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A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms-007

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Bear, endure, let; office; it is used to connote laisser-faire; one of the 四病, as 任運 implies laisser-aller; it is intp. by let things follow their own course, or by 自然 naturally, without intervention.

Look up, respectful; lying with the face upward, opposite of ; translit. n as in aṅga, cf. , .

仰山 To look up to the hill; Yang-shan, name of a noted monk.

仰月點 A half-moon on its back, i. e. ⌣, a sign in the esoteric sect.

Desist, give up; resign; divorce; blessing, favour.

休屠 Lit. 'Desist from butchering, 'said to be the earliest Han term for 浮屠, 佛圖, etc., Buddha. The 漢武故事 says that the King of Vaiśālī 毘邪 killed King 體屠 (or the non-butchering kings), took his golden gods, over

10 feet in height, and put them in the 甘泉宮 Sweet-spring palace; they required no sacrifices of bulls or rams, but only worship of incense, so the king ordered that they should be served after their national method.

Prostrate; humble; suffer, bear; ambush; dog-days; hatch; it is used for control, under control, e. g. as delusion; is contrasted with it as complete extirpation, so that no delusive thought arises.

伏忍 The first of the 五忍 five forms of submission, self-control, or patience.

伏藏 To bury, hide away.

伏陀 The Vedas, v. 韋.

伏駄蜜多 Buddhamitra, of northern India, the ninth patriarch, a vaiśya by birth (third caste), author of the 五門禪經要用法 Pancadvara-dhyāna-sutramahartha-dharma; he was styled Mahā-dhyāna-guru.

To cut down, chastise; a go-between; to make a display; translit. va.

伐伽 跋渠 varga, tr. by a class, division, group.

伐刺拏 Varana, 'a mountainous province of Kapiśā with city of the same name, probably the country south-east of Wauneh in Lat. 32°30 N., Long. 69°25 E. ' Eitel. Perhaps Bannu, v. Levi, J. Asiatique, xi, v, p. 73. Also v. 障.

伐地 Vadi or Vati. 'An ancient little kingdom and city on the Oxus, the modern Betik, Lat. 39°7 N., Long. 63°10 E. ' Eitel.

伐折羅 vajra. 伐闍羅; 縛日羅 (or 嚩日羅 or 跋日羅) (or 跋日囉); 嚩馹囉; 跋折羅 (or 跋闍羅); 跋折多; 波闍羅 (or 髮闍羅), tr. by 金剛 (金剛杵) Diamond club; the thunderbolt, svastika; recently defined by Western scholars as a sun symbol. It

is one of the saptaratna, seven precious things; the sceptre of Indra as god of thunder and lightning, with which he slays the enemies of Buddhism; the sceptre of the exorcist; the symbol of the all conquering power

of Buddha.

伐折羅陀羅 持金剛 (or 執金剛) Vajradhara, the bearer of the vajra.

伐折羅嚩羅 vajrajvāla, i. e. flame, tr. as 金剛光 the scintillation of the diamond, the lightning.

伐浪伽 Varanga, name of a spirit, or god; a name of Viṣṇu as beautiful.

伐臘毗 Valabhī. Modern Wālā. 'An ancient kingdom and city on the eastern coast of Gujerat. ' Eitel. Known also as 北羅 northern Lata.

伐蘇蜜呾羅 Vasumitra, v. 筏.

伐蘇槃度 (or 伐蘇畔度) ; 婆藪槃豆 Vasubandhu, v. 天親.

伐那婆斯 Vanavāsin, one of the sixteen arhats.

伐里沙 varṣa, rain; name of a noted Saṃkhyā leader, Varsaganya.

伐闍羅弗多羅 Vajraputra, one of the sixteen arhats.

He, she, it; that; translit. i, ai, ṛ; cf. , and ; for the long ī the double characters 翳吚 and 伊伊 are sometimes used.

伊字三點 refers to the Sanskrit sign (?) as neither across nor upright, being of triangular shape, and indicating neither unity nor difference, before nor after. The Nirvana Sutra applies the three parts to 法身 dharmakāya, 般

prajñā and 解脫 vimokṣa, all three being necessary to complete nirvana. It is also associated with the three eyes of Śiva. When considered across they represent fire, when upright, water. At a later period the three were

joined (?) in writing.

伊刹尼 ikṣaṇi, or ikṣaṇa, defined as a magic mode of reading another's thoughts.

伊吾 (伊吾盧) I-wu(-lu), the modern Hami, so called during the Han dynasty. Later it was known as I-wu Chün and I-chou. v. Serindia, P. 1147.

伊尼延 aiṇeya(s); also 伊泥延 (or 伊梨延) 伊泥延陀); 因尼延 (or 黳尼延 or M003885 ) ; 翳泥耶 (or 瑿泥耶) the black antelope; intp. as 鹿 (鹿王) a deer, or royal stag.

伊泥延腨相 (or M065770) aiṇeyajaṅgha. The eighth of the thirty-two characteristic signs of a Buddha, knees like those of a royal stag.


伊師迦 iṣīkā, an arrow, dart, elephant's eyeball; Ṛṣigiri, a high hill at Rājagṛha, v. 伊師迦私; a type of 我見, 我曼 egoism, etc.

伊帝目多伽 (or 伊帝日多伽 or 伊帝越多伽) ityuktas, so said, or reported; itivṛttakam, so occurring; the Buddha's discourses arising out of events; intp. as 本事 q. v. personal events, or Jātaka stories, one of the twelve classes of Buddhist

literature, i. e. 十二部經 biographical narratives.

伊梨沙般荼迦 (or 伊利沙般荼迦) īrṣyāpaṇḍaka, also 伊梨沙掌拏 eunuchs, or impotent save when stirred by jealousy, cf. .

伊沙 IIśa, master, lord. 伊沙 is used for 伊舍那 q. v., but 伊沙那 īśāna, possessing, is intp. as 聚落 a settled place, locality, and may be Iiśānapura, v. infra 伊賞.

伊沙陁羅 伊沙駄羅 Iiṣādhara. A chain of mountains, being the second of the seven concentric circles surrounding Sumeru; defined as 持軸 holding the axis, or axle, also as 車軸 the axletree, or 自在持 sovereign control. It is made of the

seven precious things, and its sea, 42, 000 yojanas wide, is filled with fragrant flowers.

伊爛拏 (伊爛拏鉢伐多) Iiriṇa-parvata, or Hiraṇya-parvata. An ancient kingdom noted for a volcano near its capital, the present Monghir, Lat. 25 16 N., Long. 86°26 E. Eitel.

伊私耆梨 Ṛṣigiri, 仙山, name of a mountain in Magadha; M. W.

伊羅婆那 Airāvaṇa; 伊羅婆拏; 伊羅鉢那 (or 伊那鉢那); 伊蘭; 堙羅 (堙羅那) q. v.; ?羅婆那 (or ?那婆那); 黳羅葉 (or 毉羅葉), etc. Airāvaṇa, come from the water; Indra's elephant; a tree, the elāpattra; name of a park (i. e. Lumbinī, where the Buddha is

said to have been born).

伊羅跋提河 Erāvatī, Airāvatī, Irāvatī, the river Ravi, also abbrev. to 跋提 Vati.

伊羅鉢龍王 (伊羅鉢多羅龍王); 伊羅多羅 (or 伊羅跋羅); 伊羅婆那; 伊那槃婆龍 and many other forms, v. supra. Elāpattra, Erāpattra, Eḍavarṇa, Ersavarṇa. A nāga, or elephant, which is also a meaning of Airāvaṇa and Airāvata. A nāga-guardian of a sea or lake, who

had plucked a herb wrongfully in a previous incarnation, been made into a naga and now begged the Buddha that he might be reborn in a higher sphere. Another version is that he pulled up a tree, which stuck to his

head and grew there, hence his name. One form is 伊羅婆那龍象王, which may have an association with Indra's elephant.

伊舍那 (伊舍那天) Iiśāna; 伊邪那 (or 伊賒那); v. 伊沙 'one of the older names of Siva-Rudra; one of the Rudras; the sun as a form of Śiva, ' M. W. Maheśvara; the deva of the sixth desire-heaven; head of the

external Vajra-hall of the Vajradhātu group; Siva with his three fierce eyes and tusks.

伊舍那后 IIśānī, wife of Śiva, Durgā.

伊葉波羅 Iśvara 伊溼伐羅 (1) King, sovereign; Siva and others; intp. by 自在 self-existing, independent; applied to Guanyin and other popular deities. (2) A śramaṇa of the West, learned in the Tripiṭaka, who inter

alia translated A. D. 426 Samyuktābhidharma-hṛdaya-śāstra, lost since A. D. 730. (3) A bhikṣu of India, commentator on 菩提資糧論 attributed to Nāgārjuna, tr. by Dharmagupta, A. D. 590-616.

伊蒲塞 upāsaka, a lay member of the Buddhist Church, v. 優.

伊蘭 airāvaṇa, erāvaṇa, 伊羅 and other forms, v. supra; name of a tree with beautiful flowers of nauseous scent which spreads its odour for 40 li; typifying 煩惱 the passions and delusions.

伊賞那補羅 IIśānapura. An ancient kingdom in Burma. Eitel. Cf. 伊沙那.

伊迦波提羅那 A title of a Tathāgata, intp. as 最上大王 the supreme deva-king.

兆 An omen; a million.

兆載永劫 The perpetual aeon of millions of years, the kalpa beyond numbers.

先 Fore, before, former, first; precede.

先世 A previous life, or world.

先哲 先達 One who has preceded (me) in understanding, or achievement.

先尼 西儞迦; 霰尼 sainika, senika, martial, a commander; a class of non-Buddhists, perhaps the Jains; it may be connected with Śraiṇya, Śreṇika.

先業 Karma from a previous life.

先照高山 The rising sun first shines on the highest mountains.

先生 Senior, sir, teacher, master, Mr.; a previous life.

先進 先輩 Of earlier, or senior rank or achievement.

先陀 (先陀婆) Saindhava, interpreted as salt, a cup, water, and a horse; born or produced in Sihdh, or near the Indus; also a minister of state in personal attendance on the king.

先陀客 A man of renown, wealth, and wisdom.


光 光明 prabha, light, brightness, splendour, to illuminate.

光世音 idem 觀世音.

光宅 Kuang-chai, name of the temple where 法雲 Fa-yun early in the sixth century wrote his commentary on the Lotus Sutra, which is known as the 光宅疏; 光宅 became his epithet. He made a division of four yāna from the Burning House

parable, the goat cart representing the śrāvaka, the deer cart the pratyekabuddha, the ox-cart the Hīnayāna bodhisattva, and the great white ox-cart the Mahāyāna bodhisattva; a division adopted by T'ien-t'ai.

光寳 Two noted monks of 大慈恩 T'zu-en monastery under the Tang dynasty, 普光 P'u-kuang and 法寳 Fa-Pao, the first the author of 倶舍論記, the second of a commentary 疏 on the same śāstra, each in 30 juan.

光座 prabha-maṇḍala; the halo and throne (of a Buddha); also 光趺.

光德國 Avabhāsa, the kingdom of light and virtue, or glorious virtue, in which Mahākāśyapa is to be reborn as a Buddha under the name of 光明 Raśmiprabhāsa.

光明 v. last entry.

光明土 The glory land, or Paradise of Amitābha.

光明壇 The fire altar.

光明大梵 Jyotiṣprabhā, the great illustrious Brahman, whose Buddha-realm 'is to contribute some Bodhisattvas for that of Amitābha'. Eitel.

光明寺 光明大師 (or 光明和尚). Guangming si, temple and title of 善導 Shandao, a noted monk of the Tang dynasty under Gaozong.

光明山 The shining hill, or monastery, a name for the abode of Guanyin, said to be in India, and called Potala.

光明心殿 The temple of the bright or shining heart; the seat of Vairocana, the sun Buddha, in the Vajradhātu maṇḍala.

光明王 One of the twenty-five bodhisattvas who, with Amitābha, welcomes to Paradise the dying who call on Buddha.

光明眞言 A dhāraṇī by whose repetition the brightness or glory of Buddha may be obtained, and all retribution of sin be averted.

光毫 The ūrṇā, or curl between the Buddha's eyebrows whence streams light that reveals all worlds, one of the thirty-two characteristics of a Buddha.

光照如來相 Vairocana-raśmi-prati-maṇḍita-dhvaja; 'a Bodhisattva, disciple of Śākyamuni, who was in a former life Vimaladattā. ' Eitel.

光燄王佛 The royal Buddha of shining fames, or flaming brightness, Amitābha, with reference to his virtues.

光瑞 The auspicious ray sent from between the Buddha's eyebrows before a revelation.

光目女 The bright-eyed (or wide-eyed) daughter, a former incarnation of 地藏 Kṣitigarbha.

光統 Guang the general supervisor, i. e. the monk 慧光 Huiguang, sixth century, who resigned the high office of 統 and tr. the 十地經論.

光網童子 Jālinīprabhakumāra, 惹哩寧鉢囉婆倶摩羅; one of the eight attendants on Mañjuśrī; he is the youth with the shining net.

光聚佛頂 one of the five 佛頂 q. v.

光記 The above-mentioned 倶舍論記 in 30 juan by 普光 Puguang, v. 光寳.

光降 The honoured one descends, i. e. the Buddha or bodhisattva who is worshipped descends.

光音天 Ābhāsvara, light and sound, or light-sound heavens, also styled 極光淨天, the heavens of utmost light and purity, i. e. the third of the second dhyāna heavens, in which the inhabitants converse by

light instead of words; they recreate the universe from the hells up to and including the first dhyāna heavens after it has been destroyed by fire during he final series of cataclysms; but they gradually diminish in

power and are reborn in lower states. The three heavens of the second dhyāna are 少光, 無量光, and 光音.

光音宮 Ābhāsvara-vimāna, the Ābhāsvara palace, idem.

全 All, whole, complete.

全分戒 or 全分受 Fully ordained by receiving all the commandments.

全跏趺坐 The legs completely crossed as in a completely seated image.

共 All altogether, both, same, in common.

共不定 sādhāraṇa; both indeterminate, i. e. one of the six indeterminates in Logic, 'when a thesis and its contradiction are both supported by equally valid reasons, ' e. g. 'that sound is not eternal, because it is a

product, ' 'that it is eternal, because it is audible. ' Keith.


共十地 The ten stages which śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas have in common.

共命鳥 命命鳥; 生生鳥 jīvajīva, or jīvañjīva, a bird said to have two heads on one body, i. e. mind and perception differing, but the karma one.

共報 Collective retribution; reward or punishment of the community, or in common, for the 共業 deeds of the community, or even of the individual in their effects on the community.

共宗 That which all Buddhist schools have in common.

共法 共功德 The totality of truth, or virtue, common to all sages, is found in the Buddha.

共相 sāmānya. Totality, generality, the whole; in common, as contrasted with 自相 individuality, or component parts.

共相惑 Delusion arising from observing things as a whole, or apart from their relationships.

共般若 The interpretation of the Prajñāpāramitā that advanced and ordinary students have in common, as contrasted with its deeper meaning, or 不共般若 only understood by Bodhisattvas.

共許 What is commonly admitted, a term in logic.

再 Again, a second time, also 再往.

冰 Ice, chaste.

冰伽羅 piṅgala, tawny; tr. as 蒼色 azure, grey.

决 To divide, decide; decidedly; cut off, execute.

决了 Decided, defined, and made clear.

决定 Fixed and settled, determined.

决擇 Deciding and choosing; that which decides and gives reason, i. e. the truth of the saints, or Buddhism.

决疑 To resolve doubts, doubts solved: definite.

Inferior, vicious.

劣智 Inferior wisdom, harmful wisdom.

sauvastika, 塞縛悉底迦; also styled 室利靺瑳 śrīvatsa, lucky sign, Viṣṇu's breast-curl or mark, tr. by 海雲 sea-cloud, or cirrhus. Used as a fancy form of 萬 or 萬; and is also written in a form said to resemble a curl. It is the 4th

of the auspicious signs in the footprint of Buddha, and is a mystic diagram of great antiquity. To be distinguished from 卐svastika, the crampons of which turn to the right.

危 Perilous.

危城 A perilous citadel, i. e. the body.

mudrā; seal, sign, symbol, emblem, proof, assurance, approve; also 印契; 契印; 印相. Manual signs indicative of various ideas, e. g. each finger represents one of the five primary elements, earth, water, fire, air, and

space, beginning with the little finger; the left hand represents 定 stillness, or meditation, the right hand 慧 discernment or wisdom; they have also many other indications. Also, the various symbols of the

Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, e. g. the thunderbolt; cf. 因.

印佛 A Buddha made of incense and burnt, a symbolical Buddha.

印佛作法 An esoteric method of seeking spirit-aid by printing a Buddha on paper, or forming his image on sand, or in the air, and performing specified rites.

印光 Illumination from the symbol on a Buddha's or Bodhisattva's breast.

印可 Assuredly can, i. e. recognition of ability, or suitability.

印土 idem 印度 India.

印域 The territory of India.

印度 印特伽; 身毒; 賢豆; 天竺 Indu (meaning 'moon' in Sanskrit), Hindu, Sindhu; see also 信度 and 閻浮 India in general. In the Tang dynasty its territory is described as extending over 90, 000 li in circuit, being bounded

on three sides by the sea; north it rested on the Snow mountains 雪山, i. e. Himālayas; wide at the north, narrowing to the south, shaped like a half-moon; it contained over seventy kingdoms, was extremely hot, well watered and damp; from

the centre eastwards to 震旦 China was 58, 000 li; and the same distance southwards to 金地國, westwards to 阿拘遮國, and northwards to 小香山阿耨達.

印度佛教 Indian Buddhism, which began in Magadha, now Bihar, under Śākyamuni, the date of whose nirvana was circa 486 B. C. v. and 佛教.

印母 añjali; the two hands with palms and fingers together— the 'mother' of all manual signs.

印治 Approval of a course of action.

印紙同時 At one and the same time, like printing (which is synchronous, not like writing which is word by word).

印達羅 Indra; a thousand quinquillions.

大印達羅 mahendra; ten times the amount of an indra 印達羅.

各 Each, every.

各種 each kind, every sort.

吐 To spit, excrete, put forth.

吐涙 Female and male seminal fluids which blend for conception.

吒 To entrust; translit. t or ṭ.

吒婆 Something rigid, an obstruction.

吃 To eat; to stutter.

吃栗多 ? kṛtya; a 賤人 low or common fellow.

M03296刺拏伐底 v. 阿恃多伐底 Hiraṇyavatī, Hiraṇya, Ajitavatī, the river near which Śākyamuni entered into Nirvana; the Gunduck (Gandak), flowing south of Kuśinagara city.


向 Towards, to go towards, facing, heretofore.

向上 To trace backwards, as from the later to the earlier, primary, the earliest or first; upwards.

向下 Downwards; to trace downwards, i. e. forwards, 'from root to branches.'

向彼悔 pratideśanīya 波羅提提舍尼 sin to be confessed before the assembly.

合 Bring together, unite, unison, in accord.

合十 合爪; 合掌 To bring the ten fingers or two palms together; a monk's salutation.

合掌叉手 to put the hands together and fold the fingers.

合壇 United, or common altar, or altars, as distinguished from 離壇 separate altars.

合昏 (合昏樹); 合歡; 尸利沙 or 尸利灑 siria, the acacia sirisa.

合殺 The closing note of a chant or song; bring to an end.

合用 In accordance with need; suitable.

合蓮華 A closed lotus-flower.

同 Together, with; mutual; same.

同事 samānārthatā, working together (with and for others); one of the 四攝法.

同分 同品; 同類 Of the same class, or order.

同學 FeIlow-students, those who learn or study together.

同生天 同生神; 同名天 The first two of these terms are intp. as the guardian deva, or spirit, who is sahaja, i. e. born or produced simultaneously with the person he protects; the last is the deva who has the same name as the

one he protects.

同聽異聞 To hear the same (words) but understand. differently.

同行 Those who are practising religion together.

同體 Of the same body, or nature, as water and wave, but同體慈悲 means fellow-feeling and compassion, looking on all sympathetically as of the same nature as oneself.

同體三寳 idem 一體三寳.

名 nāman 娜麽 (or 娜摩); a name, a term; noted, famous.

名假 Name unreal; one of the 三假; names are not in themselves realities.

名利 Fame and gain.

名別義通 Different in name but of the same meaning.

名字 Name and description, name.

名字比丘 A monk in name but not in reality.

名字菩薩 A nominal bodhisattva.

名字沙彌 One of an age to be a monk, i. e. 20 years of age and over.

名德 Of notable virtue.

名目 A name, or descriptive title.

名相 Name and appearance; everything has a name, e. g. sound, or has appearance, i. e. the visible, v. 名色; both are unreal and give rise to delusion. The name under which Subhūti will be reborn as Buddha.

名籍 A register of names.

名義 Name and meaning; the meaning of a name, or term.

名義不離 Connotation; name and meaning not apart, or differing, they are inseparable or identical, the name having equality with the meaning, e. g. a Buddha, or the terms of a dhāraṇī.

名義集 or 名義 is an abbreviation for the 翻譯名義 Fanyimingyi 翻譯名義 dictionary.

名聞 名聲 yaśas, renown, fame.

名臈 A monk of renown and of years.

名色 nāmarūpa, name-form, or name and form, one of the twelve nidānas. In Brahminical tradition it served 'to denote spirit and matter', 'the concrete individual', Keith; in Buddhism it is intp. as

the 五蘊 five skandhas or aggregates, i, e. a 'body', 受, 想, , and 識 vedana, saṃjñā, karman, and vijñāna being the 'name' and 色 rupa the 'form'; the first-named four are mental and the last material. 色

Rupa is described as the minutest particle of matter, that which has resistance; the embryonic body or foetus is a nāmarūpa, something that can be named.

名號 A name, or title, especially that of Amitābha.

名衲 A name and robe, i. e. a monk.

名身 A word-group, a term of more than one word.

名體 Name and embodiment; the identity of name and substance, as in the dhāraṇī of the esoteric sects; somewhat similar to 名義不離 q. v.

吉 śrī; auspicious, lucky, fortunate; translit. k, ke, ku, g.

吉利 姞栗陀 gṛdhra, a vulture.

吉利羅 髻離吉羅 One of the honourable ones in the Vajradhātu group.

吉庶 (or 吉遮 or 吉蔗); 訖利多; 訖栗著 kṛtyā; a demon, or class of demons, yakṣa and human; explained by 起尸鬼 a corpse raising demon.

吉利多 is explained by 買得 bought as (a serf or slave).

吉慶 Auspicious, lucky, fortunate.

吉日良辰 A lucky day and propitious star.

吉槃荼 kumbhāṇḍas, demons of monstrous form, idem 鳩盤荼.

吉河 The auspicious river, the Ganges, because in it the heretics say they can wash away their sins.

吉由羅 枳由邏; ?由羅 keyūra, a bracelet (worn on the upper arm).

吉祥 Auspicious, fortunate, tr. of the name of Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune. See next, also 室利 and 尸里.

吉祥天女 功德天; 摩訶室利 Mahāśrī, identified with Lakṣmī, name 'of the goddess of fortune and beauty frequently in the later mythology identified with Śrī and regarded as the wife of Viṣṇu or Nārāyaṇa', she sprang from the ocean with

a lotus in her hand, whence she is also called Padmā, and is connected in other ways with the lotus. M. W. There is some confusion between this goddess and Guanyin, possibly through the attribution of Hindu ideas of

Lakṣmī to Guanyin.

吉祥果 The auspicious fruit, a pomegranate, held by Hāritī 鬼子母 as the bestower of children.

吉祥海雲 The auspicious sea-cloud; tr. as Śrī-vatsa, the breast mark of Viṣṇu, but defined as the svastika, which is the 佛心印 symbol on a Buddha's breast.

吉祥草 (or 吉祥茅); 矩奢. kuśa, auspicious grass used at religious ceremonials, poa cynosuroides.

吉祥茅國 矩奢揭羅補羅 Kuśāgrapura, 'ancient residence of the kings of Magadha, surrounded by mountains, 14 miles south of Behar. It was deserted under Bimbisara, who built 'New Radjagrīha'6 miles farther to the west. ' Eitel. The

distance given is somewhat incorrect, but v. 王舍城.


吉羅 kṛta idem 突吉羅 duṣkṛta; one of the grave sins.

吉迦夜 Kekaya, a noted monk of the Liu-Sung dynasty.

囘 回 To turn, revolve, return.

囘互 Interchange, intermutation.

囘光返照 To turn the light inwards on oneself, concern oneself with one's own duty.

囘向 迴向 pariṇāmanā. To turn towards; to turn something from one person or thing to another; transference of merit); the term is intp. by 轉趣 turn towards; it is used for works of supererogation, or rather, it means the bestowing on

another, or others, of merits acquired by oneself, especially the merits acquired by a bodhisattva or Buddha for the salvation of all, e. g. the bestowing of his merits by Amitābha on all the living. There are other

kinds, such as the turning of acquired merit to attain further progress in bodhi, or nirvana. 囘事向理 to turn (from) practice to theory; 囘自向他 to turn from oneself to another; 囘因向果 To turn from cause to effect. 囘世而向出世 to

turn from this world to what is beyond this world, from the worldly to the unworldly.

囘小向大 To turn from Hīnayāna to Mahāyāna.

囘心 囘心懺悔 To turn the mind from evil to good, to repent.

囘心戒 Commandments bestowed on the converted, or repentant.

囘悟 To turn and apprehend; be converted.

囘禮 To return, or acknowledge a courtesy or gift.

囘財 囘祭 Payment by a donor of sums already expended at his request by a monastery.

囘趣 To turn from other things to Buddhism.

hetu: a cause: because: a reason: to follow, it follows, that which produces a 果 result or effect. 因 is a primary cause in comparison with 緣 pratyaya which is an environmental or secondary cause. In the 十因

十果 ten causes and ten effects, adultery results in the iron bed, the copper pillar, and the eight hot hells; covetousness in the cold hells; and so on, as shown in the 楞嚴經. Translit. in, yin. Cf. 印.

因人 Followers of Buddha who have not yet attained Buddhahood, but are still Producers of karma and reincarnation.

因位 The causative position, i. e. that of a Buddhist, for he has accepted a cause, or enlightenment, that produces a changed outlook.

因修 The practice of Buddhism as the 'cause' of Buddhahood.

因內 (因內二明) Reason and authority; i. e. two of the five 明, v. 因明 and 内明, the latter referring to the statements, therefore authoritative, of the Scriptures.

因分 Cause, as contrasted with effect 果分.

因分可說果分不可說 The causes (that give rise to a Buddha's Buddhahood) may, in a measure, be stated, that is, such part as is humanly manifested; but the full result is beyond description.

因力 The causal force, or cause, contrasted with 緣力 environmental, or secondary forces.

因十四過 The fourteen possible errors or fallacies in the reason in a syllogism.

因同品 (The example in logic must be) of the same order as the reason.

因圓果滿 The cause perfect and the effect complete, i. e. the practice of Buddhism.

因地 The causal ground, fundamental cause; the state of practising the Buddha-religion which leads to the 果地 or resulting Buddhahood.

因尼延 aiṇeya, black antelope, v. 伊.

因明 Hetuvidya, 醯都費陀, the science of cause, logical reasoning, logic, with its syllogistic method of the proposition, the reason, the example. The creation of this school of logic is attributed to

Akṣapāda, probably a name for the philosopher Gautama (not Śākyamuni). The 因明論 or Hetu-vidyā-śāstra is one of the 五明論 pañcavidya-śāstras, a treatise explaining causality, or the nature of truth and error.

因明入正理論 Nyāyapraveśa; a treatise on logic by 商羯羅主 Saṅkarasvāmin, follower of Dignāga, tr. by Xuanzang in 1 juan, on which there are numerous commentaries and works.

因明正理門論 Nyāya-dvāratarka-śāstra, a treatise by 陳那 Dignāga, tr. by Yijing, 1 juan.

因曼陀羅 The Garbhadhātu 胎臟 maṇḍala, which is also east and 因, or cause, as contrasted with the Vajradhātu, which is west and 果, or effect.


因果 Cause and effect; every cause has its effect, as every effect arises from a cause.

因果應報 Cause and effect in the moral realm have their corresponding relations, the denial of which destroys all moral responsibility.

因果皆空宗 A sect of 'heretics' who denied cause and effect both in regard to creation and morals.

因業 The work, or operation, of cause, or causes, i. e. the co-operation of direct and indirect causes, of primary and environmental causes.

因源 Cause; cause and origin.

因異品 hetu-viruddha; in a syllogism the example not accordant with the reason.

因相 Causation; one of the three forms or characteristics of the ālayavijñāna, the character of the origin of all things.

因緣 hetupratyaya. Cause; causes; 因 hetu, is primary cause, 緣 pratyaya, secondary cause, or causes, e. g. a seed is 因, rain, dew, farmer, etc., are 緣. The 十二因緣 twelve nidānas or links are 'the

concatenation of cause and effect in the whole range of existence'.

因緣依 Dependent on cause, or the cause or causes on which anything depends.

因緣生 Causally-produced.

因緣觀 A meditation on the nidānas.

因能變 The power in a cause to transform itself into an effect a cause that is also an effect, e. g. a seed.

因行果 Cause, action, effect; e. g. seed, germination, fruit.

因論 idem 因明論.

因道 The way, or principle, of causation.

因達羅大將 (or 因陀羅大將) Indra as General (guarding the shrine of 藥師 Bhaiṣajya).

因陀囉誓多 Indraceta, Indra's attendants, or slaves.

因陀囉達婆門佛 Indradhvaja, a Buddha-incarnation of the seventh son of the Buddha Mahābhijñābhibhū 大通智勝.

因陀羅 Indra, 因坻; 因提; 因提梨; 因達羅; 天帝; 天主帝; 帝釋天; originally a god of the atmosphere, i. e. of thunder and rain; idem Śakra; his symbol is the vajra, or thunderbolt, hence he is the 金剛手; he became 'lord of

the gods of the sky', 'regent of the east quarter', 'popularly chief after Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, '(M.W.); in Buddhism he represents the secular power, and is inferior to a Buddhist saint. Cf. 忉利 and 印.

因陀羅勢羅窶詞 因陀羅世羅求訶; 因陀羅窟; 因沙舊 Indraśailaguhā; explained by 帝釋石窟 Indra's cave; also by 蛇神山 the mountain of the snake god, also by 小孤石山 the mountain of small isolated peaks located near Nālandā, where on the south crag of

the west peak is a rock cave, broad but not high, which Śākyamuni frequently visited. Indra is said to have written forty-two questions on stone, to which the Buddha replied.

因陀羅呵悉多 因陀羅喝悉哆; 因陀羅訓塞多. Probably Indra-hasta, Indra's hand, 'a kind of medicament. ' M. W. Is it the 佛手 'Buddha's hand', a kind of citron ?

因陀羅婆他那 ? Indravadana, or ? Indrabhavana. A 'name for India proper',; Eitel.

因陀羅尼羅 (因陀羅尼羅目多) Indranīla-(muktā). Indra's blue (or green) stone, which suggests an emerald, Indranīlaka (M. W. ); but according to M. W. Indranīla is a sapphire; muktā is a pearl.

因陀羅跋帝 Tr. as Indra's city, or Indra's banner, but the latter is Indraketu; ? Indravatī.

在 At, in, on, present.

在世 In the world, while alive here.

在俗 In and of the world, unenlightened; in a lay condition.

在在處處 In every place.

在家 At home, a layman or woman, not 出家, i. e. not leaving home as a monk or nun.

在家二戒 The two grades of commandments observed by the lay, one the five, the other the eight, v. 五戒 and 八戒; these are the Hīnayāna rules; the 在戒 of Mahāyāna are the 十善戒 ten good rules.

在家出家 One who while remaining at home observes the whole of a monk's or nun's rules.

在理教 The Tsai-li secret society, an offshoot of the White Lily Society, was founded in Shantung at the beginning of the Ch'ing dynasty; the title 'in the li, ' indicating that the society associated itself with

all three religions, Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; its followers set up no images, burnt no incense, neither smoked nor drank, and were vegetarian.

在纏 In bonds, i. e. the '在眞如 the bhūtatathatā in limitations, e. g. relative, v. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

pṛthivī, 鉢里體尾 the earth, ground; bhūmi, 歩弭 the earth, place, situation; talima, 託史麽 (or 託吏麽) ground, site; explained by 土地 earth, ground; 能生 capable of producing; 所依 that on which things rely. It is also the

spiritual rank, position, or character attained by a Bodhisattva as a result of 住 remaining and developing in a given state in order to attain this 地 rank; v. 十住; 住位 and 十地.


地上 on the ground; above the ground; used for 初地以上 the stages above the initial stage of a Bodhisattva's development.

地中 地內 Annexes, or subsidiary buildings in the grounds of a monastery.

地仙 (地行仙) Earth-immortals, or genī, one of the classes of ṛṣis; i. e. bhūdeva = Brahman.

地位 Position, place, state.

地前 The stages of a Bodhisattva before the 初地.

地動 Earthquake; the earth shaken, one of the signs of Buddha-power.

地塵 Earth-dust: as dust of earth (in number): atoms of the earth element.

地壇 A square altar used by the esoteric cult.

地大 Earth as one of the 四大 four elements, 地 earth, 水大 water, 火大 fire, and 風大 air (i. e. air in motion, wind); to these 空大 space (Skt. ākāśa) is added to make the 五大 five elements; 識 vijñāna, perception to

make the six elements; and 見 darśana, views, concepts, or reasonings to make the seven elements. The esoteric sect use the five fingers, beginning with the little finger, to symbolize the five elements.

地天 The earth-devī, Pṛthivī, one of the four with thunderbolts in the Vajradhātu group; also CF. 地后 the earth-devī in the Garbhadhātu group. Cf. 地神.

地婆訶羅 Divākara, tr. as 日照 Jih-chao, a śramaṇa from Central India, A. D. 676-688, tr. of eighteen or nineteen works, introduced an alphabet of forty-two letters or characters.

地婆達多 (or 地婆達兜) Devadatta, v. 提婆達多.

地居天 Indra's heaven on the top of Sumeru, below the 空居天 heavens in space.

地底迦 Dhītika, originally Dhṛtaka, an ancient monk, whose name is tr. by 有愧 Yu-k'uei, ashamed, shy.

地慧童子 (or 持慧童子 or 財慧童子) The youth who controls earthly possessions, the fourth on the left of the messengers of Mañjuśrī in the Garbhadhātu group.

地涌 To spring forth, or burst from the earth, a chapter in the Lotus Sutra.

地獄 naraka, 捺落迦 (or 那落迦) ; niraya 泥犂; explained by 不樂 joyless; 可厭 disgusting, hateful; 苦具, 苦器 means of suffering; if 地獄 earth-prison; 冥府 the shades, or departments of darkness. Earth-prison is generally intp. as

hell or the hells; it may also be termed purgatory; one of the six gati or ways of transmigration. The hells are divided into three classes: I. Central, or radical, 根本地獄 consisting of (1) The eight hot hells. These

were the original hells of primitive Buddhism, and are supposed to be located umder the southern continent Jambudvīpa 瞻部州, 500 yojanas below the surface. (a) 等活 or 更活 Saṃjīva, rebirth, where after many kinds of

suffering a cold wind blows over the soul and returns it to this life as it was before, hence the name 等活. (b) 黑繩 Kaslasūtra, where the sufferer is bound with black chains and chopped or sawn asunder. (c) 線合; 衆合; 堆壓

Saṃghāta, where are multitudes of implements of torture, or the falling of mountains upon the sufferer. (d) 號呌; 呼呼; 叫喚 Raurava, hell of wailing. (e) 大呌; 大號呌; 大呼 Mahāraurava, hell of great wailing. (f) 炎熱; 燒炙 Tapana,

hell of fames and burning. (g) 大熱; 大燒炙; 大炎熱 Pratāpana, hell of molten lead. (h) 無間; 河鼻旨; 阿惟越致; 阿毗至; 阿鼻; 阿毗 Avīci, unintermitted suffering, where sinners die and are reborn to suffer without interval. (2) The

eight cold hells 八寒地獄. (a) 頞浮陀地獄 Arbuda, where the cold causes blisters. (b) 尼刺部陀 Nirarbuda, colder still causing the blisters to burst. (c) 頞哳吒; 阿吒吒 Atata, where this is the only possible sound from frozen lips. (d) 臛臛

婆; 阿波波 Hahava or Apapa, where it is so cold that only this sound can be uttered. (e) 虎虎婆 Hāhādhara or Huhuva, where only this sound can be uttered. (f) 嗢鉢羅; 鬱鉢羅 (or 優鉢羅) Utpala, or 尼羅鳥 (or 漚) 鉢羅 Nīlotpala, where the

skin is frozen like blue lotus buds. (g) 鉢特摩 Padma, where the skin is frozen and bursts open like red lotus buds. (h) 摩訶鉢特摩 Mahāpadma, ditto like great red lotus buds. Somewhat different names are also given. Cf. 倶

舍論 8; 智度論 16; 涅槃經 11. II. The secondary hells are called 近邊地獄 adjacent hells or 十六遊增 each of its four sides, opening from each such door are four adjacent hells, in all sixteen; thus with the original eight there are 136.

A list of eighteen hells is given in the 十八泥梨經. III. A third class is called the 孤地獄 (獨地獄) Lokāntarika, or isolated hells in mountains, deserts, below the earth and above it. Eitel says in regard to the eight hot hells

that they range 'one beneath the other in tiers which begin at a depth of 11,900 yojanas and reach to a depth of 40,000 yojanas'. The cold hells are under 'the two Tchahavālas and range shaft-like one below the other, but so

that this shaft is gradually widening to the fourth hell and then narrowing itself again so that the first and last hell have the shortest, those in the centre the longest diameter'. 'Every universe has the same number of

hells, ' but 'the northern continent has no hell whatever, the two continents east and west of Meru have only small Lokāntarika hells... whilst all the other hells are required for the inhabitants of the southern

continent '. It may be noted that the purpose of these hells is definitely punitive, as well as purgatorial. Yama is the judge and ruler, assisted by eighteen officers and a host of demons, who order or administer the

various degrees of torture. 'His sister performs the same duties with regard to female criminals, ' and it may be mentioned that the Chinese have added the 血盆池 Lake of the bloody bath, or 'placenta tank' for women who die

in childbirth. Release from the hells is in the power of the monks by tantric means.


地獄天子 The immediate transformation of one in hell mto a deva because he had in a previous life known of the merit and power of the 華嚴 Huayen sutra.

地獄道 or 地獄趣 The hell-gati, br destiny of reincarnation in the hells.

地珂 dīrgha, long; also 地?伽.

地界 The realm of earth, one of the four elements, v. 地大.

地神 The earth devī, Pṛthivī also styled 堅牢 firm and secure; cf. 地天.

地種 Earth-seed, or atoms of the element.

地臈脾 dravya, substance, thing, object.

地致婆 tiṭibha, titi.lambha, 'a particular high mountain, ' M. W. 1,000 quadrillions; a 大地致婆 is said to be 10,000 quadrillions.

地藏 Ti-tsang, J. Jizō, Kṣitigarbha, 乞叉底蘗沙; Earth-store, Earth-treasury, or Earthwomb. One of the group of eight Dhvani- Bodhisattvas. With hints of a feminine origin, he is now the guardian of the earth. Though

associated with Yama as overlord, and with the dead and the hells, his role is that of saviour. Depicted with the alarum staff with its six rings, he is accredited with power over the hells and is devoted to the

saving of all creatures between the nirvana of Śākyamuni and the advent of Maitreya the fifth century he has been especially considered as the deliverer from the hells. His central place in China is at Chiu-hua-shan,

forty li south-west of Ch'ing-yang in Anhui. In Japan he is also the protector of travellers by land and his image accordingly appears on the roads; bereaved parents put stones by his images to seek his aid in relieving the

labours of their dead in the task of piling stones on the banks of the Buddhist Styx; he also helps women in labour. He is described as holding a place between the gods and men on the one hand and the hells on the

other for saving all in distress; some say he is an incarnation of Yama. At dawn he sits immobile on the earth 地 and meditates on the myriads of its beings 藏. When represented as a monk, it may be through the

influence of a Korean monk who is considered to be his incarnation, and who came to China in 653 and died in 728 at the age of 99 after residing at Chiu-hua-shan for seventy-five years: his body, not

decaying, is said to have been gilded over and became an object of worship. Many have confused 眞羅 part of Korea with 暹羅 Siam. There are other developments of Ti-tsang, such as the 六地藏 Six Ti-tsang, i. e. severally converting or

transforming those in the hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, and the devas; these six Ti-tsang have different images and symbols. Ti-tsang has also six messengers 六使者: Yama for transforming those in

hell; the pearl-holder for pretas; the strong one or animals; the devīof mercy for asuras; the devī of the treasure for human beings; one who has charge of the heavens for the devas. There is also the

延命地藏 Yanming Ti-tsang, who controls length of days and who is approached, as also may be P'u-hsien, for that Purpose; his two assistants are the Supervisors of good and evil 掌善 and 掌惡. Under another form, as 勝軍地藏 Ti-tsang is

chiefly associated with the esoteric cult. The benefits derived from his worship are many, some say ten, others say twenty-eight. His vows are contained in the 地藏菩薩本願經. There is also the 大乘大集地藏十電經 tr. by Xuanzang in

10 juan in the seventh century, which probably influenced the spread of the Ti-tsang cult.


地論 idem 十地經論.

地輪 The earth-wheel, one of the 五輪 five circles, i. e. space, wind, water, earth, and above them fire: the five 'wheels' or umbrellas shown on the top of certain stūpas or pagodas.

地輪壇 The earth altar is four-cornered and used by the esoteric sect.

地迦媻縛那僧伽藍 ?Dīrgha-bhavana-saṃghārāma. A monastery near Khotan 豁旦, with a statue dressed in silk which had 'transported itself' thither from Karashahr 庫車. Eitel.

多 bahu: bhūri. Many; all; translit. ta.

多他 多咃 tathā; in such a manner, like, so, true; it is tr. by 如 which has the same meanings. It is also said to mean 滅 extinction, or nirvana. v. 多陀.

多寶 (多寳) (多寳如來, 多寶如來) Prabhūtaratna, abundant treasures, or many jewels. The Ancient Buddha, long in nirvana, who appears in his stūpa to hear the Buddha preach the Lotus doctrine, by his presence revealing,

inter alia, that nirvana is not annihilation, and that the Lotus doctrine is the Buddha-gospel; v. Lotus Sutra 寳塔品.

多揭羅 tagaraka, 木香; 根香 putchuck, aplotaxis auriculata, or tabernaemontana coronaria, the shrub and its fragrant powder; also 多伽羅 (or 多伽留, or 多伽婁).

多摩梨帝 Tamralipti, or Tamralipttī; the modern Tumluk in the estuary of the Hugli; also 呾摩栗底 (or 躭摩栗底) .

多摩羅跋旃檀香 Tamālapattra-candana-gandha; a Buddha-incarnation of the 11th son of Mahābhijña, residing N. W. of our universe; also the name of the Buddha- incarnation of Mahāmaudgalyāyana.

多生 Many births, or productions; many reincarnations.

多羅 tārā, in the sense of starry, or scintillation; Tāla, for the fan-palm; Tara, from 'to pass over', a ferry, etc. Tārā, starry, piercing, the eye, the pupil; the last two are both Sanskrit and Chinese

definitions; it is a term applied to certain female deities and has been adopted especially by Tibetan Buddhism for certain devīs of the Tantric school. The origin of the term is also ascribed to tar meaning 'to cross', i. e.

she who aids to cross the sea of mortality. Getty, 19-27. The Chinese derivation is the eye; the tara devīs; either as śakti or independent, are little known outside Lamaism. Tāla is the palmyra, or fan-palm, whose

leaves are used for writing and known as 具多 Pei-to, pattra. The tree is described as 70 or 80 feet high, with fruit like yellow rice-seeds; the borassus eabelliformis; a measure of 70 feet. Taras, from to cross over, also means

a ferry, and a bank, or the other shore. Also 呾囉.

多羅夜登陸舍 Trāyastriṃśas, v. 三十三天.

多羅樹 多羅果; 多羅葉; 多羅掌 The tāla tree, its edible fruit resembling the pomegranate, its leaves being used for writing, their palm-shaped parts being made into fans.

多羅菩薩 Tārā Bodhisattva, as a form of Guanyin, is said to have been produced from the eye of Guanyin.

多聞 bahu-sruta; learned, one who has heard much.

多聞第一 The chief among the Buddha's hearers: Ānanda.

多財鬼 wealthy ghosts.

多貪 Many desires.

多足 Many-footed, e. g. centipedes.

多陀阿伽陀 tathāgata, 多他阿伽陀 (多他阿伽陀耶); 多他阿伽駄 (or 多他阿伽度); 多阿竭 (or 怛闥阿竭 or 怛薩阿竭); 怛他蘗多; intp. by 如來 rulai, q. v. 'thus come', or 'so come'; it has distant resemblance to the Messiah, but means one who has arrived according to the

norm, one who has attained he goal of enlightenment). It is also intp. as 如去 Ju-ch'ü, he who so goes, his coming and going being both according to the Buddha-norm. It is the highest of a Buddha's titles.

多阿摩羅跋陀羅 tamālapattra, cassia, 'the leaf of the xanthochymus pictorius, the leaf of the laurus cassia, ' M. W. The Malobathrum of Pliny. Also called 藿葉香 betony, bishopwort, or thyme; also 赤銅葉 copper-leaf.

多體 Many bodies, or forms: many-bodied.

多髮 kēśinī, having long hair, intp. as many locks (of hair), name of a rākṣasī, v. 髻.

多齡 (多齡路迦也吠闍也); 帝隷 etc. Trailokyavijaya, one of the 明王 Ming Wang, the term being tr. literally as 三世降 (明王) the Ming-Wang defeater (of evil) in the three spheres.


妃 An imperial concubine; as implying production, or giving birth, it is used by the esoteric cult for samaya and dhāraṇī.

好 Good, well; to like, be fond of, love.

好照 Good at shining, a mirror.

好生 Love of life; love of the living.

好相 A good appearance, omen, or sign.

好聲鳥 (or 好音鳥) A bird with a beautiful note, the kokila, or kalaviṅka, some say Karanda(ka).

妄 mithyā; false, untrue, erroneous, wild.

妄執 False tenets, holding on to false views.

妄境界 False environment; the unreal world.

妄塵 the unreal and unclean world.

妄心 A wrong, false, or misleading mind.

妄念 False or misleading thoughts.

妄想 Erroneous thinking.

妄染 妄風 The spread of lies, or false ideas.

妄法 bhrānti, going astray, error.

妄緣 The unreality of one's environment; also, the causes of erroneous ideas.

妄見 False views (of reality), taking the seeming as real.

妄言 妄說 False words, or talk; lies.

妄語 The commandment against lying. either as slander, or false boasting, or deception; for this the 智度論 gives ten evil results on reincarnation: (1) stinking breath; (2) good spirits avoid him, as also do men; (3) none

believes him even when telling the truth; (4) wise men never admit him to their deliberations: etc.

妄雲 Clouds of falsity, i. e. delusion.

tathā 多陀; 但他 (or 怛他), so, thus, in such manner, like, as. It is used in the sense of the absolute, the śūnya, which is 諸佛之實相 the reality of all Buddhas; hence 如 ru is 賃相 the undifferentiated whole of things, the

ultimate reality; it is 諸法之性 the nature of all things, hence it connotes 法性 faxing which is 眞實之際極 the ultimate of reality, or the absolute, and therefore connotes 實際 ultimate reality. The ultimate nature of all

things being 如 ru, the one undivided same, it also connotes li, the principle or theory behind all things, and this li universal law, being the 眞實 truth or ultimate reality; 如 ru is termed 眞如 bhūtatathatā, the

real so, or suchness, or reality, the ultimate or the all, i. e. the 一如 yiru. In regard to 如 ju as li the Prajñā-pāramitā puṇḍarīka makes it the zhong, neither matter nor nothingness. It is also used in the

ordinary sense of so, like, as (cf yathā).

如幻 as an illusion, or illusory.

如化 as if transformed.

如焰 like smoke.

如雲 like a cloud.

如夢 like a dream.

如電 like lightning.

如夢 like a dream.

如泡 like a bubble.

如影 like a shadow.

如響 like an echo.

如來 tathāgata, 多陀阿伽陀 q. v.; 怛他揭多 defined as he who comes as do all other Buddhas; or as he who took the 眞如 zhenru or absolute way of cause and effect, and attained to perfect wisdom; or as the absolute come; one of

the highest titles of a Buddha. It is the Buddha in his nirmāṇakāya, i. e. his 'transformation' or corporeal manifestation descended on earth. The two kinds of Tathāgata are (1) 在纏 the Tathāgata in bonds, i. e. limited

and subject to the delusions and sufferings of life, and (2) 出纏 unlimited and free from them. There are numerous sutras and śāstras bearing this title of 如來 rulai.

如來乘 tathāgata-yāna, the Tathāgata vehicle, or means of salvation.

如來使 tathāgata-dūta, or tathāgata-preṣya; a Tathāgata apostle sent to do his work.

如來光明出已還入 According to the Nirvana Sutra, at the Tathāgata's nirvana he sent forth his glory in a wonderful light which finally returned into his mouth.

如來地 The state or condition of a Tathāgata.

如來室 The abode of the Tathāgata, i. e. 慈悲 mercy, or pity.

如來常住 The Tathāgata is eternal, always abiding.

如來愍菩薩 怛他蘗多母隸底多 The seventh Bodhisattva to the right of Śākyamuni in the Garbhadhātu group, in charge of the pity or sympathy of the Tathāgata. There are other bodhisattvas in charge of other Tathāgata forms or qualities in

the same group.

如來應供正偏智 Tathāgata, Worshipful, Omniscient-three titles of a Buddha.

如來日 寳相日 The Tathāgata day, which is without beginning or end and has no limit of past, present, or future.

如來神力品 如來壽量品 Chapters in the Lotus Sutra on Tathāgata powers and eternity.

如來舞 The play of the Tathāgata, i. e. the exercise of his manifold powers.

如來藏 tathāgata-garbha, the Tathāgata womb or store, defined as (1) the 眞如 zhenru, q. v. in the midst of 煩惱 the delusion of passions and desires; (2) sutras of the Buddha's uttering. The first especially refers to

the zhenru as the source of all things: whether compatibles or incompatibles, whether forces of purity or impurity, good or bad, all created things are in the Tathāgatagarbha, which is the womb that gives birth to them all.

The second is the storehouse of the Buddha's teaching.

如來藏心 idem 眞如心.

如來藏性 The natures of all the living are the nature of the Tathāgata; for which v. the 如來藏經, 如來藏論, etc.

如來身 tathāgata-kāya, Buddha-body.

如來部 The court of Vairocana Tathāgata in the Garbhadhātu group.

如去 'so-gone', i. e. into Nirvana; v. 如來 and 多陀.

如如 The 眞如 zhenru or absolute; also the absolute in differentiation, or in the relative. The 如如境 and 如如智 are the realm, or 'substance', and the wisdom or law of the absolute.


如實 Real, reality, according to reality ( yathābhūtam); true; the 眞如 zhenru, or bhūtatathatā, for which it is also used; the universal undifferentiated, i. e. 平等不二, or the primary essence out of which the [[Wikipedia:


phenomenal]] arises; 如實空 is this essence in its purity; 如實不空 is this essence in its differentiation.

如實智 Knowledge of reality, i. e. of all things whether whole or divided, universal or particular, as distinguished from their seeming; Buddha-omniscience.

如實知者 The knower of reality, a Buddha.

如實知見 To know and see the reality of all things as does the Buddha.

如實知自心 To know one's heart in reality.

如意 At will; according to desire; a ceremonial emblem, originally a short sword; tr. of Manoratha 末笯曷刺他 successor of Vasubandhu as 22nd patriarch and of Mahāṛddhiprāpta, a king of garuḍas.

如意珠 cintāmaṇi, a fabulous gem, the philosopher's stone, the talisman-pearl capable of responding to every wish, said to be obtained from the dragon-king of the sea, or the head of the great fish, Makara, or the

relics of a Buddha. It is also called 如意寳 (如意寳珠); 如意摩尼.

如意甁 The talismanic vase.

如意輪 The talismanic wheel, as in the case of 如意輪觀音 Guanyin with the wheel, holding the pearl in her hand symbolizing a response to every prayer, also styled 持寳金剛 the Vajra-bodhisattva with six hands, one

holding the pearl, or gem, another the wheel, etc. There are several sūtras, etc., under these titles, associated with Guanyin.

如意足 ṛddhipāda, magical psychic power of ubiquity, idem 神足.

如意身 ṛddhi, magic power exempting the body from physical limitations, v. 大教 and 神足.

如是 evam; thus, so; so it is; so let it be; such and such; (as)... so. Most of the sūtras open with the phrase如是我聞 or 聞如是 Thus have I heard, i. e. from the Buddha.

如法 According to the Law, according to rule.

如法治 Punished according to law, i. e. 突吉羅 duṣkṛita, the punishments due to law-breaking monks or nuns.

如理師 A title of the Buddha, the Master who taught according to the truth, or fundamental law.

如語 True words, right discourse.

存 To keep, maintain, preserve.

存生 (存生命); 存命 To preserve one's life, to preserve alive.

存見 To keep to (wrong) views.

字 akṣara, 阿乞史囉; 阿刹羅; a letter, character; akṣara is also used for a vowel, especially the vowed 'a' as distinguished from the other vowels; a word, words.

字相字義 Word-form and word-meaning, differentiated by the esoteric sect for its own ends, 阿 being considered the alpha and root of all sounds and words; the 字 among esoteric Buddhists is the 種子 bīja, or seed-word

possessing power through the object with which it is associated.

字輪 The wheel, rotation, or interchange of words for esoteric purposes, especially the five Sanskrit signs adopted for the five elements, earth, water, fire, air, space.

字母 The Sanskrit alphabet of 42, 47, or 50 letters, the 'Siddham' 悉曇 consisting of 35 體文 consonants and 12 摩多 vowels. The 字母表 deals with the alphabet in 1 juan. The 字母品 is an abbreviation of 文殊問經字母品.

字緣 母音 The 12 or 14 Sanskrit vowels, as contrasted with the 35 or 36 consonants, which are 根本 radical or 字界 limited or fixed letters.

宅 Residential part of a palace, or mansion; a residence.

守 Keep, guard, observe.

守寺 The guardian, or caretaker, of a monastery.

守法 To keep the law.

守護 To guard, protect.

守門天 or 守門尊 The deva gate-guardian of a temple.

Peace, tranquil, quiet, pacify; to put, place; where ? how?

安下 To put down.

安下處 A place for putting things down, e. g. baggage; a resting place, a place to stay at.

安名 To give a religious name to a beginner.

安呾羅縛 Andarab, a country through which Xuanzang passed, north of Kapiśā, v. 迦.

安土地 To tranquillize the land, or a plot of land, by freeing it from harmful influences.

安居 Tranquil dwelling. varṣā, varṣās, or varṣāvasāna. A retreat during the three months of the Indian rainy season, and also, say some, in the depth of winter. During the rains it was 'difficult to move without injuring insect

life'. But the object was for study and meditation. In Tokhara the retreat is said to have been in winter, from the middle of the 12th to the middle of the 3rd moon; in India from the middle of the 5th to the 8th, or

the 6th to the 9th moons; usually from Śrāvaṇa, Chinese 5th moon, to Aśvayuja, Chinese 8th moon; but the 16th of the 4th to the 15th of the 7th moon has been the common period in China and Japan. The two

annual periods are sometimes called 夏 and 臘 sitting or resting for the summer and for the end of the year. The period is divided into three sections, former, middle, and latter, each of a month.


安底羅 Aṇḍīra, one of the twelve attendants of 藥師 Bhaiṣajya.

安廩 Anlin, a noted monk circa A. D. 500.

安心 To quiet the heart, or mind; be at rest.

安息 To rest.

安息 (安息國) Parthia, 波斯 modern Persia, from which several monks came to China in the later Han dynasty, such as 安世高 An Shigao, 安玄 Anxuan, 曇無諦 Tan Wudi, 安法欽 An Faqin, 安淸 Anqing.

安息香 Persian incense, or benzoin.

安慧 Settled or firm resolve on wisdom; established wisdom; tr. of 悉耻羅末底 Sthiramati, or Sthitamati, one of the ten great exponents of the 唯識論 Vijñaptimātratāsiddhi śāstra, a native of southern India.

安明山(安明由山) Sumeru, v, 須.

安樂 Happy; ease (of body) and joy (of heart) 身安心樂.

安樂國 or安樂淨土 Amitābha's Happy Land in the western region, which is his domain; it is also called 安養淨土 or 淨刹, Pure Land of Tranquil Nourishment.

安禪To enter into dhyāna meditation.

安穩 安隱 Body and mind at rest.

安立 To set up, establish, stand firm.

安立行 Supratiṣṭhita-cāritra; a Bodhisattva in the Lotus Sutra who rose up out of the earth to greet Śākyamuni.

安膳那 (or 安繕那or 安禪那or 安闍那) An Indian eye medicine, said to be Añjana.

安遠 Two noted monks of the 晉 Chin dynasty, i. e. 道安 Dao-an and 慧遠 Huiyuan.

安那般那 安般; 阿那波那 (阿那阿波那) ānāpāna, expiration and inspiration, a method of breathing and counting the breaths for purposes of concentration; the 大安般守意經 is a treatise on the subject.

安陁會 安怛婆沙 (or 安多婆沙) (or 安怛婆參, 安多婆參); 安多跋薩 (or 安陀跋薩) antarvāsaka, antarvāsas; a monk's inner garment described as a sort of waistcoat. It is also explained by 裙 qun which means a skirt. This inner garment is said to be worn

against desire, the middle one against hate, and the outer one against ignorance and delusion. It is described as the present-day 絡子 a jacket or vest.

vihāra, 毘訶羅 or 鼻訶羅; saṅghārāma 僧伽藍; an official hall, a temple, adopted by Buddhists for a monastery, many other names are given to it, e. g. 淨住; 法同舍; 出世舍; 精舍; 淸淨園; 金剛刹; 寂滅道場; 遠離處; 親近處 'A model vihāra ought to be

built of red sandalwood, with 32 chambers, 8 tāla trees in height, with a garden, park and bathing tank attached; it ought to have promenades for peripatetic meditation and to be richly furnished with stores of

clothes, food, bedsteads, mattresses, medicines and all creature comforts.' Eitel.

寺院 Monastery grounds and buildings, a monastery.

年 A year, years.

年忌 Anniversary of a death, and the ceremonies associated with it.

年戒 The (number of) years since receiving the commandments.

年星 The year-star of an individual.

年滿受具 To receive the full commandments, i. e. be fully ordained at the regulation age of 20.

年臘 The end of a year, also a year.

年少淨行 A young Brahman.

式 Style, shape, fashion, kind.

式棄 式葉, v. 尸棄.

式叉 śikṣā; learning, study.

式叉尼 (式叉摩那尼) śikṣamāṇā, a female neophyte who from 18 to 20 years of age studies the six rules, in regard to adultery, stealing, killing, lying, alcoholic liquor, not eating at unregulated hours.

式叉迦羅尼 śikṣākāraṇī, intp. as study, or should study or be studied, also as duṣkṛtam, bad deed, breach of the law. The form meaning is suggestive of a female preceptor.

忙 Busy, bustling.

忙忙六道 Bustling about and absorbed in the six paths of transmigration.

忙忙鷄 忙葬鷄金剛 (or 忙葬計金剛); 麽麽鷄; 麽莫枳 Māmakī, or Māmukhī, tr. as 金剛母 the mother of all the vajra group, whose wisdom is derived from her; she is represented in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala.

成 See under seven strokes.

戌 The hour from 7-9 p. m.; translit. śū, śu.

戌陀 戌達; 戌陀羅 (or 戌捺羅 or戌怛羅) śūdra, the fourth or servile caste, whose duty is to serve the three higher castes.

戌陀戰達羅 Śuddhacandra, 淨月 pure moon, name of one of the ten authorities on 唯識 q. v.

戌婆揭羅僧訶 Śubhakarasiṃha. Propitious lion, i. e. auspicious and heroic; fearless.

戌縷多 v. 述嚕憺羅.

戌羯羅 Śukra; 金星 the planet Venus.

戌輪聿提 śudhyantī; clean or pure. It may be an epithet of vāk 'voice' in the musical sense of 'natural diatonic melody'.

戌迦 śuka, a parrot; an epithet of the Buddha.

戌迦羅博乞史 śuklapakṣa, the waxing period of the moon, 1st to 15th.

托 To carry on the palm, entrust to.

托塔天王 The deva-king who bears a pagoda on his palm, one of the four mahārājas, i. e. 毘沙門 Vaiśravaṇa.

托生 That to which birth is entrusted, as a womb, or a lotus in Paradise.

托胎 A womb; conception.

托鉢 An almsbowl; to carry it.

收 To receive; collect, gather; withdraw.

收鉢 To collect paper money, i. e. receive contributions.

收骨 To collect the bones, or relics, after cremation.


早 Early; morning.

早參 The early morning assembly.

早帝梨 Name of a 鬼 demon.

旬 A decade, a period of ten days.

旬單 The ten days, account in a monastery.

旨 Purport, will; good.

旨歸 The purport, aim, or objective.

曳 To trail, drag.

曳瑟知林 Yaṣṭivana, v. 杖林.

曲 Bent, crooked, humpbacked; to oppress; ballads.

曲女城 The city of hunchback women, said to be Kanyākubja, an ancient kingdom and capital of Central India, 'Canouge Lat. 27° 3 N., Long. 79° 50 E.' Eitel. The legend in the 西域記 Record of Western Lands is that ninety-nine of [[Wikipedia:


King]] Brahmadatta's daughters were thus deformed by the ṛṣi Mahāvṛkṣa whom they refused to marry.

曲彔 曲錄; 曲祿; 曲M043560 A bent chair used in monasteries.

曲齒 矩吒檀底 Kūṭadantī, or Mālākūṭadantī, name of a rākṣasī.

bhāva: that which exists, the existing, existence; to have, possess, be. It is defined as (1) the opposite of wu and kong the non-existent; (2) one of the twelve nidānas, existence; the condition which,

considered as cause, produces effect; (3) effect, the consequence of cause; (4) anything that can be relied upon in the visible or invisible realm. It means any state which lies between birth and death, or

beginning and end. There are numerous categories— 3, 4, 7, 9, 18, 25, and 29. The 三有 are the 三界 trailokya, i. e. 欲, 色 and 無色界 the realms of desire, of form, and of non-form, all of them realms of mortality;

another three are 本有 the present body and mind, or existence, 當有 the future ditto, 中有 the intermediate ditto. Other definitions give the different forms or modes of existence.

有上士 A bodhisattva who has reached the stage of 等覺 and is above the state of being, or the existing, i. e. as conceivable by human minds.

有主物 Things that have an owner.

有事 To have affairs, functioning, phenomenal, idem 有爲法.

有作 有爲 Functioning, effective; phenomenal, the processes resulting from the law of karma; later 安立 came into use.

有分別 The sixth sense of mental discrimination manas, as contrasted with the other five senses, sight, hearing, etc., each of which deals only with its own perceptions, and is 無分別.

有分識 Discrimination, another name for the ālaya-vijñāna.

有善多 Ujjayanta, a mountain and monastery in Surāṣṭra on the peninsula of Gujerat. Eitel.

有執受 The perceived, perceptive, perception.

有學 śaikṣa; in Hīnayāna those in the first three stages of training as arhats, the fourth and last stage being 無學 those beyond the need of further teaching or study. There are eighteen grades of śaikṣa.

有對 pratigha, sapratigha; resistance, opposition, whatever is capable of offering resistance, an object; material; opposing, opposite.

有待 That which is dependent on material things. i. e. the body.

有德女 A woman of Brahman family in Benares, who became a convert and is the questioner of the Buddha in the Śrīmatī-brāhmaṇī-paripṛcchā 有德女所問大乘經.

有性 'To have the nature, 'i. e. to be a Buddhist, have the bodhi-mind, in contrast with the 無性 absence of this mind, i. e. the闡提 icchanti, or unconverted.

有情 sattva, 薩埵 in the sense of any sentient being; the term was formerly tr. 衆生 all the living, which includes the vegetable kingdom, while 有情 limits the meaning to those endowed with consciousness.

有情居 The nine abodes, or states of conscious beings, v. 九有情居.

有情數 Among the number, or in the category, of conscious beings.

有情緣慈 Sentience gives rise to pity, or to have feeling causes pity.

有想 To have thoughts, or desires, opp. 無想.

有意 mati; matimant; possessing mind, intelligent; a tr. of manuṣya, man, a rational being. The name of the eldest son of Candra-sūrya-pradīpa.

有波第耶夜 Upādhyāya, 鳥波陀耶 in India a teacher especially of the Vedāṅgas, a term adopted by the Buddhists and gradually applied to all monks. The Chinese form is 和尚, q. v.


有手 To have a hand, or hands. hastin, possessing a hand. i. e. a trunk; an elephant.

有支 To have a branch; also the category of bhāva, one of the twelve nidānas, v. 有.

有教 The realistic school as opposed to the 空教 teaching of unreality; especially (1) the Hīnayāna teaching of the 倶舍宗 Abhidharmakośa school of Vasubandhu, opposed to the 成實宗 Satya-siddhi school of Harivarman; (2) the

Mahāyāna 法相宗 Dharma-lakṣana school, also called the 唯識宗, founded in China by Xuanzang, opposed to the 三論宗 Mādhyamika school of Nāgārjuna.

有所緣 Mental activity, the mind being able to climb, or reach anywhere, in contrast with the non-mental activities, which are 無所緣.

有智慧 manuṣya, an intelligent being, possessing wisdom, cf. 有意.

有根身 The body with its five senses.

有法 A thing that exists, not like 'the horns of a hare', which are 無法 non-existent things. Also in logic the subject in contrast with the predicate. e. g. 'sound' is the 有法 or thing, 'is eternal' the or law


有海 The sea of existence, i. e. of mortality, or births-and-deaths.

有流 The mortal stream of existence with its karma and delusion. Cf. 見流.

有漏 āsrava, means 'outflow, discharge'; 'distress, pain, affliction'; it is intp. by 煩惱 kleśa, the passions, distress, trouble, which in turn is intp. as 惑 delusion. Whatever has kleśa, i. e. distress or trouble, is 有漏;

all things are of this nature, hence it means whatever is in the stream of births-and-deaths, and also means mortal life or births-and-deaths, i. e. mortality as contrasted with 無漏, which is nirvāṇa.

有漏世界 (or 三界) The world, or worlds, of distress and illusion.

有漏善法 (or有漏惡法) Good (or evil) done in a mortal body is rewarded accordingly in the character of another mortal body.

有漏淨土 A purifying stage which, for certain types, precedes entry into the Pure Land.

有漏道 (or 有漏路) The way of mortal saṃsāra, in contrast with 無漏道 that of nirvāṇa.

有無二見 bhāvābhāva. Existence or nonexistence, being or non-being; these two opposite views, opinions, or theories are the basis of all erroneous views, etc.

有無二邊 The two extremes of being or non-being.

有無邪見 Both views are erroneous in the opinion of upholders of the 中道, the Mādhyamika school. See 有無二邊 and 有無二見.

有爲 Active, creative, productive, functioning, causative, phenomenal, the processes resulting from the laws of karma, v. 有作; opposite of 無爲 passive, inert, inactive, non-causative, laisser-faire. It is defined by 造作 to

make, and associated with saṃskṛta. The three active things 三有爲法 are 色 material, or things which have form, 心 mental and 非色非心 neither the one nor the other. The four forms of activity 四有爲相 are 生住異滅 coming into

existence, abiding, change, and extinction; they are also spoken of as three, the two middle terms being treated as having like meaning.

有爲果 The result or effect of action.

有爲無常 Activity implies impermanency.

有爲生死 The mortal saṃsāra life of births and deaths, contrasted with 無爲生死 effortless mortality, e. g. transformation such as that of the Bodhisattva.

有爲空 The unreality of the phenomenal.

有爲轉變 The permutations of activity, or phenomena, in arising, abiding, change, and extinction.

有界 The realm of existence.

有相 To have form, whatever has form, whether ideal or real.

有相業 Action through faith in the idea, e. g. of the Pure Land; the acts which produce such results.

有相教 The first twelve years of the Buddha's teaching, when he treated the phenomenal as real; v. 有空中.

有相宗 v. 法相宗 and 有部 Sarvāstivāda.

有空 Phenomenal and noumenal; the manifold forms of things exist, but things, being constructed of elements, have no per se reality.

有空不二 The phenomenal and the noumenal are identical, the phenomenal expresses the noumenal and the noumenon contains the phenomenon.

有空中 The three terms, phenomenal, noumenal, and the link or mean, v. and .

有空中三時 The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school divides the Buddha's teaching into three periods, in which he taught (1) the unreality of the ego, as shown in the 阿含 Āgamas, etc.; (2) the unreality of the dharmas, as in the 船若

Prajñāpāramitā, etc.; and (3) the middle or uniting way, as in the 解深密經 Sandhinimocana-sūtra, etc., the last being the foundation text of this school.


有結 The bond of existence, or mortal life.

有緣 Those who have the cause, link, or connection, i. e. are influenced by and responsive to the Buddha.

有耶無耶 Existence ? non-existence ? Material ? immaterial ? i. e. uncertainty, a wavering mind.

有表業 (or 有表色) The manifested activities of the 口 意 body, mouth, and mind (or will) in contrast with their 無表業 unmanifested activities.

有見 The visible, but it is used also in the sense of the erroneous view that things really exist. Another meaning is the 色果 realm of form, as contrasted with the 無見 invisible, or with the formless realms.

有解 The intp. of things as real, or material, opposite of 無解 the intp. of them as unreal, or immaterial.

有識 Perceptive beings, similar to 有情 sentient beings.

有貪 bhavarāga, the desire for existence, which is the cause of existence; 倶舍論 19.

有輪 The wheel of existence, the round of mortality, of births-and-deaths.

有邊 The one extreme of 'existence', the opposite extreme being 無邊'non-existence'.

有部 一切有部; 薩婆多 Sarvāstivāda; the school of the reality of all phenomena, one of the early Hīnayāna sects, said to have been formed, about 300 years after the Nirvāṇa, out of the Sthavira; later it subdivided into five,

Dharmaguptāḥ, Mūlasarvāstivādāḥ, Kaśyapīyāḥ, Mahīśāsakāḥ, and the influential Vātsīputrīyāḥ. v. 一切有部. Its scriptures are known as the 有部律; 律書; 十誦律; 根本說一切有部毘那耶; (根本說一切有部尼陀那) 有部尼陀那; (根本說一切有部目得迦) 有部目得迦; 根本薩婆多部律攝 or 有部律攝, etc.

有量 Limited, finite; opposite of 無量 measureless, boundless, infinite. 有相有量That which has form and measurement is called 麤 coarse, i. e. palpable, that which is without form and measurement 無相無量 is called 細 fine, i. e.


有間 Interrupted, not continuous, not intermingled, opposite of 無間.

有靈 Having souls, sentient beings, similar to 有情; possessing magical or spiritual powers.

有頂 (有頂天) Akaniṣṭha, 色究竟天 the highest heaven of form, the ninth and last of the fourth dhyāna heavens.

有頂惑 In the region of 有頂 (akaniṣṭha) there still exist the possibilities of delusion both in theory (or views) and practice, arising from the taking of the seeming for the real.

有餘 Something more; those who have remainder to fulfil, e. g. of karma incomplete; extra, additional.

有餘土 One of the four lands, or realms, the 方便有餘土 to which, according to Mahāyāna, arhats go at their decease; cf. 有餘涅槃.

有餘涅槃 有餘依 (有餘依涅槃) Incomplete nirvāṇa. Hīnayāna holds that the arhat after his last term of mortal existence enters into nirvāṇa, while alive here he is in the state of sopādhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa, limited, or modified, nirvāṇa, as

contrasted with 無餘涅槃 nirupadhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna holds that when the cause 因 of reincarnation is ended the state is that of 有餘涅槃 incomplete nirvāṇa; when the effect 果 is ended, and 得佛之常身 the eternal Buddha-body

has been obtained, then there is 無餘涅槃 complete nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna writers say that in the Hīnayāna 無餘涅槃 'remainderless' nirvāṇa for the arhat there are still remains of illusion, karma, and suffering, and it is therefore

有餘涅槃; in Mahāyāna 無餘涅槃 these remains of illusion, etc., are ended.

有餘說 Something further to say, incomplete explanation.

有餘師 Masters, or exponents, in addition to the chief or recognized authorities; also spoken of as 有餘; 餘師; 有諸師; 有人; hence 有餘師說 refers to other than the recognized, or orthodox, explanations.

有體 A thing, form, dharma, anything of ideal or real form; embodied things, bodies; varying list of 75, 84, and 100 are given.


朱 Red, vermilion.

朱利 caura, a thief, robber.

朱利草 caurī, robber-grass or herb, name of a plant.

朱羅波梨迦羅 Defined as 雜碑衣, i. e. cīvara, or ragged clothes.

次 Second, secondary; a turn, next.

次第 In turn, one after another.

次第緣 無間緣 Connected or consequent causes; continuous conditional or accessory cause.

此 This, here.

此世 此生 This world, or life.

此土著述 Narratives in regard to the present life, part of the 雜藏 miscellaneous piṭaka.

此土耳根利 Clearness of hearing in this world, i. e. the organ of sound fitted to hear the Buddha-gospel and the transcendental.

此岸 This shore, the present life.

maraṇa; 末刺諵; mṛta 母陀; to die, death; dead; also cyuti.

死亡 Dead and gone (or lost).

死刀 The (sharp) sword of death.

死山 The hill of death.

死屍 'Dead corpse, 'e. g. a wicked monk.

死海 The sea of mortality.

死王 Yama, 焰魔 as lord of death and hell.

死生 Death and life, mortality, transmigration; v. 生死.

死相 The appearance of death; signs at death indicating the person's good or evil karma.

死禪和子 Die! monk; dead monk! a term of abuse to, or in regard to, a monk.

死苦 The misery, or pain, of death, one of the Four Sufferings.

死賊 The robber death.

死門 死關 The gate, or border of death, leading from one incarnation to another.

死靈 The spirit of one who is dead, a ghost.

死風 The destroying wind in the final destruction of the world.

求 v. Seven Strokes.

汙 Stagnant water, impure; but it is explained as a torrent, impermanent; translit. o and u, and h.

汙栗駄 hṛd, hṛdaya, the 心 heart, core, mind, soul.

Sweat; vast.

汗栗駄 (or 于栗駄 or 乾栗駄); 紇哩陀耶 hṛd, hṛdaya, the heart, core, mind, soul; probably an error for 汙.

Impure; to defile.

汚家 To defile a household, i. e. by deeming it ungrateful or being dissatisfied with its gifts.

汚染 To taint; taint.

汚道沙門 A shameless monk who defiles his religion.

江 A river; the River, the Yangtsze.

江天寺 The River and Sky monastery on Golden Island, Chinkiang, Kiangsu.

江湖 Kiangsi and Hunan, where and whence the 禪 Chan (Zen) or Intuitive movement had its early spread, the title being applied to followers of this cult.

江西 A title of 馬祖 Mazu, who was a noted monk in Kiangsi, died 788.

江迦葉 River- or Nadī-kāśyapa, one of the three Kāśyapa brothers: v. 三迦棄.

灰 Ash; lime; hot or fiery as ashes.

灰人 An image of ashes or lime made and worshipped seven times a day by a woman whose marriage is hindered by unpropitious circumstances.

灰山住部 Sect of the Limestone hill dwellers, one of the twenty Hīnayāna schools; ? the Gokulikas, v. 雞.

灰沙 Ascetics who cover themselves with ashes, or burn their flesh.

灰河 A river of lava or fire, reducing all to ashes.

灰身滅智 Destruction of the body and annihilation of the mind— for the attainment of nirvāṇa.

灰頭土面 To put ashes on the head and dust on the face.

牟 To low (as an ox); overpass; barley; a grain vessel; weevil; eye-pupil; translit. mu, ma.

牟呼栗多 muhūrta, the thirtieth part of an ahorātra, a day-and-night, i. e. forty-eight minutes; a brief space of time, moment; also (wrongly) a firm mind.

牟呼洛 mahoraga, boa-demons, v. 摩睺.

牟娑 (or 摩娑 or 目娑 ) (牟娑羅); 牟娑洛 (牟娑洛揭婆); 摩沙羅; 謨薩羅 or 牟薩羅 musāragalva, a kind of coral, white coral, M. W.; defined as 瑪瑙 cornelian, agate; and 硨磲 mother of pearl; it is one of the 七寳 sapta ratna q. v.

牟尼 (牟尼仙), 文尼; 茂泥; (馬曷摩尼) 摩尼 muni; mahāmuni; 月摩尼 vimuni. A sage, saint, ascetic, monk, especially Śākyamuni; interpreted as 寂 retired, secluded, silent, solitary, i. e. withdrawn from the world. See also 百八摩尼.

牟尼室利 Muniśrī, name of a monk from northern India in the Liu Song period (5th cent. ).

牟尼王 The monk-king, a title of the Buddha.

牟眞鄰陀 mucilinda, v. 摩 and 目.

牟陀羅 mardala, or mṛdaṅga, a kind of drum described as having three faces.

百 sata; a hundred, all.

百一 One out of a hundred; or every one of a hundred, i. e. all.

百不知 (or 百不會) To know or perceive nothing, insensible (to surroundings).

百杖 A hundred fathoms of 10 feet each, 1, 0O0 feet; the name of a noted Tang abbot of百杖山 Baizhangshan, the monastery of this name in 洪州 Hongzhou.


百二十八根本煩惱 The 128 delusions of 見 views and 思 thoughts; also called 百二十八使 v. 使.

百倶胝 100 koṭīs.

百光遍照王 The king of all light universally shining, i. e. Vairocana.

百八 108.

百八丸 百八數珠; 百八牟尼 108 beads on a rosary.

百八尊 The 108 honourable ones in the Vajradhātu.

百八煩惱 The 108 passions and delusions, also called 百八結業 the 108 karmaic bonds.

百八鐘 The 108 tolls of the monastery bell at dawn and dusk.

百即百生 Of 100 who call on the Buddha 100 will be saved, all will live.

百味 All the (good) tastes, or flavours.

百喩經 The sūtra of the 100 parables, tr. by Guṇavṛddhi, late fifth century; also 百警經.

百四十不共法 The 140 special, or uncommon, characteristics of a Buddha i. e. 三十二相; 八十種好; 四淨; 十力; 四無畏; 三念處; 三不護; 大悲; 常不忘失; 斷煩惱習; 一切智.

百會 Where all things meet, i. e. the head, the place of centralization; it is applied also to the Buddha as the centre of all wisdom.

百本疏主 Lord of the hundred commentaries, title of Kuiji 窺基 of the 慈恩寺 Ci-en monastery, because of his work as a commentator; also 百本論師.

百法 The hundred divisions of all mental qualities and their agents, of the 唯識 School; also known as the 五位百法five groups of the 100 modes or 'things': (1) 心法 the eight 識 perceptions, or forms of consciousness; (2) 心所有法 the

fifty-one mental ideas; (3) 色法 the five physical organs and their six modes of sense, e. g. ear and sound; (4) 不相應行 twenty-four indefinites, or unconditioned elements; (5) 無爲 six inactive or

metaphysical concepts.

百法明門 The door to the knowledge of universal phenomena, one of the first stages of Bodhisattva progress.

百法論 (百法明門論) was tr. by Xuanzang in 1 juan.

百法界 The realm of the hundred qualities, i. e. the phenomenal realm; the ten stages from Hades to Buddha, each has ten 如是 or qualities which make up the hundred; cf. 百界.

百界 The ten realms each of ten divisions, so called by the Tiantai school, i. e. of hells, ghosts, animals, asuras, men, devas, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas. Each of the

hundred has ten qualities, making in all 百界千如 the thousand qualities of the hundred realms; this 1, 000 being multiplied by the three of past, present, future, there are 3, 000; to behold these 3, 000 in an instant is called 一念

三千 (一念三千之觀法) and the sphere envisaged is the 百界千如.

百目 An earthenware lantern, i. e. with many eyes or holes.

百衲衣 A monk's robe made of patches.

百福 The hundred blessings, every kind of happiness.

百萬遍 To repeat Amitābha's name a million times (ensures rebirth in his Paradise; for a seven days' unbroken repetition Paradise may be gained).

百衆學 śikṣākaraṇīya, what all monks and nuns learn, the offence against which is duṣkṛta, v. 突.

百論 Śataśāstra. One of the 三論 'three śāstras' of the Mādhyamika school, so called because of its 100 verses, each of 32 words; attributed to Deva Bodhisattva, it was written in Sanskrit by Vasubandhu and tr. by

Kumārajīva, but the versions differ. There is also the 廣百論本 Catuḥśataka [Catuḥśatakaśāstrakarika], an expansion of the above.

竹 veṇu, bamboo.

竹林 (竹林精舍 or竹林寺); 竹林園; 竹林苑 Veṇuvana, 'bamboo-grove,' a park called Karaṇḍaveṇuvana, near Rājagṛha, made by Bimbisāra for a group of ascetics, later given by him to Śākyamuni (Eitel), but another version says by the elder

Karaṇḍa, who built there a vihāra for him.

米 śāli, rice, i. e. hulled rice. The word śālihas been wrongly used for śarīra, relics, and for both words 舍利 has been used.

米頭 Keeper of the stores.

米麗耶 maireya, 'a kind of intoxicating drink (extracted from the blossoms of Lythrum fructicosum with sugar, etc. ).' M. W.


羊 avi, a sheep, goat, ram.

羊毛塵 The minute speck of dust that can rest on the tip of a sheep's hair.

羊石 An abbreviation for 羯磨 karma, from the radicals of the two words.

羊角 A ram's horn is used for 煩惱 the passions and delusions of life.

羊車 羊乘 The inferior, or śrāvaka, form of Buddhism, v. Lotus Sūtra, in the parable of the burning house.

jarā; old, old age.

老死 jarāmaraṇa, decrepitude and death; one of the twelve nidānas, a primary dogma of Buddhism that decrepitude and death are the natural products of the maturity of the five skandhas.

老古錐 An old awl, an experienced and incisive teacher.

老婆 An old woman; my 'old woman', i. e. my wife.

老子 Laozi, or Laocius, the accepted founder of the Daoists. The theory that his soul went to India and was reborn as the Buddha is found in the 齊書 History of the Qi dynasty 顧歡傳.

老宿 sthavira, an old man, virtuous elder.

老橊槌 An old pestle, or drumstick, a baldheaded old man, or monk.

老苦 One of the four sufferings, that of old age.

耳 śrotra, the ear, one of the 六根 six organs of sense, hence 耳入 is one of the twelve 入, as 耳處 is one of the twelve .

耳根 śrotrendriya, the organ of hearing.

耳語戒 Secret rules whispered in the ear, an esoteric practice.

耳識 śrotravijñāna. Ear-perception, ear-discernment.

耳輪 An ear-ring.

肉 māṃsa. Flesh.

肉心 肉團心; 紇利陀耶 hṛdaya; the physical heart.

肉燈 肉香 To cremate oneself alive as a lamp or as incense for Buddha.

肉眼 māṃsacakṣus. Eye of flesh, the physical eye.

肉色 Flesh-coloured, red.

肉身 The physical body.

肉菩薩 One who becomes a bodhisattva in the physical body, in the present life.

肉食 māṃsabhakṣaṇa, meat-eating.

肉髻 鳥失尼沙; 鬱失尼沙; 鳥瑟尼沙; 鬱瑟尼沙; 鳥瑟 膩沙 uṣṇīṣa. One of the thirty-two marks (lakṣaṇa) of a Buddha; originally a conical or flame-shaped tuft of hair on the crown of a Buddha, in later ages represented as a fleshly excrescence on

the skull itself; interpreted as coiffure of flesh. In China it is low and large at the base, sometimes with a tonsure on top of the protuberance.

自 sva, svayam; the self, one' s own, personal; of itself, naturally, of course; also, from (i. e. from the self as central). 自 is used as the opposite of 他 another, other's, etc., e. g. 自力 (in) one's own strength as

contrasted with 他力 the strength of another, especially in the power to save of a Buddha or Bodhisattva. It is also used in the sense of ātman 阿怛摩 the self, or the soul.

自作自受 As one does one receives, every man receives the reward of his deeds, creating his own karma, 自業自得.

自内證 Inner witness.

自利 ātmahitam, self-profit; beneficial to oneself.

自利利他 'Self-profit profit others', i. e. the essential nature and work of a bodhisattva, to benefit himself and benefit others, or himself press forward in the Buddhist life in order to carry others forward. Hīnayāna

is considered to be self-advancement, self-salvation by works or discipline; Bodhisattva Buddhism as saving oneself in order to save others, or making progress and helping others to progress, bodhisattvism

being essentially altruistic.

自受用土 The third of the four buddhakṣetra or Buddha-domains, that in which there is complete response to his teaching and powers; v. 佛土.

自受用身 One of the two kinds of saṃbhogakāya, for his own enjoyment; cf. 四身.

自受法樂 The dharma-delights a Buddha enjoys in the自受用身 state.

自在 Īśvara , 伊濕伐邏; can, king, master, sovereign, independent, royal; intp. as free from resistance; also, the mind free from delusion; in the Avataṃsaka Sūtra it translates vasitā. There are several groups of this

independence, or sovereignty— 2, 4, 5, 8, and 10, e. g. the 2 are that a bodhisattva has sovereign knowledge and sovereign power; the others are categories of a bodhisattva's sovereign powers. For the eight powers

v. 八大自在我.

自在天 (or自在王) Īśvaradeva, a title of Śiva, king of the devas, also known as 大自在天 Maheśvara, q. v. It is a title also applied to Guanyin and others.

自在天外道 Śivaites, who ascribed creation and destruction to Śiva, and that all things form his body, space his head, sun and moon his eyes, earth his body, rivers and seas his urine, mountains his

fæces, wind his life, fire his heat, and all living things the vermin on his body. This sect is also known as the 自在等因宗. Śiva is represented with eight arms, three eyes, sitting on a bull.

自在王 is also a title of Vairocana; and, as Sureśvara, is the name of a mythical king, contemporary of the mythical Śikhin Buddha.

自心 svacitta, self-mind, one's own mind.

自性 Own nature; of (its) own nature. As an intp. of pradhāna (and resembling 冥性) in the Sāṅkhya philosophy it is 'prakṛti, the Originant, primary or original matter or rather the primary germ out of which all material

appearances are evolved, the first evolver or source of the material world (hence in a general acceptation 'nature' or rather 'matter' as opposed to purusha, or 'spirit')'. M. W. As 莎發斡 svabhāva, it is 'own state, essential or

inherent property, innate or peculiar disposition, natural state or constitution, nature'. M. W. The self-substance, self-nature, or unchanging character of anything.


自性三寶 The triratna, each with its own characteristic, Buddha being wisdom ; the Law correctness 正; and the Order purity 淨.

自性戒 The ten natural moral laws, i. e. which are natural to man, apart from the Buddha's commands; also 自性善.

自恣 pravārana, to follow one's own bent, the modern term being 隨意; it means the end of restraint, i. e. following the period of retreat.

自恣日 The last day of the annual retreat.

自愛 Self-love, cause of all pursuit or seeking, which in turn causes all suffering. All Buddhas put away self-love and all pursuit, or seeking, such elimination being nirvāṇa.

自損損他 To harm oneself and harm others, to harm oneself is to harm others, etc.; opposite of 自利利他.

自殺 To commit suicide; for a monk to commit suicide is said to be against the rules.

自然 svayaṃbhū, also 自爾; 法爾 self-existing, the self-existent; Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and others; in Chinese it is 'self-so', so of itself, natural, of course, spontaneous. It also means uncaused existence, certain

sects of heretics 自然外道 denying Buddhist cause and effect and holding that things happen spontaneously.

自然慈 Intuitive mercy possessed by a bodhisattva, untaught and without causal nexus.

自然悟道 Enlightenment by the inner light, independent of external teaching; to become Buddha by one's own power, e. g. Śākyamuni who is called 自然釋迦.

自然成佛道 svayaṃbhuvaḥ. Similar to 自然悟道, independent attainment of Buddhahood.

自然智 The intuitive or inborn wisdom of a Buddha, untaught to him and outside the causal nexus.

自然虛無身 A Buddha's spiritual or absolute body, his dharmakāya; also, those who are born in Paradise, i. e. who are spontaneously and independently produced there.

自生 Self-produced, or naturally existing; also an intp. of bhūta 部多 produced; existing, real; also demons born by transformation 化生 in contrast to the 夜叉 yakṣa who are born from parents.

自相 svalakṣaṇa; individuality, particular, personal, as contrasted with 共相 general or common.

自行化他 To discipline, or perform, oneself and (or in order to) convert or transform others. v. 自利利他.

自覺悟心 A mind independent of externals, pure thought, capable of enlightenment from within.

自覺聖智 The uncaused omniscience of Vairocana; it is also called 法界智 (法界體性智) and 金剛智.

自誓受戒 To make the vows and undertake the commandments oneself (before the image of a Buddha), i. e. self-ordination when unable to obtain ordination from the ordained.

自語相違 A manifest contradiction, one of the nine fallacies of a proposition, svārtha-viruddha, e. g. 'my mother is barren.'

自調自淨自度 The śrāvaka method of salvation by personal discipline, or 'works'; 自調 self-progress by keeping the commandments; 自淨 self-purification by emptying the mind; 自度 self-release by the attainment of

gnosis, or wisdom.

自證 The witness within, inner assurance.

自證壇 or自證會 The 成身會 assembly of all the Buddha and bodhisattva embodiments in the Vajradhātu maṇḍala.

自證聖智 pratyātmāryajñāna, personal apprehension of Buddha-truth.

自證身 A title of Vairocana, his dharmakāya of self-assurance, or realization, from which issues his retinue of proclaimers of the truth.

自身自佛 One's own body is Buddha.

自類因果 Cause and effect of the same order.

至 Reach, arrive at; utmost, perfect.

至人 The perfect man, i. e. Śākyamuni.

至心 With the utmost mind, or a perfect mind.

至教 Complete or perfect teaching.

至理 The utmost principle, the fundamental law.


至眞 Perfect truth.

至相尊者 The second patriarch of the Huayan (Kegon) school 智儼 Zhiyan.

至言 Perfect words, words of complete explanation.

至那 Cīna, China.

至那儞 cīnānī, the peach-tree, said to have been imported into India from China.

至那[M001173]底 Cīnapati, Lord (from) China, said in the Record of Western Lands 西域記 to have been appointed by the Han rulers; a country so-called because the son of 蕃維質 Fan Weizhi of 河西 Hexi dwelt (and reigned) there. Eitel

says, 'A small kingdom in the north-west of India (near Lahore) the inhabitants of which asserted (A. D. 640) that their first kings had come from China.'

至那羅闍弗呾羅 Cīnarājaputra, 'son of the China king,' intp. by 漢王子 Prince of Han, which was also an Indian name for a pear-tree, said to have been imported from China in the Han dynasty; v. 西域記 4.

至沙 帝沙 Tiṣya, an ancient Buddha. The father of Śāriputra. A son of Śuklodana.

舌 jihvā, 時乞縛; the tongue.

舌根 the organ of taste.

舌識 tongue-perception; v. 六根; 六識.

舌相 The broad, long tongue of a Buddha, one of the thirty-two physical signs.

舌不爛 Tongue-unconsumed, a term for Kumārajīva; on his cremation his tongue is said to have remained unconsumed.

rūpa, outward appearance, form, colour, matter, thing; the desirable, especially feminine attraction. It is defined as that which has resistance; or which changes and disappears, i. e. the phenomenal; also as 顯, 形 and 表色

colour and quality, form or the measurable, and mode or action. There are divisions of two, i. e. inner and outer, as the organs and objects of sense; also colour and form; of three, i. e. the visible object,

e. g. colour, the invisible object, e. g. sound, the invisible and immaterial; of eleven, i. e. the five organs and five objects of sense and the immaterial object; of fourteen, the five organs and five objects of

sense and the four elements, earth, water, fire, air. rūpa is one of the six bāhya-āyatana, the 六塵; also one of the five skandhas, 五蘊, i. e. the 色身. Keith refers to rūpa as 'material form or matter which is

underived (no-utpādā) and which is derived (utpādā)', the underived or independent being the tangible; the derived or dependent being the senses, e. g. of hearing; most of their objects, e. g. sound; the qualities

or faculties of feminity, masculinity, vitality; intimation by act and speech, space; qualities of matter, e. g. buoyancy and physical nutriment.

色入 色處 The entrances, or places, where the organs and objects of physical sense meet, ten in all; cf. 五入. Also, one of the twelve nidānas.

色光 Physical light, as contrasted with 心光 light of the mind; every Buddha has both, e. g. his halo.

色具 Material objects.

色味 The flavour of sexual attraction, love of women.

色塵 The quality of form, colour, or sexual attraction, one of the 六塵.

色微 Atoms of things, of form, or colour.

色心 Matter and mind, the material and immaterial.

色有 Material existence.

色欲 Sexual desire, or passion.

色泡 色焰 The material as a bubble, or a flame; impermanent.

色界 rūpadhātu, or rūpāvacara, or rūpaloka, any material world, or world of form; it especially refers to the second of the Trailokya 三界, the brahmalokas above the devalokas, comprising sixteen or seventeen or eighteen

'Heavens of Form', divided into four dhyānas, in which life lasts from one-fourth of a mahākalpa to 16,000 mahākalpas, and the average stature is from one-half a yojana to 16,000 yojanas. The inhabitants are

above the desire for sex or food. The rūpadhātu, with variants, are given as— 初禪天 The first dhyāna heavens: 梵衆天 Brahmapāriṣadya, 梵輔天 Brahmapurohita or Brahmakāyika, 大梵天 Mahābrahmā. 二禪天 The second dhyāna heavens: 少光天

Parīttābha, 無量光天 Apramāṇābha, 光音天 Ābhāsvara. 三禪天 The third dhyāna heavens: 少淨天 Parīttaśubha, 無量淨天 Apramāṇaśubha, 徧淨天 Śubhakṛtsna. 四禪天 The fourth dhyāna heavens: 無雲天 Anabhraka, 福生天 Puṇyaprasava, 廣果天 Bṛhatphala, 無想天

Asañjñisattva, 無煩天 Avṛha, 無熱天 Atapa, 善現天 Sudṛśa, 善見天 Sudarśana, 色究竟天 Akaniṣṭha, 和音天 ? Aghaniṣṭha, 大自在天 Mahāmaheśvara.

色相 The material, material appearance, or external manifestation, the visible.

色相土 A Buddha's material or visible world.


色究竟天 色頂 Akaniṣṭha, the highest of the material heavens.

色空外道 Heretics who denied material existence (and consequently sought self-control, or nirvana).

色境 Visible objects, the realm of vision, or form.

色聲 The visible and audible.

色蓋 The concealing, or misleading, character of the visible or material, the seeming concealing reality.

色蘊 The skandha of rūpa, or that which has form, v. 五蘊.

色處 idem 色入.

色衆 idem 色蘊, 色陰.

色諦 idem 假諦.

色身 rūpakāya. The physical body, as contrasted with the 法身 dharmakāya, the immaterial, spiritual, or immortal body.

虫 Insect, reptile; any creeping thing; animal, man as of the animal kingdom.

Blood. 以血洗血 To wash out blood with blood, from one sin to fall into another.

血書 Written with (one's own) blood.

血汚池 The pool, or lake, of blood in one of the hells.

血海 The sea of blood, i.e. the hells and lower incarnations.

血盆經 The sutra describing the blood bath for women in Hades; it is a Chinese invention and is called by Eitel "the placenta tank, which consists of an immense pool of blood, and from this hell, it is said, no release is

possible"; but there are ceremonies for release from it.

血脉 The arteries and veins, linked, closely connected.

血途 The gati or destiny of rebirth as an animal.

Go; act; do; perform; action; conduct; functioning; the deed; whatever is done by mind, mouth, or body, i.e. in thought, word, or deed. It is used for ayana, going, road, course; a march, a division of time

equal to six months; also for saṁskāra, form, operation, perfecting, as one of the twelve nidānas, similar to karma, action, work, deed, especially moral action, cf. .

行乞 To go begging, or asking for alms; also 行鉢; 托鉢.

行人 A traveller, wayfarer; a follower of Buddha; a disciple.

行住坐卧 Walking, standing, sitting, lying-in every state.

行供養 The making of offerings, to go to make offerings.

行信 Act and faith, doing and believing, acting out one's belief.

行儀 To perform the proper duties, especially of monks and nuns.

行化 To go and convert; also 行教化.

行厠 To go to the privy; the privy to which one goes, metaphor of the human body as filthy.

行善 To do good; deeds that are good; to offer up deeds of goodness.

行履 The common acts of daily life-sitting, eating, thinking, etc.

行德 The virtue of performance, or discipline; to perform virtuous deeds.

行教 To carry out the vinaya discipline; the vinaya.

行果 Deed and result; the inevitable sequence of act and its effect.

行業 That which is done, the activities of thought, word, or deed; moral action; karma.

行樹 Trees in rows, avenues of trees.

行母 mātṛkā, 摩德理迦; the "mother of karma", i.e. the Abhidharma-piṭaka, which shows that karma produces karma, one act producing another.


行滿 Xingman, a monk of the 佛龍寺 Folung monastery, about whom little is known, but who is accredited with supplying Dengyō of Japan with Tiantai scriptures in the latter part of the eighth century.

行犍度 The saṃskāraskandha, the fourth of the five skandhas. v. 行蘊.

行相 Activity; performance; mental activity.

行籌 To cast lots, divine (length of life).

行者 An abbot's attendant; also ācārin, performing the duties of a disciple.

行脚 (行僧) A wandering monk.

行苦 The suffering inevitably consequent on action.

行華 To offer flowers.

行蘊 The fourth of the five skandhas, saṁskāra, action which inevitably passes on its effects.

行要 The requirements for action; to do that which is most important.

行證 Action and proof; knowledge or assurance derived from doing; practice of religious discipline and the resulting enlightenment.

行像 To take an image (of Buddha) in procession; it was a custom observed on Buddha's birthday according to the 佛國記.

行足 As works are the feet (so wisdom is the eye).

行道 To walk in the way, follow the Buddha-truth; to make procession round an image, especially of the Buddha, with the right shoulder towards it.

行雨 To rain, or produce rain; Varṣākāra, name of a minister of king Bimbisāra.

行願 Action and vow; act and vow, resolve or intention; to act out one's vows; to vow.

行香 To offer incense.

Clothes, especially a monk's robes which are of two kinds, the compulsory three garments of five, seven, or nine pieces; and the permissive clothing for the manual work of the monastery, etc. The 三衣 or three garments

are (1) 安陀會衣 antarvāsas, an inner garment; the five-piece 袈裟 cassock; (2) 鬱多羅僧衣 uttarāsaṇga, outer garment, the seven-piece cassock; (3) 僧伽梨衣 saṁghāti, assembly cassock of from nine to twenty-five pieces. The permissive clothing is

of ten kinds.

衣座室 The robe, throne, and abode of the Tathāgata, see Lotus Sutra 法師品.

衣法 The robe and the Buddha-truth.

衣珠 衣寳 The pearl in the garment, i.e. a man starving yet possessed of a priceless pearl in his garment, of which he was unaware; v. Lotus Sutra 五百授記品.

衣服天 The Vajradeva in the Vajradhātu group who guards the placenta and the unborn child; his colour is black and he holds a bow and arrow.

衣衣隨念願 The vow of Amitābha that all the devas and men in his realm shall instantly have whatever beautiful clothing they wish.

衣裓 A towel, cloth, wrapper, or mantle.

衣鉢 Cassock and almsbowl.

衣那 The umbilical cord.

西 paścima, 跛室制麽; west; it is largely used in the limited sense of Kashmir in such terms as 西方 the west, or western regions; but it is also much used for the western heavens of Amitābha; 西天 is India, the western 天竺


西主 The Lord of the West, Amitābha, who is also the西天教主 lord of the cult, or sovereign teacher, of the western paradise.

西乾 A name for India, cf. 西天.

西儞迦 先尼 sainika, military.

西光 The light of the western paradise.

西刹 kṣetra, land, region, country.

西域求法高僧傳 Biographies of famous pilgrims, fifty-six in number, with four added; it is by Yijing 義淨.

西域記 大唐西域記; 西域傳 Records of Western countries, by the Tang dynasty pilgrim 玄奘 Xuanzang, in 12 juan A.D. 646-8. There was a previous 西域傳 by 彦琮 Yancong of the Sui dynasty.

西山住部 Avaraśailā 阿伐羅塾羅 the second subdivision of the Mahāsaṅghika school. A monastery of this name was in Dhana-kaṭaka, said to have been built 600 B.C., deserted A.D. 600.

西序 西班 The western group, i.e. teaching monks stood on the west of the abbot, while those engaged in practical affairs stood on the east; this was in imitation of the Court practice in regard to civil and military officials.


西方 The west, especially Amitābha's Western Pure Land. 西方淨土, Sukhāvāti or Paradise西方極樂世界, to which Amitābha is the guide and welcomer 西方接引.

西明 Ximing, name of 道宣 Daoxuan of the Tang who founded the Southern Hill school, and also of 圓測 Yuance, both of whom were from the 西明寺 monastery of Western Enlightenment established by Gaozong (650-684) at Chang'an, the capital.

西曼陀羅 The "western" maṇḍala is that of the Vajradhātu, as the "eastern" is of the Garbhadhātu.

西河 Xihe, a name for 道綽 Daochuo of the Tang dynasty.

西淨 The western cleanser, the privy, situated on the west of a monastery.

西牛貨洲 西瞿陀尼 (or 西瞿耶尼) The western continent of a world, Godānīya, v. 瞿, or Aparagodānīya, or Aparagodāna, "western-cattle-giving," where cattle are the medium of exchange, possibly referring to the "pecuniary" barter of the north-


西藏 Tibet.

西藏佛教 Tibetan Buddhism.

西藏嘛教 Tibetan Lamaism.

西行 Going west; practices of the Amitābha cult, leading to salvation in the Western Paradise.


估 Guess, estimate.

估衣 To estimate the value of a deceased monk's personal possessions.

估唱 to auction a deceased monk's personal possessions to the other monks.

伴 Companion, associate; translit. pan, ban, van, cf. 畔伴僧 Associate or accompanying monks.

伴夜 伴靈 To watch with the spirit of a departed monk the night before the cremation.

伴談 v. 和南 vandana.

伴陀羅縛子尼 (or 伴陀羅縛字尼) v. 半 Pāṇḍaravāsinī.

vicāra, 毘遮羅 Investigation, consideration, search for truth; to spy; wait on.

低 To let down, lower.

低羅擇迦 (or 低羅釋迦) Tiladhāka, Tiladaka, or Tilaśākya. "A monastery, three yōdjanas west of Nālanda, perhaps the modern village of Thelari near Gayā." Eitel.

佗 He, she, it; other; i.e. 他; translit. tha, e.g. in sthāna , sthāman.

位 Position, seat, throne.

位不退 One of the 三不退 q.v. three kinds of never receding.

位牌 The board, or record of official position.

何 Translit. ha, hai, a, ra, he, cf. 賀 and 曷. What? How?

何似生 How does it thus happen?

何夷摩柯 Haimaka, a king at the beginning of a kalpa, 金 by name.

何履那 hariṇa, a deer.

何羅怙羅 Rāhula, name of Śākyamuni's son, also of an asura.

何耶 Haya, the horse-head form of Guanyin.

何耶揭唎婆 Hayagrīva, Horse-neck, a form of Viṣṇu, name of a 明王 mingwang.

但 Only.

但空 Only non-existence, or immateriality, a term used by Tiantai to denote the orthodox Hīnayāna system. 不但空 denotes the 通教 intermediate system between the Hīnayāna and the Mahāyāna; v. .

但荼 單拏 daṇḍa, a staff, club.

Appearance of, seeming as, like, as; than.

似現量 A syllogism assuming e.g. that a vase or garment is real, and not made up of certain elements.

似立宗 A fallacious proposition; containing any one of the nine fallacies connected with the thesis, or pratijñā, of the syllogism.

似能破 A fallacious counter-proposition; containing one of the thirty-three fallacies connected with the thesis (pratijñā 宗), reason (hetu 因), or example (udāharaṇa 喩).

佉 Translit. kha, also khya, ga, gha, khu, khi; cf. 呿, 喀, 吃, 呵, 珂, 恪, 轗; it is used to represent 虛空 space, empty. Skt. kha inter alia means "sky", "ether".

佉加 渴伽 khaḍga, a rhinoceros.

佉勒迦 khārī, a measure (or hamper) of grain; khārīka, equal to a khārī.

佉吒迦 khaṭaka; a manual sign, wrists together, fingers half-closed; M. W. says "the half-closed hand; the doubled fist of wrestlers or boxers".

佉啁羅 khaṭvā, a bed, couch, cot; a long, narrow bed.

佉提羅 (佉提羅迦); 佉得羅柯; 佉陀羅; 朅地洛 (or朅地洛迦 or 朅達洛 or 朅達洛迦); 朅那里酤; 羯地羅; 可梨羅; 軻梨羅; Khadiraka, or Karavīka. One of the seven concentric ranges of a world; tr. by jambu timber, or wood; also by 空破 bare, unwooded. Its sea is covered

with scented flowers, and in it are four islands. It is also a tree of the Acacia order.

佉梨 khāri, or khārī. A 斛, i.e. bushel, or measure of about ten 斗; v. 佉慮; 佉勒.

佉樓 佉慮 (佉慮風吒); 佉路瑟吒 Kharoṣṭhi, tr. by "Ass's lips"; name of an ancient ṛṣi, perhaps Jyotīrasa. Also, "the writing of all the northerners," said to have been introduced by him, consisting of seventy-two characters.

佉沙 Kashgar, a country in E. Turkestan, east of the Pamirs, S. of Tianshan; the older name, after the name of its capital, is sometimes given as 疏勒 or 室利訖栗多底 Śrīkrītati.

佉盧 khāra; said to be a 斗, the tenth of a佉梨; also Khara, the name of a ṛṣi. For Kharoṣṭhi, v. above.


佉羅陀, or 佉羅帝, etc.; v. 伽.

佉羅騫馱 Kharakaṇṭha; kings of demons, kings of asuras present when Buddha preached the Lotus Sutra; also described as rumbling like thunder, or stirring up the waves of the ocean.

佉訶囉嚩阿 kha, ha, ra, va, a, the five 種子 roots, or seed-tones of the five elements, space, wind, fire, water, earth respectively.

佉陀尼 (or 佉闍尼); 珂但尼 khādanīya, to be chewed; edible; a food; defined as edibles not included in regulation meals.

sthiti. To abide, dwell, stay, stop, settle.

生住滅 birth, existence, death.

住位 Abiding place, one of the ten stages, resting and developing places or abodes of the bodhisattva, which is entered after the stage of belief has been passed; v. 十住; 十地; 地.

住劫 vivartasiddhakalpa; the abiding or existing kalpa; the kalpa of human existence; v. .

住地 Dwelling-place; abiding place in the Truth, i.e. the acquirement by faith of a self believing in the dharma and producing its fruits.

住定 Fixed, certain, firmly settled.

住定菩薩 A bodhisattva firmly fixed, or abiding in certainty. After a bodhisattva has completed three great asaṁkhyeyakalpas he has still one hundred great kalpas to complete. This period is called abiding in fixity or firmness,

divided into six kinds: certainty of being born in a good gati, in a noble family, with a good body, a man, knowing the abiding places of his transmigrations, knowing the abiding character of his good works.

住持 To dwell and control; the abbot of a monastery; resident superintendent; to maintain, or firmly hold to (faith in the Buddha, etc.). For住持身 v. 佛具十身.

住果 Abiding in the fruit; e.g. śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas who rest satisfied in their attainments and do not strive for Buddhahood; they are known as住果緣覺 or住果羅漢.

住相 sthiti; abiding, being, the state of existence, one of the four characteristics of all beings and things, i.e. birth, existence, change (or decay), death (or cessation).

作 To make, do, act, be; arise.

作佛 To become or be a Buddha; to cut off illusion, attain complete enlightenment, and end the stage of bodhisattva discipline.

作佛事 To do the works of Buddha; perform Buddhist ceremonies. 作善 To do good, e.g. worship, bestow alms, etc.

作家 Leader, founder, head of sect, a term used by the 禪 Chan (Zen) or Intuitive school.

作惡 To do evil.

作意 cittotpāda; to have the thought arise, be aroused, beget the resolve, etc.

作戒 Obedience to the commandments, external fulfillment of them; also called 表色, in contrast with 無作戒, 無表色 the inner grace; moral action in contrast with inner moral character.

作持戒 Active keeping of the commandments, active law in contrast with 止持戒 passive, such as not killing, not stealing, etc. v. 持犯.

作梵 (作梵唄) The call to order in the assembly.

作業 Karma produced, i.e. by the action of body, words, and thought, which educe the kernel of the next rebirth.

作法 Karma, which results from action, i.e. the "deeds" of body or mouth; to perform ceremonies.

作法得 To receive ceremonial ordination as a monk.

作法懺 (作法懺悔) One of the three kinds of monastic confession and repentance.

作法界 The place of assembly for ceremonial purposes.

作犯 Transgression, sin by action, active sin.

作用 Function, activity, act.

作禮 To pay one's respect by worship; to make an obeisance.

作者 kartṛ; a doer, he who does things, hence the ātman, ego, or person within; the active element, or principle; one of the sixteen non-Buddhist definitions of the soul. Also kāraṇa, a cause, maker, creator,


作擧 The accusation of sin made against particular monks by the virtuous monk who presides at the pravāraṇa gathering on the last day of the summer's rest.

作願門 To make a vow to benefit self and others, and to fulfil the vow so as to be born in the Pure Land of Amitābha. The third of the five doors or ways of entering the Pure Land.

作麽 (作麽生) How? What? What are you doing?

伽 Interchanged with 迦 q.v.; translit. ga, gha, ka, khya, g and in one case for ha.

伽彌尼 Gamini, a king whom the Buddha is said to have addressed, v. sutra of this name.

伽憊 idem 路伽憊 Lokavit.

伽梨 Abbrev. for 僧伽梨 saṅghāṭī, robe.

伽梵 伽婆 Abbrev. for bhagavan, see 婆伽婆.

伽婆達摩 Bhagavaddharma. A Western Indian monk who tr. a work on 觀自在.

伽梵波提 伽傍簸帝 Gavāṁpati. 牛主 Lord of cattle, name of an arhat; v. 憍.

伽毗黎 Kapilavastu, v. .

伽羅 Abbrev. for 多伽羅tāgara putchuk, incense.

伽羅夜叉 Kālaka, a yakṣa who smote Śāriputra on the head while in meditation, without his perceiving it.

伽羅尼 羯羅拏 ghrāṇa, smell; scent.

伽羅陀 (1) Kharādīya, the mountain where Buddha is supposed to have tiered the 地藏十論經, the abode of Tizang; other names for it are 佉伽羅, 佉羅帝 (or佉羅帝提耶). (2) A bodhisattva stage attained after many kalpas.

伽耶 伽邪; 伽闍 Gayā. (1) A city of Magadha, Buddhagayā (north-west of present Gaya), near which Śākyamuni became Buddha. (2) Gaja, an elephant. (3) 伽耶山 Gajaśirṣa, Elephant's Head Mountain; two are mentioned, one near "[[Vulture

Peak]]", one near the Bo-tree. (4) kāya, the body.

伽耶舍多 (or伽耶邪舍多) Gayaśāta (? Jayata), the eighteenth Indian patriarch, who laboured among the Tokhari.

伽耶迦葉 Gayākāśyapa, a brother of Mahākāśyapa, originally a fire-worshipper, one of the eleven foremost disciples of Buddha, to become Samantaprabhāsa Buddha.


伽胝 Abbrev. for saṇghāṭi, robe; v. 僧伽胝.

伽藍 僧伽藍摩; 僧藍 saṅghārāma or saṅghāgāra. (1) The park of a monastery. (2) A monastery, convent. There are eighteen伽藍神 guardian spirits of a monastery.

伽蘭他 grantha, a treatise, section, verse; the scriptures of the Sikhs.

伽車提 gacchati, goes, progresses.

伽那 gana, ghana; close, solid, thick.

伽伽那卑麗叉那 (or 伽伽那必利綺那) gaganaprekṣaṇa, beholding the sky, or looking into space.

伽那提婆 Kāṇadeva, i.e. Āryadeva, fifteenth patriarch, disciple of Nāgārjuna, v. 迦.

伽那馥力刃 A name of Nāgārjuna.

伽陀 伽他 (1) gātha = song; gāthā, a metrical narrative or hymn, with moral purport, described as generally composed of thirty-two characters, and called 孤起頌 a detached stanza, distinguished from geya, 重頌 which

repeats the ideas of preceding prose passages. (2) agada as adjective = healthy; as noun = antidote. (3) gata, arrived at, fallen into, or "in a state".

Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "conceive", "observe", "wake"; also 佛陀; 浮圖; 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮塔; 勃陀; 勃馱; 沒馱; 母馱; 母陀; 部陀; 休屠. Buddha means "completely conscious, enlightened", and came to mean the enlightener. he

Chinese translation is to perceive, aware, awake; and gnosis, knowledge. There is an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and multitudes of Buddhas, but the personality of a Supreme

Buddha, an Ādi-Buddha, is not defined. Buddha is in and through all things, and some schools are definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna 三寳 commonly known as 三寳佛, while Śākyamuni

Buddha is the first "person" of the Trinity, his Law the second, and the Order the third, all three by some are accounted as manifestations of the All-Buddha. As Śākyamuni, the title indicates him as the last of the line

of Buddhas who have appeared in this world, Maitreya is to be the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlightenment, having discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane existence,

others all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations; this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation, the monastic life, and

meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one, himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment, or Omniscience, and according to Māhāyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as they

seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality (twelve nidānas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the

arhat. Four types of the Buddha are referred to: (1) 三藏佛the Buddha of the Tripiṭaka who attained enlightenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) 通佛the Buddha on the deva robe under the [[bodhi-

tree]] of the seven precious things; (3) 別佛the Buddha on the great precious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and (4) 圓佛the Buddha on the throne of Space in the realm of eternal rest and

glory where he is Vairocana. The Hīnayāna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time; Mahāyāna claims the existence of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many Buddhas as there are Buddha-

universes, which are infinite in number.

佛世 Buddha-age; especially the age when Buddha was on earth.

佛世尊 Buddha, the World-honoured, or honoured of the worlds, a tr. of bhagavat, revered.

佛世界 A Buddha-realm, divided into two categories, the pure and the impure, i.e. the passionless and passion worlds.

佛乘 The Buddha conveyance or vehicle, Buddhism as the vehicle of salvation for all beings; the doctrine of the 華嚴 Huayan (Kegon) School that all may become Buddha, which is called 一乘 the One Vehicle, the

followers of this school calling it the 圓教 complete or perfect doctrine; this doctrine is also styled in the Lotus Sutra 一佛乘 the One Buddha-Vehicle.

佛乘戒 The rules and commandments conveying beings to salvation.

佛事 Buddha's affairs, the work of transforming all beings; or of doing Buddha-work, e.g. prayers and worship.

佛于逮 Pūrvavideha, v. 佛婆, etc.

佛五姓 The five surnames of Buddha before he became enlightened: 瞿曇 Gautama, a branch of the Śākya clan; 甘蔗Ikṣvāku, one of Buddha's ancestors; 日種 Sūryavaṁśa, of the sun race; 舍夷 ? Śāka; 釋迦 Śākya, the name of

Buddha's clan. This last is generally used in China.

佛位 The state of Buddhahood.

佛使 A messenger of the Tathāgata.

佛供 An offering to Buddha.


佛像 Buddha's image, or pratimā. There is a statement that in the fifth century A.D. the images in China were of Indian features, thick lips, high nose, long eyes, full jaws, etc., but that after the Tang the

form became "more effeminate".

佛光 The light of Buddha, spiritual enlightenment; halo, glory.

佛具 Articles used on an altar in worship of Buddha.

佛具十身 The ten perfect bodies or characteristics of Buddha: (1) 菩提身 Bodhi-body in possession of complete enlightenment. (2) 願身 Vow-body, i.e. the vow to be born in and from the Tuṣita heaven. (3) 化

nirmāṇakāya, Buddha incarnate as a man. (4) 住持身 Buddha who still occupies his relics or what he has left behind on earth and thus upholds the dharma. (5) 相好莊嚴身 saṁbhogakāya, endowed with an idealized body

with all Buddha marks and merits. (6) 勢力身 or 心佛 Power-body, embracing all with his heart of mercy. (7) 如意身 or 意生身 At will body, appearing according to wish or need. (8) 福德身 or 三昧身 samādhi body, or

body of blessed virtue. (9) 智身 or 性佛 Wisdom-body, whose nature embraces all wisdom. (10) 法身 dharmakāya, the absolute Buddha, or essence of all life.

佛凡一體 Buddha and the common people are one, i.e. all are of Buddha-nature.

佛刹 buddhakṣetra. 佛紇差怛羅 Buddha realm, land or country; see also 佛土, 佛國. The term is absent from Hīnayāna. In Mahāyāna it is the spiritual realm acquired by one who reaches perfect enlightenment, where he instructs all

beings born there, preparing them for enlightenment. In the schools where Mahāyāna adopted an Ādi-Buddha, these realms or Buddha-fields interpenetrated each other, since they were coexistent with the universe. There

are two classes of Buddhakṣetra: (1) in the Vairocana Schools, regarded as the regions of progress for the righteous after death; (2) in the Amitābha Schools, regarded as the Pure Land; v. McGovern, A Manual of [[Buddhist

Philosophy]], pp. 70-2.

佛印 Buddha-seal, the sign of assurance, see 佛心印.

佛吼 Buddha's nāda, or roar, Buddha's preaching compared to a lion's roar, i.e. authoritative.

佛鳴 Buddhaghoṣa, the famous commentator and writer of the Hīnayāna School and of the Pali canon. He was "born near the Bo Tree, at Buddha Gayā, and came to Ceylon about A.D. 430". "Almost all the commentaries now existing (in

Pali) are ascribed to him". Rhys Davids.

佛因 Buddha-cause, that which leads to Buddhahood, i.e. the merit of planting roots of goodness.

佛國 buddhakṣetra. The country of the Buddha's birth. A country being transformed by a Buddha, also one already transformed; v. 佛土 and 佛刹.

佛國記 Faxian's Record of Buddhist countries.

佛圍陀 Buddhaveda, i.e. the Tripiṭaka, the Veda of Buddhism.

佛圖澄 or 佛圖磴 or 佛圖橙 Fotuzheng, an Indian monk who came to Luoyang about A.D. 310, also known as 竺佛圖澄, noted for his magic; his name Buddhacinga, or (Eitel) Buddhochinga, is doubtful; he is also called 佛陀僧訶 Buddhasiṁha.

佛土 buddhakṣetra. 佛國; 紇差怛羅; 差多羅; 刹怛利耶; 佛刹 The land or realm of a Buddha. The land of the Buddha's birth, India. A Buddha-realm in process of transformation, or transformed. A spiritual Buddha-

realm. The Tiantai Sect evolved the idea of four spheres: (1) 同居之國土 Where common beings and saints dwell together, divided into (a) a realm where all beings are subject to transmigration and (b) the Pure Land. (2) 方

便有餘土 or 變易土 The sphere where beings are still subject to higher forms of transmigration, the abode of Hīnayāna saints, i.e. srota-āpanna 須陀洹; sakṛdāgāmin 斯陀含; anāgāmin 阿那含; arhat 阿羅漢. (3) 實報無障礙 Final unlimited

reward, the Bodhisattva realm. (4) 常寂光土 Where permanent tranquility and enlightenment reign, Buddha-parinirvāṇa.

佛地 buddha-bhūmi. The Buddha stage, being the tenth stage of the 通 or intermediate school, when the bodhisattva has arrived at the point of highest enlightenment and is just about to become a Buddha.

佛地羅 Bodhila, a native of Kashmir and follower of the Māhāsaṅghika school, author of the 集眞論.

佛境 The (spiritual) region of Buddhas.


佛壽 Buddha's life, or age. While he only lived to eighty as a man, in his saṁbhogakāya he is without end, eternal; cf. Lotus Sutra, 壽量品, where Buddha is declared to be eternal.

佛天 Buddha as Heaven; Buddha and the devas.

佛婆提 (佛婆提訶) Pūrvavideha; 佛提媻; 毗提訶 (佛毗提訶); 布嚕婆毗提訶; 逋利婆鼻提賀; 佛于逮 The continent of conquering spirits 勝神洲; one of the four great continents, east of Meru, semi-lunar in shape, its people having faces of similar shape.

佛婆羅部 idem 犢子部 Vātsīputrīyāḥ.

佛子 Son of Buddha; a bodhisattva; a believer in Buddhism, for every believer is becoming Buddha; a term also applied to all beings, because all are of Buddha-nature. There is a division of three kinds: 外子 external

sons, who have not yet believed; 度子 secondary sons, Hīnayānists; 眞子 true sons, Mahāyānists.

佛宗 Buddhism; principles of the Buddha Law, or dharma.

佛家 The school or family of Buddhism; the Pure Land, where is the family of Buddha. Also all Buddhists from the srota-āpanna stage upwards.

佛寳 See 佛寶.

佛寶, 法寳, 僧寳 Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Order; these are the three Jewels, or precious ones, the Buddhist Trinity; v. 三寳.

佛弟子 Disciples of Buddha, whether monks or laymen.

佛影 buddhachāyā; the shadow of Buddha, formerly exhibited in various places in India, visible only to those "of pure mind".

佛後普賢 After having attained Buddhahood still to continue the work of blessing and saving other beings; also Buxian, or Samantabhadra, as continuing the Buddha's work.

佛德 Buddha-virtue, his perfect life, perfect fruit, and perfect mercy in releasing all beings from misery.

佛心 The mind of Buddha, the spiritually enlightened heart. A heart of mercy; a heart abiding in the real, not the seeming; detached from good and evil and other such contrasts.

佛心印 The seal of the Buddha heart or mind, the stamp of the universal Buddha-heart in every one; the seal on a Buddha's heart, or breast; the svastika.

佛心天子 The Son of Heaven of the Buddha-heart, a name given to Wudi of the Liang dynasty, A.D. 502-549.

佛心宗 The sect of the Buddha-heart, i.e. the Chan (Zen) or Intuitive sect of Bodhidharma, holding that each individual has direct access to Buddha through meditation.

佛性 buddhatā. The Buddha-nature, i.e. gnosis, enlightenment; potential bodhi remains in every gati, i.e. all have the capacity for enlightenment; for the Buddha-nature remains in all as wheat-nature remains in all

wheat. This nature takes two forms: noumenal, in the absolute sense, unproduced and immortal, and phenomenal, in action. While every one possesses the Buddha-nature, it requires to be cultivated in

order to produce its ripe fruit.

佛性不受羅 The Buddha-nature does not receive punishment in the hells, because it is void of form, or spiritual and above the formal or material, only things with form can enter the hells.

佛性常住 The eternity of the Buddha-nature, also of Buddha as immortal and immutable.

佛性戒 The moral law which arises out of the Buddha-nature in all beings; also which reveals or evolves the Buddha-nature.

佛性眞如 The Buddha-nature, the absolute, as eternally existent, i.e. the bhūtatathatā.

佛慧 Buddha-wisdom.

佛所行讚經 Buddhacarita-kāvya Sutra; a poetic narrative of the life of Śākyamuni by Aśvaghoṣa 馬鳴, tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D. 414-421.

佛戒 The moral commandments of the Buddha; also, the laws of reality observed by all Buddhas.

佛支提 Buddha's caitya, or stūpa, v. 支提. A Buddhist reliquary, or pagoda, where relics of the Buddha, 舍利 śarīra, were kept; a stūpa 塔婆 was a tower for relics; such towers are of varying shape; originally

sepulchres, then mere cenotaphs, they have become symbols of Buddhism.

佛教 Buddha's teaching; Buddhism, v. 釋教.


佛敕 Buddha's śāsana or orders, i.e. his teaching.

佛日 The Buddha-sun which drives away the darkness of ignorance; the day of Buddha.

佛智 anuttara-samyak-sambodhi, Buddha-wisdom, i.e. supreme, universal gnosis, awareness or intelligence; sarvajñatā, omniscience.

佛月 The Buddha-moon, Buddha being mirrored in the human heart like the moon in pure water. Also a meaning similar to 佛日.

佛本行集經 Buddhacarita; a life of Śākyamuni, tr. by Jñānagupta, A.D. 587.

佛果 buddhapala; the Buddha fruit, the state of Buddhahood; the fruition of arhatship, arahattvapala.

佛栗持薩儻那 Urddhasthāna, ? Ūrdvasthāna, Vardhasthāna, or Vṛjisthāna, "an ancient kingdom, the country of the Vardaks, the Ortospana of Ptolemy, the region about Cabool (Lat. 34°32 N., Long. 68°55 E. )." Eitel.

佛樓沙 Purushapura, v. 布嚕沙.

佛槃勢羅 Pūrvaśailāḥ, or Eastern Hill; one of the five divisions of the Māhāsaṇghika school. A monastery east of Dhanakaṭaka, i.e. Amarāvatī, on the R. Godavery.

佛樹 bodhidruma; 道樹 the Bodhi-tree under which Śākyamuni obtained enlightenment or became Buddha, Ficus religiosa.

佛檀 buddha-dāna, Buddha-giving contrasted with Māra-giving; Buddha-charity as the motive of giving, or preaching, and of self-sacrifice, or self-immolation.

佛歡喜日 The Buddhist joy-day, the 15th of the 7th month, the last day of the summer retreat.

佛母 (1) The mother of the Buddha, Mahāmāyā, 摩耶 Māyā, or Mātṛkā. (2) His aunt who was his foster-mother. (3) The Dharma or Law which produced him. (4) The prajñā-pāramitā, mother or begetter of all Buddhas. (5) Other

"Buddha-mothers", e.g. 准提佛母; 孔雀佛母, etc. Cf. 佛眼.

佛母眞三昧 The samādhi, meditation, or trance by means of which the Buddhas, past, present, and future, become incarnate.

佛法 buddhadharma; the Dharma or Law preached by the Buddha, the principles underlying these teachings, the truth attained by him, its embodiment in his being. Buddhism.

佛法僧 Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha, i.e. the Buddhist Trinity.

佛法壽命 The life or extent of a period of Buddhism, i.e. as long as his commandments prevail.

佛法藏 The storehouse of Buddha-law, the bhūtatathatā as the source of all things.

佛海 Buddha's ocean, the realm of Buddha boundless as the sea.

佛滅 (佛滅度) Buddha's nirvana; it is interpreted as the extinction of suffering, or delusion, and as transport across the 苦海 bitter sea of mortality, v. 滅.

佛無礙慧 Unhindered, infinite Buddha-wisdom.

佛無差別 The identity of all Buddhas, and of their methods and purposes of enlightenment. One of the three identities, of all Buddhas, of all minds, and of all beings.

佛生日 Buddha's birthday, the 4th month, 8th day, or 2nd month, 8th day, the former having preference for celebration of his birthday in China.

佛田 Buddha field, in which the planting and cultivation of the Buddhist virtues ensure a rich harvest, especially the Buddha as an object of worship and the Order for almsgiving.

佛界 The Buddha realm, the state of Buddhahood, one of the ten realms, which consist of the six gati together with the realms of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, pratyeka-buddhas, and śrāvakas; also a Buddha-land;

also the Buddha's country; cf. 佛土.

佛眼 The eye of Buddha, the enlightened one who sees all and is omniscient.

佛眼尊 A term of the esoteric cult for the source or mother of all wisdom, also called佛眼部母; 佛眼佛母; 佛母身; 佛母尊; 虛空佛.


佛知見 The penetrative power of Buddha's wisdom, or vision.

佛祖 The Buddha and other founders of cults; Buddhist patriarchs; two of the records concerning them are the佛祖統紀 and the佛祖通載 (歷代通載).

佛種 The seed of Buddhahood; bodhisattva seeds which, sown in the heart of man, produce the Buddha fruit, enlightenment.

佛種姓 Those of the Buddha-clan, Buddhists.

佛立三昧 A degree of samādhi in which the Buddhas appear to the meditator.

佛經 Buddhist canonical literature; also Buddha's image and sutras, with special reference to those purporting to have been introduced under Han Mingdi; sutras probably existed in China before that reign, but evidence

is lacking. The first work, generally attributed to Mingdi's reign, is known as The Sutra of Forty-two Sections 四十二章經 but Maspero in B.E.F.E.O. ascribes it to the second century A.D.

佛臘日 The Buddhist last day of the old year, i.e. of the summer retreat.

佛舍 A Buddhist temple.

佛舍利 Buddha's śarīra. Relics or ashes left after Buddha's cremation, literally Buddha's body.

佛般泥洹經 佛臨涅槃記法住經 The Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sutra.

佛藏 Buddha thesaurus, the sutras of the Buddha's preaching, etc., also all the teaching of Buddha.

佛見 The correct views, or doctrines, of the Buddha; Buddha doctrines.

佛記 Buddha's prediction, his foretelling of the future of his disciples.

佛說 Buddha's preaching; the Buddha said. Buddha's utterance of the sutras. There are over 150 sutras of which the titles begin with these two words, e.g. 佛說無量壽經 Aparimitāyus Sutra, tr. by Saṇghavarman A.D. 252.

佛語 The words, or sayings, of Buddha.