, fifteenth. These three are each divided into two, making six seasons, or six periods: Vasanta and grīṣma, varṣākāla and śarad, hemanta and śiśira. The twelve months are Caitra,

Vaiśākha, Jyaiṣṭha, Āṣāḍha, Śrāvaṇa, Bhādrapada, Āśvavuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrṣa, Pauṣa, Māgha, and Phālguna.


天竺九儀 The nine forms of etiquette of India: speaking softly, bowing the head, raising the hands high, placing hands together, bending knees, kneeling long, hands and knees touching the ground, bowing the head, lowering arms and

bending knees, bringing head, arms, and knees to the ground.

天竺五山 The five mountains of India on which the Buddha assembled his disciples: Vaibhara, Saptaparnaguha, Indrasailaguha, Sarpiskundika-pragbhara, Grdhrakuta.

天羅國 The kingdom of the king with kalmā-ṣapāda, i. e. spotted, or striped feet 斑定王; cf. 仁王經.

天耳 (天耳通) divyaśrotra, deva-ear, celestial ear.

天耳智 (天耳智通); 天耳智證通 The second of the six abhijñās 六通 by which devas in the form-world, certain arhats through the fourth dhyāna, and others can hear all sounds and understand all languages in the realms of

form, with resulting wisdom. For its equivalent interpretation and its 修得 and 報得 v. 天眼.

天耳智通願 The seventh of the forty-eight vows of Amitābha, not to become Buddha until all obtain the divine ear.

天臂城 Devadarśita or Devadiṣṭa, Deva-arm city, but the Sanskrit means deva (or divinely) indicated. The residence of Suprabuddha, 善覺長者 father of Māyā, mother of the Buddha.

天華 Deva, or divine, flowers, stated in the Lotus Sutra as of four kinds, mandāras, mahāmandāras, mañjūṣakas, and mahāmañjūṣakas, the first two white, the last two red.

天蓋 A Buddha's canopy, or umbrella; a nimbus of rays of light, a halo.

天衆 The host of heaven, Brahma, Indra, and all their host.

天衆五相 The five signs of approaching demise among the devas, cf. 五衰.

天行 A bodhisattva's natural or spontaneous correspondence with fundamental law: one of the 五行 of the 涅槃經 Nirvana Sutra.

天衣 Deva garments, of extreme lightness.

天衣拂千歲 An illustration of the length of a small kalpa: if a great rock, let it be one, two, or even 40 li square, be dusted with a deva-garment once in a hundred years till the rock be worn away, the kalpa would still be


天親 Vasubandhu, 伐蘇畔度; 婆藪槃豆 (or 婆修槃豆) (or 婆修槃陀) 'akin to the gods ', or 世親 'akin to the world'. Vasubandhu is described as a native of Puruṣapura, or Peshawar, by Eitel as of Rājagriha, born '900 years after the

nirvana', or about A. D. 400; Takakusu suggests 420-500, Peri puts his death not later than 350. In Eitel's day the date of his death was put definitely at A. D. 117. Vasubandhu's great work, the Abhidharmakośa, is only

one of his thirty-six works. He is said to be the younger brother of Asaṅga of the Yogācāra school, by whom he was converted from the Sarvāstivāda school of thought to that of Mahāyāna and of Nāgārjuna. On his conversion he would

have 'cut out his tongue' for its past heresy, but was dissuaded by his brother, who bade him use the same tongue to correct his errors, whereupon he wrote the 唯識論 and other Mahayanist works. He is called the

twenty-first patriarch and died in Ayodhya.

天語 The deva language, i. e. that of the Brahman, Sanskrit.

天識 Natural perception, or wisdom; the primal endowment in man: the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā.

天趣 idem 天道.

天迦 devanāgarī, 神字 the usual form of Sanskrit writing, introduced into Tibet, v. 梵字.

天道 deva-gati, or devasopāna, 天趣. (1) The highest of the six paths 六道, the realm of devas, i. e. the eighteen heavens of form and four of formlessness. A place of enjoyment, where the meritorious

enjoy the fruits of good karma, but not a place of progress toward bodhisattva perfection. (2) The Dao of Heaven, natural law, cosmic energy; according to the Daoists, the origin and law of all things.

天部 The classes of devas; the host of devas; the host of heaven.

天部善神 Brahma, Indra, the four devaloka-rājas, and the other spirit guardians of Buddhism.

天須菩提 Deva Subhūti, one of three Subhūtis, disciples of the Buddha; said to have been so called because of his love of fine clothing and purity of life.


天食 sudhā, food of the gods sweet dew, ambrosia, nectar; blue, yellow, red, and white in colour, white for the higher ranks, the other colours for the lower.

天香 Deva incense, divine or excellent incense.

天鬼 Gods and demons; gati, or reincarnation, among devas and demons.

天魔 deva-māra, 魔羅 one of the four Māras, who dwells in the sixth heaven. Paranirmita-vaśa-vartin, at the top of the Kāmadhātu, with his innumerable host, whence he constantly obstructs the Buddha-truth and its

followers. He is also styled 殺者 the slayer; also 波旬 explained by 惡愛 sinful love or desire, as he sends his daughters to seduce the saints; also 波卑 (波卑夜) Papiyan, the evil one. He is the special Māra of the Śākyamuni

period; other Buddhas suffer from other Māras; v. 魔.

天魔外道 Māras and heretics— both enemies of Buddha-truth.

天鼓 The deva drum— in the 善法 Good Law Hall of the Trayas-triṃśas heavens, which sounds of itself, warning the inhabitants of the thirty-three heavens that even their life is impermanent and subject to karma:

at the sound of the drum Indra preaches against excess. Hence it is a title of Buddha as the great law-drum, who warns, exhorts, and encourages the good and frightens the evil and the demons.

天鼓雷音佛 鼓音如來 Divyadundubhimeghanirghosa. One of the five Buddhas in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, on the north of the central group; said to be one of the dharmakāya of Sakyamuai, his 等流身 or universal emanation body; and is

known as 不動尊 corresponding with Akṣobhya, cf. 五智如來 and 大日經疏 4.

天鼓音 雲自在燈王 Dundubhisvara-rāja. Lord of the sound of celestial drums, i. e. the thunder. Name of each of 2, 000 kotis of Buddhas who attained Buddhahood.

天龍 Devas, including Brahma, Indra, and the devas, together with the nāgas.

天龍八部 devas, nāgas, and others of the eight classes: devas, nāgas, yakṣas, gandharvas, asuras, garuḍas, kinnaras, mahoragas. 天; 龍; 夜叉; 乾闥婆; 阿修羅; 迦樓羅; 堅那羅; 摩睺羅迦.

天龍夜叉 devas, nāgas, yakṣas.

孔 A hole: surname of Confucius; great, very; a peacock.

孔雀 mayūra, 摩裕羅 a peacock; the latter form is also given by Eitel for Mauriya as 'an ancient city on the north-east frontier of Matipura, the residence of the ancient Maurya (Morya) princes. The present Amrouah near Hurdwar'.

孔雀城 Mathurā, or Kṛṣṇapura; modern Muttra; 摩度羅 (or 摩偸羅, 摩突羅, or 摩頭羅); 秣兔羅 an ancient city and kingdom of Central India, famous for its stupas, reputed birthplace of Krisna.

孔雀明王 'Peacock king, ' a former incarnation of Śākyamuni, when as a peacock he sucked from a rock water of miraculous healing power; now one of the mahārāja bodhisattvas, with four arms, who rides on a

peacock; his full title is 佛母大金曜孔雀明王. There is another 孔雀王 with two arms.

少 Few: also used as a transliteration of ṣat, six.

少光天 (少光); 廅天 parīttābhās; the fourth Brahmaloka, i. e. the first region of the second dhyāna heavens, also called 有光壽.

少室 Shaoshi, a hill on the 嵩山 Sungshan where Bodhidharma set up his 少林寺 infra.

少室六門集 Six brief treatises attributed to Bodhidharma, but their authenticity is denied.

少康 Shaokang, a famous monk of the Tang dynasty, known as the later 善導 Shandao, his master.

少林寺 The monastery at 少室 in 登封 Dengfeng xian, Henanfu, where Bodhidharma sat with his face to a wall for nine years.

少林武藝 Wu-i, a cook of the Shao-lin monastery, who is said single-handed to have driven off the Yellow Turban rebels with a three-foot staff, and who was posthumously rewarded with the rank of 'general '; a school of adepts of the

quarter-staff, etc., was called after him, of whom thirteen were far-famed.

少欲知足 Content with few desires.

少淨天 (少淨) Parīttaśubhas. The first and smallest heaven (brahmaloka) in the third dhyāna region of form.

少財鬼 Hungry ghosts who pilfer because they are poor and get but little food.

屯 Collect, mass; to quarter, camp. To sprout; very; stingy.

屯崙摩 Druma, the king of the kinhara, male and female spirits whose music awakened mystics from their trance: v. 智度論 17.

巴 The open hand, palm; to lay hold of; to flatter.

巴利 Pali, considered by ' Southern ' Buddhists to be the language of Magadha, i. e. Māgadhī Prākrit, spoken by Śākyamuni: their Tripiṭaka is written in it. It is closely allied to Sanskrit, but phonetically decayed and

grammatically degenerate.

巴思巴 v. 八思巴.

巴連弗 Pataliputra, v. 波吒釐.

巴陵三轉語 The three cryptic sayings of Hàojiàn 顥鑑 styled Baling, name of his place in Yuèzhōu 嶽州. He was the successor of Yunmen 雲門. 'What is the way ? The seeing fall into wells. What is the feather-cutting sword (of Truth)?

Coral branches (i. e. moonbeams) prop up the moon. What is the divine (or deva) throng ? A silver bowl full of snow. '


巴鼻 (or 把鼻) ; 巴臂 Something to lay hold of, e. g. a nose or an arm; evidence.

幻 māyā. Illusion, hallucination, a conjurer's trick, jugglery, i. e. one of the ten illustrations of unreality.

幻人 or幻士 An illusionist, a conjurer.

幻力 The powers of a conjurer.

幻化 Illusion and transformation, or illusory transformation.

幻垢 Illusory and defiled, i. e. body and mind are alike illusion and unclean.

幻師 An illusionist, a conjurer.

幻心 The illusion mind, or mind is unreal.

幻惑 Illusory; to delude.

幻日王 Bālāditya, 婆羅阿迭多 the morning sun (lit. mock-sun) king, circa A. D. 191. 幻 probably should be 幼; a king of Magadha, who fought and captured Mihirakula, the king of 磔迦 Ceka, or the Hūnas, who was an opponent of


幻有 Illusory existence.

幻法 Conjuring tricks, illusion, methods of Bodhisattva transformation.

幻相 Illusion, illusory appearance.

幻者 The illusory; anything that is an illusion; all things, for they are illusion.

幻身 The illusion-body, i. e. this body is not real but an illusion.

幻野 The wilderness of illusion, i. e. mortal life.

幻門 The ways or methods of illusion, or of bodhisattva transformation.

引 To stretch, draw, lead, bring in or on.

引入 To introduce, initiate.

引化 Initiate and instruct.

引出佛性 One of the 三佛性 q. v. the Buddha-nature in all the living to be developed by proper processes.

引導 To lead men into Buddha-truth); also a phrase used at funerals implying the leading of the dead soul to the other world, possibly arising from setting alight the funeral pyre.

引座 A phrase used by one who ushers a preacher into the 'pulpit' to expound the Law.

引接 引攝 To accept, receive, welcome— as a Buddha does all who call on him, as stated in the nineteenth vow 第十九願 of Amitābha.

引果 The stage of fruition, i. e. reward or punishment in the genus, as contrasted with 滿引 the differentiated species or stages, e. g. for each organ, or variety of condition. 唯識論 2.

引業 引因; 牽引業; 總報業 The principal or integral direction of karma, in contrast with 滿引 its more detailed stages; see last entry.

引正太子 Sātavāhana, 沙多婆漢那 a prince of Kosala, whose father the king was the patron of Nāgārjuna; the prince, attributing his father's unduly prolonged life to Nāgārjuna's magic, is said to have compelled the latter to commit

suicide, on hearing of which the king died and the prince ascended the throne. 西域記 10.

引發因 One of the 十因 the force or cause that releases other forces or causes.

引磬 手磬 A hand-bell to direct the attention in services.

引請闍梨 A term for the instructor of beginners.

引飯大師 The great leader who introduces the meal, i. e. the club which beats the call to meals.

引駕大師 One of the 四大師 of the Tang dynasty; it was his duty to welcome back the emperor on his return to the palace, a duty at times apparently devolving on Buddhist monks.

心 hṛd, hṛdaya 汗栗太 (or 汗栗馱); 紀哩馱 the heart, mind, soul; citta 質多 the heart as the seat of thought or intelligence. In both senses the heart is likened to a lotus. There are various

definitions, of which the following are six instances: (1) 肉團心 hṛd, the physical heart of sentient or nonsentient living beings, e. g. men, trees, etc. (2) 集起心 citta, the ālayavijñāna, or totality of mind, and the

source of all mental activity. (3) 思量心 manas, the thinking and calculating mind; (4) 緣慮心; 了別心; 慮知心; citta; the discriminating mind; (5) 堅實心 the bhūtatathatā mind, or the permanent mind; (6) 積聚精要心

the mind essence of the sutras.

心一境性 one of the seven dhyāna 定, the mind fixed in one condition.

心不相應行 ( or 心不相應行法) The functioning of the mind not corresponding with the first three of the 五法 five laws, of which this is the fourth.

心乘 The mind vehicle, i. e. 心觀 meditation, insight.

心亭 The pavilion of the mind, i. e. the body; cf.|城.

心佛 The Buddha within the heart: from mind is Buddha hood: the Buddha revealed in or to the mind; the mind is Buddha. 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別 The mind, Buddha, and all the living — there is no

difference between the three. i. e. all are of the same order. This is an important doctrine of the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra, cf. its 夜摩天宮品; by Tiantai it is called 三法妙 the mystery of the three things.

心作 The karmic activity of the mind, the 意業 of the three agents, body, mouth, and mind.

心光 The light from (a Buddha's) mind, or merciful heart, especially that of Amitābha.


心印 Mental impression, intuitive certainty; the mind is the Buddha-mind in all, which can seal or assure the truth; the term indicates the intuitive method of the 禪 Ch' an (Zen) school, which was independent

of the spoken or written word.

心咒 One of the three classes of spells, idem 一字咒.

心命 Mind life, i. e. the life, longevity, or eternity of the dharmakāya or spiritual body, that of mind; also 慧命. v. 智度論 78.

心器 Mind as the receptacle of all phenomena.

心地 Mind, from which all things spīng; the mental ground, or condition; also used for 意 the third of the three agents-body, mouth, mind.

心城 The citadel of the mind, i. e. as guardian over action; others intp. it as the body, cf. 心亭.

心垢 The impurities of the mind, i. e. 煩惱 passion and delusion; the two phrases are used as synonyms.

心塵 Mind dust or dirt, i. e. 煩惱 the passions, greed, anger, etc.

心宗 The intuitive sect, i. e. the Ch'an (Zen) school; also 佛心宗; 禪宗.

心師 The mind as master, not (like the heretics) mastering (or subduing) the mind 師心.

心心 Every mind; also citta-caitta, mind and mental conditions, i. e. 心 and 心所.

心心數 The mind and its conditions or emotions; 心數 is an older form of 心所.

心念不空 Pondering on (Buddha) and not passing (the time) in vain.

心性 Immutable mind-corpus, or mind-nature, the self-existing fundamental pure mind, the all, the Tathāgata-garbha, or 如來藏心; 自性淸淨心; also described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith as immortal 不生不滅. Another

definition identifies 心 with 性 saying 性卽是心, 心卽是佛 the nature is the mind, and mind is Buddha; another, that mind and nature are the same when 悟 awake and understanding, but differ when 迷 in illusion; and further, in

reply to the statement that the Buddha-nature is eternal but the mind not eternal, it is said, the nature is like water, the mind like ice, illusion turns nature to mental ice form, awakening melts it

back to its proper nature.

心性三千 The universe in a thought; the mind as a microcosm.

心想 Thought; the thoughts of the mind.

心意識 Mind, thought, and perception (or discernment).

心慧 wisdom, i. e. mind or heart wisdom, e. g. 身戒心慧 controlled in body and wise in mind.

心懷戀慕 Heart-yearning (for the Buddha).

心所 (心所法) Mental conditions, the attributes of the mind, especially the moral qualities, or emotions, love, hate, etc.; also 心所有法, v. 心心.

心數 An older term for 心所q. v. the several qualities of the mind. The esoterics make Vairocana the 心王, i. e. Mind or Will, and 心數 the moral qualities, or mental attributes, are personified as his retinue.

心智 Mind and knowledge, or the wisdom of the mind, mind being the organ, knowing the function.

心月 Mind (as the) moon, the natural mind or heart pure and bright as the full moon.

心月輪 The mind' s or heart' s moon-revolutions, i. e. the moon' s varying stages, typifying the grades of enlightenment from beginner to saint.

心根 Manas, or the mind-organ, one of the twenty-five tattva 諦 or postulates of a universe.

心極 The pole or extreme of the mind, the mental reach; the Buddha.

心機 The motive power of the mind, the mind the motor.

心水 The mind as a reflecting water-surface; also the mind as water, clear or turbids.


心冰 The heart chaste as ice; the mind congealed as ice, i. e. unable to solve a difficulty.

心法 Mental dharmas, idea— all 'things' are divided into two classes 色 and 心 physical and mental; that which has 質礙 substance and resistance is physical, that which is devoid of these is mental; or the root of

all phenomena is mind 緣起諸法之根本者爲心法. The exoteric and esoteric schools differ in their interpretation: the exoterics hold that mental ideas or 'things' are 無色無形 unsubstantial and invisible, the esoterics that they 有

色有形 have both substance and form.

心法身 心是法身 The mind is dharmakāya, 'tathāgata in bonds,' 在纏如來.

心波 Mind waves, i. e. mental activity.

心海 Mind as a sea or ocean, external phenomena being the wind, and the 八識 eight forms of cognition being the waves.

心源 The fountain of the mind; the thought-welling fountain; mind as the fons et origo of all things.

心無所住 The mind without resting-place, i. e. detached from time and space, e. g. the past being past may be considered as a 'non-past' or non-existent, so with present and future, thus realizing their unreality.

The result is detachment, or the liberated mind, which is the Buddha-mind, the bodhi-mind, 無生心 the mind free from ideas of creation and extinction, of beginning and end, recognizing that all forms and natures

are of the Void, or Absolute.

心燈 The lamp of the mind; inner light, intelligence.

心猿 The mind as a restless monkey.

心王 The mind, the will the directive or controlling mind, the functioning mind as a whole, distinct from its 心所 or qualities.

心王如來 Vairocana as the ultimate mind, the attributes being personified as his retinue. Applied also to the 五佛 and the 九尊.

心王心所 The mind and its qualities, or conditions.

心珠 The mind stuff of all the living, being of the pure Buddha-nature, is likened to a translucent gem.

心生滅門 The two gates of mind, creation and destruction, or beginning and end.

心田 The field of the mind, or heart, in which spring up good and evil.

心目 Mind and eye, the chief causes of the emotions.

心相 Heart-shape (of the physical heart); manifestation of mind in action; (the folly of assuming that) mind has shape.

心相應行 Actions corresponding with mind, or mind productive of all action.

心眞 Our mind is by nature that of the bhūtatathatā.

心眞如門 The mind as bhūtatathatā, one of the 二門 of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

心眼 The eye of the mind, mental vision.

心神 The spirit of the mind, mental intelligence: mind.

心空 Mind-space, or mind spaciousness, mind holding all things, hence like space; also, the emptied mind, kenosis.

心經 Hṛdaya or 'Heart' Sutra, idem 般若心經; 般若波羅蜜多心經; styled 神分心經 'divinely distributed', when publicly recited to get rid of evil spirits.

心縛 The mind in bondage— taking the seeming for the real.

心緣 Mental cognition of the environment; to lay hold of external things by means of the mind.

心自在者 He whose mind is free, or sovereign, an arhat who has got rid of all hindrances to abstraction.

心華 Heart-flower, the heart in its original innocence resembling a fower.

心蓮 The lotus of the mind or heart; the exoteric school interprets it by original purity; the esoteric by the physical heart, which resembles a closed lotus with eight petals.


心藥 Medicine for the mind, or spirit.

心行 The activities of the mind, or heart; also working on the mind for its control; also mind and action.

心行不離 Mind and act not separated, thought and deed in accord, especially in relation to Amitābha.

心要 The very core, or essence.

心觀 Contemplation of the mind and its thoughts, v. 一心三觀.

心證 The inner witness, or assurance, mind and Buddha witnessing together.

心識 The mind and cognition; mind and its contents; the two are considered as identical in the Abhidharma-kośa, but different in Mahāyāna.

心趣 The bent or direction of the mind, or moral nature.

心跡 Footprints, or indications of mind, i. e. the mind revealed by deeds.

心路 The mind-road, i. e. the road to Buddhahood.

心量 Mind-measure; the ordinary man's calculating mind; also, capacity of mind.

心鏡 The heart-mirror, or mirror of the mind, which must be kept clean if it is to reflect the Truth.

心靈 The mind spirit, or genius; intelligence; cf. 心燈.

心願 The will of the mind, resolve, vow.

心香 The incense of the mind, or heart, i. e. sincere devotion.

心馬 The mind like a horse, that needs breaking in, or stimulating with a whip, cf. 心猿.

心鬼 A perverse mind, whose karma will be that of a wandering ghost.

心魔 (心魔賊) The māra-robbers of the mind, i. e. the passions.

戈 A spear.

戈追 idem 倶胝 q. v. Koti.

手 pāṇī; hasta; kara; hand, arm.

手印 mūdra, mystic positions of the hand; signet-rings, seals; finger-prints.

手口意相應 In yoga practices it means correspondence of hand, mouth, and mind, i. e. manual signs, esoteric words or spells, and thought or mental projection.

手執金剛杵 Vajrapāṇi, or Vajradhara, who holds the thunderbolt.

手爐 A portable censer (with handle).

手磬 A hand-chime (or bell) struck with a stick.

手輪 The lines on the palm and fingers— especially the 'thousand' lines on a Buddha's hand.

支 A branch; to branch, put off, pay, advance.

支伐羅 至縛羅 cīvara. A mendicant' s garment.

支佛, 辟支佛 A pratyekabuddha, who understands the twelve nidānas, or chain of causation, and so attains to complete wisdom. His stage of attainment is the 支佛地.

支具 支度 The various articles required for worship.

支提 支帝; 支徵; 支陀; 脂帝. Newer forms are 制多; 制底 (制底耶); 制地, i. e. 刹, 塔, 廟 caitya. A tumulus, a mausoleum; a place where the relics of Buddha were collected, hence a place where his sutras or images are placed. Eight famous

Caityas formerly existed: Lumbinī, Buddha-gayā, Vārāṇasī, Jetavana, Kanyākubja, Rājagṛha 王舍城, Vaiśālī, and the Śāla grove in Kuśinagara. Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the exact connotation of the terms

given, some being referred to graves or stūpas, others to shrines or temples, but in general the meaning is stūpas, shrines, and any collection of objects of worship.

支提山部 支提加部; 制多山部; 只底舸部 ? Caityaśaila; described as one of the twenty sects of the Hīnayāna, and as ascetic dwellers among tombs or in caves.

支樓迦讖 支讖 Chih-lou-chia-ch'an, a śramaṇa who came to China from Yueh-chih A. D. 147 or A. D. 164 and worked at translations till A. D. 186 at Loyang.

支用 To divide, distribute for use, i. e. 分用.

支謙 Chih-ch'ien; name of a Yueh-chih monk said to have come to Loyang at the end of the Han dynasty and under the Wei; tall, dark, emaciated, with light brown eyes; very learned and wise.

支那, 指那, 眞丹, 至那, 斯那, 振旦, 震旦, 眞那, 振丹, 脂難, 旃丹; 摩訶至那 Cina; Maha-cina. The name by which China is referred to in the laws of Manu (which assert that the Chinese were degenerate Kṣatriya), in the Mahābharata, and in

Buddhist works. This name may have been derived from families ruling in western China under such titles as 晉 Chin at Fen-chou in Shansi 1106-376 B. C., 陳 Ch'en in Honan 1122-479 B. C., 秦 Ch'in in Shensi as early as the ninth

century B. C., and to this latter dynasty the designation is generally attributed.


支那提婆瞿恒羅 漢天種 Cīnadeva gotra. The 'solar deva' of Han descent, first king of Khavandha, born to a princess of the Han dynasty (206 B. C. -A. D. 220) on her way as a bride-elect to Persia, the parentage being attributed to

the solar deva. 西域記 12.

支鄰陀 Mucilinda, v. 目 or 摩訶 Maha-m.

支郞 Chih-lang, formerly a polite term for a monk, said to have arisen from the fame of the three 支 Chih of the Wei dynasty 支謙 Chih-ch'ien, 支讖 Chih-ch'an, and 支亮 Chih-liang.

文 Letters, literature, writing; refined; culture; civil; a despatch; veined; a cash; to gloss.

文句 Textual explanation or criticism, also termed 章; 疏; 述義; 記, etc.; the term applies to works on canonical texts in general, but has particular reference to the Lotus Sutra, i. e. the 妙法蓮華經文句.

文來 A portfolio, or satchel for Buddhist books.

文字 The letter; letters; literal; the written word is described as the breath and life of the dharmakāya; cf. 嚕 ruta.

文字人 A literalist, pedant; narrow.

文字法師 A teacher of the letter of the Law, who knows not its spirit.

文尼 muni, idem 牟尼 and 茂尼, e. g. Śākyamuni.

文殊 (文殊師利) Mañjuśrī 滿殊尸利 -later 曼殊室利. 文殊 is also used for Mañjunātha, Mañjudeva, Mañjughoṣa, Mañjuṣvara, et al. T., hjamdpal; J., Monju. Origin unknown; presumably, like most Buddhas and bodhisattvas, an idealization of a

particular quality, in his case of Wisdom. Mañju is beautiful, Śrī; good fortune, virtue, majesty, lord, an epithet of a god. Six definitions are obtained from various scriptures: 妙首 (or 頭 ) wonderful or beautiful)

head; 普首 universal head; 濡首 glossy head (probably a transliteration); 敬首 revered head; 妙德 wonderful virtue (or power); 妙吉祥 wonderfully auspicious; the last is a later translation in the 西域記. As guardian of wisdom 智慧

he is often placed on Śākyamuni's left, with 普顯 on the right as guardian of law 理, the latter holding the Law, the former the wisdom or exposition of it; formerly they held the reverse positions. He is often represented with

five curls or waves to his hair indicating the 五智 q. v. or the five peaks; his hand holds the sword of wisdom and he sits on a lion emblematic of its stern majesty: but he has other forms. He is represented as a youth, i. e.

eternal youth. His present abode is given as east of the universe, known as 淸涼山 clear and cool mountain, or a region 寶住 precious abode, or Abode of Treasures, or 寶氏 from which he derives one of his titles, 寶相如來. One of his

dhāraṇīs prophesies China as his post-nirvāṇa realm. In past incarnations he is described as being the parent of many Buddhas and as having assisted the Buddha into existence; his title was 龍種上佛 the supreme

Buddha of the nāgas, also 大身佛 or 神仙佛; now his title is 歡喜藏摩尼寶精佛 The spiritual Buddha who joyfully cares for the jewel: and his future title is to be 普現佛 Buddha universally revealed. In the 序品 Introductory Chapter

of the Lotus Sutra he is also described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Śākyamuni. He is looked on as the chief of the Bodhisattvas and represents them, as the chief disciple of the Buddha, or as his

son 法王子. Hīnayāna counts Śāriputra as the wisest of the disciples, Mahāyāna gives Mañjuśrī the chief place, hence he is also styled 覺母 mother, or begetter of understanding. He is shown riding on either a lion or a peacock,

or sitting on a white lotus; often he holds a book, emblem of wisdom, or a blue lotus; in certain rooms of a monastery he is shown as a monk; and he appears in military array as defender of the faith. His signs,

magic words, and so on, are found in various sutras. His most famous centre in China is Wu-tai shan in Shansi. where he is the object of pilgrimages, especially of Mongols. The legends about him are many. He

takes the place in Buddhism of Viśvakarman as Vulcan, or architect, of the universe. He is one of the eight Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, and sometimes has the image of Akṣobhya in his crown. He was mentioned in China as early as

the fourth century and in the Lotus Sutra he frequently appears, especially as the converter of the daughter of the Dragon-king of the Ocean. He has five messengers 五使者 and eight youths 八童子 attending on him. His hall in the

Garbhadhātu maṇḍala is the seventh, in which his group numbers twenty-five. His position is northeast. There are numerous sutras and other works with his name as title, e. g. 文殊師利問菩提經 Gayaśīrṣa sūtra, tr. by Kumārajīva 384-417: and

its 論 or .Tīkā of Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhiruci 535. see list in B. N.

文殊三昧 The samādhi of Mañjuśrī styled the 無相妙慧 formless wonderful wisdom, or wonderful wisdom in the realm of that which is beyond form.


文殊五使者 The five messengers of Mañjuśrī, each bearing one of his 五智 five expressions of wisdom; they are 髻設尼; 優波髻設尼; 質多羅; 地慧, and 請召.

文殊八大童子 The eight 'pages' of Mañjuśrī are 光網; 地慧; 無垢光; 不思慧; 召請; 髻設尼; 救護慧, and 鄥波髻設尼.

文殊悔過 The repentance of Mañjuśrī, i. e. of his former doubting mind, cf. St. Thomas.

文殊院 The seventh great court of the thirteen in the Garbhadhātu group; it shows Mañjuśrī in the centre of a group of twenty-five.

文池 The dragon pool by the side of the throne of Vajrapāṇi, called 目眞鄰陀 Mucilinda q. v.

文理 The written word and the truth expressed; written principles, or reasonings; a treatise; literary style.

文證 The evidence of the written word, or scripture.

文陀竭 Mūrdhajāta, Māndhātṛ, i. e. 頂生王 born from his mother's head, a reputed previous incarnation of the Buddha, who still ambitious, despite his universal earthly sway, his thousand sons, etc., few to Indra's

heaven, saw the 天上玉女 celestial devī, but on the desire arising to rule there on Indra's death, he was hurled to earth; v. 文陀竭王經.

斗 A bushel, i. e. ten Chinese pints.

斗帳 A bushel-shaped curtain, e. g. a state umbrella.

斗姥 Dame of the Bushel; queen of heaven 天后 or Marīci, 摩利支.

斗父天尊 The husband of the Dame of the Bushel 斗姥, a Daoist attribution.

斤 An adze; to chop; a catty, 1 and 1/3 lb.: penetrating, minute.

斤斗 筋斗; 巾斗 A somersault.

方 Square; place; correct; a means, plan, prescription; then, now, just.

方丈 An abbot, 寺主 head of a monastery; the term is said to arise from the ten-foot cubic dwelling in which 維摩 Vimalakirti lived, but here seems to be no Sanskrit equivalent.

方便 upāya. Convenient to the place, or situation, suited to the condition, opportune, appropriate; but 方 is interpreted as 方法 method, mode, plan, and 便 as 便用 convenient for use, i. e. a convenient or expedient method; also 方 as 方正

and 便 as 巧妙, which implies strategically correct. It is also intp. as 權道智 partial, temporary, or relative (teaching of) knowledge of reality, in contrast with 般若智 prajñā, and 眞實 absolute truth, or reality instead

of the seeming. The term is a translation of 傴和 upāya, a mode of approach, an expedient, stratagem, device. The meaning is— teaching according to the capacity of the hearer, by any suitable method, including that of device or

stratagem, but expedience beneficial to the recipient is understood. Mahāyāna claims that the Buddha used this expedient or partial method in his teaching until near the end of his days, when he enlarged it to the revelation of

reality, or the preaching of his final and complete truth; Hīnayāna with reason denies this, and it is evident that the Mahāyāna claim has no foundation, for the whole of its 方等 or 方廣 scriptures are of later invention.

Tiantai speaks of the 三乘 q. v. or Three Vehicles as 方便 expedient or partial revelations, and of its 一乘 or One Vehicle as the complete revelation of universal Buddhahood. This is the teaching of the Lotus Sutra,

which itself contains 方便 teaching to lead up to the full revelation; hence the terms 體内 (or 同體 ) 方便, i. e. expedient or partial truths within the full revelation, meaning the expedient part of the Lotus, and 體外方便 the

expedient or partial truths of the teaching which preceded the Lotus; see the 方便品 of that work, also the second chapter of the 維摩經. 方便 is also the seventh of the ten pāramitās.

方便化身土 An intermediate 'land 'of the Japanese monk 見眞 Kenshin, below the Pure-land, where Amitābha appears in his transformation-body.

方便土 Abbreviation for the last and next but one.

方便智 upāya-jñāna; the wisdom or knowledge of using skilful means (for saving others).

方便有餘土 One of the Tiantai 四土 Four Lands, which is temporary, as its occupants still have remains to be purged away.

方便殺生 The right of great Bodhisattvas, knowing every one's karma, to kill without sinning, e. g. in order to prevent a person from committing sin involving unintermitted suffering, or to aid him in reaching

one of the higher reincarnations.

方便波羅蜜 upāya, the seventh pāramitā.

方便波羅蜜菩薩 A bodhisattva in the Garbhadhātu group, the second on the right in the hall of Space.

方便現涅槃 Though the Buddha is eternal, he showed himself as temporarily extinct, as necessary to arouse a longing for Buddha, cf. Lotus, 16.

方便門 The gates of upāya, i. e. convenient or expedient gates leading into Truth.

方便假門 Expedient gates or ways of using the seeming for the real.


方典 A term covering the whole of the Mahāyāna sutras, idem 方等經典.

方口食 Opportunism in obtaining a living, i. e. a monk who makes a living by fawning or by bullying, one of the 四邪命 four illicit ways of livelihood.

方外 Out of the world; the life of a monk.

方廣 vaipulya, 毘佛略 expansion, enlargement, broad, spacious. 方 is intp. by 方正 correct in doctrine and 廣 by 廣博 broad or wide; some interpret it by elaboration, or fuller explanation of the doctrine; in general it may be taken

as the broad school, or wider teaching, in contrast with the narrow school, or Hīnayāna. The term covers the whole of the specifically Mahāyāna sutras. The sutras are also known as 無量義經 scriptures of measureless meaning, i. e.

universalistic, or the infinite. Cf. 方等.

方廣大莊嚴經 A vaipulya sutra, the Lalita-vistara, in 12 chuan, giving an account of the Buddha in the Tuṣita heaven and his descent to earth as Śākyamuni: tr. by Divākara under the Tang dynasty; another tr.

is the 普曜經.

方廣道人 Heretical followers of Mahāyāna, who hold a false doctrine of 空 the Void, teaching it as total non-existence, or nihilism.

方相 Square, four square, one of the five shapes.

方等 vaipulya; cf. 方廣. 方 is interpreted as referring to the doctrine, 等 as equal, or universal, i. e. everynwhere equally. An attempt is made to distinguish between the two above terms, 方廣 being now used for vaipulya,

but they are interchangeable. Eitel says the vaipulya sutras 'are distinguished by an expansion of doctrine and style (Sūtras developées, Burnouf). They are apparently of later date, showing the influence of different

schools; their style is diffuse and prolix, repeating the same idea over and over again in prose and in verse; they are also frequently interlarded with prophecies and dhāraṇīs'; but the two terms seem to refer rather to the content than

the form. The content is that of universalism. Chinese Buddhists assert that all the sutras from the 華嚴 Huayan onwards are of this class and therefore are Mahāyāna. Consequently all 方等 or 方廣 sutras are

claimed by that school. Cf. 方便.

方等三昧 One of Tiantai's methods of inducing samādhi, partly by walking, partly by sitting, based on the 大方等陀羅尼經; Zhiyi delivered the 方等三昧行法 to his disciple 灌頂 Guanding who wrote it in one juan.

方等懺悔 (方等懺) One of the subjects of meditation in the 方等三昧 on the hindrances caused by the six organs of sense.

方等戒壇 (方等壇) An open altar at which instruction in the commandments was preached to the people, founded on the Mahāyāna-vaipulya sutras; the system began in 765 in the capital under 代宗 Daizong of the Tang dynasty

and continued, with an interim under 武宗 Wuzong, till the 宣宗 Xuanzong period.

方等時 The third of the five periods of Tiantai 五時教, the eight years from the twelfth to the twentieth years of the Buddha's teaching, i. e. the period of the 維摩經, the 金光明經, and other vaipulya sutras.

方等部 The sutras taught during the 方等時 expedient period.

方服 A monk's robe 袈裟 said to be so called because of its square appearance; also 方袍.

方規 Square-shaped, properly, according to scale.

方詣 Direction.

日 sūrya; the sun; a day. 蘇利耶.

日光 (日光菩薩); 蘇利也波羅皮遮那 Sūrya-prabhāsana. Sunlight, and 月光 (月光菩薩) Moonlight, name of two Bodhisattva assistants of 藥師 the Master of Healing; Sunlight is the ninth in the Dizang Court of the Garbhadhātu group.

日出論者 The sunrise exponents, a title of the founders of the 經部宗 before the Christian era.

日域 Japan.

日天 (日天子) sūrya, 蘇利耶; 修利; 修野天子 (or 修意天子) 天子; also 寳光天子. The sun-ruler; one of the metamorphoses of Guanyin, dwelling in the sun as palace, driving a quadriga.

日天衆 The retinue of Indra in his palace of the sun.

日宮 The sun-palace, the abode of 日天子 supra.

日幢華眼鼓 Five characters taken from the names of, and representing five Buddhas in the Vajradhātu 大日, 寳幢, 華開敷, 蓮華眼, and 天鼓雷音.

日想觀 Meditation on, and observing of the setting sun, the first of the sixteen meditations in the 觀無量壽經.

日旋三昧 sūryāvarta-samādhi, one of the sixteen samādhi mentioned in the 法華經, 妙音品; 日輪三昧 is an older name for it.

日星宿 Nakṣatratārā-rāja-ditya; a degree of meditation, i. e. the sun, stars and constellations samādhi.

日曜 The sun, one of the nine 曜 luminaries; one of the retinue of 日天 shown in the eastern part of the Garbhadhātu group driving three horses.

日月淨明德 Candra-vimala-sūrya-prabhāsa-śrī. A Buddha whose realm resembles Sukhāvatī.

日月燈明佛 Candra-sūrya-pradīpa, or Candrārkadīpa. The title of 20, 000 Buddhas who succeeded each other preaching the Lotus Sutra, v. 法華經, 序品.


日本 Japan. Buddhism was introduced there from Korea in the sixth century, and in the seventh from China.

日禺中 10 a. m. styled by Tiantai the hour of 般若 wisdom.

日種 Sūrya-vaṃśa, one of the five surnames of Śākyamuni, sun-seed or lineage, his first ancestors having been produced by the sun from. 'two stalks of sugar-cane'; v. Ikṣvāku.

日精摩尼 A maṇi 摩尼, or pearl, crystal-clear as the sun, which gives sight to the blind.

日蓮 Nichiren, the Japanese founder, in A. D. 1252, of the 日蓮宗 Nichiren sect, which is also known as the 法華宗 or Lotus sect. Its chief tenets are the three great mysteries 三大祕法, representing the trikāya: (1) 本尊 or

chief object of worship, being the great maṇḍala of the worlds of the ten directions, or universe, i. e. the body or nirmāṇakāya of Buddha; (2) 題目 the title of the Lotus Sutra 妙法蓮華經 Myo-ho-ren-gwe-

kyo, preceded by Namo, or, 'Adoration to the scripture of the lotus of the wonderful law, ' for it is Buddha's spiritual body; (3) 戒壇 the altar of the law, which is also the title of the Lotus as above;

the believer, wherever he is, dwells in the Pure-land of calm light 寂光淨土, the saṃbhogakāya.

日輪 The sun's disc, which is the exterior of the sun palace of 日天子; it is said to consist of sphaṭika, or fiery crystal.

月 candra, 旅達 (旅達羅); 旂陀羅; 戰達羅; 戰捺羅 the moon, called also 蘇摩 soma, from the fermented juice of asclepias acida used in worship, and later personified in association with the moon. It has many other epithets, e. g. 印度 Indu,

incorrectly intp. as marked like a hare; 創夜神 Niśākara, maker of the night; 星宿王 Nakṣatranātha, lord of constellations; 喜懷之頭飾 the crest of Siva; 蓮華王 Kumuda-pati, lotus lord; 白馬主 Śvetavājin, drawn by (or

lord of) white horses; 大白光神 Śītāṃśu, the spirit with white rays; 冷光神 Sitamarici, the spirit with cool rays; 鹿形神 Mṛgāṅka, the spirit with marks m form like a deer; 野兎形神 Śaśi, ditto like a hare.

月上女經 Candrottarā-dārikā-vyākaraṇa-sūtra of the maid in the moon.

月光 Candraprabha, 戰達羅鉢刺婆 Moonlight. One of the three honoured ones in the Vajradhātu, and in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu, known also as 淸涼金剛.

月光太子 Moonlight prince, name of Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation as a prince, when he split one of his bones to anoint a leper with its marrow and gave him of his blood to drink. 智度論 12.

月光王 Moonlight king, the same as 月光太子, the name of Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation when he gave his head to a brahman.

月光童子 月光兒 The son of an elder of the capital of Magadha, who listening to heretics and against his son's pleadings, endeavoured to destroy the Buddha in a pitfall of fire, but, on the Buddha's approach, the fire

turned to a pool and the father was converted; the son was then predicted by the Buddha to be king of China in a future incarnation, when all China and the Mongolian and other tribes would be converted, v. 月光童子經


月光菩薩 The bodhisattva Moonlight who attends on 藥師 the Master of Healing; also in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu; used for 月光王; v. 月光菩薩經.

月兎 The hare in the moon.

月分 Moon and division, a tr. of candrabhaga, 旃達羅婆伽 The two rivers Candra and Bhaga joined. The Chenab river, Punjab, the Acesines of Alexander.

月壇 An external altar in temples in the open, i. e. under the moon.

月天 Candradeva, or Somadeva. 旃達提婆 (or 蘇摩提婆) The ruler of the moon, to whom the terms under 月 supra are also applied.

月天子 The male regent of the moon, named 寳吉祥, one of the metamorphoses of the Bodhisattva 勢至 Mahāsthāmaprāpta; the male regent has also his queen 月天妃.

月婆首那 Upaśūnya, 高 空 an Indian monk, son of the king of 優禪尼 Udyāna, who tr. 僧伽叱經.

月宮 The moon-palace of the 月天子 made of silver and crystal; it is described as forty-nine yojanas square, but there are other accounts.

月忌 The return of the day in each month when a person died.

月愛三昧 A Buddha's 'moon-love samādhi' in which he rids men of the distresses of love and hate.

月愛珠 Candrakānta, the moon-love pearl or moonstone, which bestows abundance of water or rain.

月支 (月支國) The Yuezhi, or 'Indo-Scythians', 月氏 (國) and a country they at one time occupied, i. e. 都貨羅 Tukhara, Tokharestan, or Badakshan. Driven out from the northern curve of the Yellow River by the Huns, circa 165 B. C., they

conquered Bactria 大夏, the Punjab, Kashmir, 'and the greater part of India. ' Their expulsion from the north of Shansi was the cause of the famous journey of Zhangqian of the Han dynasty and the beginning of [[Wikipedia:


Chinese]] expansion to the north-west. Kanishka, king of the Yuezhi towards the end of the first century A. D., became the great protector and propagator of Buddhism.


月明菩薩 idem 月光菩薩; there is a 月明菩薩經. Also 月明童子 (or 月明男).

月曜 Moon-shining, or Moon-effulgence; a group shown outside the Garbhadhātu group in the Diamond Court.

月燈三昧 candra-dīpa-samādhi, the samādhi said to have been given to 月光童子 by Buddha, the sutra of which is in two translations.

月王 Moon-king, 設賞迦 Śaśāṇka, a ruler of Karṇasuvarṇa, who tried to destroy the bodhidruma, Buddha's tree; dethroned by Śīlāditya.

月冑 Candravarma, 旃達羅伐摩 a learned monk of the Nāgavadana monastery.

月眉 New moon eyebrows, i. e. arched like the Buddha's.