Articles by alphabetic order
 Ā Ī Ñ Ś Ū Ö Ō
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms-013

From Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

隔歷三諦 To differentiate and apprehend the three distinctive principles 空假中 noumenon, phenomenon, and the mean.

雉 A pheasant; a parapet.

雉救林火 The pheasant which busied itself in putting out the forest on fire and was pitied and saved by the fire-god.

雷 garjita, thunder, thundering.

電 Lightning, symbolizes the impermanent and transient.

電光石火 Lightning and flint-fire, transient.

電影 Impermanence of all things like lightning and shadow.

頌 Extol, praise. gāthā, hymns, songs, verses, stanzas, the metrical part of a sūtra; cf. 伽陀.


頑Stupid, obstinate.

頑石點頭(Moved by the reciting of the Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra,) even the stupid stones nodded their heads.

預 At ease, contented, pleased; arranged, provided for; beforehand; an autumn trip.

預流 According with the stream of holy living, the srota-āpanna disciple of the śrāvaka stage, who has overcome the illusion of the seeming, the first stage in Hīnayāna.

預彌國 Yāmī, the land or state of Yama, where is no Buddha.

頓 To fall headlong, prostrate; at one time, at once; suddenly; immediate; a pause; to stamp; make ready; used chiefly in contrast with 漸 gradually.

頓圓 The immediate and complete way of enlightenment of the Tiantai Lotus school.

頓頓圓 Instantaneous perfect enlightenment of the Huayan, a term used by 澄觀 Chengguan, who left the Lotus for the Huayan.

頓大 The immediate school and sūtra of the Mahāyāna, i.e. the Huayan.

頓寫 頓經; 一日經 To copy the Lotus Sūtra at one sitting.

頓悟 Instantly to apprehend, or attain to Buddha-enlightenment, in contrast with Hīnayāna and other methods of gradual attainment.

頓悟菩薩A bodhisattva who attains immediately without passing through the various stages.

頓成諸行 The immediate fulfilment of all acts, processes, or disciplines (by the fulfilment of one).

頓教 The doctrine that enlightenment or Buddhahood may be attained at once; also immediate teaching of the higher truth without preliminary stages.

頓斷 To cut of at one stroke all the passions, etc.

頓機 The capacity, or opportunity, for immediate enlightenment.

頓漸 Immediate, or sudden, attainment in contrast with gradualness.

頓旨 The will, or aim, of immediate attainment.

頓法 The method of immediacy.

頓覺 Immediate apprehension or enlightenment as opposed to gradual development.

飯 Rice (cooked); food; to eat.

飯磬 The dinner-gong.

飯袋子 A rice-bag fellow, a monk only devoted to his food, useless.

飯那 vana, a grove, a wood.

飯頭 A cook.

飮 To drink, swallow; to water cattle.

飮光 Drinking light, a tr. of the name of Kāśyapa, v. 迦, or his patronymic, possibly because it is a title of Aruṇa, the charioteer of the sun, but said to be because of Kāśyapa's radiant body.

飮光部 Mahākāśyapīyāḥ, or school of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ.

飮血地獄 The hell where they have to drink blood.

飮酒 To drink wine, or alcoholic liquor, forbidden by the fifth of the five commandments; 10, 35, and 36 reasons for abstinence from it are given.

飮食 Drink and food, two things on which sentient beings depend; desire for them is one of the three passions; offerings of them are one of the five forms of offerings.

鳩 A dove; to collect; translit. ku, gu, ko, ki; cf. 瞿, 拘, 倶, 矩.

鳩垣 Kupana, 鳩洹; 仇桓; an asura who swells with anger.

鳩夷羅 kokila, the cuckoo; or 鳩那羅 Kuṇāla, cf. 拘. There are other forms beginning with 拘, 倶, 瞿.

鳩摩 (鳩摩羅) Kumāra, a child, youth, prince.

鳩摩羅 鳩摩羅什 (鳩摩羅什婆); 鳩摩羅時婆 (or 鳩摩羅耆婆); 羅什 Kumārajīva, one of the 'four suns' of Mahāyāna Buddhism, of which he was the early and most effective propagator in China. He died in Chang-an about A.D. 412. His father was an

Indian, his mother a princess of Karashahr. He is noted for the number of his translations and commentaries, which he is said to have dictated to some 800 monastic scribes. After cremation his tongue remained


鳩摩羅伽 Kumāraka, idem Kumāra.

鳩摩羅伽地 Kumāraka-stage, or鳩摩羅浮多 Kumāra-bhūta, youthful state, i.e. a bodhisattva state or condition, e.g. the position of a prince to the throne.

鳩摩羅炎 Kumārāyaṇa, father of Kumārajīva.

鳩摩邏多 (or 鳩摩邏陀) Kumāralabdha, also 矩 and 拘; two noted monks, one during the period of Aśoka, of the Sautrantika sect; the other Kumāralabdha, or 'Kumārata' (Eitel), the nineteenth patriarch.

鳩槃荼 Kumbhāṇḍa, a demon shaped like a gourd, or pot; or with a scrotum like one; it devours the vitality of men; also written with initials 弓, 恭, 究, 拘, 倶, and 吉; also 鳩摩邏滿拏.

鳩鳩吒 kukkuta, a fowl.

鼓 A drum.

鼓樂絃歌 Drum-music and singing with stringed instruments.

鼓音 The rolling of drums.

鼓天 The drum-deva, thunder.

鼠 muṣa; ākhu; a mouse, rat.

自黑二鼠 The two mice in the parable, one white the other black, gnawing at the rope of life, i.e. day and night, or sun and moon.

鼠喞鳥空 Vain discussions, like rat-squeakings and cuckoo-callings.



僕 A servant.

僕呼繕那 bahujanya, intp. 衆生 all the living, all who are born.

僕拏 Intp. as a digital sign; the fourth of the twelve ways of placing the hands together.

僞 False, counterfeit, forged. False or forged sūtras which were produced after the Wei dynasty; catalogues of these forged sūtras are given in various books.

像 pratirūpa; pratirūpaka. Like, similar, resemblance; semblance; image; portrait; form, formal.

像化 The religion of the image or symbol Buddhism. Also the second or formal period of the teaching of Buddhism by symbol, v. 像法.

像始 The beginning of the formal period.

像季 The end of the formal period.

像教 idem 像化.

像末 The two final stages of Buddhism.

像法 saddharma-pratirūpaka; the formal or image period of Buddhism; the three periods are 正像末, those of the real, the formal, and the final; or correct, semblance, and termination. The first period is of 500 years; the second of 1,000

years; the third 3,000 years, when Maitreya is to appear and restore all things. There are varied statements about periods and dates, e.g. there is a division of four periods, that while the Buddha was alive, the early stage

after his death, then the formal and the final periods.

像經 Images and sūtras.

像運 The period of formality, or symbolism.

僧 僧伽 saṅgha, an assembly, collection, company, society. The corporate assembly of at least three (formerly four) monks under a chairman, empowered to hear confession, grant absolution, and ordain. The church or [[monastic

order]], the third member of the triratna. The term 僧 used alone has come to mean a monk, or monks in general. Also僧佉, 僧加, 僧企耶.

僧伽吒 僧伽多; 僧伽陀 saṅghata, an assemblage; also the final hurricane in the kalpa of destruction.

僧伽婆尸沙 v. 僧殘.

僧伽婆羅 Saṅghapāla; a monk of 扶南國 ? Siam, who tr. ten or eleven works A.D. 506-520.

僧伽梨 or 僧伽黎 v. 僧伽胝 saṅghātī.

僧伽羅 Siṃhala, Ceylon; also name of the Buddha in a previous incarnation when, as a travelling merchant, he, along with 500 others, was driven on to the island; there the rākṣasīs bewitched them; later the Buddha and his

companions (like the Argonauts) escaped, and ultimately he destroyed the witches and founded his kingdom there.

僧伽胝 saṅghātī. The patch-robe, one of the three garments of a monk reaching from shoulders to the knees and fastened around the waist, made up of nine to twenty-five pieces and so called 重雜衣; also 大衣 great robe; also 重 in layers and

合 composite; v. 九品.

僧伽藍 (僧伽藍摩) saṅghārāma, a monastery with its garden or grove; also 伽藍.

僧伽補羅 Siṃhapura. Eitel says 'an ancient province and city of Cashmere, probably the modern Simla'.

僧伽跋摩 Saṅghavarman, an Indian monk who arrived in Nanjing A.D. 433, tr. five works in 434, went westward in 442.

僧伽跋陀羅 Saṅghabhadra. 'A learned priest of Cashmere, a follower of the Sarvāstivādaḥ school, the author of many philosophical works.' Eitel.

僧伽難提 Saṅghanandi, a prince of Śrāvastī, lived in a cave, was discovered by Rāhulata, became the sixteenth patriarch.

僧佉 saṅkhyā, 僧企耶; intp. 數 number, reckon, calculate; Saṅkhyā, 'one of the great divisions of Hindu philosophy ascribed to the sage Kapila, and so called as 'reckoning up' or 'enumerating' twenty-five Tattvas or true

principles, its object being to effect the final liberation of the twenty-fifth (Purusha, the Soul) from the fetters of the phenomenal creation by conveying the correct knowledge of the twenty-four other

Tattvas, and rightly discriminating the soul from them.' M.W. Cf. 迦 and 數.

僧儀 The monastic custom, i.e. shaving head and beard, wearing the robe, etc.

僧侶 Monastic companions, or company.

僧俗 Monks and the laity.

僧伍 The monastic ranks.

僧可 Name of 慧可 Huike, second patriarch of the Intuitive School.

僧吉M075962 鑠 saṅkleśa, whatever defiles, e.g. the passions.

僧坊 僧房 A vihāra, or saṅghārāma, a monastery; also a nunnery.

僧塞迦羅 saṃskāra, impressions resulting from action, the fourth skandha.


僧官 Director of monks, an official first appointed by the government in the fourth century A.D.; then and later the office was called 僧正; 僧統; 僧錄 (僧錄司).

僧寶 saṅgha, the idealized church, the third member of the triratna.

僧寶果 The perfect arhat who has not to be reborn.

僧尼 Monks and nuns.

僧戒 The ten prohibitions; the complete commands for monks.

僧柯者 idem僧迦舍. sāṅkāśya.

僧柯慄多弭 saṃskṛtam, which means composite, compounded, perfected, but intp. as active, phenomenal, causally produced, characterized by birth, existence, change, and death.

僧次 In order of monastic age, according to years of ordination.

僧自恣日 The 15th of the 7th month; the last day of the summer retreat, on which the monks confessed their sins.

僧殘 saṅghāvaśeṣa; Pali, saṅghādiśeṣa. A sin of an ordained person, requiring open confession before the assembly for absolution, or riddance 殘; failing confession, dismissal from the order. Thirteen of these sins are of

sexual thoughts, or their verbal expression, also greed, even for the sake of the order, etc.

僧祇 sāṅghika, relating to a saṅgha; a complete set of land and buildings for a monastery.

僧祇支 saṅkakṣikā or uttarasaṅghāṭī, described as a kind of toga passed over the left shoulder and under the right armpit; also 僧迦; 僧竭支; 僧却崎; 僧脚欹迦; 祇支; 竭支.

僧祇物 Monastic possessions, or things.

僧祇律 Sāṅghikā-vinaya, the rules for monks and nuns.

僧祇部 Sāṅghikāḥ, the Mahāsāṅghikāḥ school, v. 大衆部.

僧若 sañjñā; saṃjñā, the third of the five skandhas, i.e. 想 thought, ideation, consciousness.

僧衆 The body or assembly of monks.

僧訶 siṃha, a lion, also 僧伽.

僧迦舍 Sāṅkāśya, an ancient kingdom and city in Northern India (v. Kapitha 劫). The modern Samkassam, now a village 45 miles north-west of Kanauj. Also 僧伽施.

僧那 (僧那僧涅) sannāha (-sannaddha), girding on armour, intp. as a Buddha's or bodhisattva's great Vow.

厮 Attendant, an attendant, servant; to serve.

厭 Satiated; weary of; disgusted with.

厭世 Weary of the world; to renounce the world.

厭欣 Disgusted with, or rejoicing in.

厭求 Weary of the miseries of earth and seeking deliverance.

厭離 To weary of the world and abandon it.

厭魅 厭禱鬼 Vetāla, a demon appealed to in order to raise a corpse and with it to cause the death of an enemy.

嘔 To vomit, spit, disgorge.

嘔侯侯 Ahaha, or Hahava, the fifth of the cold hells, where the condemned neither stir nor speak, but the cold air passing through their throats produces this sound—a hell unknown to Southern Buddhism.

嘉 Good, excellent, praiseworthy, to commend.

嘉會 嘉集 Delightful assembly, an excellent meeting.

嘆 To praise, extol; to sigh.

嘆佛 To praise Buddha.

嘆德 To praise the virtue of others.

嘆靈 To praise the spirit of the departed.

嗽 Cough.

嗽卑 upāsikā, an old form, see 烏 a female disciple.

圖 A plan, map; seal; to plan, scheme, calculate.

團 Round; a ball, mass, lump; a group, company, train-band.

團拜 To kneel, or worship altogether as a company.

團食 To roll rice, etc., into a ball in eating, Hindu fashion.

境 viṣaya; artha; gocara. A region, territory, environment, surroundings, area, field, sphere, e.g. the sphere of mind, the sphere of form for the eye, of sound for the ear, etc.; any objective

mental projection regarded as reality.

境智 The objective world and the subjective mind, or knowledge of the objective sphere.

境界 Sphere, region, realm, as 境.

境界相 The external, or phenomenal world, the third aspect referred to in the Awakening of Faith; the three are blind or unintelligent action, the subjective mind, and the objective illusory world.


境界般若 External world prajñā, or wisdom of all things; prajñā is subjective, all things are its objective.

塵 guṇa, in Sanskrit inter alia means 'a secondary element', 'a quality', 'an attribute of the five elements', e.g. 'ether has śabda or sound for its guṇa and the ear for its organ'. In Chinese it means

'dust, small particles; molecules, atoms, exhalations'. It may be intp. as an atom, or matter, which is considered as defilement; or as an active, conditioned principle in nature, minute, subtle, and generally

speaking defiling to pure mind; worldly, earthly, the world. The six guṇas or sensation-data are those of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and thought.

塵刹 guṇakṣetra, 'field of qualities,' certain sins.

塵勞 The trouble of the world, the passions.

塵境 The environment of the six guṇas or qualities of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and thought.

塵塵三昧 The samādhi in which, in a moment of time, entry is made into all samādhis.

塵塵刹土 Numberless lands; also in every grain, or atom, there is a whole realm.

塵妄 Impure and false, as are all temporal things.

塵垢 Material, or phenomenal defilement; the defilement of the passions.

塵欲 The desires connected with the six guṇas.

塵沙 Dust and sand, i.e. numberless as the atoms. Tiantai uses the term as one of the three illusions, i.e. the trial of the bodhisattva in facing the vast amount of detail in knowledge and operation required for

his task of saving the world.

塵洲 Worlds as numerous as atoms.

塵劫 (塵點劫) A period of time as impossible of calculation as the atoms of a ground-up world, an attempt to define the infinite, v. Lotus Sūtra 7 and 16.

塵累 The passion-karma which entangles the mind.

塵綱 The net of the six guṇas, i.e. those connected with the six senses.

塵緣 The circumstances or conditions environing the mind created by the six guṇas.

塵表 Outside of the secular, i.e. the doctrine of Buddha.

塵道 The dusty path, the phenomenal world, or worlds.

塵那羅 dīnāra, a coin, a gold coin, from δηναριον.

塵鄕 The native place or home of the six guṇas, i.e that of transmigration.

壽 Long life, longevity, age, v. 耆婆 jīva.

壽像 A portrait, or statue of a man of years while still alive.

壽命 jīvita, life, length of days, age.

壽命無有量 壽命無數劫 The infinite life of Buddha.

壽論 阿由 The Ayurveda, the medical Vedas, v. 韋.

壽量品 The chapter in the Lotus Sūtra where Buddha declares his eternity; v. also the 無量壽經.

夢 A dream, a simile of the things of the world.

夢幻 Dream and illusion, the characteristics of all phenomena.

夢揭釐 Moṅgali, or Maṅgala, ancient capital of Udyāna, the present Manglavor on the left bank of the Swat, a trans-Indus State west of Kashmir.

夢想 To 'dream' a thing, to think of in a dream, to imagine.

夢見 To see in a dream, to imagine one sees, or has seen.

奪 Snatch, carry off, take by force; decide.

奪魂鬼 A demon that carries off the soul.

奪精鬼 One that carries off the vital breath of the dying.

寢 To sleep, rest; stop; a retiring room, resting place.

寢堂 A dormitory.

Repose; settle; better than; rather; how?

寧安 Reposeful at ease.

實 Real, true, honest, sincere; solid; fixed; full; to fill; fruit, kernel, effects; verily, in fact; it is used for 眞, as in 一實 the supreme fact, or ultimate reality; also for bhūta.

實化 The real or noumenal Buddha as contrasted with 權化 the temporal or phenomenal Buddha; the 實化二身 are his 報身 saṃbhogakāya and his 化身 nirmāṇakāya.

實利 śarīra, relics, see 舍.

實叉難陀 Śikṣānanda. A śramaṇa of Kustana (Khotan) who in A.D. 695 introduced a new alphabet into China and translated nineteen works; the Empress Wu invited him to bring a complete copy of the Huayan sūtra to Luoyang;

sixteen works in the present collection are assigned to him. Also 施乞叉難陀.

實唱 Reality-proclamation, i.e. to preach the Tathāgata's law of Reality.

實報土 The land of Buddha-reward in Reality free from all barriers, that of the bodhisattva, the third of the four 'lands' of Tiantai. A Buddha-kṣetra.

實大乘教 The real Mahāyāna, freed from temporal, relative, or expedient ideas; the Tiantai, Huayan, Intuitional, and Shingon schools claim to be such.


實性 Real nature, or essence, i.e. the 眞如 bhūtatathatā.

實我 The true ego, in contrast with the 假我 phenomenal ego.

實教 The teaching of Reality; also, the real or reliable teaching.

實智 The knowledge or wisdom of Reality, in contrast with knowledge of the 權 relative.

實本 Fundamental reality, applied to the teaching of the Lotus Sūtra, as opposed to the previous Buddhist teaching.

實眼 An eye able to discern reality, i.e. the Buddha-eye.

實相 Reality, in contrast with 虛妄; absolute fundamental reality, the ultimate, the absolute; the 法身, i.e. dharmakāya, or 眞如 bhūtatathatā. Other terms are 一實; 一如; 一相; 無相; 法證; 法位; 涅槃; 無爲; 眞諦; 眞性; 眞空; 實性; 實諦; 實際,


實相三昧 The samādhi of reality, in which the unreality of the phenomenal is realized.

實相印 The seal or witness of reality, which is passed on from Buddha to Buddha.

實相慧 Wisdom in regard to reality.

實相智身 The body of absolute knowledge, or of complete knowledge of Reality, i.e. that of Vairocana.

實相法界 The first half is a Lotus Sūtra term for Reality, the latter half a Huayan term for the same.

實相爲物二身 The dharmakāya or spiritual Buddha, and the nirmāṇakāya, i.e. manifested or phenomenal Buddha.

實相無相 Reality is Nullity, i.e. is devoid of phenomenal characteristics, unconditioned.

實相花 實相風 The flower, or breeze, of Reality, i.e. the truth, or glory, of Buddhist teaching.

實相觀 Insight into, or meditation on Reality.

實空 Absolute śūnya, or vacuity; all things being produced by cause and environment are unreal.

實經 The true sūtras as contrasted to the relative or temporary sūtras, a term of the Lotus school.

實色身 The real Buddha-body, or his saṃbhogakāya in contrast with his nirmāṇakāya.

實語 True, or reliable words; words corresponding to reality; discussions of Reality.

實諦 A truth; the true statement of a fundamental principle.

實道 The true way, the true religion, absolute Buddha-truth.

實際 The region of Reality.

實際理地 The noumenal universe, the bhūtatathatā.

對 To respond, reply, face, opposite, pair, compare; the opposite of; agreeing with.

對吿衆 The intermediary for the Buddha' s address to the assembly, especially Ānanda.

對揚 One who drew out remarks or sermons from the Buddha.

對機 To respond to the opportunity, or the capacity of hearers.

對法 The corresponding law, the philosophy in the Buddha's teaching, the Abhidharma; comparison of cause and effect.

對法宗 The Abhidharma sect.

對法藏 The third section of the tripiṭaka, the śāstras, or Abhidharma.

對治 To respond or face up to and control.

對觸禮 To worship, or pay respects, face to face.

對首 Face to face (confession).

幖 A streamer, pennant 幖幟.

廓 Wide, spacious, open, vacant.

廓然大悟 Widely to have a great apprehension of the truth.

彰 Variegated, adorned; to display, show, make manifest.

Shame, ashamed; i.e. for one's own faults, cf. 愧.

慳 matsara; lobha; grudging, sparing, stingy, avaricious.

慳心 慳惜 A grudging, mean heart.

慳法 Mean and grudging of the Truth to others, unwillingness to part with it.

慳貪 Grudging and greed.

慢 māna. Pride, arrogance, self-conceit, looking down on others, supercilious, etc.; there are categories of seven and nine kinds of pride.

慢使 The messenger, or lictor, of pride, cf. 五使.

慢坑 The pit, or pitfall of pride.

慢山 Pride as high as a mountain.

慢幢 Pride as a banner rearing itself aloft.

慢惑 One of the ten great delusions, that of pride.


慢想 Proud, arrogant thoughts.

慢結 The bondage of pride.

慢擧 To hold oneself arrogantly.

慢見 Pride, regarding oneself as superior, one of the ten wrong views.

慢過慢 Regarding oneself as superior, to superiors.

慇 Anxious.

慇懃 Zealous, careful.

截 To cut off, intercept.

截雨呪 Incantations for the cessation of rain.

摸 To feel, grope, e.g. as a blind man.

摸象 The blind man who tried to describe an elephant by feeling it, v. Nirvāṇa Sūtra 32.

敲 To knock, beat, pound, e.g. a drum, gong, or gate.

斡 A handle for turning a wheel, a wheel, to revolve, circulate.

斡資羅 vajra, v. 跋 and 金剛.

朅 To and fro; translit. kha; cf. 竭; 軻.

朅伽 朅誐 khaḍga, a sword, rhinoceros' horn, rhinoceros.

朅伽毘沙拏 朅伽毘沙 khaḍga-viṣāṇa, a rhinoceros' horn.

朅地洛迦 Khadiraka, the Acacia, or Acacia mountain; i.e. 朅達羅 one of the seven concentric mountains around Sumeru.

槌 Hammer, mallet.

槌砧 槌墩 Hammer and block, or anvil.

榤 vitasti, a span; the 32,000th part of a yojana.

榮 Glory, splendour.

榮華 Glory, the glory of life, viewed as transient.

槃 A tray; a hut; to turn; translit. pan, van, va.

槃淡 cf. 和 vandana, obeisance, worship.

槃特 槃陀 cf. 半 paṇḍaka, eunuch.

槃遮 vāc, speech, talk.

槃頭 Pāṇḍu, father of Vipaśyin, the 998th Buddha of the last kalpa .

榜 A placard, list; model, example.

歌 To sing; a song; translit. ka; cf. 迦, 羯.

歌偈 Verses for singing; to sing verses.

歌利 Kali, the present evil age.

歌利王 v. 羯 Kalirāja.

歌唄 歌嘆; 歌咏; 歌頌 To sing, chant.

歌憂底迦 Kārttika, the month October-November.

歌舞 To sing and dance.

歌羅 (歌羅分) v. 迦 kalā, a fraction.

歌羅邏 kalala, an embryo, the womb.

歌羅頻迦 v. 迦, kalaviṅka.

歌聲 The sound of singing, the singing of kinnaras, cf. 緊.

殞 To perish, die; fall; become extinct.

漆 Varnish, lacquer.

漆桶 Varnish tub, a stupid, unseeing fellow.

漢 The River Han: the Han dynasty; a fine fellow; China.

漉 To strain, filter.

漉水袋 or 漉水囊 A monk's filtering-bag to strain off living creatures.

漫 Overflowing, boundless; translit. man, van; cf. 曼, 滿.

漫提 vande, 'I worship.'

漫荼羅 (or 漫怛羅 or漫陀羅) v. 曼 maṇḍala.

漫荼迦 maṇḍaka, a cake, pastry.

漚 To steep, macerate, rot; bubble; translit. u, o, etc.

漚和倶舍羅 (or 傴和倶舍羅) (or 漚和拘舍羅) (or 傴和拘舍羅) upāyakauśalya, intp. by 方便善巧 expediency and skill, adaptable, suited to conditions, opportunist, the adaptation of teaching to the capacity of the hearer.

漚多羅僧 v. 鬱 uttarāsaṅga, a toga worn over the left shoulder.

漚波耶波羅蜜 upāya-pāramitā, saving by the method of expedient teaching, v. 漚和倶舍羅.

漚鉢羅 utpala, also 嗢鉢羅; 優鉢羅; 烏鉢羅 the blue lotus; also a lord of nāgas and his blue lotus lake.

漕 A channel, canal; transport, especially by the 漕河 Grand Canal.

漕矩吒 Tsaukūta, an 'ancient (Arachotos) kingdom in N. W. India (near Ghuznee)'. Eitel.

演 To extend, expound, practise, perform.

演暢 To expound and make clear.

演若達多 Yajñadatta (演若) , 'obtained from sacrifice,' a crazy man who saw his eyebrows and eyes in a mirror but not seeing them in his own head thought himself bedevilled; the eyes and head are a symbol of 正性

reality, those in the mirror of 妄相 unreality.

演說 To expound, dilate upon, discourse.

漸 Gradual, by degrees, to flow little by little.

漸次 step by step, by degrees, gradually.

漸教 The gradual method of teaching by beginning with the Hīnayāna and proceeding to the Mahāyāna, in contrast with 頓教 q.v. the immediate teaching of the Mahāyāna doctrine, or of any truth directly; e.g. the Huayan school

considers the Huayan sūtra as the immediate or direct teaching, and the Lotus Sūtra as both gradual and direct; Tiantai considers the Lotus direct and complete; but there are other definitions.


漸斷 Gradually to cut off, as contrasted with 頓斷 sudden or instantaneous excision.

漸熱 Increasing heat; grīṣma, the two months from middle of May to middle of July.

滿 pūrṇa. Full, whole, complete.

滿分戒 The whole of the commandments, i.e. of the monk.

滿字 The complete word, i.e. Mahāyāna, as compared with the 半字 half word, or incomplete word of Hīnayāna.

滿座 A complete, or full assembly; also the last day of a general assembly.

滿怛羅 滿荼邏 v. 曼 maṇḍala.

滿慈子 滿祝子; 滿見子; 滿願子 see 富 pūrṇa.

滿成 Fully complete, perfect.

滿月尊 The full-moon honoured one, Buddha.

滿果 滿業 The fruit, or karma, which fills out the details of any incarnation, as distinguished from 引業 which determines the type, e.g. man, animal, etc., of that incarnation.

滿殊尸利 v. 文 Mañjuśrī.

滿泥 漫提 vande, 'I worship.'

滿濡 曼殊 or 曼乳 mañju, beautiful, lovely.

滿荼 maṇḍa, solid, the diamond throne.

滿足 Full, complete.

漏 āsrava, 'flowing, running, discharge; distress, pain, affliction.' M.W. It is defined as another term for 煩惱 q.v.; also as the discharge, or outflow, from the organs of sense, wherever those exist, hence it is applied

to the passions and their filth; impure efflux from the mind, v. 欲有; also to the leakage or loss thereby of the 正道 truth; also to the stream of transmigration.

漏永盡無所畏 Absolute confidence (of Buddha) that transmigration would cease for ever.

漏戒 To make a leak in the commandments, i.e. break them.

漏業 The deeds of the sinner in the stream of transmigration, which produce his karma.

漏無漏 Transmigration and nirvāṇa.

漏盡 āsravakṣaya. The end of the passions, or the exhaustion of the stream of transmigration.

漏盡明 The realization that the stream of transmigration is ended.

漏盡意解 The passions ended and the mind freed, the state of the arhat.

漏盡智 The wisdom of the arhat.

漏盡比丘 The monk who has ended the stream of transmigration, the arhat.

漏盡證明 The assurance or realization that the stream of transmigration is ended and nirvāṇa attained.

漏盡通 The supernatural insight into the ending of the stream of transmigration; one of the six abhijñās.

熏 To smoke, fumigate, cense, perfume, exhale; fog, becloud.

熏習 To fumigate, perfume, i.e. the influence of unenlightenment, ignorance, or blind fate, on the unconditioned producing the conditioned, v. 薰 18.

熊 A bear.

熊耳山 Bear's ear mount, the place, where Bodhidharma was buried.

熒 Glitter, twinkle.

熒惑心 (or熒惑天) Aṅgāraka, the planet Mars; also 火曜日; it is also described as a nakṣatra, or asterism, and as such is represented in feminine form in the Vajradhātu group.

爾 You, thou; so, thus; used adverbially.

爾前 Before this, formerly used by Tiantai to denote the time preceding the Lotus Sūtra.

爾燄 爾炎 jñeya, cognizable, the region or basis of knowledge.

獄 Litigation, law-case; a prison; 地獄 q.v. Earth-prison, the hells.

璢璃 vaiḍūrya, described as a green indestructible gem, one of the seven precious things. A mountain near Vārāṇaśī. Also 吠璢璃 (吠璢璃耶); 毘頭梨.

璢璃王 Virūḍhaka, cf. 毘.

瑪 Agate瑪瑙.

瑤 Jasper (green), green crystal.

瑤花宮 cf. 玉.

甄 Mould, influence, discern; translit. kiṃ, kin.

甄叔迦 kiṃśuka, the tree Butea frondosa, with beautiful red blossoms; a red stone perhaps a ruby.

甄迦羅 kiṃkara, 10,000,000,000.

甄陀 kinnara, v. 緊.

疑 vicikitsā; doubt, suspect; hesitate, be uncertain, fear, surmise.

疑使The messenger, tempter, or lictor, of doubt.

疑剌 The thorn of doubt.

疑域胎宮 The palace for doubters outside Amitābha's heaven, where all doubters of him are confined for 500 years until fit to enjoy his paradise.

疑執 The holding to doubt.

疑心 A doubting heart, dubious, suspicious.

疑惑 Doubt and delusion, doubt, uncertainty.

疑悔 To repent of doubt.

疑結 The bondage of doubt.

疑蓋 The overhanging cover of doubt.

疑見 Doubtfully to view, doubtful views, doubt.

監 To survey, examine; a palace-eunuch; the Academy; to superintend, oversee; warden of a jail, warder, jail.

監寺 監院; 監收 The warden, or superintendent of a monastery, especially the one who controls its internal affairs.


盡 An emptied vessel, all used up; end, finish, complete, nothing left; all, utmost, entirely. At the end of seven days, seven days being completed.

盡十方 The entire ten directions, the universe, everywhere.

盡未來際 To the end of all time, eternal.

盡淨虛融 The identity of the absolute and the empirical, a doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā.

碧 Jade-green, or blue.

碧眼胡 The blue-eyed barbarian, Bodhidharma.

禍 Woe, calamity, misfortune.

Blessing, happiness, felicity, good fortune.

福地 A place of blessedness, a monastery.

福報 A blessed reward, e.g. to be reborn as a man or a deva.

福因 That which causes or gives rise to blessing, i.e. all good deeds.

福庭 A court, or hall, of blessedness, a monastery.

福德 puṇya. Blessed virtues, all good deeds; the blessing arising from good deeds.

福德莊嚴 The adornment of blessedness and virtue. i.e. of good deeds.

福德資糧 The nutriment of blessedness i.e. deeds of charity.

福德身 The buddhakāya, or body of Buddha, in the enjoyment of the highest samādhi bliss.

福德門 The gates of blessedness and virtue, the first five of the six pāramitās.

福慧 Blessedness and wisdom; or virtue and wisdom.

福慶 Blessedness and felicity, blessed felicity; to congratulate on good fortune.

福智 Blessedness and wisdom, the two virtues which adorn.

福果 The reward of blessedness.

福業 The karma of blessedness, a happy karma.

福生 Born of or to happiness.

福生天 Puṇyaprasavās, the tenth brahmaloka, the first region of the fourth dhyāna.

福田 The field of blessedness, i.e. any sphere of kindness, charity, or virtue; there are categories of 2, 3, 4, and 8, e.g. that of study and that of charity; parents, teachers, etc.; the field of poverty as a monk,


福田衣 The garment of the field of blessing, the monk's robe.

福相法身 The Buddha-dharmakāya as blessedness, in contrast with it as wisdom.

福祿 Happiness and emolument, good fortune here or hereafter.

福蓋 The cover, or canopy, of blessing.

福行 The life or conduct which results in blessing e.g. being reborn as a man or a deva.

福觀 Blessedness and insight, similar to福慧; 福智.

福足 The feet of blessedness, one consisting of the first five pāramitās, the other being the sixth pāramitā, i.e. wisdom; happiness replete.

稱 To call, style, invoke; to weigh; a steelyard, scale; to suit, tally with.

稱佛 To invoke a Buddha.

稱名 To invoke the (Buddha's) name, especially that of Amitābha.

稱名雜行 To worship a variety of Buddhas, etc., instead of cleaving to Amitābha alone.

稱意華 The soma plant, suggested by Sir Aurel Stein as possibly wild rhubarb.

稱讚 To praise.

種 vīja; bīja. Seed, germ; sort, species; also to sow, plant.

種子 Seed, germ; the content of the ālayavijñāna as the seed of all phenomena; the esoterics also have certain Sanskrit letters, especially the first letter ā, as a seed or germ containing supernatural powers.

種子識 ālayavijñāna, the abode or seed-store of consciousness from which all phenomena spring, producing and reproducing momentarily.

種性 Seed nature, germ nature; derivative or inherited nature.

種智 Omniscience, knowledge of the seed or cause of all phenomena.

種根器 The three categories of the ālayavijñāna: (1) the seed, or cause, of all phenomena; (2) the five organs of sensation; (3) the material environment on which they depend.

種熟脫 The seed of Buddha-truth implanted, its ripening, and its liberation or harvest.

種種色世界 A world of every kind of thing.

種覺 The insight into all seeds or causes, Buddha-knowledge, omniscience.

種識 The ālayavijñāna.

端 Beginning, coming forth, elementary principles; a point either beginning or end; straight, proper.

端嚴 In strict propriety.

端坐 To sit straight and proper.

端心正意 With a proper mind and regulated will, doing no evil.

端正 Proper, properly ordered, rectitude, integrity.

竭 Exhaust, used up, finish; utmost.

竭叉 A place said to be in the Karakoram mountains, where according to Faxian formerly great assemblies were held under royal patronage and with royal treatment. Eitel gives it as Khaśa, and says 'an ancient tribe on the Paropamisus,

the Kasioi of Ptolemy'; others give different places, e.g. Kashmir, Iskardu, Krtchou.

竭支 v. 僧祇支.

竭誐 khaḍga (sometimes in error khaṅga), a sword, a rhinoceros' horn, a rhinoceros.

竭陀羅 khadira, the Acacia catechu; khadīra, the Mimosa pudica. M.W. A hard wood, also karavīra.

箋 A tablet, slip.

箋書 sūtras.

箇 Each, every.

箇箇圓常道 Every single thing is the complete eternal Dao.


管 A pipe, tube; to rule, control.

管絃講 Pipes, stings, and preaching, an 'accompanied' service — in India.

算 Reckon, count, calculate.

算數 To count numbers, to count, number.

精 Cleaned rice, freed from the husk, pure; essential, essence, germinating principle, spirit; fine, best, finest.

精室 精廬; 精舍 A place for pure, or spiritual, cultivation, a pure abode, the abode of the celibate, a monastery or nunnery.

精氣 Vitality, virility.

精眞 Pure truth, apprehension of ultimate reality.

精神 Vitality; also the pure and spiritual, the subtle, or recondite.

精進 vīrya, one of the seven bodhyaṅga; 'vigour,' 'valour, fortitude,' 'virility' (M.W.); 'welldoing' (Keith). The Chinese interpretation may be defined, as pure or unadulterated progress, i.e. 勤 zeal, zealous, courageously

progressing in the good and eliminating the evil.

精進力 vīryabala. The power of unfailing progress, one of the five moral powers.

精進弓智慧箭 Zeal as the bow, wisdom the arrow.

精進波羅蜜 Zeal, energy, or progress as the fourth of the six pāramitās.

精靈棚 The booth, or canopy, where the feast of all souls is provided.

綺 A kind of open-work variegated silk.

綺語 Sexual talk; improper remarks.

緊 Tight; to bind tight; press tight; pressing, urgent; translit. kin.

緊祝迦 kiṃśuka, v. 甄 ruby-colour.

緊要 Important.

緊那羅 緊捺羅 (or緊陀羅); 甄陀羅 (or 眞陀羅 ) kinnara; the musicians of Kuvera, with men's bodies and horses' heads; they are described as 人非人 men yet not men, and 疑神 mythical beings; one of the eight classes of [[heavenly

musicians]]; they are also described as horned, as having crystal lutes, the females singing and dancing, and as ranking below gandharvas.

綫 Thread: a clue, continuation. An intp. of sūtra.

綱 A net rope, bond, social nexus, constant obligation, the restraints of society.

綱維 The controller of a monastery.

網 jāla. A net, a web.

網目 The 'eyes', or meshes of a net. For the Brahmajāla sūtra v. 梵網經.

緇 Black garments; at one time black was used for monastic robes.

緇徒 緇流 Monks.

緇林 A monastery.

緇衣 Black robes, monks.

緇門 The black-robe order, monks.

維 A carriage-curtain; a net; a corner, cardinal point; to tie or hold together, connect; a copula, also, but, whereas, now.

維口食 Improper means of existence by spells, fortune-telling, etc., one of the four cardinal improper ways of earning a livelihood.

維摩 Vimalakīrti, 維摩詰 (維摩羅詰); 毘摩羅詰 undefiled or spotless reputation, 'a native of Vaiśālī, said to have been a contemporary of Śākyamuni, and to have visited China.' Eitel. The Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa sūtra 維摩詰所說經 is an apocryphal

account of 'conversations between Śākyamuni and some residents of Vaiśālī', tr. by Kumārajīva; an earlier tr. was the維摩詰經, a later was by Xuanzang, and there are numerous treatises.

維耶離 cf. 毘 Vaiśālī.

維衛 (維衛佛) cf. 毘 Vipaśyin, one of the seven ancient Buddhas.

維越 avaivartika, cf. 阿, one who never reverts to a lower condition.

維那 羯磨陀那 karmadāna, the duty-distributor, deacon, arranger of duties, second in command of a monastery.

聚 samāsa ; assemble, collect; an assemblage.

聚沫 The phenomenal world likened to assembled scum, or bubbles.

聚諦 samudaya, the second of the four dogmas, that of 'accumulation', i.e. that suffering is caused by the passions.

聚集 To assemble, flock together.

聞 To hear; to make known to; to smell.

聞光力 To hear of the power of the light of Amitābha.

聞名 To hear the name of; fame, famous; to hear the name of Buddha, or a Buddha.

聞慧 Hearing the word and becoming wise in it; wisdom obtained from hearing.

聞持 To hear and keep; hearing and keeping in mind; hearing and obeying.

聞法 To hear the doctrine.

聞陀羅尼 (聞持陀羅尼) To hear and keep, hear and remember the teaching, dhāraṇī 陀羅尼 meaning to hold to, maintain.

肇 To begin, initiate.

肇法師 or 僧肇 Sengzhao, name of a monk in the fourth century whose treatise is called by this name.

腐 Rotten, corrupt, putrid, sloughing.

腐爤藥 Purgatives, diuretics.

膏 Fat, oil, unguent.

膏明 Oil and light, oil being right conduct, with the resultant shining before men.


臺 A terrace, platform, stage, look-out; also written 台.

臺座 A platform, or stage, for an image.

與 Give, grant; with, associate; present at, share in; mark of interrogation or exclamation.

與力 To give strength.

與願 To be willing (or vow) to grant.

舞 To posture, brandish, play; urge.

與戲 To play, perform plays.

蒸 Twigs; to steam, vapour.

蒸沙 Steaming or cooking sand for food: an impossibility, like Ānanda trying to meditate without cutting off evil conduct.

蒺 Thorny bushes, furze.

蒺藜 The calthrop, Tribulus terrestris.

蒭 Hay, straw, fodder.

蒭摩 kṣumā, kṣauma, linen, flax, linen garments; also 芻蒭迦; 菆蒭; 須蒭; 蘇蒭; 讖蒭.

蓱沙王 Bimbisāra, v. 頻.

蒲 Rushes, flags, grass.

蒲團 A rush cushion, or hassock.

蒲塞 upāsaka, 伊蒲塞 cf. 優.

蒲闍尼 蒲膳尼 bhojanīya, to be eaten, edible; what is suitable as the fare of monks and nuns, proper food; one list gives wheat, rice (boiled), parched rice, fish, and flesh; another gives cakes (or loaves), porridge, parched grain,

flesh, and boiled rice.

蓋 A cover, anything that screens, hides, or hinders; to build; then, for. The passions which delude the real mind so that it does not develop. A hat, or umbrella, or any cover. The canopy over a Buddha.

蓋纏 Cover and bonds i.e. the passions which stunt growth and hold in bondage.

蒙 To cover; stupid, ignorant; receive (from above); Mongol.

蒙古 Mongolia, Mongol.

蒙惑 Stupid and deluded.

蒼 Azure; the heavens; grey, old.

蒼龍窟 The cave of the azure or green dragon, where it lies curled over the talismanic pearl, which only a hero can obtain.

蜫 Insects, creeping things.

蜫蟲作佛 Even insects may attain Buddhahood; v. 智度論 93.

Honey; translit. m.

蜜利伽羅 mṛga; a deer; mṛga-rāja, royal stag, Buddha.

蜜利車 mleccha, cf. 彌 heathen, non-Buddhist nations, the barbarians.

蜜栗伽悉他鉢娜 Mṛga-sthāpana, Mṛgadāva, famous park north-east of Vārāṇaśī, a favourite resort of Śākyamuni. The modern Sārnath, near Benares. Eitel.

裴 Beautifully robed.

裴弗略 vaipulya, enlarged, v. 方.

裸 Naked.

裸形外道 nirgranthas, naked ascetics.

誠 Truthful, true, truth; real; sincere, sincerity.

誠信 True and trustworthy, true, reliable.

誠諦 Truth, a truth, the true teaching of Buddhism.

誡 Commandment, precept, prohibition, warning, rule.

誡罰 To warn and punish; to punish for breach of the commandments or rules.

誡勸 Prohibitions from evil and exhortations to good. See 戒.

誌 To remember, record.

誐 To intone, hum; translit. ga.

誐囉娜 gardabha, defined as an ass.

誐嚕 garuḍa, v. 迦.

誐那鉢氏 gaṇapati, a leader, Gaṇeśa, the 'elephant god'; it is, however, defined as 歡喜 pleased, joyful.

認 To recognize.

認識 to acknowledge, e.g. sin 認罪.

誑 Imposition, deception, lying.

誦 To murmur, recite, intone, memorize by repeating in a murmur, cf. 念.

誦經 To intone sūtras.

誕 A birthday; to bear, produce; wide, boastful.

誕生會 An assembly to celebrate a birthday, e.g. the Buddha's on the 8th of the 4th month.

誓 To swear, vow, engage to, enter into a contract.

誓約 To swear and engage to.

誓願 To swear and vow, e.g. the forty-eight vows of Amitābha to save all beings.

語 Words, discourse, conversation, speech, language; to say, speak with; cf. 嚕 ruta.

語業 The karma produced by speech.

語義 rutārtha word-meaning; word and meaning.

語言 abhidhāna. Words, talk, speech; naming.


說 To speak, say, talk, discourse, expound; speech, etc. Used for 悅 pleased.

說一切有部 v. 一 and 有; the Sarvāstivādaḥ realistic school.

說假部 The Prajñāptivādinaḥ school, a branch of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ, which took the view of phenomenality and reality, ? founded on the Prajñāpti-śāstra.

說出世部 The Lokottaravādinaḥ school, a branch of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ, which held the view that all in the world is merely phenomenal and that reality exists outside it.

說因部 Hetuvādinaḥ, idem Sarvāstivādaḥ.

說戒 The bi-monthly reading of the prohibitions for the order and of mutual confession.

說法 To tell or expound the law, or doctrine; to preach.

說示 To tell and indicate.

說經 To expound the sūtras.

說罪 To confess sin, or wrong-doing.

說轉部 idem 經部 (經量部) Sautrāntika school.

說通 To expound thoroughly, penetrating exposition.

說默 Speech and silence.

賒 To buy or sell on credit; to borrow; slow, remiss, shirk.

賒乃以室折羅 Śanaiścara 土星, Saturn, or its regent.

賒多 śānta, pacified, at ease, ceased, dead, liberated; also 奢多.

賓 A guest; to entertain; to submit.

賓伽羅 Piṅgala, an Indian sage to whom is attributed 'the Chandas' (M.W.), i.e. a treatise on metre.

賓吒羅 ? Piṇḍāra, ? Piṇḍala, one of the painless purgatories.

賓坻 Piṇḍada, abbrev. for Anāthapiṇḍada. v. 阿.

賓撥利力叉 pippala, pippala-vṛkṣa, the bodhidruma, or tree under which Śākyamuni obtained insight.

賓波羅窟 Vaibhāra, the Vaibhāra cavern; 'a rock-cut temple on a mountain near Rādjagṛha 王舍城, now called Baibhargiri. Śākyamuni used to resort thither for meditation.' Eitel.

賓鉢羅 pippala, v. 賓撥利力叉.

賓頭 One of the purgatories, v. 賓吒羅.

賓頭盧頗羅墮 Piṇḍola-bhāradvāja, name of the first of the sixteen arhats, who became the old man of the mountains, white hair and bead, bushy eyebrows, one of the genī.

趙 To hasten to, return; a long time.

趙州 A prefecture in south-west Chihli, with a monastery, from which the Tang monk Zhaozhou got his pseudonym.

Light; frivolous; to slight.

輕安 Not oppressed, at ease.

輕慢 To despise; the pride of thinking lightly of others.

輕毛 As light as a hair, as unstable as a feather.

輕重 Light and heavy.

遣 To send; to drive away.

遣喚 To send, and to call.

遜 To yield, accord; modest.

遠 Far, distant, far removed.

遠塵離垢 To be far removed from the dust and defilement of the world.

遠師 idem 慧遠 q.v.

遠行地 The seventh stage of the bodhisattva, in which he leaves the world of phenomena and enjoys mystic contemplation.

遠離 vivṛj; vivarjana; leave afar off, be far removed; absolute separation of unconditioned reality from the realm of phenomena.

遠離樂 The joy of the first dhyāna heaven, in which the defilement of desire is left far behind in mystic contemplation.

銘 To engrave, on metal, stone, or the tablets of the heart.

銖 A weight equal to the twenty-fourth part of a tael; a small ancient coin; a scruple; trifles.

銖衣 The gossamer clothing of the devas, or angels.

銅 tāmra. copper, brass.

銅錢 Copper money, cash.

銅鑼 A gong.

銀 rūpya. Silver; money.

銀色 Silver-colour.

閣 A pavilion, temple building; chamber, council, cabinet.

際 A border, region, juncture, limit; between; to join on; then, since, now.

生死之際 Between life and death.

無際 Unlimited.

際史吒 Jyaiṣṭha, the month in May-June.

障 varaṇa; āvaraṇa; a screen, barricade, partition, a term for the passions or any delusion which hinders enlightenment.

障礙 Screen and obstruction, i.e. anything that hinders.

障盡解脫 Salvation through the complete removal of the obstruction of illusion.

靺 Red socks.

靺? 沙迦; 靺師迦 vārṣika; a flower that blooms during the rainy season, described as of a white colour and very fragrant; the aloe.

領 Neck, collar; lead, direct; receive.

領納 To receive, accept.

領解 To receive and interpret.

頗 Somewhat, quite, very; partial; translit. pha, bha. Cf. 叵.

頗勒具那 (or 頗勒窶拏) Phālguna, the twelfth month in India (February-March).

頗尼多 phāṇita, the inspissated juice of the sugar cane, raw sugar.


頗羅 phala, fruit, produce, progeny, profit, etc.

頗羅墮 (or 頗羅吒) Bhāradvāja, descendant of the ancient sage Bharadvāja, intp. as one of the six (or eighteen) Brahmin surnames, and as meaning 利根 of keen mind, clever.

頗胝迦 頗置迦; 頗黎; 頗棃 sphāṭika, rock crystal.

颯 In gusts, suddenly.

颯秣建 Samakan, the modern Samarkand. Eitel.

颯破? 迦 sphaṭika, see 頗.

飽 Replete, full.

飽學 Replete with learning; fed full with study.

飾 To adorn; gloss over; pretend. 裝飾.

馝柯 Vikramāditya, a king of Śrāvastī and famous benefactor of Buddhism, v. 毘.

馺 v. 蘇 svāhā.

馱 駄 Translit. dha, dhya.

駄南 dhyāna, also 駄演那; 駄衍那 tr. by 定 and 禪 q.v.

駄器尼 v. 達 The Deccan.

駄摩 v. 達 dharma.

駄索迦 dāsaka, a slave, or dāsikā, a female slave.

駄縛若 dhvaja, a flag.

駄那羯磔迦 Dhanakaṭaka, or Amarāvatī, an ancient kingdom in the north-east of the modern Madras presidency.

駄都 dhātu, intp. by 界 field, area, sphere; 體 embodiment, body, corpus; 性nature, characteristic. It means that which is placed or laid; a deposit, foundation, constituent, ingredient, element; also a śarīra, or relic of

Buddha The two dhātus are the conditioned and unconditioned, phenomenal and noumenal; the three are the realms of desire, of form, and of the formless; the four are earth, water, fire, and

air; the six add space and intelligence; the eighteen are the twelve āyatanas, with six sensations added.

魂 The mind, the soul, conscious mind, vijñāna; also 魂神.

魂魄 Animus and anima; the spiritual nature or mind, and the animal soul; the two are defined as mind and body or mental and physical, the invisible soul inhabiting the visible body, the former

being celestial, the latter terrestrial.

鳳 The 'phœnix' the auspicious bird.

鳳刹 'Phœnix'-kṣetra, a term for a Buddhist temple.

鳴 Cry, sound, note of a bird, etc.

鳴魚 To sound the wooden fish to announce a meal time.

鳴錫 A rattling staff shaken to warn the spirits.

麽 Interrogative particle; translit. ma, ba; cf. 摩.

麽也 māyā, illusion, hallucination; also intp. as 體 body.

麽度羅 Mathurā, the modern Muttra.

麽攞 麽羅 mālā, a head-dress, wreath.

麽洗 Māsa, a month.

麽羅庾 malaya, a kind of incense from the Malaya mountains in Malabar.

麽麽 mama, my, mine, genitive case of the first personal pronoun.

麽麽鷄 Māmakī; 忙忙鷄; 忙莽鷄 (or 忙莽計); 摩莫枳; the Vajra mother, mother of the 金剛部 or of wisdom in all the vajra group.

鼻 ghrāṇa. The nose; one of the five 根 indryas; the organ of smell; one of the six vijñānas (六識) or perceptions, the sense of smell; translit. vai, vi.

鼻入 Organ and sense of smell.

鼻奢佉 Vaiśākha, the second month of spring.

鼻婆沙 see 毘, Vibhāṣā.

鼻根 The organ of smell.

鼻息 The breath of the nostrils; also the perception of smell.

鼻溜荼迦 v. 毘 Virūḍhaka.

鼻識 The sensation, or perception of smell.

鼻路波阿叉 Virūpākṣa. One of the lokapāla, or guardians of the four cardinal points of Mount Sumeru. In China known as 廣目 wide-eyed, red in colour with a small pagoda in his right hand, and a serpent in his left; in

China worshipped as one of the twenty-four Deva Ārya 天尊. Also, a name for Maheśvara or Rudra (Śiva). Cf. 毘 and 髀.

鼻那夜 cf. 毘 Vinaya.

鼻隔禪師 dhyāna master with nose (and other organs) shutoff from sensation, i.e. a stupid mystic.

鼻鼓迦 (or鼻致迦) bījaka, a seed, v. 種.

齊 Even, level, equal, uniform; complete, perfect; equalize; tranquillize; alike; all; at the same time, altogether.

齊業身 The final body which brings to an end all former karma.

齊說齊聞 Speaking and hearing together, or at the same time.


僵 Stiff, rigid; prostrate.

僵娑洛 saṃsāra, course, transmigration, v. 散 and 生死.

億 A number varying from the Chinese 100,000 to a Buddhist 1,000,000, 10,000,000, and 100,000,000.

儀 Manner, mode, style; ceremony, etiquette.

儀式 儀軌 Mode, style, manner.

僻 Perverse, base, depraved; partial, prejudiced; rustic, secluded.

僻見 Perverse, incorrect, or depraved views.


劍 A sword, two-edged sword.

劍山 劍樹地獄 Asipattra. The hill of swords, or sword-leaf trees hell, one of the sixteen hells; also called 刀刃路.

劈 To split, rend, tear.

劈箭急 Rapid as an arrow cleaving (the air).

廚 A kitchen; also a cabinet for an image.

M004304M084293 bhūrom, an exclamation frequently occurring at the beginning of mantras, probably in imitation of Brahmanic mantras, which begin by invoking bhūr earth, bhuvaḥ air, and svar heaven; or it may be a

combination of bhūr earth, and oṃ, the mystic interjection.

嘶 To neigh; a crashing noise.

嘶夜那 śyena, a hawk, falcon.

噉 Bite, eat, feed on; a bite, morsel; to lure.

噉月 To gnaw the moon.

墳 A grave 墳墓.

墨 Ink; black; dyed black, e.g. 墨衣 black clothes, at one time said to have been the garb of the monk to distinguish him from the ordinary people who wore white.

墨竭提 Magadha, v. 摩.

墜 To fall, sink, settle, slide.

墜芥 To drop a mustard seed from the Tuṣita heaven on to the point of a needle on the earth, most difficult, rare.

墮 To fall; dilapidated; to fall from a higher to a lower place or condition; a tr. of prāyaścitta, expiation, a section in the Vinaya of ninety offences for which atonement is required.

墮羅鉢底 Dvārapati or Dvāravatī, 'an ancient kingdom on the upper Irawaddy.' Eitel.

增 To increase, add, augment, more.

增一阿含經 Ekottara-āgama The āgama in which the sections each increase by one, e.g. the Anguttara Nikāya of the Hīnayāna; a branch of literature classifying subjects numerically, cf. 阿 āgama.

增上 Additional, increase, superior, strengthened.

增上心 Advancing or improving mind, superior mind.

增上心學 The study of increased powers of mind (through meditation).

增上慢 Arrogance, pride (of superior knowledge); e.g. the 5,000 disciples who, in their Hīnayāna superiority, thought they had gained all wisdom and refused to hear the Lotus gospel.

增上果 adhipatiphala, v. 異熟果, dominant effect; increased or superior effect, e. g. eye-sight as an advance on the eye-organ.

增上緣 The cause, condition, or organ of advance to a higher stage, e.g. the eye as able to produce sight.

增劫 The kalpa of increment, during which human life increases by one year every century, from an initial life of ten years, till it reaches 84,000 (and the body from 1 foot to 8,400 feet in height), in the 滅劫

similarly diminishing.

增息 Increasing (power of prayer for) cessation of calamity.

增悲 Augmented pity of a bodhisattva, who remains to save, though his 增智 advanced knowledge would justify his withdrawal to nirvāṇa.

增戒學 Advanced or increasing study of the moral law; the study of the higher moral law.

增益 Increasing, improving.

增進 Advance, progress.

增道損生 A bodhisattva's progress in the doctrine with concurrent reduction in reincarnation.

增長 Increasing both broad and long, 增 referring to breadth and 長 to height, or length.

增長天 Virūḍhaka, the Mahārāja of the southern quarter.

增長廣目 Virūḍhaka and Śiva.

嬉 Play, pleasure.

嬉戲 To play, perform.

寫 To write.

寫經 To copy the scriptures.

寮 A hut, study, monastery; fellow-student.

寮主 寮元; 寮長 The head, or manager of a monastery.

審 To try, judge, examine.

審慮思 Discriminating thought.

dhvaja; ketu. A pennant, streamer, flag, sign.

幢幡 A flag, banner.

幢相 A sign, symbol, i.e. the monk's robe.

幡 patākā, a flag, banner.

廢 To fall in ruins; come to nought; cast aside, do away with, discard; spoil, waste.

廢前教 The discarding of previous rules in the Nirvāṇa Sūtra, e.g. previously monks were allowed the three kinds of clean meat; in this sūtra all are forbidden.

廢惡修善 To cast aside evil and perform the good.

廢權立實 To set aside the temporary and establish the real and permanent.

廢迹顯本 To set aside the temporal life (of the Buddha) and reveal the fundamental eternal life.


廟 A fane, temple, palace; an intp. of caitya, cf. 支.

廣 vipula. Broad, wide, extensive, spacious; extended, enlarged, expanded; for vaipulya v. 方廣, for which 廣 is also used alone to indicate vaipulya sūtras, etc.

廣博 Wide and spacious, extensively read, very learned.

廣博身 The one whose body fills space, Vairocana.

廣嚴城 Vaiśālī, broad ornate city, cf. 毘.

廣大 Broad and great.

廣大智 The vast wisdom of Buddha beyond measure.

廣大會 The centre where vast virtues meet, a term for Amitābha.

廣慧 vipulaprajñā, or vipulamati, vast wisdom, an epithet of a Buddha, one able to transform all beings.

廣教 Full or detailed teaching by the Buddha about the duties of the order, in contrast with 略教 general or summarized teaching; the detailed teaching resulting from errors which had crept in among his disciples.

廣果天 Bṛhatphala, the twelfth brahmaloka, the third of the eight heavens of the fourth dhyāna realm of form.

廣狹 Broad and narrow.

廣目天 The wide-eyed deva, Virūpākṣa, diversely-eyed, having deformed eyes, an epithet of Śiva, as represented with three eyes; name of one of the four Mahārājas, he who guards the west.

廣長舌 A broad and long tongue, one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha, big enough to cover his face; it is also one of the 'marvels' in the Lotus Sūtra.

弊 Worn out, reduced to extremities, corrupt, deceptive; my, mine.

弊欲 Corrupt, or base desires.

彈 A bullet, shot; to strum, snap; repress, impeach; translit. dan.

彈多 danta, a tooth.

彈多抳瑟搋 dantakāṣṭa, a tooth stick, v. 憚.

彈多落迦 Dantalokagiri, a mountain (the montes Daedali of Justinian) near Varuṣa with its cavern (now called Kashmiri-Ghār), where Sudāna lived.

彈宅迦 Daṇḍaka, name of a king.

彈宅迦林 The forest of Daṇḍaka, destroyed by a ṛṣi because the king had carried off the ṛṣi's wife, saying a ṛṣi had no need for one.

彈指 To snap the fingers—in assent, in joy, in warning; a measure of time equal to twenty winks.

影 Shadow, picture, image, reflection, hint; one of the twelve 'colours'.

影事 Shadow things, i.e. all things are mere shadows.

影供 Image worship.

影像 pratibimba. Shadows, reflections, with no real existence or nature of their own.

影向 The coming of a deity, responding, responsive.

影堂 A hall where are the images, or pictures, of objects of worship.

影現 The epiphany of the shadow, i.e. the temporal Buddha.

影護 Like a shadow-guardian, always following like a shadow the substance.

影響衆 影向衆 The responsive group in the Lotus Sūtra, who came in response to a call, e.g. Mañjuśrī, Guanyin, etc.

徹 Penetrate, pervious, perspicacious; throughout; communal.

徹心 To penetrate or reach the heart or mind.

Virtue, moral excellence, moral power, power; also translates guṇa; translit. ta.

德尸羅 (德叉尸羅) Taksaśīla, an ancient kingdom and city, the Taxila of the Greeks. Lat. 35°8' N., Long. 72° 44' E.

德叉迦 Takṣaka, one of the four dragon-kings.

德士 Virtuous scholar, a term for a monk in the Tang dynasty.

德字 The svastika.

德本 The root of the moral life, or of religious power; also a name for Amitābha as the root of all virtue.

德母 The mother of virtue. i.e. faith which is the root of the religious life.

德海 The ocean-like character and influence of virtue.

德甁 The vase or talisman of power, cf. 賢德.

德田 Field of virtue, or of religious power, i.e. the cult of arhats and Buddhas.

德行 Moral conduct and religious exercises, or discipline; moral conduct.

德風 The wind of virtue, or of religious power.

德香 The fragrance of virtue.

Felicity, felicitous, felicitate.

慶懺 慶讚 A service of felicitation, e.g. on the dedication of an image, temple, etc.

憐 Commiserate, pity, sympathize, charitable.

憐念 Sympathetic thoughts.

憐愛 To pity, love, care for.

憐愍 To pity, commiserate.

慕 To long for, hanker after, love; translit. mo, mu.

慕何 moha, v. 謨 Unenlightened, stupid.

慕捺囉 mudrā, a seal, sign, token, hand or finger signs.

慕攞 慕羅 mūla, root, fundamental, hence mūlagrantha, fundamental works, original texts; Mūla-sarvāstivādaḥ, the Hīnayāna school of that name.

憚 Dread; dislike; translit. dan.

憚哆 danta tooth, teeth; cf. 彈 and 娜.

憚啄家瑟多 dantakāṣṭha, tooth stick, said to be chewed as a dentifrice; also, to be the name of a tree grown from a toothpick of the Buddha.

Hate, dislike.

憎愛 Hate and love.

Passion, inordinate desire, lust, v. 欲.

慾愛 To hanker after, desire.


憍 Boastful, bragging; self-indulgent; indulgent; translit. ko, kau, go, gau; cf. 瞿, 倶, 拘, 巨.

憍坑 The pit of pride and arrogance.

憍奢耶 kauśeya, also 憍舍耶; 高世耶 cloth made of wild silk.

憍尸迦 Idem. 憍尸 (or 憍支迦) Kauśika, of the family of Kuśika, family name of Indra; one account says Amitābha was of the same family name.

憍慢 Arrogance and pride.

憍曇彌 憍答彌; 倶答彌 Gautamī, feminine of the patronymic Gautama, the family name of Śākyamuni. Gautamī is a name for Mahāprājapatī, his aunt and nurse, who in the Lotus Sūtra is predicted to become Buddha.

憍梵 (憍梵波提) Gavāṃpati, also 憍梵鉢提; 迦梵波提; 笈房鉢底 intp. as chewing the cud; lord of cattle, etc. A man who became a monk, born with a mouth always ruminating like a cow because of former oral sin.

憍薩羅 Kosala, Kośala; also 居薩羅 (or 拘薩羅); 拘婆羅, i.e. Northern Kosala, or Uttarakosala, an ancient kingdom, the modern Oude; also Southern Kosala, or Dakṣiṇa-kosala, an ancient kingdom, part of the present Central Provinces.

憍賞彌 Kauśāmbī, also 憍閃彌 (or 憍睒彌); 倶睒彌; 'an ancient city on the Ganges in the lower part of the Doab.' M.W. It has been identified by some with Kusia near Kurrah; but is the village of Koṣam on the Jumna, 30 miles above Allahabad.

Cf. 巨.

憍陳如 (or 憍陳那) Kauṇḍinya; also 阿若拘鄰; 阿若憍陳那 Ājñātakauṇḍinya. (1) A prince of Magadha, uncle and first disciple of Śākyamuni. (2) A grammarian mentioned in the Prātiśākhya sūtras. (3) Vyākaraṇa-Kauṇḍinya, who was told by the

Buddha that a Buddha is too spiritual to leave any relics behind. Eitel.

Sorrow, grief, melancholy, anxiety; to mourn, grieve; translit. u, yu; cf. 優, 烏.

憂世 The world of trouble and sorrow.

憂受 Sorrow, one of the five emotions.

憂婆提舍 Upatiṣya, perhaps a name of Śāriputra.

憂火 The fires of sorrow or distress.

憂畢叉 upekṣā, cf. 優 indifference attained in abstraction, i.e. 'indifference to pain or pleasure, equanimity, resignation, stoicism'. Childers. 'Looking on, hedonic neutrality or indifference, zero point between

joy and sorrow, disinterestedness, neutral feeling, equanimity.' Pali Text Society's Dictionary.

憂陀伽 udaka, water.

憂陀那 udāna, cf. 優, 烏, etc. Breathing upwards from the throat into the head; guttural sounds; the navel, umbilical; the middle; volunteered remarks or addresses by the Buddha, sermons that came from within him without external

request; voluntarily to testify.

慧 prajñā ; sometimes jñāna. Wisdom, discernment, understanding; the power to discern things and their underlying principles and to decide the doubtful. It is often interchanged with 智, though not correctly, for zhi means

knowledge, the science of the phenomenal, while hui refers more generally to principles or morals. It is part of the name of many monks, e.g. 慧可 Huike; 慧思Huisi.

慧劍 The sword of wisdom which cuts away illusion.

慧力 prajñābala, one of the five powers, that of wisdom.

慧印 Wisdom-sign, or seal; also 智印.

慧可 Huike, the successor of Bodhidharma, v. 達; he previously cut off his arm in appeal to be received as disciple, and finally inherited his mantle and alms-bowl.

慧命 Wisdom-life, or wisdom as life, wisdom being the basis of spiritual character. A term of address to a monk, also 慧壽, and to a monk by a superior.

慧學 The study of wisdom, e.g. the Abhidharma.

慧幻 Wisdom-illusion, wisdom-conjuring; the kaleidoscope of wisdom.

慧忍 Wisdom-patience, one of the 十忍.

慧思 Huisi, the second patriarch of the Tiantai school 南嶽大師.

慧愷 Huikai, a monk and author, also known as 智愷 Zhikai of the sixth century A.D.

慧數 Mental conditions in contrast to mind itself.

慧日 Wisdom-sun, Buddha-wisdom. Huiri, a celebrated Tang monk and author (disciple of Yijing) who also went on pilgrimage to India and spent thirteen years there, died A.D. 748; entitled 慈愍三藏.

慧月 Jñānacandra, author of the non-Buddhist 勝宗十句義論, Vaiśeṣika-nikāya-daśapadārtha-śāstra, tr. by Xuanzang; perhaps the same as 智月.

慧根 The root, i.e. the organ, of wisdom.


慧業 Undertaking and doing; practical goodness resulting from wisdom.

慧流 The living stream of wisdom able to cleanse all impurity.

慧淨 Huijing, a noted Tang monk, translator and author, who was commanded to assist Xuanzang in his translations but was unable through failing health.

慧炬 The torch of wisdom.

慧燈 The lamp of wisdom.

慧燈王 A king who gave his flesh and blood to save the lives of others.

慧琳 Huilin, a disciple of the Indian monk Amogha 不空; he made the 慧琳音義 dictionary of sounds and meanings of Buddhist words and phrases, based upon the works of 玄應 Xuanying, 慧苑 Huiyuan, 窺基 Kueji, and 雲公 Yungong, in 100

juan, beginning the work in A. D. 788 and ending it in 810. He is also called 大藏音義; died 820.

慧目 The eye of wisdom.

慧眼 The wisdom-eye that sees all things as unreal.

慧縛 The bond of ignorance and stupidity which fetters wisdom.

慧義 The apprehension of the meaning of reality through wisdom.

慧能 The power of wisdom. Huineng, name of a noted monk, sixth patriarch of the Intuitional or Meditation sect; died 713.

慧苑 Huiyuan, a noted Tang monk and lexicographer, author of the 慧苑音義 dictionary of sounds and meanings, cf. 慧苑琳.

慧藏 Wisdom-store, the Abhidharma Piṭaka, which embodies the science of ascertaining the meaning of the sūtras. Also, the whole of the Tripiṭaka.

慧見 Wise views, or insight into wisdom, the views of wisdom.

慧觀 Huiguan, one of Kumārajīva's chief assistants in translation, died 424.

慧解 The function of wisdom—to explain all things.

慧解脫 The escape by, or into wisdom, i.e. of the arhat who overcomes the hindrances to wisdom, or insight, but not the practical side of abstraction, etc.; better able to understand than to do.

慧超 Huichao, a monk who travelled in India.

慧足 The leg of wisdom, the other being 福足 q.v.

慧身 Wisdom body, one of the five division of the dharmakāya, which is the embodiment inter alia of inherent wisdom.

慧鏡 The mirror of wisdom.

慧雲 The clouds of wisdom with which the Tathāgata covers all beings.

撰 To compose, compile.

撰號 Compiler's name, author's title.

播 To sow, publish: reject; to winnow; to stir up, cheat; translit. pa, pā.

播尼 pāṇi, the palm of the hand.

播捨 pāśa, a noose, snare.

播磨 upama, a resemblance, simile.

播輸鉢多 pāśupata, followers of the lord of cattle, Śiva, who smeared themselves with ashes, also 波輸鉢多.

撥 To spread, open out, scatter, disseminate, detach, uproot.

撥無因果 To dispense with, or deny the law of karma, one of the five heresies.

撥草瞻風 (or 撥草參玄) To uproot the weeds (of ignorance) and look for the mystic Buddha-breeze.

撒 To scatter, set loose, sow.

撒馬兒罕 Samakan, Samarkand, v. 颯.

摩 To feel, handle, rub; translit. m, ma, mu, ba; cf. 末, 磨.

摩休勒 mahoraga, cf. 摩睺羅.

摩伽 Maghā, an asterism 'containing five stars figured like a house, apparently α, γ, ζ, η, ν Leonis' (M.W.); intp. as governing the eleventh month; for which 摩佉; 摩袪 are also used.


摩伽羅 makara, cf. 摩竭 a sea monster.

摩伽陀 Magadha, cf. 摩竭陀 also used for Māgha, the month January-February.

摩偷 [偸] madhu, sweet, an intoxicating liquor.

摩偷羅 Mathurā; Madhurā. Ancient kingdom and city, the modern Muttra on the bank of the Jumna; the reputed birthplace of Kṛṣṇa, one of the seven sacred cities, called Peacock City 孔雀城 Kṛṣṇapura, famous for its stūpas. The ancient

name Madhu is given in 摩度. Other forms are摩突羅 (or摩度羅, or 摩頭羅); 秼菟羅.

摩利 mallikā, a fragrant flower variously described as jasmine, aloes, musk, etc. Name of the wife of king Prasenajit, also called 摩利室羅 Mālyaśrī .

摩利伽羅耶 Malaya in Malabar, cf. 摩羅.

摩利支 (or 摩梨支, or 摩里支); 末利支 Marīci. Rays of light, the sun's rays, said to go before the sun; mirage; also intp. as a wreath. A goddess, independent and sovereign, protectress against all violence and

peril. 'In Brahmanic mythology, the personification of light, offspring of Brahmā, parent of Sūrya.' 'Among Chinese Buddhists Maritchi is represented as a female with eight arms, two of which are holding

aloft emblems of sun and moon, and worshipped as goddess of light and as the guardian of all nations, whom she protects from the fury of war. She is addressed as 天后 queen of heaven, or as 斗姥 lit. mother of

the Southern measure (μλρστζ Sagittarī), and identified with Tchundi' and 'with Mahēśvarī, the wife of Maheśvara, and has therefore the attribute Mātrikā', mother of Buddhas. Eitel. Taoists address her as Queen of


摩哂陀 Mahendra, younger brother of Aśoka, reputed as founder of Buddhism in Ceylon.

摩呼洛迦 mahoraga, described as large-bellied; a class of demons shaped like the boa; a spirit in the retinue of Śākyamuni; a form taken by Vairocana; also 莫呼洛迦 (摩); 摩睺羅伽; 摩護囉誐.

摩多 mātṛ, a measurer, maker, former, mother.

摩多羅迦 mātṛkā, cf. 摩怛.

摩夷 mātṛkā, cf. 摩怛.

摩娑 māṃsa, flesh.

摩娑羅 musāra-galva, agate, cf. 牟.

摩奴沙 (or 摩奴闍), v. 末奴沙 manuṣya, mānuṣa, man, any rational being.

摩奴是若 manojña, agreeable to the mind, attractive, at will.

摩奴末耶 (or 摩?末耶) manomaya, 'consisting of spirit or mind, spiritual, mental.' M.W. Intp. as mind-produced body, or form, any appearance produced at will.

摩 ? 沙 manuṣya,摩 ?奢; 摩 ?賖 man, any rational being, v. 末? 沙, 摩奴沙.

摩尼 maṇi; 'a jewel, gem, precious stone (especially a pearl, bead, or other globular ornament).' M.W. A bright luminous pearl, symbol of Buddha and his doctrines. Tr. 'as wished', or at wish, whoever possesses the

pearl receives whatever he desires. One of the seven treasures. With Shivaites a symbol of the Liṅga. Also 末尼.

摩尼跋陀 (摩尼跋陀羅) Maṇibhadra, one of the eight generals; 'a king of the yakṣas (the tutelary deity of travellers and merchants, probably another name for Kuvera).' M. W.

摩尼犍大龍王 Maṇiskandhanāga. The nāga king in whose hand is the talismanic pearl.

摩度羅 Mathurā, modern Mutra, v. 摩偸.

摩怛里 mātṛ, a mother.

摩怛里迦 mātṛkā, also 摩呾里迦; 摩怛履迦; 摩得勒伽 (or 摩德勒伽); 摩多羅迦; 摩侄梨迦; 摩室里迦; 摩夷; the Abhidharma-piṭaka, as the mother of Buddhist philosophy.

摩愉羅伽藍 Masūra Saṅghārāma. An ancient vihāra about 200 li south-east of Mongali. Eitel. Cf. 豆.

摩揭 v. 摩竭.

摩提 mati, understanding; v. 末底.

摩拏 v. 摩奴沙.

摩拏羅 Manorhita, or Manorhata, an Indian prince who became disciple and successor to Vasubandhu as 22nd Patriarch. Author of the Vibhāṣā śāstra. 'He laboured in Western India and in Ferghana where he died in A.D.

165.' Eitel. Also摩奴羅; 未笯曷利他.

摩賴耶 v. 摩羅耶.

摩沙羅 musāra-galva, v. 牟.


摩沓媻 Mathāva; Mādhava; Madhu. 'The Mathai of Megasthenes, a tribe of Indian aborigines who lived north of Kośala in Rohilcund and along the southern frontier of Nepaul. They gave the name to Mathurā and Matipura.' Eitel. The last

statement at least is doubtful.

摩由羅 mayūra, 孔雀 a peacock; also 摩裕羅; 摩廋囉.

摩登伽阿蘭若 mātaṅga-āraṇyakāḥ. The second class of hermits (probably called after the lowest caste), living in cemeteries, at a distance of 500 bow-lengths (circa 3,000 feet) from a village.

摩登伽經 A sūtra on Mātaṅgī, and on the stars. cf. 摩鄧.

摩睺羅 muhūrta, a moment. mahoraga, also 摩睺勒 v. 摩呼.

摩祇 A medicine that can eradicate poison, and so overpowering that serpents avoid it; also 摩蛇; 摩蚳; 摩醯; 莫耆.

摩竭 (摩竭羅) makara. A sea monster, either in the form of a great fish, e.g. a whale, or a great turtle. Also 摩伽羅 (or 摩迦羅).

摩竭陀 Magadha, also 摩竭提; 摩揭陀; 摩伽陀; 摩訶陀 'A kingdom in Central India, the headquarters of ancient Buddhism up to A.D. 400; the holy land of all Buddhists, covered with vihāras and therefore called Bahar, the southern

portion of which corresponds to ancient Magadha.' Eitel. A ṛṣi after whom the country of Southern Behar is said to be called. Name of a previous incarnation of Indra; and of the asterism Maghā 摩伽.

摩納 (摩納婆迦) Māṇavaka, a Brahman youth, a youth, a man; also 摩納縛 (摩納縛迦); 摩那槃; 那羅摩那 (naramana).

摩納仙 Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation.

摩羅 māla, a wreath, garland, chaplet, headdress; also tr. as Māra, a huge fish, cf. 摩竭羅 makara.

摩羅伽陀 (or摩羅迦陀) marakata, the emerald.

摩羅提 摩羅耶提數 (or 摩羅耶底數); 摩離 Malayadeśa, Malaya country.

摩羅耶 Malaya, the Malabar hills, noted for their sandalwood, cf. 末; also 摩羅延; 摩梨; 摩利伽羅耶; 摩賴耶.

摩耶 Māyā, v. Mahāmāya, infra.

摩臘婆 Mālava, or Lāra (Lāṭa). An ancient state in Central India, in the present Gujarat.

摩裕羅 v. 摩由羅.

摩訶 mahā, great, large, very; also摩醯; 莫訶.

摩訶僧祇部 Mahāsāṅghikāḥ, or Mahāsaṅghanikāya; 大衆部 one of the four branches of the Vaibhāṣika, said to have been formed after the second synod in opposition to the Sthavirās, marking the first division in the Buddhist church. Followers

of Mahākāśyapa. After the third synod this school split into five sects: Pūrvaśāila, Avaraśāila, Haimavatā, Lokottaravādinas, Prajñāptivādinas.

摩訶僧祇律 The great canon of monastic rules, tr. by Buddhabhadra and Faxian in 40 juan.

摩訶剌佗 Mahārāṣṭra. 'The Mahratta country, an ancient kingdom in the north-west corner of the Deccan, near the upper course of the Godavery.' Eitel.

摩訶因陀羅 Mahendra, v. 摩哂.

摩訶婆羅 (or 摩訶娑羅) Mahāsāra. 'An ancient city in Central India, the present Masar, about 30 miles west of Patna.' Eitel.

摩訶尼羅 (or 摩訶泥羅) mahānīla, dark-blue, a sapphire; described as the large blue pearl of Indra, perhaps the Indranīla.

摩訶憍曇彌 Mahāgautamī, aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni. Cf. 憍.

摩訶曼殊沙華 mahāmañjūṣaka, a red flower yielding the madder (munjeeth of Bengal).

摩訶曼陀羅華 mahāmandārava, a large white lotus; cf. 曼.

摩訶拘絺羅 Mahākauṣṭhila, a disciple of the Buddha; also 摩訶倶瑟耻羅; v. 拘.

摩訶摩耶 mahāmāyā, intp. by M.W. as 'great deceit or illusion worldly illusion, the divine power of illusion (which makes the material universe appear as if really existing and renders it cognizable by the

senses), the Great Illusion (the illusory nature of worldly objects personified and identified with Durgā)'. Mahāmāyā was the wife of Śuddhodana, and mother of Śākyamuni. He, Siddhārtha, was born 'from her right

side', and she died seven days later, her sister Mahāprajāpati becoming his foster mother. Also called 摩訶第脾 Mahādevī; 摩訶夫人 Lady Māyā, etc.


摩訶毘盧遮那 v. 毘. Mahāvairocana.

摩訶毘訶羅 Mahāvihāra. A monastery near Anurādhāpura, Ceylon, where Faxian (A.D. 400) found 3,000 inmates.

摩訶毘訶羅住部 Mahā-vihāravāsināḥ. 'A subdivision of the Mahāsthavirāḥ school, which combated the Mahāyāna system.' Eitel.

摩訶提婆 Mahādeva, the great deva, Maheśvara, i.e. Śiva; also a former incarnation of Śākyamuni; and name of an arhat.

摩訶波闍波提 Mahāprajāpatī, title of aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni; reputed as the first abbess; according to the Lotus she is to become a Buddha, under the title of Sarvasattva-priya-darśana. Also摩訶鉢剌闍鉢底; cf. 憍 Gautamī.

摩訶慮瑟拏 Mahāroṣaṇa, the angry deva.

摩訶目犍連 Mahāmaudgalyāyana, v. 目, one of the chief disciples of Śākyamuni, at whose left his image is placed, Śāriputra being on the right. Mahāsthāmaprāpta is said to be a form of Maudgalyāyana.

摩訶目脂鄰陀 (or 摩訶目眞鄰陀) Mahāmucilinda, name of a nāga-king, etc., v. 目.

摩訶袒特 Mahātantra (dhāraṇī), great spell power for overcoming the evil and cleaving to the good.

摩訶羅 mahallakas, old, stupid, ignorant; also 摩迦羅; 莫訶洛迦 (or 莫喝洛迦).

摩訶羅闍 mahārāja, a great or superior king; a king.

摩訶耶彌提婆 Mahāyānadeva, a title given to Xuanzang in India; cf. 玄.

摩訶般湼槃那 mahāparinirvāṇa, v. 涅, the great complete nirvāṇa, final release, perfect rest.

摩訶般若 mahāprajñā, v. 般, great wisdom, great insight into all truth.

摩訶般若波羅蜜 mahāprajñāpāramitā, v. 般, the great wisdom method of crossing the stream to nirvāṇa, i.e. Buddha-truth.

摩訶菩提寺 Mahābodhi-saṅghārāma. The monastery of the great enlightenment, a vihāra near the Bodhidruma at Gayā; cf. 西域記 8 and Faxian.

摩訶薩埵 (摩訶薩) Mahāsattva, 'great being,' one with great compassion and energy, who brings salvation to all living beings; a Bodhisattva; also 摩訶刹頭.

摩訶薩埵王子 Mahāsattva-kumāra-rāja, the noble and royal prince, Śākyamuni.

摩訶衍 (摩訶衍那) Mahāyāna, 大乘 q.v. the real Vehicle, in contrast with Hīnayāna 小乘. Also 摩訶夜那 (or 摩訶夜泥).

摩訶諾伽那 mahānagna, 'quite naked' (M.W.); great naked powerful spirits, cf. 諾.

摩訶質帝薩埵 mahācittasattva. A great-mind being, a bodhisattva. Also 摩訶菩堤質帝薩埵.

摩訶迦葉 (摩訶迦葉波) Mahākāśyapa, or Kāśyapadhātu 迦葉 (迦葉頭陀), a Brahman of Magadha, disciple of Śākyamuni; accredited with presiding over the first synod, hence known as 上座; also with supervising the first compilation of the

Buddha's sermons; is reckoned as the first Patriarch, v. 二十八祖 and 迦.

摩訶迦旃延 Mahākātyāyana, one of the principal disciples of Śākyamuni; v. 大 and 迦.

摩訶迦羅 Mahākāla, the great black deva, v. 大黑.

摩訶那伽 Mahānāga, the great nāga, 'one of the elephants that support the world.' M.W. A title of a Buddha, or of an arhat.

摩訶那摩 摩訶男 Mahānāman, one of the first five of Śākyamuni's converts.

摩訶那鉢 Mahāsthāmaprāpta, the bodhisattva 大勢至 q. v.

摩訶鉢特摩 mahāpadma, defined by M.W. as a great 'white' lotus; but intp. in China as the great red lotus, after which the eighth cold hell is named. As the great white lotus it is a Buddha-throne, of purity and


摩迦吒 markata, a monkey; also 摩斯吒.

摩那埵 mānatta, joy to the penitent and his fellow monks caused by confession and absolution; also a term for penance, or punishment; and for offences involving reprimand (Pali).


摩那婆 v. 摩納 māṇava.

摩那斯 摩那蘇婆帝 Mānasa; Manasvatī. A lake in the Himālayas, one of the four lakes formed when the ocean fell from heaven upon Mount Meru. The dragon who is the tutelary deity of this lake.

摩鄧伽 Mātaṇga, also 摩登伽 (or 摩燈伽) Elephant, greatest, utmost, lowest caste, outcast, barbarian. 摩鄧祇 Mātaṅgī. Both words bear a low meaning in Chinese, e.g. low caste. Mātaṅgī is the name of the low-caste woman who

inveigled Ānanda. The 摩鄧祇咒 spell is performed with blood, etc.

摩醯因陀羅 (or 摩訶因陀羅) Mahendra, younger brother of Aśoka, who, on repenting of his dissolute life, became an arhat and is said to have founded Buddhism in Ceylon.

摩醯奢娑迦 Mahīśāsakāḥ, cf. 彌, one of the subdivisions of the Sarvāstivādāḥ school.

摩醯徑伐羅 魔醯首羅; 魔醯 Maheśvara. Explained by 大自在天 great sovereign deva, 天王 king of devas. Śiva, lord of one great chiliocosm, a deity with eight arms, three eyes, riding on a white bull. Xuanzang says specially

worshipped in the Panjab. It is a term also for certain bodhisattvas and certain heavens.

摩頂 To lay the hand on the top of the head, a custom of Buddha in teaching his disciples, from which the burning of the spots on the head of a monk is said to have originated.

摩騰 Kāśyapa Mātaṇga who, according to tradition, accompanied the first envoys back to China. A. D. 64; cf. 迦.

敷 Diffuse, spread, promulgate, announce.

敷具 The displayed, or promulgating article, i.e. the monk's robe.

敷曼荼羅 To spread a magic cloth, or maṇḍala, on the ground.

敵 To oppose, compete; an enemy.

敵證 Opposition and affirmation, negative and positive.

數 To number, count, enumerate, figure out, calculate, reason, reprimand; numbers, an account, fate, destiny; flurried. It is also used for 智 knowledge, and for mental content or conditions as in 心數.

數人 數法人 Those of the Sarvāstivādāḥ school, cf. 薩, who held that all things are real.

數取趣 A definition of pudgala, i.e. all beings subject to transmigration.

數息 To count the breathing in order to calm mind and body for meditation, e.g. 數息觀; 數門 (數息門); cf. 阿 ānāpāna.

數珠 A rosary; to tell beads, which consist of various numbers, generally 108.

數緣盡 數滅無爲 idem 擇滅.

數行煩惱 The common passions and their consequences.

數論 The śāstras of the Sarvāstivādins; also Kaplila, called數論外道; 數論師 founder of the Sāṅkhyā philosophy; v. 僧伽, 劫, and 迦. It is an attempt to place all concepts in twenty-five categories, with puruṣa at the head and the others in

ordered progress. Inter alia it also teaches 'the eternity and multiplicity of souls' (Eitel). Vasubandhu wrote in criticism of the system.

暫 Temporarily, briefly, meanwhile, suddenly.

暫暇 A brief relief, or leave of absence.

樞 A pivot, axis.

樞要 The pivot; principles.

樊 A cage, fence.

樊籠 A cage, the cage of karma, or the world with its suffering, etc.

槵 A species of Sapindus, or soap-berry tree, whose seeds 槵子 are used for rosaries.

樓 An upper storey, stored building, tower; one of the eighteen hells.

樓夷亙羅 Lokeśvararāja, an ancient Buddha, successor to 定光 Buddha.

樓衆 A tower or pile of charcoal, e.g. the world for conflagration.

樓毘 cf. 嵐Lumbini.

樓由 樓至 Rucika, also 廬至 (or 廬遮), the last of the 1,000 Buddhas of the present kalpa.

樓陀羅 (樓陀) Rudra, the howler, or god of tempests.

樓黎 vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli, cf. 璢.

標 Signal, flag, banner; the troops under a particular banner; a notice, list, signboard, ticket; to publish.

標幟 Signals, symbols, especially those used by the Yoga sect.

標月 To indicate the moon.

標領 The leader, chief.

槽 A trough, manger, channel.

槽廠 A stable.

樂 Music, that which causes joy, hence joy, joyful, glad, rejoice; also to find joy in, enjoy.

樂乾闥婆 The gandharvas, Indra's musicians.

樂受 The sensation, or perception of pleasure.

樂土 A happy land.

樂天 deva musicians, see above.

樂施 Joyful giver, tr. of Sudatta, i.e. Anāthapindika, v. 阿.

樂果 Joyful fruit, i.e. nirvāṇa.

樂根 The organs of pleasure—eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body.

樂欲 Desire for the pleasant, or pleasure.

樂法 Delight in Buddha-truth, or the religion.

樂波羅蜜 The pāramitā of joy, one of the 四德波羅蜜 four transcendent pāramitās q.v., i.e. 常, 樂, 我 and 淨.


樂神 deva musicians, v. 樂乾闥婆, 樂天.

樂著 The bond of pleasure binding to the phenomenal life.

樂說 Joy in preaching, or telling the way of salvation; joy in that which is preached. It is also called pratibhāna, bold and illuminating discourse, or freedom in expounding the truth with correct meaning and

appropriate words, one of the 無礙智 four pratisaṃvids.

樂說辯才 similar to樂說.

樂變化天 Sunirmita, the fifth of the six desire-heavens, where every form of joy is attainable at will; also 化樂天 (化自樂天); 妙樂化天.

樂邦 The joyful country, the paradise of the West.

樂音 The sound of music.

樂音樹 The trees in Amitābha's paradise which give forth music to the breeze.

歎 To praise; to sigh.

歎波那 Broken rice, v. 麨.

潮 The tide; tidal; damp.

乘潮 To take advantage of the tide.

澄 Clear, limpid.

澄觀 Chengguan, a famous monk and author, a follower of 賢首 Xianshou and supporter of the Huayan school, died A.D. 806.

潔 Clean, pure.

潔齋 To purify a monastery, cleanse away all immorality and impropriety; a pure establishment.

澆 To sprinkle, to water: perfidious, infamous.

澆季 The evil period of the world's existence leading to its end.

澁 Acrid, astringent, rough.

澁觸 One of the eight sensations of touch.

潭 A deep, a pool.

潭恩 Profound grace, or favour.

潙 Name of several streams, etc.

潙山 Guishan, a noted mountain, monastery, and Tang monk in Fujian, by whom the 潙仰 Guiyang branch of the Chan school was founded.

潤 Moisten, soak, enrich, fertilize, sleek, smooth, profit.

潤業 Fertilized karma, the original karma fertilized by the passions and distresses of life.

潤生 The fertilization of the natural conditions which produce rebirth, especially those of the three kinds of attachment in the hour of death, love of body, of home, and of life.

熟 Ripe.

熟酥經 The sūtras of ripe curds or cheese, the prajñā group.

熱 tap, tapana, tapas. Hot; to heat.

熱惱 Perturbed, feverish, troubled, distressed.

熱時炎 Mirage, idem 陽炎.

熱病 Fever.

熱鐡地獄 The hell of red-hot iron (pills).

犛 A yak 犛牛.

瘡 A sore, ulcer.

瘡門 Ulcerating orifices, i.e. the nine orifices in the body which discharge.

瘞 To bury, offer in sacrifice.

瘞錢 Offerings of paper money at the grave.

瘧 Fever, ague.

瘧加持 瘧病法 Treatment of feverish ailments by tantric measures.

瘧鬼 Apasmāra, a demon supposed to cause 瘧 fever, ague.

盤 A dish, plate; round, to coil, wind up; to go about, travel, convey; to inquire about, interrogate. Translit. pa, ba, bha, va; cf. 般, 半, etc.

盤坐 To sit with folded legs.

盤荼昧 vandanī, praise, adore, v. 和.

瞎 Blind.

瞎屢生 A blind, stupid man.

瞎驢 A blind or blind-folded donkey, stupid.

krodha; pratigha; dveṣa; one of the six fundamental kleśas, anger, ire, wrath, resentment, one of the three poisons; also called 瞋恚.

瞋恚使 The messenger, or lictor of anger.

瞋心 瞋恚心 A heart of anger.

瞋火 The fire of anger.

瞋煩惱 The passion or defilement of anger.

磋 To polish; translit. cha; cf. 車, etc.

磐 A rock.

磐石劫 The rock kalpa. Let a rock 40 li in extent be brushed once in a hundred years by a deva garment; when brushed away the kalpa is ended.

磁 Porcelain crockery, chinaware.

磁石 A lodestone, magnet.

稽 Investigate; delay; to prostrate oneself.

稽首 vandana; vandi. To make obeisance by prostration.

稽薑那 Kikana. 'A people in Afghanistan (east of Kandahar, south of Ghazna) ruled A.D. 630 by independent chieftains, perhaps identical with the Kykānān of Arabic chroniclers.' Eitel.


穀 Grain; rice unhulled.

穀頭 The monk in charge of the grain.

稻 Growing rice.

稻稈 Rice straw.

窮 Poor, impoverished, exhausted; to exhaust, investigate thoroughly.

窮子 The poor son, or prodigal son, of the Lotus Sūtra.

窮生死蘊 To exhaust the concomitants of reincarnation, be free from transmigration.

篅 A round grain bin.

篅衣 A nun's skirt.

箭 An arrow, dart.

箭道 An arrow-shot, or bow-shot, in distance.

範 Pattern, rule, method.

範衞 Rule and restraint; to guard by proper means.

篇 A slip of bamboo, a slip, leaf, page, books.

篇目 A subject or text exposed on a slip; the publication, e.g., of the name of a wrong-doer.

篇聚 Two divisions of wrong-doing, one called the 五篇 five pian, the other the six and seven ju. The five pian are: (1) pārājika, v. 波, sins demanding expulsion from the order; (2) saṅghāvaśeṣa, v. 僧, sins verging on expulsion, which

demand confession before and absolution by the assembly; (3) ? prāyaścitta, v. 波逸, sins deserving hell which may be forgiven; (4) pratideśanīya, v. 波羅 and 提舍, sins which must be confessed; (5) duṣkṛta, v. 突, light sins,

errors, or faults. The six ju are the five above with sthūlātyaya, v. 偸, associated with the third, implying thought not developed in action. The seven ju are the above with the division of the fifth into two, action and

speech. There are further divisions of eight and nine.

線 A thread, wire, clue, spy, lead, connection.

線香 Thread or string incense, slow-burning and prolonged.

練 To train, practise, drill, exercise.

練磨 To drill and grind, three bodhisattava conditions for maintaining progress: the fixing of attention on those who have attained enlightenment; the examination of one's purpose; and the realization of the power at

work in others; v. 三退屈.

練若 araṇya, hermitage, etc., cf. 阿.

練行 Religious training or discipline.

編 To plait; enroll; compile.

編髮 To plait the hair, or roll it into conch-shape.

pratyaya means conviction, reliance, but with Buddhists especially it means 'a co-operating cause, the concurrent occasion of an event as distinguished from its proximate cause'. M.W. It is the circumstantial,

conditioning, or secondary cause, in contrast with 因 hetu, the direct or fundamental cause. hetu is as the seed, pratyaya the soil, rain, sunshine, etc. To reason, conclude. To climb, lay hold of. The mind 能緣

can reason, the objective is 所緣, the two in contact constitute the reasoning process. The four kinds of causes are 因緣; 次第緣; 緣緣, and 增上緣 q.v.

緣中 The place or idea on which the mind is centralized.

緣事 To lay hold of, or study things or phenomena, in contrast to principles or noumena, cf. 緣理; meditation on the Buddha's nirmāṇakāya and saṃbhogakāya, in contrast with the dharmakāya.

緣佛 A deceased relative or friend, i.e. a Buddha connected with me.

緣力 pratyaya-bala; the power of the conditioning cause, circumstance, or contributing environment, in contrast with the 因力 direct cause.

緣化 To convert or instruct those under influence.

緣因 Developing cause, i.e. development of the fundamental Buddha-nature, cf. 緣正.

緣塵 The guṇas, qualities, or sense-data which cause the six sensations of form, sound, odour, taste, touch, and thought.

緣心 The conditioned mind, the mind held by the phenomenal.

緣念 緣想 Thoughts arising from environment, similar to the last entry.

緣成 The phenomenal, whatever is by causal conditions.


緣日 The day of the month on which a particular Buddha or bodhisattva is worshipped, he being in special charge of mundane affairs on that day, e.g. the 5th is Maitreya, 15th Amitābha, 25th Mañjuśrī, 30th Śākyamuni.

緣機 Conditions opportune; favourable circumstances; cause and conditions co-operating for achieving Buddhahood.

緣正 Conditioned and fundamental; 正 refers to the Buddha-nature, the bhūtatathatā 正因佛性; 緣 to the Buddha-nature in all undergoing development 緣因佛性.

緣理 To study, or reason on fundamental principles; to contemplate ultimate reality, cf. 緣事.

緣理斷九 By the consideration of the tenth realm only, i.e. the Buddha-realm, to cut off the illusion of the nine other realms of time and sense.

緣生 Produced by causal conditions. The twelve nidānas are also called 十二緣生. Cf. 緣起.

緣慮心 The rational cogitating mind; also 慮知心 the cogitating perceiving mind.

緣相 Reasoning, mentality, the mind.

緣緣 The reasoning mind, or the mind reasoning, intelligence in contact with its object; later termed 所緣緣, i.e. 所緣 being the object and 緣 the mind; the relationship being like

that of form or colour to the eye.

緣覺 pratyekabuddha 辟支佛; 辟支迦佛; 鉢剌翳伽陀 (鉢剌翳伽佛陀) In the early translations it was rendered 緣覺, i.e. enlightened through reasoning on the riddle of life, especially as defined in the twelve nidānas. Later it was

rendered 獨覺 or individual enlightenment, i.e. one who lives apart from others and attains enlightenment alone, or for himself, in contrast with the altruism of the bodhisattva principle. The term

pratyekabuddha is not limited to Buddhists, but is also general for recluses pondering alone over the meaning of life, an illustration being the rhinoceros, which lives in isolation. The non-Buddhist

enlightenment is illusion, e.g. from observing the 'flying flowers and falling leaves'; the Buddhist enlightenment arises from pondering over the twelve nidānas. As a degree of saintship it is undefined by [[early

Buddhism]], receiving its definition at a later period.

緣覺乘 The 'middle conveyance' period, characterized as that of the pratyekabuddha, who is enlightened by the twelve nidānas; it is considered as an advance on the Hīnayāna, cf. śrāvaka, but not yet the standard of the altruistic

bodhisattva-vehicle, the Mahāyāna.

緣覺法界 The pratyekabuddha realm, one of the ten Tiantai categories of intelligent beings.

緣覺菩提 The pratyekabuddha form of enlightenment, for self.

緣覺身 The pratyekabuddha or personal appearing of the Buddha.

緣觀 The phenomenal and noumenal, i.e. the observed and the observing, the object and subject.

緣起 Arising from conditional causation; everything arises from conditions, and not being spontaneous and self-contained has no separate and independent nature; cf. 緣生. It is a fundamental doctrine of the Huayan

school, which defines four principal uses of the term: (1) 業感緣起 that of the Hīnayāna, i.e. under the influence of karma the conditions of reincarnation arise; (2) 賴耶緣起 that of the primitive Mahāyāna school, i.e. that

all things arise from the ālaya, or 藏 fundamental store; (3) 如來藏緣起 that of the advancing Mahāyāna, that all things arise from the tathāgatagarbha, or bhūtatathatā; (4) 法界緣起 that of complete Mahāyāna, in which one is all and all are

one, each being a universal cause.

緣起法 pratītya-samutpāda; idem 十二緣起, i.e. the twelve nidānas, cf. 十二因緣, 緣起偈; 緣起頌 (緣起法頌) The gāthā of three of the four fundamental dogmas of Buddhism; than all is suffering, that suffering is intensified by

desire, and that extinction of desire is practicable. This is found in 智度論. It is also called 緣起法頌. It is placed in the foundations of pagodas and inside of images of Buddha and so is called 法身偈 dharmakāyagāthā.

罵 To curse, scold.

呪罵 To curse.

罷 Cease, stop; mark of finality.

罷參 To dismiss the assembly.

羯 To castrate; deer-skin; translit. ka, gha. Cf. 迦, 拘, 軻, 朅, 竭, etc.

羯利王 Kalirāja, a former incarnation of Kauṇḍinya, when as king he cut off the hands and feet of Kṣānti-ṛṣi because his concubines had strayed to the hermit's hut. Converted by the hermit's indifference, it was predicted that he

would become a disciple of Buddha.

羯利沙鉢 kārṣāpana, a coin weighing ca. 176 grains.


羯吒布怛那 Kaṭapūtana, a kind of ill-smelling demon, a preta in the lower regions. M.W.'

羯地洛迦 Khadiraka, the third of the seven circles around Meru. Cf. 佉.

羯尼 (羯尼迦) kanaka, gold; name of several yellow plants, e.g. thorn apple; Butea frondosa; a species of sandalwood, etc.

羯布羅 karpūra, dragon-brain scent, camphor.

羯拏僕 Kaṇabhuj; Kaṇāda 蹇尼陀, founder of the Vaiśeṣika school of Indian philosophy.

羯摩 Karma, v. 業 and cf. 羯磨.

羯毘 (羯毘迦羅) kalaviṅka, v. 迦.

羯洛迦孫馱 Krakucchanda, v. 迦.

羯磨 karma; action, work, deed, performance, service, 'duty'; religious action, moral duty; especially a meeting of the monks for the purpose of ordination, or for the confession of sins and absolution, or for

expulsion of the unrepentant. There are numerous kinds of karma, or assemblies for such business, ordinarily requiring the presence of four monks, but others five, ten, or twenty. Cf. 業 for definition of karma, deeds or

character as the cause of future conditions; also 五蘊 for karma as the fourth skandha.

羯磨僧 A monastic assembly; also a monk on duty, e.g. in meditation.

羯磨印 An image showing the symbol of a bodhisattva's activity.

羯磨會 An assembly for monastic duty; also the central group of the Vajradhātu maṇḍala.

羯磨身 An image, a term used by the esoterics.

羯磨陀那 karmadāna, i.e. the 維那 or director of duties.

羯羅拏蘇伐剌那 Karṇasuvarṇa. 'An ancient kingdom in Gundwana, the region about Gangpoor, Lat. 21゜ 54 N., Long. 84゜ 30 E.' Eitel.

羯羅舍 kalaṣa, a water-pot, pitcher, jar, dish, also 迦羅舍; 羯攞賖.

羯羅頻迦 cf. 羯陵. For Krakucchanda, v. 迦.

羯耻那 khaṭṭika. Lictors in hades; possibly from the root khād, to devour; also 羯耻羅; 伽絺那; it is also defined as 'dog-cookers', butchers, hunters, those who live by killing and selling animals, persons of very low caste.

羯臘婆 or 羯臘縛 karaphu, or kalahu, 'a particularly high number' (M.W.), 10 quintillions; 大羯臘婆 100 quintillions; cf. 洛叉.

羯若鞠闍 Kanyakubja, 'hump-backed maidens.' An ancient city and kingdom of Central India. In antiquity this city ranks next to Ayodhyā in Oudh. It is known to classical geography as Canogyza. The etymology refers to the legend

of the hundred daughters of Kuśanābha its king, who refused the licentious desires of Vāyu (Mahāvṛkṣa 大樹仙) and were turned by him into hunchbacks. M.W. Eitel says 'the modem Canouge'.

羯蘭鐸迦 kalandaka, 'a species of bird' (M.W.); cf. 迦.

羯蠅揭羅 Kajiṅghara, Kajangala, or Kajūghira; a kingdom whose ruling family was extinct in A.D. 400.' The ruins of the capital are situated at the village of Kadjéri near Farakhabad (Lat. 27゜ 24 N., Long. 79゜27 E.) in the province of

Agra.' Eitel. Also 羯殊温祗羅.

羯達羅 Khadrira 羯陀羅; v. 竭.

羯邏藍 kalala, the human embryo during the first seven days; the womb; also 羯羅藍, 歌羅邏, etc.

羯陵伽 Kaliṅga, also 羯M044209伽. An ancient kingdom south-east of Kośala, a nursery of heretical sects, the present Kalingapatnam. Eitel. Also with 羯羅頻迦 used for kalaviṅka, v. 迦.

羯霜那 Kaśanna. 'An ancient kingdom 300 li south-west of Kharismiga on the Oxus, the present Koorshee' Karshi. Eitel.

膠 Glue, gum.

膠盆子 A glue-pot, referring to running handwriting.

膠香 Incense of the liquid-ambar tree.

膜 A membrane.

膜拜 To raise the hands to the head in making obeisance.

蔡 chāyā, a shadow, reflection; gnomon, dial.

蔡華 A lotus.


蔑 Without, not; minute, small.

蔑戾車 mleccha, barbarians, non-Aryan, heathen, frontier tribes. Also 篾, 彌, 畢.

蓮 puṇḍarīka, the lotus, especially the white lotus, Numphoea alba; padma, especially the Nelumbium speciosum; utpala, the Nymphoea coerulea, the blue lotus; kumuda, Nymphoea esculenta, white lotus, or N. rubra,

red lotus; nīlotpala, N. cyanea, a blue lotus. The first four are called white, red, blue, and yellow lotuses; but the white lotus is generally meant unless otherwise specified.

蓮刹 Lotus-kṣetra, or Lotus-land, the paradise of Amitābha.

蓮子 Lotus seeds.

蓮宗 The Lotus sect founded by 慧遠 Huiyuan circa A.D. 390 at his monastery, in which was a 自蓮池 white lotus pond. It has no connection with the White Lily Secret Society which arose during the Mongol or Yuan dynasty.

The Lotus sect is traced to the awakening of Huiyuan by the reading of the Prajñāpāramitā sūtra. He then turned his attention to calling on the name of Buddha to obtain salvation direct to his Pure Land. The school

became that of the Amitābha or Pure-land sect, which in later years developed into the principal Buddhist cult in the Far East.

蓮宮 padmavimāna. Lotus-palace, the Pure Land of the saṃbhogakāya; also the eight-leaved lotus of the heart.

蓮座 The lotus throne on which are seated the images; Buddha-throne.

蓮理 The mystic doctrine of the Lotus faith.

蓮眼 The eye of the blue lotus, i.e. the wonderful eye of Buddha.

蓮社 The White Lotus sect, idem 蓮宗.

蓮祐 Mutual protectors, or helpers of the Lotus sect, i.e. members.

蓮經 The Lotus Sūtra; v. 法華.

蓮胎 The Lotus-womb in which the believers of Amitābha are born into his paradise; it is also described as the believer's heart in embryo.

蓮華 or 蓮花 The lotus flower.

蓮華國 The pure land of every Buddha, the land of his enjoyment.

蓮華坐 padmāsana; to sit with crossed legs; also a lotus throne.

蓮華子 Disciples, or followers, shown in the 蓮華部 of the maṇḍalas.

蓮華手菩薩 Padmapāṇi , Guanyin holding a lotus flower.

蓮華智 The lotus or mystic wisdom of Amitābha, one of the five 智.

蓮華眼 The blue-lotus eyes of Guanyin.

蓮華臺 Lotus throne for images of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

蓮華藏世界 The lotus world or universe of each Buddha for his saṃbhogakāya.

蓮華衣 or 蓮華服 The lotus-garment, or robe of purity, the robe of the monk or nun.

蓮邦 The Lotus land, the Pure Land, of Amitābha.

蓮門 The Lotus sect, idem 蓮宗.

蝦 A shrimp, prawn; a frog.

蝦蟆禪 Frog samādhi, which causes one to leap with joy at half-truths.

蝙 The bat.

蝙蝠僧 A bat monk, v. 鳥.

衞 Guard, defend, restrain, an outpost, garrison; to escort.

衞世師 Vaiśeṣika; derived from viśeṣa, characteristic, individuality, particularity or individual essence. M.W. Also 鞞世師 (or 鞞思迦); 吠世史迦; 勝論宗 An atomistic school founded by Kaṇāda. Like the Saṅkhya philosophy it

taught a dualism and an endless number of souls, also by its doctrine of particularity or individual essence maintained 'the eternally distinct or sui generis nature of the nine substances' (see below), 'of which the

first five including mind are held to be atomic.' M.W. The interaction of these with the six mentioned below produces cosmic evolution. It chiefly occupied itself, like the orthodox Nyāya philosophy, with the theory of

knowledge, but it differed by distinguishing only six categories of cognition 六諦, viz. substance, quality, activity, species, distinction, and correlation, also a seventh of non-existence, and nine substances

possessed of qualities, these 九陰 being: the five elements, air, fire, water, earth, ether, together with time, space, spirit (manas), and soul (ātman). Cf. Keith, Indian Logic and Atomism, and

Dasgupta, History of Indian Philosophy.

複 Double garments, wadded, lined; double; repeated.

褒 To praise; salutation. poṣadha, v. 布.

褐 Coarse serge, hence poverty.

褐剌縭 (or褐賴縭, 褐剌褵, 褐賴褵) harali, cloth woven of fine hair.

褐麗 (褐麗伐多) Revata, name of several persons, v. 利, 離.

諂 To flatter, fawn, cajole, sycophancy.

諂曲 Flattery and fawning.

諍 Remonstrate with; debate, dispute.

諍論 Debate, dispute, disputation.

請 Request, ask, invite; please; engage; acknowledge, announce.

請佛 To invite a Buddha.

請假 暫假 To ask for leave of absence, or permission to go out.

請折 To ask for, or reject.

請益 To ask for an increase, for more, for advancement, etc.

請雨 To pray for rain.

諄那 curna, powder, flower, dust, sand, etc.


誹 Slander.

誹謗 apavāda. Slander, refute, deny.

誹謗正法 To slander, or deny, the truth, i.e. Buddhism.

談 To talk, chat, discuss.

談林 A monastic school room.

談空說有 To discuss non-existence and talk of existence; i.e. to discuss the meaning of reality; in discussing non-existence to talk of the existing; it is a phrase expressing confusion of ideas or argument.

談義 To discuss the meaning.

談議 To discuss and consult, or deliberate.

論 To discourse upon, discuss, reason over; tr. for śāstra, abhidharma, and upadeśa, i.e. discourses, discussions, or treatises on dogma, philosophy, discipline, etc.

論宗 The Madhyamaka school of the 三論 Sanlun (Sanron); also the Abhidharma, or Śāstra school; also the same as論家; 論師 śāstra-writers, or interpreters, or philosophers.

論民 v. 嵐 Lumbinī.

論疏 śāstras with commentary.

論藏 Thesaurus of discussions or discourses, the Abhidharma Piṭaka, one of the three divisions of the Tripiṭaka. It comprises the philosophical works. The first compilation is accredited to Mahā-Kāśyapa, disciple of Buddha,

but the work is of a later period. The Chinese version is in three sections: 大乘論 the Mahāyāna philosophy; 小乘論 the Hīnayāna philosophy; 宋元續入藏諸論 The Song and Yuan Addenda, A.D. 960-1368.

論議 upadeśa, dogmatic treatises, the twelfth and last section of the Canon.

調 To harmonize, blend; regulate, control; to change about, exchange; a song, tune.

調伏 To discipline bring under control, e.g. bring into submission the body, mouth, and will; control, or subjugate evil spirits, etc.; it is one of the intp. of Vinaya.

調達 (調婆達) (調多, 調婆多) v. 提 Devadatta.

調度 To arrange, calculate, manage, especially relating to provision for material needs.

調御 To tame and control as a master does a wild elephant or horse, or as the Buddha brings the passions of men under control, hence he is termed 調御丈夫 and 調御師 Puruṣa-damya-sārathi.

調意 To control the will, to subdue its evil.

調直定 To harmonize the discords of the mind, to straighten its irregularities, and quiet its distractions, an explanation of samādhi given by Tiantai.

調頌 Hymns and chants, an intp. of gāthā.

賣 To sell.

賣弄 To show off, boast.

質 Substance, matter; to substantiate, to confront; substantial honest, sound; translit. ci, ce.

質多 (質多耶); 質帝 citta (cittam), the heart considered as the seat of intellect; the thinking, reflecting mind.

質多羅 citra, variegated, of mixed colours, not of a primary colour. Citra, the name of a star, Spica in Virgo.

質底 ci, to assemble, pile up; caitya, a funeral pile, or mound.

質直 Substantial and straight; honestly, firmly, straight without dissemblance. Cf. 火辨.

賢 Wise and virtuous, sage, second rank to a 聖 saint; good, excellent in character, virtuous.

賢人 A wise and virtuous man.

賢劫 Bhadrakalpa, the present period; the last was 莊嚴劫 the next is to be 星宿劫 A Bhadrakalpa has 1,000 Buddhas, hence its name 'the good kalpa', also called 善劫. There are varied statements in regard to the thousand Buddhas,

and variety as to their names. Śākyamuni is the fourth of the present kalpa, Maitreya is to follow and 995 to succeed him.' It is to last 236 million years, but over 151 millions have already elapsed.' Eitel. Cf. 賢劫經; 現在賢劫千佛經

and 颰跋 bhadra.

賢甁 bhadra-kumbha; auspicious jar, magic bottle, from which all good things may be wished.

賢者 A good and wise man, not yet free from illusion or fully comprehending reality; also anyone occupying a superior position, or a good man in general.

賢聖 Those who are noted for goodness, and those who are also noted for wisdom, or insight; the xian are still of ordinary human standard, the sheng transcend them in wisdom and character; the attainments from 見道 upwards

are those of the sheng; the xian is on the moral plane, and has not eliminated illusion; the sheng has cut of illusion and has insight into absolute reality. The Mahāyāna has three stages for the xian and ten for the

sheng; the Hīnayāna has seven for each.

賢護 Bhadrapāla, a disciple who kept the faith at home at the time of the Buddha. Also, a bodhisattva who with 500 others slighted Śākyamuni in a previous existence, was converted and became a Buddha. An image of

Bhadrapāla is kept in the monastic bathroom; cf. 楞嚴經5.

賢豆 Hindu, India, cf. 印.

賢首 Sage head or loader, a term of address to a monk. A bodhisattva in the Huayan sūtra. A queen mentioned in the same sūtra, and in the 賢首經. The third patriarch 法藏Fazang, of the Huayan sect, which is also known

by his title 賢首宗 Xianshou-zong.

趣 Destination, destiny (especially on rebirth): v. 五趣, i.e. the hells, pretas, animals, man, devas.

趣寂 The destiny of nirvāṇa, as understood by the Hīnayāna.

踞 To squat.

踞地獅子 A crouching lion.


踏 Tread, trample.

踏床 A footstool.

踢 To kick.

踢倒 To kick over.

cakra; wheel, disc, rotation, to revolve; v. 研. The three wheels are 惑業苦illusion, karma, suffering, in constant revolution. The five are earth, water, fire, wind, and space; the earth rests on

revolving spheres of water, fire, wind, and space. The nine are seen on the tops of pagodas, cf. 九輪.

輪圍山 Cakravāla, the double concentric circles of mountains forming the periphery of a world.

輪圓 (輪圓具足) A complete maṇḍala showing the Buddhas and others, symbolizing their works; a magic circle.

輪埵 Ears round and full, a mark of a Buddha.

輪華 (輪多梨華) A precious pearl that purifies; also a specially fragrant flower.

輪寶 A cakravartin's wheel, i.e. either gold, silver, copper, or iron, manifesting his rank and power.

輪差 輪番 To take turns, used to indicate a rota or rotation of duties.

輪座 The throne of a cakravartin, or Buddha.

輪廻 輪轉 saṃsāra, the turning of the wheel, to revolve, i.e. transmigration in the six ways, the wheel of transmigration; the round of existence.

火輪 alātacakra, a wheel of fire, produced by rapidly whirling a fire-brand, a symbol of the unreality of the visible, since such a wheel does not exist.

輪王 A cakravartin, 'a ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without obstruction; an emperor, a sovereign of the world, a supreme ruler.' M.W. A Buddha, whose truth and realm are universal. There are

four kinds of cakravartin, symbolized by wheels of gold, silver, copper, and iron; each possesses the seven precious things, 七寶 q.v.

輪相 The wheel sign, on the top of a pagoda, or on the feet of a cakravartin, or Buddha.

輪臍 The navel, or hub of a wheel.

輪藏 Revolving scriptures, a revolving stand with eight faces, representing the eight directions, each containing a portion of the sacred canon; a praying-wheel, the revolving of which brings as much merit to the

operator as if he had read the whole.

輪輻 Wheel-spokes.

輪輞 輪緣 A felly, or tire.

適 To go to, reach; happen; follow, accord with; suddenly, now, then.

適化 To adapt teaching to circumstances.

適莫 Pro and con, according or contrary (to wishes).

遮 To cover, screen, veil, hide, hinder; translit. ca, cha, tya.

遮制 遮戒 A secondary commandment, deriving from the mandate of Buddha, e.g. against drinking wine, as opposed to 性戒 a commandment based on the primary laws of human nature, e.g. against murder, etc.; cf 二戒.

遮吒迦 cāṭaka, a sparrow; the bird Cuculus melanoleucus, which is supposed only to drink falling rain.

遮性 The two kinds of commandment, 遮制.

遮惡 遮罪 The second kind of sin as in 遮制, e.g. drinking.

遮文荼 ? cāmuṇḍā, a jealous woman; angry spirit; evil demon, one used to call up the dead to slay an enemy.

遮斷 To prevent, suppress, cut off.

遮末邏 遮摩羅 Cāmara, name of one of the central parts of the southern continent, Jambudvīpa.

遮棃夜 遮唎耶 caryā, actions, doings, proceedings, course.

遮照 To suppress or to reveal (or illuminate); destructive or constructive; to negate or to affirm.

遮遣 To negate, disprove, dispose of.

遮那 毘盧遮那 Vairocana, v. 毘.

遮難 Tests for applicants for full orders; there are sixteen (or ten) 遮 and thirteen 難, the former relating to general character and fitness, the latter referring to moral conduct.

醉 Drunk, intoxicated.

醉象 A mad elephant, like evil hard to subdue.

鋒 The point of a sword, or weapon; points, bristling; a knife edge.

銷 To melt metal, dissolve, dispel, dissipate, spend, cancel, end.

銷釋 To solve, explain.

鋪多 Bhūtāḥ, a sect of ascetics who smeared themselves with ashes.

閱 Examine, inspect, look over.

閱藏 To examine (and dust) the scriptures, or library.

閱叉 yakṣa, v. 夜.

閱頭檀 Śuddhodana, v. 首.

隣 Neighbouring, adjacent, near.

隣單 One's neighbouring monks, i.e. in the right and left seats.

隣圓 Near to perfect enlightenment, the stage before it.

隣智 Similar to 隣圓.

隣珍 A neighbour's pearls—no aid to me.

隣虛 Next to nothing, the minutest particle, an atom.

隣近 Near to, approaching, adjoining, approximate.

震 To shake, thunder, tremble, awe, quicken; translit. cin, ci.

震動 To shake, agitate.

震多末尼 cintāmaṇi, the philosopher's stone, granting all one's wishes.

震旦 Cīna, name of China in ancient India; also 振旦; 眞旦; 神旦 intp. as the place where the sun rises, but a translit. of Cīnaṣṭhāna.

震嶺 China.

震越 civara, a garment; an article for sleeping on, or in.


頞 The root of the nose, the brow; a saddle; translit. a, an, ar, cf. 阿.

頞哳吒 Ataṭa, one of the cold hells.

頞悉多 Asta, the western hill behind which the sun sets, sunset, death, home.

頞杜迦 Andūka, v. 阿梨.

頞沙荼 Āṣādha, the first month of summer, 16th of 4th Chinese moon to 15th of 5th.

頞浮陀 頞部陀 (or 頞部曇) Arbuda, cf. 阿, the first of the eight cold hells, where the cold raises tumours on the skin; also a foetus of twenty-seven days.

頞濕縛羯拏 Aśvakarṇa, the fifth of the seven circles round Meru.

頞濕縛庾闍 Aśvayuja (or 頞濕婆庾闍) , the first month of autumn (September-October).

頞瑟吒 aṣṭan, eight, the eight divisions of the 24-hours day.

頞那 Anna, food, but intp. as the name of a mountain.

頞鞞 Upasena, v. 阿濕 one of the first five converts, idem Aśvajit.

頞順那 v. 阿 Arjuna.

頞飯底 v. 阿 Avantī.

颰 A gale; translit. pha, bha; cf. 跋 and 婆.

颰陀 颰陀和 (颰陀羅); 颰陀波羅 bhadra, 颰陀羅波梨 Bhadrapāla, v. 跋.

颰陀劫 Bhadrakalpa, v. 跋.

養 poṣa. Nourish, rear, support.

餉 Rations, food; revenue.

餉供 Offerings of food.

Hair (of the head), locks.

髮塔 A pagoda over a hair of Buddha's head.

髮論 The śāstra of the non-Buddhist Kapila, the 勝論 q.v.

魅 An ogre, evil spirit.

魅女 A young woman used as a medium for such a spirit to injure others.

魯 Stupid, vulgar, honest.

魯達羅 Rudra, roaring, awful, terrible, intp. terribly evil, a name for Śiva; also 澇達羅; 嚕捺羅.

鴈 A wild goose.

鴈王 King or leader of the flight, or flock; Buddha, hence 鴈門 Buddhism.

麨 Broken dry rice, grits, crumbled grain.

黎 Black, black-haired; cf. 離, 利, 梨, etc.

黎耶 ālaya, v. 阿.

齒 The teeth, especially the front and upper teeth; toothed, serrated; age, class.

齒印 A serrated seal, or serrations as evidence.

齒木 dantakāṣṭha. A stick for cleaning the teeth.


儒 A scholar; learned. Confucian.

儒童菩薩 Learned-youth Bodhisattva, i.e. Confucius, he having been sent from India by the Buddha to instruct China! Also a name of Śākyamuni in a previous existence.

凝 To congeal, consolidate, form.

凝然常 Solid, unchanging, immutable.

劍 A sword, a two-edged sword.

劍摩舍帝 A spirit or demon, ? Aniruddha, the unobstructed, the ungovernable, son of Kāma (Love, Lust).

劍林地獄 Asipattra, (or劍樹地獄) the hell of the forest of swords, or sword-leaf trees.

劍波 Kampa, Bhūkampa; deva of earthquakes.

劍輪法 A system of revolving swords for subduing demons.

噱叉 Vakṣu, the Oxus, v. 縛.

器 A vessel, utensil, tool.

器世間 器世界; 器界 The world as a vessel containing countries and peoples; the material world, a realm of things.

器界說 The supernatural power of the Buddha to make the material realm (trees and the like) proclaim his truth.

器量 Capacity.

壁 A wall, partition-wall, screen.

壁定 Wall-meditation, i.e. steady, not restless, meditation.

壁觀 The wall-gazer, applied to Bodhidharma, who is said to have gazed at a wall for nine years. Also a name for the meditation of the Chan school.

壇 An altar; an open altar. In the esoteric cult it also means a maṇḍala, objects of worship grouped together.

奮 To rouse, excite, exert; impetuous, energetic.

奮迅 Speedy, immediate (samādhi), cf. 師.

學 śikṣ; to study, learn, the process of acquiring knowledge; learning.

學侶 Fellow-students, the company of monks who are studying.

學悔 Studying to repent, as when a monk having committed sin seeks to repent.


學教成迷 To study the Buddha's teaching yet interpret it misleadingly, or falsely.

學法女 v. 式 śikṣamāṇa .

學無學 One who is still learning, and one who has attained; 學 is to study religion order to get rid of illusion; 無學 begins when illusion is cast off. In Hīnayāna the first three stages, v. 四果, belong to the period

of 學; the arhat to the 無學. In the Mahāyāna, the ten stages of the bodhisattva belong to 學; the stage of Buddha to 無學.

學生 學人; 學匠; 學徒 A student, a neophyte.

學者 śaikṣa; one still under instruction, who has not yet reached to the arhat position; a student.

導 To lead, indicate, educe, induce.

導化 To lead and convert, or transform.

導引 To lead.

導師 nāyaka; a leader, guide, one who guides men to Buddha's teaching; applied also to Buddhas and bodhisattvas, and to the leaders of the ritual in Buddhist services; v. 天人道師.

廨 An official building; a monastic granary; 廨院主 the head of it.

彊 Strong, violent; to force; idem 強.

懊 Vexed, distressed; regret.

懊惱 Harassed, uneasy, distressed.

懈 Idle, lazy, negligent.

懈怠 kausīdya, indolent, lazy or remiss (in discipline).

懈怠賊 The robber indolence, robber of religious progress.

懈慢國 懈慢界 A country that lies between this world and the Western Paradise, in which those who are reborn become slothful and proud, and have no desire to be reborn in Paradise.

憶 To recall, reflect on.

憶念 To keep in mind.

憶持 To keep in mind, to remember and maintain.

Tranquil, content.

憺怕 Tranquil and inactive, retired.

War, hostilities, battle; alarm, anxiety, terrified; translit. can.

戰勝林 The grove of victory, v. 逝 Jetavana, Jetṛvana.

戰達羅 (or 戰捺羅) candra, shining; the moon, especially as the moon-deity.

戰達羅鉢喇婆 Candraprabha, moonlight, name of Śākyamuni when a king in a former incarnation, who cut off his head as a gift to others.

撿 To check, revise, gather.

撿挍 To check, tally.

據 To lay hold of, tangible, evidential, according to.

據事 According to fact.

擁 To crowd, press; embrace, hug.

擁護 To hug in the bosom and guard.

擔 To carry, undertake; a load; also 担.

擔歩羅 耽餔羅 tāmbūla, betel, Piper Betel. Eitel says Djambalā, citrus acida.

擇 To select, pick, choose; used for pravicāra, the second of the seven bodhyaṅga, cf. 覺分; dharmapravicaya, discrimination, the faculty of discerning the true from the false.

擇乳眼 The power to choose and drink the milk out of watered milk, leaving the water, as Hansarāja, the 'king of geese', is said to do.

擇力 The power of discrimination.

擇地 To select a site.

擇法眼 擇法覺支 The bodhyaṅga of discrimination, v. 擇.

擇滅 pratisaṃkhyānirodha. nirvāṇa as a result of 擇 discrimination, the elimination of desire by means of mind and will.

曉 Dawn, shining, clear; to know, to make known.

曉了 To make clear.

曉公, i.e. 元曉 Yuanxiao, the author-monk.

曉鼓 The reveille drum at dawn.

曇 Clouds covering the sun, spreading clouds; translit. dh in dharma 曇摩, 曇磨, 曇無; v. 達 and 法. Dharma is also the initial character for a number of names of noted Indian monks, e.g. 曇磨毱多; 達摩瞿諦; 曇無德

Dharmagupta, founder of a school, the 曇無德部 which flourished in Ceylon A.D 400. Also Dharmajātayaśas, Dharmakāla, Dharmākara, Dharmamitra, Dharmanandi, Dharmapriya, Dharmarakṣa, Dharmaruci, Dharmasatva, Dharmayaśas, etc.

曇花 The udumbara tree, v. 優.

橋 A bridge; cross-beam; curved; lofty.

橋梁 A bridge, trampled on by all but patiently bearing them, a synonym for patience, endurance.

橫 A crossbar, crosswise, athwart, across, perverse, arrogant; unexpected, i.e. lucky or unlucky.

橫出 By discipline to attain to temporary nirvāṇa in contrast with 橫超 happy salvation to Amitābha's paradise through trust in him.

橫截 To thwart, intercept, cut off, e.g. to end reincarnation and enter Paradise.


橫竪 Crosswise and upright, to lay across or to stand upright.

橫縱 Across and direct, crosswise and lengthwise.

樹 vṛkṣa, a tree; to stand, erect, establish.

樹提 (樹提伽); 殊底色迦 jyotiṣka, 'a luminary, a heavenly body' (M.W.); tr. asterisms, shining, fire, or fate. A wealthy man of Rājagṛha, who gave all his goods to the poor; there is a sūtra called after him.

樹林 A grove, a forest.

樹經 Scriptures written on tree-leaves or bark, chiefly on palm-leaves.

機 The spring, or motive principle, machine, contrivance, artifice, occasion, opportunity; basis, root or germ; natural bent, fundamental quality.

機宜 Opportune and suitable; natural qualification (for receiving the truth).

機性 機根 Natural or fundamental quality, original endowment and nature, suitability, capacity.

機感 Potentiality and response, the potentiality of all to respond to the Buddha; the response of the Buddha to the good in all the living.

機應 Potentiality and response, similar to 機感.

機教 Potentiality and teaching, opportune teaching, suited to the occasion.

機緣 Potentiality and condition; favourable circumstances; opportunity.

機要 Opportunity, strategical possibility, or point.

機見 Vision according to natural capacity, seeing the Buddha according to natural endowment.

機語 Opportune words; fundamental words.

機關 Spring, motive force, cause, opportunity, etc.

歷 To pass through, over or to; successive; separated; calendar, astronomical calculations.

歷劫 To pass through a kalpa; in the course of a kalpa.

歷然 Separate(ly).

歷緣對境 Passing circumstances and the objects of the senses.

澳 The south-west corner of a hall where the lares were kept; secluded, deep, profound, mysterious.

澳那 Kustana, Khotan, v. 于.

澡 To bathe, wash, cleanse.

澡甁 澡罐 kuṇḍikā, a water-pot.

澡甁天子 Śuddhāvasadeva, 作甁天子 who appeared to Śākyamuni when a prince, leading him to leave home.

濁 Turbid, muddy, impure, opposite of 淸. An intp. of kaṣāya, especially in reference to the 五濁 five stages of a world's existence.

濁亂 Impure and lawless, the reign of evil.

濁世 An impure world in its five stages, v. 五濁.

濁劫 An impure kalpa, the kalpa of impurity, degenerate, corrupt; an age of disease, famine, and war.

濁惡世 A world of impurity or degeneration, i.e. of the 五濁 and 十惡.

濁惡處 The present contaminated evil world.

濁業 Contaminated karma, that produced by 貪 desire.

熾 Blaze, flame, burn, effulgent.

熾盛光佛 Name of a Buddha noted for effulgence, light streaming from every pore.

燃 To set fire to, light, burn; idem 然 12 q.v.

燒 To burn.

燒灸地獄 The burning, blistering hell.

燒香 To burn incense.

燈 dīpa, a lamp, lantern; cf. 然燈 12.

燈光 The light of a lamp; lantern light.

燈明 The lamp hung before a Buddha, etc., as symbol of his wisdom.

燈明佛 日月燈明佛 A Buddha mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra.

燈滅 The extinction of a lamp.

燈火 dīpapradīpa, lamp-light.

燈籠 燈爐 A lantern.

燄 Flame, blaze; idem 焰; 爓 q.v.

燄口 UIkā-mukha. Flaming mouth, a hungry ghost or preta, that is represented as appearing to Ānanda in the 救拔燄ロ餓鬼陀羅尼經 (B.N. 984).

獨 Only, alone, solitary.

獨一法界 The one and only universal dharma-realm, or reality, behind all phenomena.

獨園 v. 給 and 阿 Anāthapiṇḍika.

獨孤洛加 dukūla is a fine cloth, and may be the origin of this Chinese term, which is intp. as 紵 a kind of linen.

獨尊 The alone honoured one, Buddha.

獨居 Dwelling alone, e.g. as a hermit.

獨影境 Imaginary or illusory conditions, ideal and unsubstantial.

獨柯多 v. 突 duṣkṛta, offence.

獨生獨死獨去獨來 Alone we are born and die, go and come.

獨空 The one immaterial reality behind all phenomena.

獨股杵 獨鈷 (獨鈷杵) The single-arm vajra.

獨覺 pratyekabuddha, v. 緣 one who seeks his own enlightenment.

獨角仙人 Ekaśṛṅga, or Unicorn ṛṣi, cf. 一角, the ascetic who fell through the wiles of a woman.

獨頭無明 idem 不共無明 q.v.

盧 A rice-vessel; a fire-pan; dram-shop; black; translit. lo, ro, ru; cf. 樓; 路; 流.

盧倶多婆拖部 Lokottaravādinaḥ, superior to the world, an important sect of the Mahāsāṅghikāḥ.

盧?胝訶目多 lohitamuktā or rohitamuktā (rohitakamuktā), rubies or red pearls, one of the seven treasures.

盧脂那 Rocana, illuminating, bright; name of a flower; perhaps also spots before the eyes; identified with 盧遮那 v. 毘 Vairocana.


盧至佛 盧遮佛 v. 樓 Rucika.

盧舍 v. 倶 krośa.

盧舍那 Rocana, illuminating, also v. 毘 Vairocana.

盧行者 Surname and title of 慧能 Huineng.

盧迦委斯諦 Lokeśvara-rāja, lord of the world, an epithet of Guanyin and others.

盧醯呾迦 (or 盧醯多迦) rohita, rohitaka; lohita, lohitaka; red.

盧陀羅耶 Rudrā, roaring, terrible, a name of Śiva, the Rudras or Maruts, storm-gods, etc.

瞖 timira, an affection of the eye, eye-film, cataract, dim sight, blindness.

磬 A piece of flat stone or metal, used as a gong, or for musical percussion.

磨 To grind, rub, polish; a mill for grinding; translit. ma; cf. 摩.

磨多 mātā, matṛ, a mother.

磨下 磨司; 磨院 The place in a monastery for grinding corn.

磨灑 摩沙 māṣa, a bean, also a weight of gold valued at 80 Chinese cash; the stealing of goods to the value of 5 māṣa involved expulsion from the monkhood, as also in India it is said to have involved exile.

磨牛 The ox turning the millstone, a formalist, i.e. a disciple who performs the bodily motions, but without heart in his religion.

磨磚 To grind a brick to make a mirror, useless labour.

磨磨迦羅 mamakāra, feeling of 'mine', of interest to oneself.

磨納 A monk's robe, a Korean term.

磨訶 mahā, 磨醯 mahi; v. 摩訶.

磨頭 The monk who looks after the mill.

積 Accumulate, pile up; many, long.

積功累德 積累 To accumulate or lay up merit.

積石山 Aśmakūṭa, stone-heap mountains, the eastern border of the Gobi desert.

窶 Rustic, poor; translit. ku, gu; v. 求, 瞿, 屈.

窺 To peep, spy; furtive.

篤 Sincere; serious; consolidate.

篤進 Toksun, 'a city in Mongolia.' Eitel.

縛 bandha. Tie, attachment, bind, bond, another name for kleśa-afflictions, the passions, etc., which bind men; the 'three bonds' are 貪瞋痴 desire, resentment, stupidity; translit. pa, ba, va; cf. 跋, 婆, 飯.

縛伽浪 Baghelān, 'the country west of the Bunghee river between Koondooz and Ghoree (about Lat. 36°N., Long. 78°E. ).' Eitel.

縛利沙鍵拏 v. 伐里 Vārṣagaṇya.

縛喝 (縛喝羅) Baktra, the present Balkh, once a nursery of Buddhism and in A.D. 600 still famous for relics and monuments. Eitel.

縛尼 vana, v. 飯 a grove.

縛底 patnī, a mistress, wife, female.

縛摩 vāma, the left, contrary, crooked.

縛斯仙 Vasiṣṭha, 'a very celebrated Vedic ṛishi or inspired sage,' owner of the cow of plenty and able therefore to grant all desires. M.W. One of the six fire-devas in the maṇḍala.

縛日羅 vajra, 嚩日囉 (or 嚩馹囉); 跋日囉 (or 跋折囉, or 跋闍囉); 跋折囉; 波闍羅; 伐折羅 (or 伐闍羅); intp. as 金剛 (金剛杵), a diamond (club). Adamantine, hard. The sceptre of Indra as god of thunder and lightning with which he slays the enemies of

Buddhism. Used by monks to indicate spiritual authority, and the all-subduing power of Buddha.

縛脫 Bonds and freedom, escape from entanglement.

縛臾 Vāyu, air, wind, the god of the wind; he controls the 縛臾方 or north-west.

縛芻 Vakṣu; Vaṅkṣu; 婆芻 (or 婆槎 or婆輸); 薄叉; 博叉; the Oxus 靑河 or Blue River, one of the 'four great rivers of Jambudvīpa', rising in the west of the Anavatapta lake (Tibet) and flowing into the north-west sea, the Caspian;

cf. 西城記 1.

縛薩怛羅 vastra, cloth, clothes.

縛迦 vākya, speech, saying, sentence, word.

縛野吠 Vāyavī, the deva of the north-west, v. Vāyu 縛臾.

縛馬答 An argument or reply in a 'vicious circle', like a horse tethered to a pig.

興 abhyudaya. Rise, begin; prosper; elated.

興世 The raising, or beginning of the salvation, of the world, i.e. the birth of Buddha.

興渠 興舊; 興宜; 刑具 hiṅgu. asafoetida, 阿魏; there are other interpretations.

興盛 Prosper, successful.

興行 Prospering and progressing.

蕭寺 A name for monasteries in the Liang dynasty, A.D. 502-557, because Liang Wu Di built so many that they were called after his surname 蕭 Xiao.

蔽尸 peśī, the embryo in the third of its five stages, a thirty-seven days' foetus, lit. a lump of flesh. 閉尸; 箄尸, 蜱羅尸.

融 Blending, combining; melting, thawing; clear intelligent.

融通 To blend, combine, mix, unite, assemble.

融識 Perspicacity, insight into both the phenomenal and noumenal.

衡 A cross-bar, crosswise; a balance; to weigh, balance, compare adjust, adjudge, judgment.

衡山 The Heng mountains in Hunan, where was the 南嶽 Southern Peak monastery, from which came 慧思 Huisi, second patriarch of Tiantai.


衡量 Balancing and measuring, judging.

覩 To look at, see.

覩史多天 The Tuṣita heaven, v. 兜.

覩貨羅 Tukhāra, 'the present Badakchan which Arab geographers still call Tokharestan'; the country of the Indo-Scythians, the Tocharoi of the Greeks, idem 月支.

親 Personally related, own, intimate; family; a wife, marriage.

父親 母親 Father; mother.

親友 An intimate friend.

親戚 親眷 Relatives.

親愛 To love, beloved.

親教 (親教師) One's own teacher, a tr. of upādhyāya, v. 鄔.

諫 To admonish.

諫王 To admonish a king.

諷 To intone; to satirize.

諷經 To intone a scripture, especially one suited to the occasion.

諷誦 To intone, sing.

諷頌 A gāthā, or hymn, v. 伽.

諾 To answer; promise; yes; translit. na, nya.

諾健那 荼健那; 諾伽那 Nagna; naked, a naked mendicant; a name of Śiva; a vajra-king.

諾詎羅 諾矩 Nakula, one of the sixteen arhats.

諾瞿陀 nyagrodha. The Indian fig-tree, ficus indica, cf. 尼.

諦 To judge, examine into, investigate, used in Buddhism for satya, a truth, a dogma, an axiom; applied to the āryasatyāni, the four dogmas, or noble truths, of 苦, 集, 滅, and 道 suffering,

(the cause of its) assembly, the ( possibility of its cure, or) extinction, and the way (to extinction), i.e. the eightfold noble path, v. 四諦 and 八聖道. There are other categories of 諦, e.g. (2) 眞 and 俗 Reality in contrast

with ordinary ideas of things; (3) 空, 假 and 中 q.v. (6) by the 勝論宗; and(8) by the 法相宗.

諦婆達兜 v. 提 Devadatta.

諦殊羅施 Tejorāṣi, the flame-god, one of the five 佛頂 crowned Buddhas.

諸 The diverse kinds, many, the many, all, every; on, at, in regard to; a final interrogative particle, also a rhythmic ending; used for sarva.

諸仙 All the hermits, mystics, ṛṣi; a term also applied to the Brahmans.

諸佛家 The home of all Buddhas, i.e. the Pure Land.

諸佛母菩薩 v. 盧空眼 The mother of all Buddhas.

諸冥 All darkness, i.e. all ignorance.

諸塵 All the atoms, or active principles of form, sound, smell, taste, touch.

諸天 All the devas.

諸尊 All the honoured ones.

諸惡無作 'To do no evil, to do only good, to purify the will, is the doctrine of all Buddhas,' i.e. 諸惡無作, 諸善奉行, 自淨其意, 是諸佛教. These four sentences are said to include all the Buddha-teaching: cf. 阿含經 1.

諸數 All the variety of things, all phenomena.

諸有 All the exists; all beings.

諸根 All roots, powers, or organs, e.g. (1) faith, energy, memory, meditation, wisdom; (2) eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body.

諸法 sarvadharma; sarvabhāva; all things; every dharma, law, thing, method, etc.

諸法五位 v. 五位 The five orders of things.

諸法寂滅相 All things in their nirvāṇa aspect, inscrutable.

諸法實相 All things in their real aspect, i.e. the reality beneath all things, the bhūtatathatā, or dharmakāya, or Ultimate; the term also connotes 空 śūnya, nirvāṇa, Amitābha, the eight negations of the Mādhyamika school, etc.

諸法無我 Nothing has an ego, or is independent of the law of causation.

諸法皆空 All things being produced by causes and accessory conditions have no reality, a doctrine differently interpreted in different schools of Buddhism.

諸相 All the differentiating characteristics of things.

諸緣 All the accessory conditions, or environmental causes which influence life.

諸著 All attachments: the ordinary man is attached to life, the arhat to nirvāṇa, the bodhisattva to his saving work.

諸色 All kinds of things.


諸行 All phenomenal changes; all conduct or action.

諸行無常 Whatever is phenomenal is impermanent.

諸見 All the diverse views; all heterodox opinions, sixty-two in number.

諸趣 All paths or destinies of sentient existence, i.e. devas, men, asuras, beings in purgatory, pretas, and animals.

諸通 All spiritual or magical powers.

諸釋法王 The dharma-king of all the Śākyas, a title of Buddha.

諸閑不閑 All in happy and unhappy conditions of metempsychosis.

豫 At ease; beforehand; prepared, v. 預 13.

賴 To rely upon, depend on; throw the burden on, repudiate.

賴吒 (賴吒啝羅) rāṣṭrapāla, protector of a kingdom, king.

賴耶 ālaya, v. 賴阿.

赭 Ochre, brown; translit. cha.

赭時 'Tchadj or Tchāsch'; Kingdom of stone or stones. An ancient place 'in Turkestan on the Sir; the modern Tashkend'. Eitel.

赭羯 'Tchakas. A race of people near Samarkand who furnished excellent soldiers.' Eitel.

踰 To pass over, or by; exceed; beyond; translit. yo, yu.

踰健達羅 踰乾陀羅; v. 瑜 Yugaṅdhara.

踰繕那 踰闍那 v. 由 yojana.

踰闍 v. 阿 Ayudhyā.

輭 Soft, yielding, pliant, supple.

輭賊 Treacherous thieves, i.e. fame and gain, which injure the aspiration of the religious man.

輸 To pay one's dues, to lose, be beaten, ruined: translit. su, śu; cf. 首; 室; 蘇.

輸拘盧那 Śuklodana, a prince of Kapilavastu, younger brother of Śuddhodana, and father of Tiṣya, Devadatta, and Nandika.

輸波迦羅 (or 輸婆迦羅) Subhakarāṣimha, name of 善無畏三藏 a famous Indian monk.

輸羅 輸那 śūla, a lance, dart, etc.; also Śūra, hero, heroic.

輸盧迦 (輸盧迦波) v. 首 śloka.

輸達羅 śūdra, the fourth caste, i.e. of slaves, servants, labourers, farmers, etc.

辦 To transact, carry out; prepare; punish.

辦事 To transact affairs, attend to, arrange.

辦道 To carry out religious duty or discipline.

辨 Discriminate, distinguish; v. 辯21.

辨才天 One of the devas, of the gandharva order.

遷 To move, remove, improve, promote, dismiss.

遷化 To be taken away, i.e. die.

遵 To comply with, accord with, obey; accordingly.

遵守 To obey and keep, e.g. the rules.

選 To choose; a myriad.

選友 Śākyamuni's schoolmaster, usually named Viśvāmitra, or Kauśika.

選擇 To choose, select.

遺 To leave behind, bequeath, bestow, residue.

遺弟 The disciples left behind by a deceased master.

遺形 Relics of the Buddha.

遺教 遺化; 遺法; 遺訓 Doctrine, or transforming teaching, handed down or bequeathed (by a Buddha).

遺跡 Traces, tracks, evidences, examples left behind.

遶 To go round, revolve around, encompass; to pay respect by walking around the object of regard.

遶佛 遶塔 To circumambulate an image of the Buddha, or a pagoda.

醍 Oil of butter.

醍醐 A rich liquor skimmed from boiled butter; clarified butter; ghee; used for the perfect Buddha-truth as found, according to Tiantai, in the Nirvāṇa and Lotus Sūtras.

醍鞞沙 dveṣa, hatred, dislike.

錫 Pewter, tin; to bestow; a monk's staff.

錫丈 khakkara, a monk's staff partly of metal, especially with metal rings for shaking to make announcement of one's presence, and also used for demon expulsion, etc.

錫崙 Ceylon.

閼 To obstruct, stop; hoodwink.

閼伽 arghya, v. 阿伽 scented water, or flowers in water as an offering, the word arghya meaning primarily something valuable, or presentable; hence 閼伽杯, a golden or metal vessel to hold such water; 閼伽花 the flower which float on

its surface, etc.

閻 A gate, border-gate, hamlet, lane; translit. ya, ja; cf. 夜; 炎; 焰; 燄; 剡; 琰.

閻婆度 A bird in purgatory as large as an elephant, who picks up the wicked, flies with and drops them, when they are broken to pieces.


閻摩 Yama; v. infra 閻王.

閻摩那洲國 Yavana, Yamana, the island nation of Java, visited by Faxian and Xuanzang.

閻曼德迦 Yamāntaka, the destroyer; Śiva, Yama's destroyer; one of the 明王 represented with six legs, guardian of the West.

閻浮 瞻部 Jambu (at present the rose-apple, the Eugenia Jambolana), described as a lofty tree giving its name to 閻浮提 Jambudvīpa, 'one of the seven continents or rather large islands surrounding the mountain Meru; it is so named

either from the Jambu trees abounding in it, or from an enormous Jambu tree on Mount Meru visible like a standard to the whole continent'; 'the central division of the world.' M.W. With Buddhists it is the

southern of the four continents, shaped like a triangle resembling the triangular leaves of the Jambu tree, and called after a forest of such trees on Meru.

閻浮檀金 閻浮那提金 jambūnada-suvarṇa, Jambu-river gold, the golden sand of the Jambu.

閻牟那 Yamunā, the modern river Jamna.

閻魔 閻王 閻羅; (閻魔王); 閻摩羅; 閻老 Yama, also v. 夜; 閻羅王 Yama. (1) In the Vedas the god of the dead, with whom the spirits of the departed dwell. He was son of the Sun and had a twin sister Yamī or Yamuna. By some they

were looked upon as the first human pair. (2) In later Brahmanic mythology, one of the eight Lokapālas, guardian of the South and ruler of the Yamadevaloka and judge of the dead. (3) In Buddhist mythology,

the regent of the Nārakas, residing south of Jambudvīpa, outside of the Cakravālas, in a palace of copper and iron. Originally he is described as a king of Vaiśālī, who, when engaged in a bloody war, wished he were master of

hell, and was accordingly reborn as Yama in hell together with his eighteen generals and his army of 80,000 men, who now serve him in purgatory. His sister Yamī deals with female culprits. Three times in every

twenty-four hours demon pours into Yama's mouth boiling copper (by way of punishment), his subordinates receiving the same dose at the same time, until their sins are expiated, when he will be reborn as Samantarāja 普王. In

China he rules the fifth court of purgatory. In some sources he is spoken of as ruling the eighteen judges of purgatory.

隨 Follow, comply with; sequent, consequent, after, according to, as; often used for the prefix anu.

隨信行 The religious life which is evolved from faith in the teaching of others; it is that of the 鈍根 unintellectual type.

隨分 According to the part assigned or expected; according to lot, or duty.

隨分覺 Partial enlightenment, the third of the 四覺 in the Awakening of Faith 起信論.

隨喜 To rejoice in the welfare of others. To do that which one enjoys, to follow one's inclination.

隨宜 As suitable, proper, or needed.

隨形好 Excellent in every detail; the individual excellences of others united in the Buddha.

隨心 According to mind, or wish.

隨情 Compliant, yielding to other people's wishes.

隨意 At will, following one's own wishes.

隨方 According to place; suitable to the place; in whatever place; wherever.

隨方毘尼 Vinaya, or rules, suitable to local conditions; or to conditions everywhere.

隨機 According to capacity, capability, or opportunity, e.g. the teaching of the Buddha according with the capacity of everyone.

隨求 According to prayer. Name of a deva who was formerly a wicked monk who died and went to hell, but when dying repented, prayed, and was reborn the deva 隨求天子 or 隨求卽得天子. Also, a bodhisattva in the

Guanyin group of the Garbhadhātu, a metamorphosis of Guanyin, who sees that all prayers are answered, 隨求菩薩.

隨法行 Those who follow the truth by reason of intellectual ability, in contrast with the non- intellectual, who put their trust in others. v. 隨信行.

隨煩惱 Sequent, or associated kleśa-trials, or evils, either all of them as always dogging the footsteps; or, especially those which follow the six 隨眠 q.v. Also called 隨惑.

隨相 The secondary states, i.e. of birth, stay, change, and death, in all phenomena.

隨相戒 To follow the forms and discipline of the Buddha, i.e. become a monk.


隨眠 Yielding to sleep, sleepiness, drowsiness, comatose, one of the kleśa, or temptations; also used by the Sarvāstivādins as an equivalent for kleśa, the passions and delusions; by the 唯識 school as the seed of

kleśa; there are categories of 6, 7, 10, 12, and 98 kinds of 隨眠.

隨經律 According to the discipline as described in the sūtras, i.e. the various regulations for conduct in the Sūtra-piṭaka; the phrase 隨律經 means according to the wisdom and insight as described in the Vinaya-piṭaka.

隨緣 According with, or resulting from conditioning causes, or circumstances, as waves result from wind; also, according to circumstances.

隨緣化物 To convert or transform people according to their conditions, or to circumstances in general.

隨緣不變 Ever changing in conditions yet immutable in essence; i.e. the 眞如, in its two aspects of隨緣眞如 the absolute in its phenomenal relativity; and considered as immutable, the 不變眞如, which is likened to the water as

opposite to the waves.

隨義 According to intention, to meaning, or to the right.

隨自 At one's own will; voluntary.

隨自意語 Voluntary addresses, or remarks volunteered by the Buddha.

隨舍利 ? Vaiśālī; the Licchavis were the people of 'the ancient republic of Vaiśālī who were among the earliest followers of Śākyamuni'. Also 隨邪利 and v. 梨.

隨色摩尼 A precious stone that takes on the colour of its surroundings.

隨轉 (隨轉理門) The sects or teaching of adaptable philosophies not revealed by the Buddhas and bodhisattvas, in contrast with the 眞實 (眞實隨轉) the truth as revealed by them.

隨逐 To attach oneself to and follow, e.g. Buddha.

隨順 To follow, accord with, obey; to believe and follow the teaching of another.

隨類 According to class, or type.

隨類應同 Buddhas and bodhisattvas reveal themselves in varying forms according to the need or nature of the beings whom they desire to save. 隨類生 They are also born into the conditions of those they seek to save.

霍 Quickly, suddenly.

霍罕 怖捍 Ferghana, 'a mountainous province and city in Turkestan on the upper Jaxartes.' Eitel.

Cessation of strife, peace, calm, quietness, stillness.

靜主 The elder presiding over a company of monks in mediation.

靜力 The power of abstract meditation.

靜室 Abode of peace, the quiet heart.

靜思 Calm thought; meditation, a meditator, i.e. a monk.

靜息 A tr. of Yama, he who restrains, curbs, controls, keep in check.

靜慧 Calm wisdom, insight into the void, or immaterial, removed from the transient.

靜慮 A tr. of dhyāna, calm thought, unperturbed abstraction.

靜智 Calm wisdom, the wisdom derived from quietness, or mystic trance.

頰 Cheeks, jaws.

頰車 The cheeks rounded—one of the characteristics of a Buddha.

頻 Urgent, pressing; repeated; translit. bim, vi, vim, vin.

頻伽 kalaviṅka, v. 迦.

頻伽缾 The kalaviṅka pitcher, an illustration in the 楞嚴 sūtra of emptiness or non-existence.

頻伽陀 毘笈摩 vigata; vigama; gone away, disappearance, a medicine which causes diseases to disappear.

頻來果 Once more to be reborn, v. 斯 sakṛdāgāmin.

頻婆 vimba; bimba; a bright red gourd, Momordica monadephia; a tree with red fruit; fruit of the Binba-tree.

頻婆 (頻婆羅) vimbara, differently stated as ten millions, and 100,000 billions, a 大頻婆羅 as a trillion; it is also intp, as a king of fragrance, or incense.

頻婆娑羅 Bimbisāra, or Bimbasāra頻毘娑羅; 洴沙 (or 甁沙 or 萍沙). A king of Magadha, residing at Rājagṛha, converted by Śākyamuni, to whom he gave the Veṇuvana park; imprisoned by his son Ajātaśatru, and died.

頻那夜迦 Vināyaka (Gaṇeśa), name of a demon or spirit, cf. 毘.

頭 The head; chief, first.

頭光 A halo or nimbus round the head (of an image).

頭北面西 Head north face west, the proper, attitude in which to sleep, the position of the dying Buddha.

頭袖 Head-sleeve, name for a cap.

頭陀 dhūta, also 杜多; 杜荼 shaken, shaken off, cleansed. To get rid of the trials of life; discipline to remove them and attain nirvāṇa. There are twelve relating to release from ties to clothing, food, and dwelling: (1) garments

of cast-off rags; (2) only the three garments; (3) eat only food begged; (4) only breakfast and the noon meal; (5) no food between them; (6) limited amount; (7) dwelling as a hermit; (8) among tombs; (9) under a tree;

(10) under the open sky; (11) anywhere; (12) sitting and not lying down. There are other groups.


頭面作禮 To bow the head and face in worship or reverence, to fall prostrate in reverence.

頭首 The chief monks in a monastery, known as the western band, in contrast with the eastern band of subordinates.

頭鳩羅 dukūla, a species of plant, fine cloth made of the inner bark of this plant, silken cloth.

餓 Hungry, famished, starving.

餓鬼 pretas, hungry spirits, one of the three lower destinies. They are of varied classes, numbering nine or thirty-six, and are in differing degrees and kinds of suffering, some wealthy and of light torment, others

possessing nothing and in perpetual torment; some are jailers and executioners of Yama in the hells, others wander to and fro amongst men, especially at night. Their city or region is called 餓鬼城; 餓鬼界. Their destination or

path is the 餓鬼趣 or 餓鬼道.

餓鬼愛 Desire as eager as that of a hungry ghost.

餘 Remains, remainder, the rest, the other; surplus.

餘宗 餘乘 Other schools; other vehicles, i.e. other than one's own.

餘念 Divided thoughts, inattentive.

餘甘子 āmraphala, v. 菴.

餘習 The remnants of habit which persist after passion has been subdued; also called 餘氣; 習氣; 殘習.

髻 Topknot, tuft, the hair coiled on top.

髻珠 髻寶 The precious stone worn in the 髻 topknot; a king's most prized possession in the Lotus Sūtra parable.

髻利吉羅 計利 (or 計里) 枳 (or 計) 攞 (or 羅) Kelikila, the attendant of a deva; one of the Vajrapāṇis.

鴛 Drake of mandarin duck; v. 鴛班.

鴛班 Paired bands, i.e. to stand facing each other when reciting sūtras.

鴦 Hen of mandarin duck, symbolizing conjugal fidelity; translit. aṅg.

鴦伽 鴦掘多羅 ? Aṅga, described as a country north of Magadha.

鴦伽社哆 aṅgajāta, 'produced from or on the body,' a son, but intp. as the membrum virile.

鴦倶舍 aṅgūṣa, an arrow, a barbed weapon.

鴦哦囉迦 Aṅgāraka, charcoal; intp. fire star, the planet Mars.

鴦崛摩羅 (鴦崛利摩羅) Aṅgulimālya, chaplet of finger-bones; the Śivaitic sect that wore such chaplets; also 鴦堀摩羅; 鴦掘摩羅; 鴦窶利摩羅 v. 央. One converted by the Buddha is known by this name.

鴦輸伐摩 Aṃśuvarman, a king of ancient Nepal, descendant of the Licchavis, author of the 聲明論.

麈 A great deer, whose tail is used as a fly-whip; the use of which is forbidden to monks.

默 Dark, secret, silent, profound.

默傳 Silent teaching or propagation, i.e. from mind to mind, without words or writing.

默擯 梵壇 brahmanaṇḍa; to 'send to Coventry' an obnoxious monk, all intercourse with him being forbidden.

默然 Silent, without words.

默理 The principle of silence, that the absolute is indefinable, the doctrine of Vimalakīrti.

默置記 Answering a foolish or improper question by silence.

龍 A dragon, dragon-like, imperial; tr. for nāga, which means snake, serpent; also elephant, elephantine, serpent-like, etc., cf. 那.

龍天 Dragon kings and devas; also Nāgārjuna and Vasubandhu.

龍天八部 nāgas, devas, rākṣasas, gandharvas, asuras, garuḍas, kinnaras, and mahoragas.

龍奮迅三昧 A samādhi powerful like the dragon; abstract meditation which results in great spiritual power.

龍女 Nāgakanyā, a nāga maiden. Daughter of Sāgara-nāgarāja, the dragon king at the bottom of the ocean; she is presented in the Lotus Sūtra, becoming a Buddha, under the tuition of Mañjuśrī.

龍宮 Dragon palace; palaces of the dragon kings; also 龍戶.

龍彌你 Lumbinī, v. 嵐.

龍方 The dragon-quarter, i.e. the north.

龍樹 Nāgārjuna, v. 那.

龍河 Another name for the river Nairaṅjanā, cf. 尼.

龍湯 Dragon soup, a purgative concocted of human and animal urine and excrement; also called 黃龍湯.


龍猛 Nāgārjuna, v. 那.

龍王 nāgarāja, dragon king, a title for the tutelary deity of a lake, river, sea, and other places; there are lists of 5, 7, 8, 81, and 185 dragon kings.

龍珠 Dragon-pearl; pearl below the dragon's jaws; the sun or moon associated with the dragon and spring.

龍神 A dragon-god, or spirit.

龍種尊 (龍種上尊王佛) The Buddha of the race of honourable dragon kings, a title of Mañjuśrī.

龍章 Dragon books, i.e. the sūtras, so called because the Sanskrit writing seemed to the Chinese to resemble the forms of snakes and dragons.

龍華樹 nāga-puṣpa; 奔那伽 puṣpanāga, the dragon-flower tree, which will be the bodhi-tree of Maitreya, the Buddhist Messiah, when he comes to earth.

龍華會 Maitreya's assembly under the 龍華樹 dragon-flower tree for preaching the Buddha-truth. The eight of the fourth moon has been so called, an occasion when the images are washed with fragrant water, in connection

with the expected Messiah.

龍藏 The Dragon Treasury or library, formerly in the 龍興 Longxing monastery at Chang-an.

龍象 Dragon elephant, or dragon and elephant, i.e. great saints, Buddhas, bodhisattvas. A large elephant is called a dragon elephant. The term is also one of respect applied to a monk.

龍軍 A tr. of Nāgasena, v. 那先; 那伽犀那; and the 那先比丘經 Milindapaṅha sūtra.

龍鉢 A begging-bowl formerly used by a certain monk for obtaining rain, the dragon descending into his bowl.

龍龕 Dragon coffins, i.e. those for monks.

龜 Tortoise, turtle. The rareness of meeting a Buddha is compared with the difficulty of a blind sea-turtle finding a log to float on, or a one-eyed tortoise finding a log with a spy-hole through it.

龜毛 The hair on a tortoise, i.e. the non-existent.

龜玆 Kuchā, also 庫車; 屈支 (or屈茨); 丘玆; 倶支 An ancient kingdom and city in Eastern Turkestan, 41°45' N., 83°E. It is recorded as the native place of Kumārajīva.

龜藏六 The parable of the tortoise and the jackal, the tortoise hiding its six vulnerable parts, symbolizing the six senses, the jackal wailing and starving to death.


償 To repay, compensate; cf, 商.

優 Abundant, excessive; exceptional, extra; at ease; an actor; chiefly translit. u sounds, cf. 鬱, 憂, 烏, etc.

優塡 Udayana, king of Kauśāmbī and contemporary of Śākyamuni, who is reputed to have made the first image of the Buddha; also 優陀延; 于闐; 鄔陀衍那; 嗢陀演那伐蹉 Udayana Vatsa. Cf. 巨, 倶, 拘, and 弗沙王.

優多羅 uttarā. Upper, superior, higher, further.

優婆 cf. 優波.

優婆塞 upāsaka, 優婆娑柯; 優波娑迦; 鄔波塞 (鄔波塞伽); 鄔波索迦 (or 鄔波素迦); 伊蒲塞. Originally meaning a servant, one of low caste, it became the name for a Buddhist layman who engages to observe the first five commandments, a follower,

disciple, devotee.

優婆夷 upāsikā. 優波夷; 優婆斯; 優婆私柯; 優波賜迦; 鄔婆斯迦 (or 鄔波斯迦) Female lay disciples who engage to observe the first five commandments.

優婆尼沙陀 (or 優婆尼沙曇) Upaniṣad, v. 優波.

優婆掘多 v. Upagupta, infra.

優婆提舍 upadeśa; 優婆題舍; 優波提舍 (or 優波替舍); 鄔波題鑠 (or 鄔波弟鑠). Discourses and discussions by question and answer; one of the twelve divisions of the Canon; a synonym for the Abhidharma, also for the Tantras.

優婆毱多 Upagupta, 優婆鞠多 (or 優婆掘多); 優波笈多 (or 優波毱多); 鄔波毱多 (or 鄔波級多 or 鄔波屈多); 烏波毱多. A 'śūdra by birth, who entered upon monastic life when 17 years old'. Eitel. He was renowned as almost a Buddha, lived under [[Wikipedia:


King]] Aśoka, and is reputed as the fifth patriarch, 200 years after the Nirvāṇa.

優婆至沙 (or 優婆室沙) Upatiṣya, i.e. Śāriputra, v. 舍.

優婆離 Upāli 優婆利; 優波利 (or 優波離); 鄔波離 A barber of śūdra caste, who became a disciple of Śākyamuni, was one of the three sthaviras of the first Synod, and reputed as the principal compiler of the Vinaya, hence his title 持戒

Keeper of the Laws. There was another Upāli, a Nirgrantha ascetic.


優婆馱耶 upādhyāya, 'a sub-teacher'; 'a spiritual teacher.' M.W. A general term for monk. There are various names, etc., beginning with 優; 憂; 鄔; 塢; 郁, etc.

優曇 (優曇鉢) The udumbara tree; supposed to produce fruit without flowers; once in 3,000 years it is said to flower, hence is a symbol of the rare appearance of a Buddha. The Ficus glomerata. Also 優曇婆羅; 烏曇跋羅; 鄔曇婆羅.

優樓 (優樓迦) Ulūka, the owl; a ṛṣi '800 years' before Śākyamuni, reputed as founder of the Vaiśeṣika philosophy. Also 優婁佉; 憂流迦; 嘔盧伽; 漚樓; 嗢露迦.

優樓頻螺 Uruvilvā, papaya tree; name of the forest near Gayā where Śākyamuni practised austere asceticism before his enlightenment. Also 優樓頻蠡 (or 優樓毘蠡); 烏盧頻螺 (or 烏盧頻羅); 漚樓頻螺, 優樓頻螺迦葉 and other forms; Uruvilvā Kāśyapa; 'one of

the principal disciples of Śākyamuni, so called because he practised asceticism in the Uruvilvā forest,' or 'because he had on his breast a mark resembling the fruit of the' papaya. He 'is to reappear as Buddha Samantaprabhāsa'.


優檀那 ? uddāna, fasten, bind, seal.

優波 v. 優婆.

優波娑迦 v. 優婆塞 upāsaka.

優波婆娑 upavāsa, to dwell in, or by; fasting, abstinence; to keep eight of the ten prohibitions.

優波尼沙土 (or 優波尼沙陀) Upaniṣad, also (婆波尼曇; certain philosophical or mystical writings by various authors at various periods 'attached to the Brāhmaṇas, the aim of which is the ascertainment of the secret of the Veda (they are

more than a hundred in number, and are said to have been the source of the six darśanas, or systems of philosophy)'. M.W. The best known is the Bṛhad-āraṇyaka.

優波憍舍羅 upāyakauśalya, the seventh pāramitā, cf. 波.

優波替 (優波舍) v. 舍 Upatiṣya (son of Tiṣya), i.e. Śāriputra.

優波羅懺 優婆羅叉 upalakṣana, a mark or property, tr. as 律 the law, or the monastic rules.

優波陀 v. 優鉢羅 Utpala.

優波那訶 v. 優婆馱耶 Upādhyāya.

優波難陀 Upananda, a disciple of Śākyamuni; also a nāga king.

優波離 Upāli, v. 優婆.

優流漫陀 Urumuṇḍa, name of a mountain in the Aśoka sūtra.

優畢捨 (or 優畢叉) upekṣā. The state of mental equilibrium in which the mind has no bent or attachment and neither meditates nor acts, a state of indifference. Explained by 捨 abandonment.

優襌尼 Ujjayanī, Oujein, v. 烏闍.

優鉢羅 utpala, the blue lotus, to the shape of whose leaves the Buddha's eyes are likened; also applied to other water lilies. Name of a dragon king; also of one of the cold hells, and one of the hot hells. Also 優鉢

剌; 鄔鉢羅; 漚鉢羅.

優陀夷 udāyin, to rise, shine forth; a disciple of Śākyamuni, to appear as Buddha Samantaprabhāsa.

優陀延 v. 優陀夷 and 鄔 Udayana.

優陀那 udāna (udānaya), voluntary discourses, a section of the canon.

壓 To press, squeeze, crush; repress.

壓沙油 To press oil out of sand, impossible.

壓油 To crush seed for oil.

壓油輪罪 The sin of the oil-presser, i.e. the killing of insects among the seeds crushed.

嬰 Infant, baby.

嬰童 A child.

彌 To shoot, reach everywhere, pervade; complete, universal; prevent, stop; more; long.

彌伽 Megha, a cloud; name of one of the bodhisattvas renowned as a healer, or as a cloud-controller for producing rain.

彌勒 Maitreya, friendly, benevolent. The Buddhist Messiah, or next Buddha, now in the Tuṣita heaven, who is to come 5,000 years after the nirvāṇa of Śākyamuni, or according to other reckoning after 4,000 heavenly

years, i.e. 5,670,000,000 human years. According to tradition he was born in Southern India of a Brahman family. His two epithets are 慈氏 Benevolent, and Ajita 阿逸多 'Invincible'. He presides over the spread of the

church, protects its members and will usher in ultimate victory for Buddhism. His image is usually in the hall of the four guardians facing outward, where he is represented as the fat laughing Buddha, but in some places his

image is tall, e.g. in Peking in the Yung Ho Kung. Other forms are彌帝M075962; 迷諦隸; 梅低梨; 梅怛麗 (梅怛藥 or 梅怛邪); 每怛哩; 昧怛 M067070曳; 彌羅. There are numerous Maitreya sūtras.


彌底 miti, measure, accurate knowledge, evidential.

三彌底 三蜜 The Sammatīya school.

彌戾車 mleccha, barbarian, foreigner, wicked; defined as 'ill-looking', a term for a non-Buddhist tribe or people. Also 彌離車; cf. 蜜.

彌樓 Meru, 'the Olympus of Hindu mythology.' M.W. Sumeru, cf. 須; but there is dispute as to the identity of the two. Meru also refers to the mountains represented by the Himālayas, in this not differing from

Sumeru. It also has the general meaning of 'lofty'.

彌沙塞 (彌沙塞部) Mahāśāsakāḥ . One of the divisions of the Sarvāstivādāḥ school; cf. 磨. Also name of the 五分律 tr. by Buddhajīva A.D. 423-4. Also 彌喜捨娑阿.

彌蘭 King Milinda, v. 那先.

彌迦 Mekā, said to be the name of the girl who gave milk congee to Śākyamuni immediately after his enlightenment; seemingly the same as Sujātā, Senā, or Nandā.

彌迦羅 (or 彌呵羅) Mekhalā, a girdle, name of an elder.

彌遮迦 Miccaka or Mikkaka. 'A native of Central India, the sixth patriarch, who having laboured in Northern India transported himself to Ferghana where he chose Vasumitra as his successor. He died 'by the fire of

samādhi'.' Eitel.

彌陀 Amitābha, v. 阿.

彌陀三尊 (or 彌陀三聖) The three Amitābha honoured ones; Amitābha, whose mercy and wisdom are perfect; Guanyin, Avalokiteśvara, on his left, who is the embodiment of mercy; Dashizhi, Mahāsthāmaprāpta, on his right, the

embodiment of wisdom.

彌陀山 Mitraśānta, a monk from Tukhara.

應 Respond, correspond, answer, reply; ought, should, proper, deserving, worthy of.

應人 arhat, arhan; deserving (worship), an old tr. of arhat.

應佛 idem 應身 q.v.

應作 Responsive appearance, revelation, idem 應現.

應伽 aṅga, a limb, member, body.

應供 Worth, of worship, a tr. of the term arhat; one of the ten titles of a Tathāgata.

應儀 Deserving of respect, or corresponding to the correct, an old tr. of arhat.

應化 nirmāṇa means formation, with Buddhists transformation, or incarnation. Responsive incarnation, or manifestation, in accordance with the nature or needs of different beings.

應化利生 Revelation or incarnation for the benefit of the living.

應化法身 Responsive manifestation of the dharmakāya, or Absolute Buddha, in infinite forms.

應化聲聞 Buddhas or bodhisattvas incarnate as śrāvakas, or disciples.

應化身 應身; 化身 nirmāṇakāya, the Buddha incarnate, the transformation body, capable of assuming any form (for the propagation of Buddha-truth).

應器 The pātra, or begging-bowl, the utensil corresponding to the dharma; the utensil which responds to the respectful gifts of others; the vessel which corresponds with one's needs; also 應量器.

應土 Any land or realm suited to the needs of its occupants; also called 化土.

應報 Corresponding retribution; rewards and punishments in accordance with previous moral action.

應形 The form of manifestation, the nirmāṇakāya, idem 應身.

應感 The response of Buddhas and spirits (to the needs of men).

應應 nirmāṇakāya response, its response to the needs of all; that of the dharmakāya is called 法應.

應文 Yingwen; the grandson of the founder of the Ming dynasty, Taizu, to whom he succeeded, but was dethroned by Yung Lo and escaped disguised as a monk; he remained hidden as a monk till his 64th year, afterwards he was provided

for by the reigning ruler. His name is also given as 應能 Yingneng; 應賢 Yingxian; and posthumously as 允炆 Yunwen.


應果 arhat-fruit, the reward of arhatship.

應正遍知 The arhat of perfect knowledge, a title of a Buddha.

應法 In harmony with dharma or law.

應法妙服 The mystic (or beautiful) garment of accordance with Buddha-truth, i.e, the monk's robe.

應法沙彌 A novice, preparing for the monkhood, between 14 and 19 years of age.

應現 Responsive manifestation, revelation through a suitable medium.

應理宗 (應理圓實宗) A name of the Dharmalakṣana school, 法相宗 q.v.

應用無邊 Omnipresent response to need; universal ability to aid.

應病與藥 To give medicine suited to the disease, the Buddha's mode of teaching.

應眞 A worthy true one, an old tr. of the term arhat. Also, one who is in harmony with truth.

應護 The response and protection of Buddhas and bodhisattvas according to the desires of all beings.

應身 nirmāṇakāya, one of the 三身 q.v. Any incarnation of Buddha. The Buddha-incarnation of the 眞如q.v. Also occasionally used for the saṃbhogakāya. There are various interpretation (a) The 同性經 says the Buddha as

revealed supernaturally in glory to bodhisattvas is應身, in contrast with 化身, which latter is the revelation on earth to his disciples. (b) The 起信論 makes no difference between the two, the 應身 being the Buddha

of the thirty-two marks who revealed himself to the earthly disciples. The 金光明經 makes all revelations of Buddha as Buddha to be 應身; while all incarnations not as Buddha, but in the form of any of the [[five

paths]] of existence, are Buddha's 化身. Tiantai has the distinction of 勝應身 and 劣應身, i.e. superior and inferior nirmāṇakāya, or supernatural and natural.

應身土 Any realm in which a Buddha is incarnate.

應迹 Evidential nirmāṇakāya, manifestations or indications of incarnation.

應頌 geya, corresponding verses, i.e. a prose address repeated in verse, idem 重頌; the verse section of the canon.

戲 khelā, krīḍā. Play, sport, take one's pleasure; theatricals, which are forbidden to a monk or nun.

戲忘天 (戲忘念天) One of the six devalokas of the desire-heavens, where amusement and laughter cause forgetfulness of the true and right.

戲論 prapañca. Sophistry; meaningless argument; frivolous or unreal discourse.

擦 To rub, wipe.

擦汗 To wipe off sweat.

擬 To compare, estimate, guess, adjudge, decide, intend.

擬罪 To judge a case.

擯 To expel.

擯治 The punishment of expulsion, which is of three orders: (1) 擯出 expulsion from a particular monastery or nunnery, to which there may be a return on repentance; (2) 默擯 prohibition of any intercourse; (3) 滅擯 entire expulsion and

deletion from the order.

檢 A case; rule; to collate; compose; pick up.

檢校 To check, compare.

檐 Eaves, v. 贍 20.

檀 A hard wood, translit. da, dan. dāna, a giver; donation, charity, almsgiving, bestowing.

檀主 dānapati, lord of charity, a patron.

檀中 Among the patrons.

檀信 The faith of an almsgiver; almsgiving and faith.

檀嚫 Dakṣiṇā, cf. 達, the Deccan.

檀家 A patron, patrons.

檀度 cf. 六度. The pāramitā of charity, or almsgiving.

檀捨 檀施 Almsgiving, bestowing, charity.

檀拏 檀陀 daṇḍa, also 但荼 a staff, club.

檀林 旃檀之林 Forest of sandal-wood, or incense, a monastery.

檀波羅蜜 v. 六度 dānapāramitā .

檀特 檀陀; 彈多落迦 Dantaloka, a mountain 'near Varucha', with a cavern (now called Kashmiri-Ghār) where Sudāna (cf. 須) lived, or as some say the place where Śākyamuni, when Siddhārtha, underwent his ascetic sufferings.

檀耳 v. 旃檀耳 Candana.

檀越 dānapati, an almsgiver, patron; various definitions are given, e.g. one who escapes the karma of poverty by giving.

檀那 陀那 dāna to give, donate, bestow, charity, alms.

檀那鉢底 dānapatipati, v. 檀主; 檀越.

檀陁迦阿蘭若 ? daṇḍaka-āranyaka, daṇḍaka forest hermits, one of the three classes of hermits, intp. as those who live on rocks by the seashore.


濟 To cross a stream; aid; cause, bring about.

濟家 濟下 The school, or disciples of 臨濟 Linji.

濟度 To ferry the living across the sea of reincarnation to the shore of nirvāṇa.

濡 To dip, wet, soak; damp; glossy; forbearing.

濡佛 An image of Vairocana in the open.

濡首 A faulty tr. of Mañjuśrī, cf. 文.

濫 Overflowing, excess.

濫波 Lampā (Lampāka); the district of Lamghan.

濕 Wet, humid, moist.

濕生 Moisture-born; born in damp or wet places spawn, etc., one of the four forms of birth, v. 四生.

獲 To catch, seize, obtain, recover. 獲得.

療 To heal, cure, 療病.

皤 Grey, white.

皤利 bali, the offering of a portion of a meal to all creatures; also royal revenue, a sacrifice, etc.

皤雌子部 v. 犢.

瞥 A glance.

瞥地 Instant, quickly.

禪 To level a place for an altar, to sacrifice to the hills and fountains; to abdicate. Adopted by Buddhists for dhyāna, 禪 or 禪那, i.e. meditation, abstraction, trance. dhyāna is 'meditation, thought, reflection,

especially profound and abstract religious contemplation'. M.W. It was intp. as 'getting rid of evil', etc., later as 靜慮 quiet meditation. It is a form of 定, but that word is more closely allied with samādhi,

cf. 禪定. The term also connotes Buddhism and Buddhist things in general, but has special application to the 禪宗 q.v. It is one of the six pāramitās, cf. 波. There are numerous methods and subjects of meditation. The

eighteen brahmalokas are divided into four dhyāna regions 'corresponding to certain frames of mind where individuals might be reborn in strict accordance with their spiritual state'. The first three are the first

dhyāna, the second three the second dhyāna, the third three the third dhyāna, and the remaining nine the fourth dhyāna. See Eitel. According to Childers' Pali Dictionary, 'The four jhānas are four stages of mystic

meditation, whereby the believer's mind is purged from all earthly emotions, and detached as it were from his body, which remains plunged in a profound trance.' Seated cross-legged, the practiser

'concentrates his mind upon a single thought. Gradually his soul becomes filled with a supernatural ecstasy and serenity', his mind still reasoning: this is the first jhāna. Concentrating his mind

on the same subject, he frees it from reasoning, the ecstasy and serenity remaining, which is the second jhāna. Then he divests himself of ecstasy, reaching the third stage of serenity. Lastly, in the fourth stage

the mind becomes indifferent to all emotions, being exalted above them and purified. There are differences in the Mahāyāna methods, but similarity of aim.

禪三昧 dhyāna and samādhi, dhyāna considered as 思惟 meditating, samādhi as 定 abstraction; or meditation in the realms of 色 the visible, or known, and concentration on 無色 the invisible, or supramundane; v. 禪定.

禪人 A member of the Chan (Jap. Zen), i.e. the Intuitional or Meditative sect.

禪侶 Fellow-meditators; fellow-monks.

禪僧 A monk of the Chan sect; a monk in meditation.

禪化 The transforming character of Chan.

禪卷 The meditation fist (muṣti), the sign of meditation shown by the left fist, the right indicating wisdom.

禪味 Meditation-flavour the mysterious taste or sensation experienced by one who enters abstract meditation.

禪和 Meditation-associates, fellow-monks; also 禪和子; 禪和者.

禪坐 To sit cross-legged in meditation.

禪堂 Meditation-hall of the Chan sect. A common name for the monastic hall.

禪天 dhyāna heavens, four in number, where those who practise meditation may be reborn, v. 禪.

禪定 chan is dhyāna, probably a transliteration; ding is an interpretation of samādhi. chan is an element in ding, or samādhi, which covers the whole ground of meditation, concentration, abstraction, reaching to the

ultimate beyond emotion or thinking; cf. 禪, for which the two words chan-ding are loosely used.


禪宗 The Chan, meditative or intuitional, sect usually said to have been established in China by Bodhidharma, v. 達, the twenty-eighth patriarch, who brought the tradition of the Buddha-mind from India.

Cf. 楞 13 Laṅkāvatāra sūtra. This sect, believing in direct enlightenment, disregarded ritual and sūtras and depended upon the inner light and personal influence for the propagation of its tenets, founding itself on

the esoteric tradition supposed to have been imparted to Kāśyapa by the Buddha, who indicated his meaning by plucking a flower without further explanation. Kāśyapa smiled in apprehension and is supposed to have passed on

this mystic method to the patriarchs. The successor of Bodhidharma was 慧可 Huike, and he was succeeded by 僧璨 Sengcan; 道信 Daoxin; 弘忍 Hongren; 慧能 Huineng, and 神秀 Shenxiu, the sect dividing under the two latter into

the southern and northern schools: the southern school became prominent, producing 南嶽 Nanyue and 靑原 Qingyuan, the former succeeded by 馬祖 Mazu, the latter by 石頭 Shitou. From Mazu's school arose the five later schools, v. 禪門.

禪室 Meditation hall or room; other similar terms are 禪屋; 禪房; 禪院; 禪堂; 禪居.

禪家 The Chan sect, v. 禪宗; 禪門.

禪尼 A nun.

禪居 A meditation abode; to dwell in meditation; a hermitage; a hermit monk.

禪師 A master, or teacher, of meditation, or of the Chan school.

禪律 The Chan and Lu (Vinaya) sects: i.e. the Meditative and Disciplinary schools.

禪思 Meditation thoughts; the mystic trance.

禪悅 Joy of the mystic trance. 禪悅食 Its mystic nourishing powers.

禪慧 The mystic trance and wisdom.

禪房 Meditation abode, a room for meditation, a cell, a hermitage, general name for a monastery.

禪教 The teaching of the Chan sect. Also, 禪 the esoteric tradition and 教 the teaching of the scriptures.

禪智 Meditation and wisdom, of. 禪卷.

禪杖 A staff or pole for touching those who fall asleep while assembled in meditation.

禪林 Grove of meditation, i.e. a monastery. Monasteries as numerous as trees in a forest. Also 禪苑.

禪梵天 The three brahmaloka heavens of the first dhyāna; cf. 禪.

禪樂 The joy of abstract meditation.

禪毬 A ball of hair used to throw at and awaken those who fell asleep during meditation.

禪波 Disturbing waves, or thoughts, during meditation.

禪波羅密 The sixth or dhyānapāramitā, the attainment of perfection in the mystic trance.

禪法 Methods of mysticism as found in (1) the dhyānas recorded in the sūtras, called 如來禪 tathāgata-dhyānas; (2) traditional dhyāna, or the intuitional method brought to China by Bodhidharma, called 祖師禪, which also

includes dhyāna ideas represented by some external act having an occult indication.

禪河 The dhyāna river, i.e. the mystic trance like a river extinguishes the fires of the mind. The 尼連禪 river Nairaṅjanā (Niladyan), which flows past Gayā.

禪病 The ills of meditation, i.e. wandering thoughts, illusions. The illusions and nervous troubles of the mystic.

禪窟 A cell, or cave, for meditation, or retirement from the world.

禪習 The practice of religion through the mystic trance.


禪行 The methods employed in meditation; the practices, or discipline, of the Chan school.

禪觀 dhyāna-contemplation.

禪那 dhyāna, abstract contemplation. There are four degrees through which the mind frees itself from all subjective and objective hindrances and reaches a state of absolute indifference and annihilation

of thought, perception, and will; v. 禪. The River Jumna.

禪錄 The records of the Chan sect.

禪鎭 The meditation-warden, a piece of wood so hung as to strike the monk's head when he nodded in sleep.

禪門 The meditative method in general. The dhyāna pāramitā, v. 六度. The intuitional school established in China according to tradition by Bodhidharma, personally propagated from mind to mind as an esoteric


禪門五宗 Five Chan schools, viz. 臨濟宗; 潙仰宗; 雲門宗; 法眼宗, and 曹洞宗; the fourth was removed to Korea; the second disappeared; the other three remained, the first being most successful; in the Sung it divided into the two sects of 楊

岐 and 黃龍. Cf. 楞 13 Laṅkāvatāra Sutra.

禪靜 dhyāna and its Chinese translation, quieting of thought, or its control, or suppression, silent meditation.

禪髓 The marrow of meditation-a term for the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra.

禪齋 idem 禪室.

Bamboo splints, or strips.

蔑隸車 mlecchas, v. 蔑 15.

糞 Ordure, sweepings, garbage.

糞掃 Sweepings, garbage.

糞掃衣 衲衣 The monk's garment of cast-off rags.

糞果 The āmraka fruit in the midden, or a pearl in the mud, cf. Nirvana Sutra 12.

糞除 To get rid of garbage, scavenge; cf. Lotus Sutra 4.

糟糠 Dregs and chaff, said of a proud monk, or of inferior teaching.

總 sādhāraṇa. Altogether, all, whole, general; certainly.

總供 A general offering to all spirits in contrast with specific worship.

總別 General and particular.

總報業 General karma determining the species, race, and country into which one is born; 別報 is the particular karma relating to one's condition in that species, e.g. rich, poor, well, ill, etc.

總持 dhāraṇī, cf. 陀, entire control, a tr. of the Sanskrit word, and associated with the Yogācārya school; absolute control over good and evil passions and influences.

總持門 The esoteric or Tantric sects and methods.

總明論 A name for the Abhidharma-kośa.

總相 Universal characteristics of all phenomena, in contrast with 別相 specific characteristics.

總相戒 The general commandments for all disciples, in contrast with the 別相戒, e.g. the 250 monastic rules.

總願 Universal vows common to all buddhas, in contrast with 別願 specific vows, e.g. the forty-eight of Amitābha.

罽 A fishing net (of hair) translit. k, c, r.

罽利沙盤 cf. 迦 kārṣāpaṇa.

罽羅多 Kirāta. A tribe north-west of the Himalayas, which invaded Kashmir during the Han dynasty.

罽膩吒王 Caṇḍa-Kaniṣka, 吒王; the Scythian king, conqueror of northern India and [[Wikipedia:Central Asia|Central Asia]], noted for violence, the seizure of Aśvaghoṣa, and, later, patronage of Buddhism.

罽賓 Kubhā, Kubhāna; the Kōphēn of the Greeks; also a Han name for Kashmir; modern Kabul; cf. Hupian 護苾那.

罽那尸棄佛 v. 尸棄 Ratnaśikhin.

罽鐃夷 Kanyākubja, Kanauj, in Central India, cf. 羯.

翳 A film; screen; fan; hide, invisible; translit. e, a.

翳迦 eka, one, once, single, unique.

翳羅鉢呾羅 Elāpattra, a nāga who is said to have consulted Śākyamuni about rebirth in a higher sphere; also, a palm-tree formerly destroyed by that nāga.

翳身藥 A drug for making the body invisible.

聰 Quick at hearing, sharp, clever, astute, wise, 聰明.

聲 śabda. Sound, tone, voice, repute; one of the five physical senses or sensations, i.e. sound, the聲入, 聲根, or聲塵, cf. 六 and 十二入.

聲念誦 Vocal intonation.

聲教 Vocal teaching.

聲杖 The sounding or rattling staff, said to have been ordained by the Buddha to drive away crawling poisonous insects.

聲明 śabdavidyā, one of the 五明 five sciences, the聲明論 Śabdavidyā śāstra being a treatise on words and their meanings.

聲獨 聲緣 śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas, cf. next entry and 緣覺.


聲聞 śrāvaka, a hearer, a term applied to the personal disciples of the Buddha, distinguished as mahā-śrāvaka; it is also applied to hearers, or disciples in general; but its general connotation relates it to Hīnayāna

disciples who understand the four dogmas, rid themselves of the unreality of the phenomenal, and enter nirvana; it is the initial stage; cf. 舍.

聲聞乘 śrāvakayāna; the śrāvaka vehicle or sect, the initial stage, Hīnayāna, the second stage being that of pratyeka-buddha, v. above.

聲聞僧 A Hīnayāna monk.

聲聞藏 The Hīnayāna canon.

聲論 cf. 聲明, also vyākaraṇam, a treatise on sounds and the structure of Sanskrit.

臈 The end of a Buddhist year; a Buddhist year; v. 臘.

膿 Pus.

膿血地獄 The hell of pus and blood.

臂 The arm; forearm; translit. pi, cf. 畢, 毘.

臂卑履也 pipīla(ka), an ant.

臂多勢羅 Pitāśīlā, "an ancient kingdom and city in the province of Sindh, 700 li north of Adhyavakīla, 300 li south-west of Avaṇḍa. Exact position unknown." Eitel.

臂奢柘 piśāca, a class of demons.

臊 Rancid, rank; shame; translit. su, in臊陀 intp. as śuka, parrot; more correctly 叔迦.

臨 To regard with kindness: approach, on the brink of, about to; whilst.

臨終 Approach the end, dying.

臨濟 A monastery during the Tang dynasty in 眞定府 Zhending Fu, Zhili, from which the founder of the臨濟school derived his title; his name was 義玄 Yixuan; cf. 禪門.

臨齋 Approaching the midday meal; near noon.

薑 Ginger.

薑羯羅 kaṅkara, "a high number, 100 niyutas." M.W.

薪 Fuel, firewood; wages.

薪盡 (薪盡火滅) Fuel consumed fire extinguished, a term for nirvana, especially the Buddha's death or nirvana.

薜 Wild hemp; translit. p, ve, vai; cf. 毘, 吠, 閉, etc.

薜室羅末拏 v. 毘 Vaiśravaṇa.

薜攞斫羯羅 velācakra, a kind of clock.

薜服 Hemp garments, the coarse monastic dress.

薜舍 (薜舍離) v. 毘, Vaiśālī.

薜茘 (薜茘多) cf. 閉 preta, intp. as an ancestral spirit, but chiefly as a hungry ghost who is also harmful.

薜陀 Veda, cf. 吠.

薄 Thin, poor, shabby: to slight, despise; to reach to; the herb mint.

薄佉羅 Bactria (or Bukhāra), the country of the Yuezhi, described as north-west of the Himālayas.

薄健 v. 濕 Wakhan.

薄地 Poor land, i.e. the world, as full of trouble.

薄拘羅 also 薄矩羅; 薄倶羅; 薄羅婆拘羅; 縛矩羅; 波鳩蠡Vakula, a disciple who, during his eighty years of life, never had a moment's illness or pain.

薄福 Unfortunate; poor condition due to poor karma; ill luck.

薄證 Shallow insight, weak in mystic experience.

薄迦 (薄迦梵); 薄伽 (薄伽梵) bhagavan, bhagavat, 世尊 world-honoured, cf. 婆.

薊 A thistle.

薊利耶 Sūrya, the sun, the sun god, v. 蘇.

螺 A conch, snail, spiral, screw.

螺髻 Tuft of hair on Brahmā's head resembling a conch, hence a name for Brahmā.

螺髻仙人 A former incarnation of the Buddha, when a bird built its nest in his hair during his prolonged meditation.

螺髻梵 (螺髻梵志) A name for Brahmā, and for the Buddha.

螺髮 The curly hair of the Buddha.

蟒 A boa, python; a class of demons resembling such, a mahoraga.

謌 To sing; song.

謌舞 To sing and dance.

謝 To thank; return (with thanks), decline; fall; apologize; accept with thanks.

謝戒 To give thanks for being given the commandments, i.e. being ordained.

謗 To slander. 誹謗 To slander, vilify, defame.

謗三寶戒 One of the commandments against speaking falsely of the Three Precious Ones.

謗法 To slander the Truth.

講 To talk, explain, preach, discourse.

講下 Descend the pulpit, end the discourse.

講堂 The preaching hall, lecture hall.

講宗 The preaching sects, i.e. all except the Chan or intuitional, and the vinaya, or ritual sects.

講師 An expounder, or teacher.

講演 講說 To expound, discourse, preach.

講經 To expound the sutras.

豁 Open, clear; intelligent.

豁旦 Kustana; Khoten; v. 于, 瞿.

賻 Pecuniary aid (for funerals), 賻儀.


Money offerings.

賽錢 (to the buddhas or gods); to compete.

蹇 Halt, lame; unfortunate; proud; translit. ka, kha, ska.

蹇尼陀 Kaṇāda, 蹇拏僕Kaṇābhuj, atom-eater, Kaṇāda's nickname, the reputed founder of the Vaiśeṣika school.

蹇荼 khaṇḍa, candy, broken bits.

蹈 To trample, tread on.

蹈七寳華 Saptaratna-padmavikrāmin, the name of Rāhula as Buddha, he whose steps are on flowers of the seven precious things.

避 Avoid, escape, flee.

避死 To avoid death.

避羅 vimbara, idem 頻婆羅.

還 To return; repay; still, yet.

還年藥 A drug to return the years and restore one's youth.

還俗 To return to lay life, leave the monastic order.

還相 To return to the world, from the Pure Land, to save its people; i.e. one of the forms of 迴向 q.v.

還滅 To return to nirvana and escape from the backward flow to transmigration.

還源 To return to the source. i.e. abandon illusion and turn to enlightenment.

還生 To return to life; to be reborn in this world; to be reborn from the Hīnayāna nirvana in order to be able to attain to Mahāyāna buddhahood; also, restoration to the order, after repentance for


還禮 還拜; 還香 Return of courtesy, of a salute, of incense offered, etc.

還門 One of the six 妙門, i.e. to realize by introspection that the thinker, or introspecting agent, is unreal.

醜 Ugly, shameful, shame, disgraceful.

醜目 醜眼 Virūpākṣa; ugly-eyed, i.e. Śiva with his three eyes; also the name of the mahārāja-protector of the West, v. 毘.

醜陋 Ugly, vile.

鍋 A pan.

鍋頭 The one who attends to the cooking-stoves, etc., in a monastery.

鍵 The bolt of a lock; to lock; translit. gha.

鍵南 ghana, also 伽謌那, solid, compact, firm, viscid, mass; a fetus of forty-seven days.

鍵鎔 A bowl, small almsbowl; also 鍵鎡; 犍茨; 健支; 建鎡.

鍱 A thin metal plate.

鍱腹 The Indian philosopher who is said to have worn a rice-pan over his belly, the seat of wisdom, lest it should be injured and his wisdom be lost.

闊 Broad, wide, spacious; well-off, liberal.

闊悉多 Khusta, "a district of ancient Tukhara, probably the region south of Talikhan, Lat. 36°42 N., Long. 69°25 E." Eitel. But it may be Khost in Afghanistan, south-west of Peshawar.

闇 To shut; dark; retired; translit. am, cf. 暗, 菴.

闇室 A dark room, a place for meditation.

闇密里帝軍荼利 amṛtakuṇḍalī, the vase of ambrosia.

闇心 A dark, ignorant, or doubting mind.

闇林 Tāmasavana, see 答 10.

闇鈍 Ignorant and dull.

闇障 The hindrance of ignorance.

闍 Translit. c, j, k, g, sounds.

闍世 cf. 阿 Ajātaśatru.

闍伊那 Jaina, the Jains, founded by Jñātṛputra, cf. 若, contemporary of Śākyamuni.

闍利 jala, water.

闍嚩囉 jvala, shining; light.

闍多伽 jātaka, stories of previous incarnations of buddhas and bodhisattvas.

闍夜 jaya, conquering, a manual sign of overcoming.

闍夜多 Jayata, twentieth Indian patriarch, teacher of Vasubandhu.

闍婆隸 jvālā, flame(-mouth), a class of hungry demons.

闍崛山 Gṛdhrakūṭa, cf. 耆 Vulture peak.

闍提 jāti, 生 birth, production; genus; name of several plants, e.g. marigold.

闍提闍羅 jātijarā, birth and decrepitude.

闍提首那 Jātisena, an ancient sage mentioned in the Nirvana Sutra.

闍梨 闍黎 ācārya, cf. 阿, a teacher, instructor, exemplar.

闍樓 jarāyu, a placenta, an after-birth.

闍毘 idem 荼毘 jhapita.

闍演帝 (or 闍演底) jayanta, conqueror, name of Śiva and others.

闍爛達羅 Jālandhara, an ancient kingdom and city in the Punjab, the present Jalandar.

闍王 v. 阿 Ajātaśatru.

闍維 A monk's funeral pyre, perhaps jhāpita.

闍耶因陀羅 Jayendra, a monastery of Pravarasenapura, now Srinagar, Kashmir.

闍耶毱多 Jayagupta, a teacher of Xuanzang in Srughna.

闍耶犀那 or 闍耶宰那 Jayasena, a noted Buddhist scholar of the Vedas.

闍耶補羅 Jayapura, "an ancient city in the Punjab, probably the present Hasaurah, 30 miles north-west of Lahore." Eitel.

闍那崛多 Jñānagupta, a native of Gandhāra, tr. forty-three works into Chinese A.D. 561-592.

闍那耶舍 Jñānayaśas, a native of Magadha, teacher of Yaśogupta and Jñānagupta, co-translator of six works, A.D. 564-572.

闍陀伽 idem 闍多伽 jātaka.

闍鼻多 jhāpita, idem 荼毘.

隱 To hide, conceal; obscure, esoteric; retired.

隱密 Esoteric meaning in contrast with 顯了 exoteric, or plain meaning.

隱形 隱身To vanish, become invisible.

隱所 A privy.

隱覆 To hide, conceal; secret.

隸 To control; retainers.

隸車 v. 離.


鞠 To nourish, exhaust, address; a ball; translit. ku, gu.

鞠利衍那 Kuryana; Kuvayana; also 鞫和衍那. "An ancient kingdom south-east of Ferghana, north of the upper Oxus, the present Kurrategeen." Eitel.

鞠多 Upagupta, v. 優.

鞞 A scabbard; translit. vi, ve, vai, vya, bhi, bhya, be; cf. 毘, 吠, 韋.

鞞世師 鞞崽迦 The Vaiśesika school of philosophy, cf. 衞.

鞞侈遮羅那 (鞞侈遮羅那三般那) or 毘侈遮羅那 (毘侈遮羅那三般那) or鞞多遮羅那 (鞞多遮羅那三般那) or毘多遮羅那 (毘多遮羅那三般那) vidyā-caraṇa-saṃpanna, perfect in knowledge and conduct 明行足, one of the ten epithets of a Buddha.

鞞嚧杜那 v. 毘 Vairocana.

鞞奢隸夜 v. 毘 Vaiśālī.

鞞婆尸 or 鞞婆沙 v. 毘 vibhāṣā.

鞞婆訶羅 (Eka)vyavahārika, tr. 一說部, a branch of the Māhāsaṅghika.

鞞室羅懣囊 v. 毘 Vaiśravaṇa.

鞞尼 v. 毘 vinaya.

鞞恕婆附 v. 毘 Viśvabhū.

鞞殺社 v. 藥 bhaiṣajya, healing, medical, remedial.

鞞沙門 v. 毘 Vaiśravaṇa.

鞞稠利夜 鞞頭梨 v. 毘, 吠 Vaiḍūrya.

鞞索迦 Vaiśākha, the second month of spring, i.e. Chinese second month 16th to the 3rd month 15th day; name of a wealthy patroness of Śākyamuni and his disciples.

鞞紐婆那 Veṇuvana, 竹林, a park near Rājagṛha, the Karaṇḍaveṇuvana, a favourite resort of Śākyamuni.

鞞舍 (鞞舍隸夜 or 鞞舍隸離) v. 毘 Vaiśālī.

鞞舍羅婆拏 v. 毘 Vaiśravaṇa.

鞞跋致 vaivartika; intp. by 退 to recede, fall back, backslide.

鞞陀 v. 韋 The Vedas.

鞞陀路婆 v. 毘 Vetāla.

鵂 ulūka, an owl.

鵂鶹 Ulūka, i.e. Kaṇāda, a celebrated philosopher, said to have lived "800 years" before Śākyamuni.

鴿 pārāvata; kapotaka; a dove, pigeon.

鴿園 A famous monastery said to be in Kashmir, the Kapotakasaṃghārāma, v. 迦布德迦.

點 To dot, touch, punctuate, light, nod; the stroke of a clock; to check off; a speck, dot, drop, etc.

點化 Touched into activity, or conversion.

點心 A snack, slight repast, not a proper meal.

點燈 To light a lamp.

點石 The stones nodded in approval (when 道生 Daosheng read the Nirvana Sutra).

齋 To reverence: abstinence; to purify as by fasting, or abstaining, e.g. from flesh food; religious or abstinential duties, or times; upavasatha (uposatha), a fast; the ritual period for food, i.e. before

noon; a room for meditation, a study, a building, etc., devoted to abstinence, chastity, or the Buddhist religion; mourning (for parents).

齋七 The seven periods of masses for the dead, during the seven sevens or forty-nine days after death.

齋主 The donor of monastic food.

齋僧 To provide a meal for monks.

齋堂 Abstinence hall, i.e. monastic dining-hall.

齋場 Similarly a dining-place.

齋席 A table of food for monks, or nuns.

齋戒 Purification, or abstinential rules, e. g. the eight prohibitions.

齋持 To observe the law of abstinence, i.e. food at the regulation times.

齋日 Days of offerings to the dead, ceremonial days.

齋時 The regulation hours for monastic meals, especially the midday meal, after which no food should be eaten.

齋月 The three special months of abstinence and care, the first, fifth, and ninth months.

齋會 An assembly of monks for chanting, with food provided.

齋法 The rule of not eating after noon; also the discipline of the order, or the establishment.

齋筵 Offerings of food to the triratna.

齋粥 The midday and morning meals, breakfast of rice or millet congee, dinner of vegetarian foods.

齋罷 齋退 Afternoon, i.e. after the midday meal.

齋鐘 齋鼓 The bell, or drum, calling to the midday meal.

齋食 The midday meal; not eating after noon; abstinential food, i.e. vegetarian food, excluding vegetables of strong odour, as garlic, or onions.


叢 A copse, grove, wood; crowded.

叢林 A thickly populated monastery; a monastery.

叢規 The rules of the establishment.

嚕 Translit. ru, rau.

嚕多 ruta, a loud sound, or voice.

嚕羅婆 The Raurava hell of crying and wailing.

戴 To wear (on the head); to bear, sustain.

戴塔 To have a pagoda represented on the head, as in certain images; a form of Maitreya, āryastūpa-mahāśrī, 戴塔吉祥; also applied to Guanyin, etc.

擲 To throw, throw away, reject.

擲惡人 To cast away, or reject, wicked men.

擲枳多 Chikdha, the modern Chitor, or Chittore, in Central India. Eitel.

uccheda; to cut off, end, get rid of, cause to cease; decide, decidedly.

斷七 The final seventh, i.e. the forty-ninth day of obsequies for the dead.

斷伏 To cut off and overcome.

斷和 To decide a dispute and cause harmony.

斷善根 To cut off, or destroy, roots of goodness.

斷善闡提 The icchanti, or outcast, who cannot attain buddhahood, i.e. a man of great wickedness; or, a bodhisattva who separates himself from buddhahood to save all beings.


斷屠 To prohibit the butchering of animals—on special occasions.

斷常 End or continuance, annihilation or permanence, death or immortality.

斷德 The power or virtue of bringing to an end all passion and illusion—one of the three powers of a buddha.

斷惑 To bring delusion to an end.

斷惡 To cut off evil, or wickedness.

斷末摩 marmacchid, to cut through, wound, or reach vital parts; cause to die.

斷滅 The heterodox teaching which denies the law of cause and effect, i.e. of karma.

斷結 To snap the bonds, i.e. of passion, etc.

斷肉 To forbid flesh; meat was permitted by the Buddha under the Hīnayāna cult, but forbidden in Mahāyāna under the bodhisattva cult, and also by Hīnayāna.

斷見 ucchedadarśana; the view that death ends life, in contrast with 常見 that body and soul are eternal—both views being heterodox; also world-extinction and the end of causation.

斷道 The stage in development when illusion is cut off.

斷頭罪 The "lop off the head" sins, i.e. adultery, stealing, killing, lying, sins which entail immediate exclusion from the order.

斷食 To fast; voluntarily to starve oneself.

旛 patākā, a flag, streamer. 旗旛Banners and flags, flags.

曜 Brilliant, shining. 七曜 The sun, moon, and five planets. 曜宿 These seven and the constellations, the celestial orbs.

櫈 A stool, bench, footstool, etc.

櫃 A counter, cupboard, bureau.

櫃頭 Bursar, storekeeper.

檳 The areca or betel-nut, i.e. 檳榔 pūga, the areca catechu, or betel-nut tree.

歸 Return to, give oneself up to; commit oneself to, surrender; cf. 三歸 śaraṇa-gamana.

歸仰 To turn to in expectancy or adoration, put trust in.

歸依 To turn to and rely on.

歸依佛 歸依法; 歸依僧 To commit oneself to the triratna, i.e. Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha; Buddha, his Truth and his Church.

歸俗 To return to lay life.

歸元 To return to one's origin, enter nirvana, i.e. to die; also 歸化; 歸寂; 歸本; 歸眞, etc.

歸入 To turn to and enter, e.g. a religion, church, society, etc.

歸命 南無 namas, namah, namo; to devote one's life (to the Buddha, etc.); to entrust one's life; to obey Buddha's teaching.

歸性 To turn from the world of phenomena to that of eternal reality, to devote oneself tot he spiritual rather than the material.

歸敬 To turn to in reverence, put one's trust in and worship.

瀉 To purge, drain.

瀉藥 Purgatives.

濾 To strain, filter.

濾水囊 濾羅 A filtering bag, or cloth; cf. 漉.

瀑 A torrent, cataract, cascade.

瀑流 A torrent, the stream of passion, or illusion.

獵 To hunt.

獵師 A hunter, e.g. a disguised person, a monk who wears the robe but breaks the commandments.

kumbha, a pitcher, jar, pot.

甕形 Jar-shaped, pot-shaped; kumbhāṇḍaka, v. 鳩.

瞻 To look up to, or for; revere, adore, expect, i.e. 瞻仰; translit. ca, ja.

瞻旬 (瞻旬迦) campa, campaka, a yellow fragrant flower, Michelia champaka; also 瞻波; 瞻婆; 瞻博 (瞻博迦); 睒婆; 占婆; 旃波迦, etc.

瞻波國 瞻博婆城The country and city of Campā, given by M.W. as "the modern Bhāgalpur or a place in its vicinity, founded by Campa"; by Eitel as "a district in the upper Pundjab".

瞻病 To examine a sick person medically.

瞻部 v. 閻 Jambudvīpa.

瞻風 To hope for the wind (of Buddha truth or aid).

瞿 The wary look of a bird, anxious; translit. ga, kau, gau, ko, go, gho, ku, gu; cf. 鳩, 倶, 仇, 拘, etc.

瞿伽尼 Godāna; Godāniya; Godhanya, also 瞿陀尼; 瞿耶尼; 劬伽尼; v. 牛 The continent west of Sumeru; also Aparagodāna.

瞿伽離 Gokālī; Kokālī; Kokāliya; Kokālika; 瞿迦離; 仇伽離; 倶伽離; 倶迦利, etc. The 智度論 1 says a follower of Devadatta who was sent to hell for accusing Śariputra and Maudgalyāyana of fornication. Eitel says "the parent of


瞿修羅 kuśūla is a place for grain, but is intp. as a nun's skirt, cf. 倶.

瞿夷 Gopā; Gopikā, a name of Yaśodharā, wife of Gautama and mother of Rāhula, cf. 憍 Gautamī; also 瞿毘耶; 瞿比迦; 瞿波; 瞿婆.

瞿室 M044209 伽 Gośṛṅga, cow's horn, a mountain near Khotan.


瞿師羅 Ghoṣira; 瞿私羅; 倶史羅; 劬史羅 name of the donor of the park of this name to Śākyamuni, "identified by Beal as Gopsahasa, a village near Kosam." Eitel.

瞿折羅 Gurjara, an ancient tribe and kingdom in Rajputana, which moved south and gave its name to Gujerat. Eitel.

瞿拏鉢剌婆 Guṇaprabha, of Parvata, who deserted the Mahāyāna for the Hīnayāna; author of many treatises. A fanciful account is given of his seeking Maitreya in his heavenly palace to solve his doubts, but Maitreya declined

because of the inquirer's self-sufficiency.

瞿摸怛羅 gomūtra, cow's urine.

瞿摩 (瞿摩夷) gomaya, cow-dung.

瞿摩帝 gomatī; abounding in herds of cattle. The river Gumti which "flows into the Ganges below Benares". Eitel. A monastery A.D. 400 in Khotan.

瞿曇 Gautama, the surname of Buddha's family; hence a name of Śākyamuni. Also 倶譚 or 具譚 later 喬答摩 q.v.

瞿曇仙 An ancient ṛṣi, said to be one of the founders of the clan.

瞿曇僧伽提婆 Gautama-saṅghadeva, a native of Kabul, tr. of some seven works, A.D. 383-398.

瞿曇彌 Gautamī, the feminine of Gautama, especially applied to the aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni, who is also known as Mahāprājapatī, v. 摩.

瞿曇留支 Gautama-prajñāruci, (瞿曇般若留支) or 瞿曇流支 (瞿曇般若流支) from Benares, tr. some eighteen works, A.D. 538-543.

瞿曇達磨闍那 瞿曇法智 Gautama-dharmajñāna, son of the last; tr. 582 a work on karma.

瞿枳羅 The kokila, or kalaviṅka bird, cf. 鳩.

瞿沙 ghoṣa, murmur; sound of voices, etc., noise, roar; tr. sound of speaking, and 妙音; 美音 beautiful voice or speech; name of a famous dialectician and preacher who is accredited with restoration of sight to

Dharmavivardhana, i.e. Kuṇāla, son of Aśoka, "by washing his eyes with the tears of people who were moved by his eloquence." Eitel. Also author of the Abhidharmāmṛta śāstra, which is called瞿沙經.

瞿波 idem 瞿夷.

瞿波羅 Gopalā, name of a nāga-king, of a yakṣa, and an arhat.

瞿盧折那 gorocanā, 瞿嚧者那, a bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of a cow.

瞿盧薩謗 said to be Grosapam, or Karsana, or Bhagārāma, the ārāma (garden or grove) of the god Bhaga, i. e. the capital of Kapiśā, cf. 迦.

瞿薩怛那 Kustana, i.e. Khotan, v. 于.

瞿那末底 Guṇamati, a native of Parvata, who lived at Valabhī, a noted antagonist of Brahmanism; his 隨相論 was tr. by Paramārtha A.D. 557-669.

瞿陀尼 v. 瞿伽尼.

禮 Worship, offerings, rites; ritual, ceremonial, decorum, courtesy, etiquette.

禮懺 Worship and repentance, penitential offering.

禮拜 vandana; or, when invoking the name of the object of worship, namas-kāra; to worship, pay reverence.

禮敬 To worship, reverence, pay respect.

穢 Foul, filthy, unclear, impure.

穢佉阿悉底迦 v. 塞 svastika.

穢土 穢刹; 穢國 This impure world, in contrast with the Pure Land.

穢業 Impure karma, one oft he 三業 q.v.

穢身 The impure or sinful body.

穢迹金剛 The vajra-ruler who controls unclean places.

穢食 Unclean, or contaminated food, e.g. left over, or used by the sick.

簡 A tablet, memorandum; to abridge; appoint; examine; abrupt, concise, direct.

簡別 To select, or differentiate.

繡 To embroider, embellish.

繡佛 Embroidered pictures of the Buddha, etc.

繡利密多 ? Sūryamitra, the sun-god.

繕 To repair, put in order, white out, copy.

繕摩末剌諵 janma-maraṇa, 生死 birth and death.

繕都 jantu, 衆生 all living being; also 禪豆; 繕頭; 繕兜.

繪 Silk pongee; an arrow, dart.

繪蓋 A large embroider canopy of silk.

繞 To wind round, go round.

繞佛 To go three times around the Buddha to his right in worship.

羂 pāśa. A noose, bird-net; to hang, or bind.

羂索 A noose, or net for catching birds; a symbol of Buddha-love in catching and saving the living.


翻 繙 To translate, interpret.

翻梵 To translate from Sanskrit.

翻經 To translate the scriptures.

翻譯 To translate, interpret.

翻譯名義集 Fan yi ming yi ji, a dictionary of Buddhist technical terms compiled by 法雲 Fayun circa A.D. 1150.

職 To record, oversee, direct; office, official duty.

職分 Duty, responsibility.

擧 To raise (a thing, matter, subject, etc.); conduct; the whole, all.

擧一蔽諸 To raise, or refer to, one point and include all others.

擧人 One who has taken his second degree, an M.A.

擧動 Conduct, movements.

擧家 The whole family.

舊 Old, ancient.

舊住 Formerly lived there, dwelt of old.

舊經 Old writings, or versions.

舊言 The vernacular language of Magadha, the country of South Behar, called Māgadhī Prākrit, cf. 巴利 Pali, which is the language of the Ceylon canon. The Ceylon Buddhists speak of it as Māgadhī, but that was quite a

different dialect from Pali.

舊譯 The older translations i.e. before the Tang dynasty; those of Xuanzang and afterwards are called the new.

藉 To rely on, avail oneself of.

藉通開導 (The two other schools 別 and 圓) depended on the Tong or Intermediate school for their evolution.

薰 A fragrant plant which expels noxious influences; vāsanā, perfume, fumigate, becloud.

薰習 Fumigation, influence, "perfuming"; defiling, the inter-perfuming of bhūtatathatā, v. 眞如, of ignorance (avidyā), of the empirical mind, and of the empirical world.

薰陸香 kunduruka, "the resin of the plant Boswellia thurifera." M.W.

藁 Straw.

藁幹 The farmer farms for grain, not for straw, but also gets the latter, a parable.

藍 Blue, indigo; translit. ram, lam.

藍勃羅 Lambura; Lambhara, a mountain north of Kabul.

藍婆 Lambā, name of a rākṣasī.

藍宇 A saṅghārāma, monastery, monastery-buildings.

藍摩 藍莫 Rāma; Rāmagrāma, an ancient kingdom and city of Northern India between Kapilavastu and Kuśinagara.

藍風 vairambhavāta, a hostile or fierce storm, v. 毘嵐.

藏 Treasury, thesaurus, store, to hide; the Canon. An intp. of piṭaka, a basket, box, granary, collection of writings. The 二藏 twofold canon may be the sutras and the vinaya; or the Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna scriptures. The

三藏 or tripiṭaka consists of the sutras, vinaya, and śāstras (abhidharma). The 四藏 fourfold canon adds a miscellaneous collection. The 五藏 fivefold collection is sutras, vinaya, abhidharma, miscellaneous, and

spells, or, instead of the spells, a bodhisattva collection. There is also an esoteric fivefold canon, the first three being the above, the last two being the prājñāpāramitā and the dhāraṇīs.

藏主 Librarian.

藏司 Library; librarian.

藏塵 The store of dust, i.e. the earthly body of Buddha, his nirmāṇakāya.

藏教 The Piṭaka, i.e. Tripiṭaka school, one of the four divisions 藏通別圓 as classified by Tiantai; it is the Hīnayāna school of the śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha type, based on the tripiṭaka and its four dogmas, with the

bodhisattva doctrine as an unimportant side issue. It is also subdivided into four others, 有 the reality of things, 空 their unreality, both and neither. The bodhisattva of the Piṭaka school is defined as undergoing seven

stages, beginning with the four dogmas and ending with complete enlightenment under the bodhi-tree.

藏殿 A library of the scriptures.

藏理 The tathāgatagarbha, or universal storehouse whence all truth comes.

藏經 The Canon, of which there are catalogues varying in number of contents, the first by Liang Wudi of 5,400 juan; the Kai Yuan Catalogue contained 5,048 juan. The oldest existing canon is believed to be the Korean with 6,467

juan; the Song canon has 5,714; the Yuan, 5,397; the Japanese, 665 covers; the Ming, 6,771 juan, reprinted in the Ching dynasty with supplement; and a new and much enlarged edition has recently been published in Shanghai,

and one in Tokyo; cf. 三藏 and 一切經.

藏識 The ālayavijñāna, the storehouse of all knowledge, the eighth of the vijñānas, cf. 阿 and 八.

藏通 The Zang and Tong schools as classified by Tiantai, v. above.

薩 A character introduced by the Buddhists, used as a translit. of sa sounds.

薩不荅 sapta, seven.

薩不荅羅的捺 saptaratna, the seven precious things, 七寳.

薩他泥濕伐羅 Sthāṇvīśvara, "a kingdom and city in Central India. The scene of the battle between the Pandus, ancl Kurus." The modern Thanesar.

薩利殺跛 sarṣapa, mustard-seed.

薩埵 sattva, being, existence, essence, nature, life, sense, consciousness, substance, any living or sentient being, etc. M.W. Tr. by 情 sentient, 有情 possessing sentience, feeling, or consciousness;

and by 衆生 all the living. Abbrev. for bodhisattva. Also 薩多婆; 薩怛嚩; 索埵, etc.


薩多琦梨 Name of a demon king, intp. as a deva of great strength or power.

薩婆 sarva, "all, every; whole entire, universal, complete." M.W.

薩婆吃隸奢 sarvakleśa, all the passions or afflictions.

薩婆多 (薩婆多部) sarvāstivāda, the doctrine that all things are real, the school of this name, v. 有 and 一切有.

薩婆悉多 薩婆悉達多; 薩婆曷剌他悉陀 sarvāthasiddha, sarvasiddhārtha, every object (or desire) attained, personal birthname of Śākyamuni; also 薩婆頞他悉陀; 薩縛頞他悉地; abbrev. to 悉達.

薩婆愼若提婆 sarvajñadeva, the omniscient deva, a title of a Buddha.

薩婆若 sarvajña, having complete knowledge, omniscience, the perfect knowledge attained by Śākyamuni on attaining buddhahood; also 薩婆若囊 or 薩婆若那 or 薩婆若多; 薩云若 or 薩云然; 薩藝然; 薩雲若; 薩伐若 or 薩栰若, etc.

薩婆迦摩 sarvakāma, all kinds of desires; fulfilling all wishes M.W.

薩婆阿私底婆拖 sarvāstivāda, v. above.

薩怛多般怛羅 A dhāraṇī, intp. as a large white canopy indicating the purity of the tathāgata-garbha.

薩縛達 Sarvada the all-giving, or all-abandoning, a name for the Buddha in a former incarnation.

薩羅 Sālva, Śālva, a country, a tribe "inhabiting Bhāratavarsha". M.W.

薩羅薩伐底 薩羅婆縛底; 薩羅酸底 Sarasvatī, "the goddess of speech and learning," interpretation of music and of rhetoric.

薩裒煞地 sarpauṣadhi, serpent-medicine, said to have been provided by (the Buddha when he was) Indra, as a python, in giving his flesh to feed the starving. A monastery in Udyāna built on the reputed spot. Also 薩裒施殺


薩跢也 satya, true, genuine, virtuous, etc., tr. 諦 a proved, or accepted, truth. Also 薩底也.

薩迦耶見 satkāya-darśana, the view of the reality of personality.

薩達喇摩 saddharma, the good, true, beautiful, or excellent law, tr. by 正法, the right, or correct law, or method; or by 妙法the wonderful law, or method, i.e. the 薩達磨芬陀利 (薩達磨芬陀利迦); 薩達磨奔荼利迦; 薩曇分陀利 saddharma-puṇḍarīka, the [[Lotus

Sutra]], v. 法華經 and 妙.

薩遮尼乾 (薩遮尼乾連陀), ? Jñāti Nirgrantha, v. 尼.

薩闍羅娑 sarjarasa; 薩折羅娑; resin of the Sal-tree, resin used as scent or incense.

薩陀波崙 sadāpralāpa; ever chattering, or bewailing, name of a bodhisattva, some say who wept while searching for truth. Also the常啼佛 ever-wailing buddha, name of the final buddha of the present kalpa.

蟣 likṣā, a nit; young louse, the egg of a louse; a minute measure of weight.

蟲 The animal kingdom including man, but generally applied to worms, snails, insects, etc.; also 蟲 6 q. v.

蟲食 To eat as do grubs, moth-eat, etc.

覆 To throw over, overthrow; prostrate; to and fro; repeated; to report; to cover.

覆諦 (覆俗諦) The unenlightened inversion of reality, common views of things.

覆器 Things for turning off, e.g. water, as tiles do; impermeable, resistant to teaching.

覆墓 To return to or visit a grave on the third day after interment.

覆帛 To throw a coverlet (over an image).

覆肩 To throw a robe over the shoulder.

覆講 To repeat a lesson to a teacher.

覆鉢 The inverted bowl at the top of a pagoda below the nine circles.

覆面 A veil for the face; to cover the face.

謦 To speak softly; to clear the throat. It is in contrast with 咳 to speak loudly, etc.; the two together indicate laughter.

謨 Plans, schemes; counterfeit, forge; translit. mo, mu.

謨薩羅 musalagarbha, v. 牟.

謨賀 moha, intp. as 痴 unconsciousness, delusion ignorance, foolishness, infatuation. M.W. It is used in the sense of unenlightenment, and is one of the three poisons 貪瞋痴, i.e. the ignorant,

unenlightened state which is deceived by appearances, taking the seeming for real. Also 幕何.

豐 Abundant.

豐財 Wealthy.


轉 vartana; pravartana; vṛtti. Turn, transform, revolve, evolve, change, the process of birth and rebirth; again, re-.

轉世 To return to this life.

轉大般若經 To turn over the leaves of and scan (for acquiring merit) the 600 juan of the complete prajñā-pāramitā; cf. 轉經.

轉女成男 To be transformed from, or transform, a female into a male.

轉廻 To return, revolve, be reborn; idem 輪廻.

轉教 To teach or preach through a deputy; to pass on the doctrine from one to another.

轉格欄 The circuit of the central Lhasa temple, made by prostrations every third step, to get rid of evils or obtain blessings.

轉梵輪 To turn the noble or pure wheel, idem 轉法.

轉法輪 To turn the dharma-cakra, or wheel of dharma, to preach, to teach, to explain the religion of Buddha.

轉法輪日 The day when the Buddha first preached, in the Deer Park, i.e. the eighth day of the eighth month.

轉法輪相 The sign of preaching, one of the eight signs that Śākyamuni was a buddha.

轉法輪菩薩 The preaching Bodhisattva, especially the Pāramitā (i.e. Prajñā) Bodhisattva.

轉物 To transform things, especially by supernatural power.

轉經 To recite a scripture; to scan a scripture by reading the beginning, middle, and end of each chapter; cf. 轉大. To roll or unroll a scripture roll. To copy a scripture. 轉藏; 轉讀 are similar in meaning.

轉識 (1) pravṛtti-vijñāna; knowledge or mind being stirred, the external world enters into consciousness, the second of the five processes of mental evolution in the 起信論. (2) The seven stages of knowledge

(vijñāna), other than the ālaya-vijñāna, of the 唯識論. (3) Knowledge which transmutes the common knowledge of this transmigration-world into buddha-knowledge.

轉變 pariṇāma; change, transform, evolve.

轉變無常 Change and impermanence.

轉輪 cakravartī, "a ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without hindrance." M.W. Revolving wheels; to turn a wheel: also 轉輪王 (轉輪聖王); 輪王; 轉輪聖帝, cf. 斫. The symbol is the cakra or disc, which is of four kinds

indicating the rank, i.e. gold, silver, copper, or iron, the iron cakravartī ruling over one continent, the south; the copper, over two, east and south: the silver, over three, east, west, and south; the golden being supreme over all

the four continents. The term is also applied to the gods over a universe, and to a buddha as universal spiritual king, and as preacher of the supreme doctrine. Only a cakravartī possesses the 七寳 saptaratna and

1, 000 sons. The cakra, or discus, is also a missile used by a cakravartī for overthrowing his enemies. Its origin is probably the sun with its myriad rays.

轉迷開悟 To reject the illusion of the transmigrational worlds and enter into nirvana-enlightenment.

醫 To heal.

醫子 The parable of the healing of his poisoned sons by the doctor in the Lotus Sutra.

醫方 A prescription.

醫王 The Buddha as healer of sufferings; also the Medicine King, v. 藥 19.

醫羅鉢呾邏 Elāpattra, the nāga- or dragon-king of this name: also a place in Taxila.

醧 A potation, or drinking: a secret or private drinking; private.

醧忘臺 The terrace of the potation of forgetfulness, e.g. the waters of Lethe. Also the birds, animals, fish, and creeping things about to be reincarnated as human beings are taken to this terrace and given the drink which

produces oblivion of the past.

鎭 To guard, protect, repress; a town with a guard, a market town.

鎭守 To protect, watch over.

鎭頭迦 tinduka, the Diospyros embryopteros, or glutinosa; tr. 柿 the persimmon; the 鎭頭迦羅 are two fruits, i.e. 鎭頭 and 迦羅, the former good, the latter poisonous.

鎧 Armour, mail. 鎧甲.

鎌 A sickle. 鎌子.

鎖 Lock, chain.

鎖匙 鎖錀 Lock and key; key.


闕 A city gate; a blank, deficiency, wanting, waning; imperial reserve.

闕文 A hiatus in a text.

雞 kukkuṭa, a cock, fowl, chicken, hen; translit. ku, ke, go.

雞園 Kukkuṭārāma, a monastery on the 雞足山 built by Aśoka; also called 雞頭摩寺 or 雞頭末寺; 雞雀寺.

雞毒 India, Hindu, idem 身毒.

雞狗戒 Cock or dog discipline, e.g. standing on one leg all day, or eating ordure, like certain ascetics.

雞胤部 The Gokulikas; Kukkulikas; Kukkuṭikas; Kaukkuṭikas; a branch of the Māhāsaṅghikas which early disappeared; also 窟居; 高拘梨訶; 憍矩胝.

雞薩羅 keśara, hair, mane (of a lion etc.), curly, name of a gem.

雞貴 Honouring, or reverencing the cock, said to be tr. of Kukkuteśvara, a name for Korea.

雞足山 Kukkuṭapāda, cock's foot mountain, in Magadha, on which Kāśyapa entered into nirvana, but where he is still supposed to be living; also雞峯; 雞嶺.

狼跡山 Wolf-track, or 尊足山 Buddha's foot mountain, Gurupada.

雛 A fledgling.

雛僧 A fledgling priest, neophyte.

雙 A pair, couple, twin; mates, matched.

雙木 雙林; 雙樹 Twin trees, the śāla-trees under which the Buddha entered nirvana.

雙持 The Yugaṃdhara, v. 踰.

雙流 The twin streams of teaching and mystic contemplation.

雙王 A term for Yama, v. 夜.

雙身 Twin-bodied, especially the two bodies of Vaiśramaṇa, v. 毘.

雜 Mixed, variegated, heterogeneous, hybrid, confused, disordered.

雜生界 The world of mixed dwellers, i.e. the five species 五趣, v. below; this or any similar world.

雜含 The Saṃyuktāgama, tr. by Guṇabhadra.

雜業 A world of varied karma.

雜染 All kinds of moral infection, the various causes of transmigration.

雜生世界 A world of various beings, i.e. that of the five destinies, hells, demons, animals, men, and devas.

雜華 (雜華經) A name for the Huayan Sutra.

雜藏 saṃyuktapiṭaka, the miscellaneous canon, at first said to relate to bodhisattvas, but it contains miscellaneous works of Indian and Chinese authors, collections made under the Ming dynasty and supplements of the

northern Chinese canon with their case marks from the southern canon.

額 The forehead; a fixed (number); suddenly; translit. a; v. 阿, 安, etc.

額上珠 The pearl on the forehead, e.g. the buddha-nature in every one.

題 Heading, theme, thesis, subject, text; to state, mention, refer to.

題目 A heading, theme, etc. 立題To set a subject, state a proposition.

騎 To ride, sit astride.

騎驢覓驢 To search for your ass while riding it, i.e. not to recognize the mind of Buddha in one's self.

uc4b9a Laṇkā. ? 迦 Ceylon, v. ?.

髀 The pelvic bones, the rump.

髀路波阿迄 Virūpākṣa, the western of the four Mahārājas, v. 毘.

鵝王 rāja-haṃsa, the king-goose, leader of the flight, i.e. Buddha, one of whose thirty-two marks is webbed hands and feet; also the walk of a buddha is dignified like that of the goose.

鵝王別乳 A king-goose is reputed to be able to absorb the milk from a mixture of milk and water, leaving the water behind, so with the bodhisattva and truth.

鵝眼 (鵝王眼) The eye of the king-goose, distinguishing milk from water, used for the eye of the truth-discerner.

黠 Smart, clever, intelligent.

黠慧 Worldly wisdom, cleverness, intelligence.


嚫 Translit. kṣi in dakṣiṇā, which means a donation, gift, e.g. 嚫施; 嚫物; 嚫財; 嚫資; 嚫金; 嚫錢 cf. 噠.

嚩 Translit. va, ba; cf. 縛; e.g. 嚩日羅 vajra.

嚩泥 v. 婆那 vana.

嚩盧枳諦 Avalokita, cf. 觀 to behold, see.

嚩嚕拏 Varuṇa, the deva of the sky, and of the waters, of the ocean, etc.

嚧 Translit. ru, ro, lṛ, lo, v. 廬.

壞 To go to ruin, decay, perish, destroy, spoil, worn out, rotten, bad.

壞劫 saṃvarta, v. 劫 7, the periodical gradual destruction of a universe, one of its four kalpas, i.e. 成 vivarta, formation; 住 vivarta-siddha; abiding, or existence; 壞 saṃvarta, decay, or destruction; 滅 saṃvarta-

siddha, final annihilation.

壞山 As the hills wear down, so is it with man.

壞法 Any process of destruction, or decay to burn the bones of a deceased person so that they may not draw him to rebirth.

壞相 The aspect, or state of destruction or decay.


壞色 kaṣāya, cf. 袈 a brown colour; but it is described as a neutral colour through the dyeing out of the other colours, i.e. for the monk's 壞色衣 or 壞衲 rag-robe.

壞苦 The suffering of decay, or destruction, e.g. of the body, reaction from joy, etc.

壞見 Corrupt, or bad views; the advocacy of total annihilation.

壞道 To destroy the truth, or the religion, e.g. by evil conduct.

壞驢車 A worn-out donkey cart; —i. e. Hīnayāna.

寳 v. 寶 20.

廬 A hut, shelter, hovel.

廬舍那 locana; illuminating; one of the forms of the trikāya, similar to the saṃbhogakayā. Also used for Vairocana, v. 毘.

懷 To carry in the bosom, mind, or heart; to embrace, cherish; the bosom.

懷兎 śaśa-dhara, i.e. the hare-bearer, or in Chinese the hare-embracer, moon.

懷靈 Spirit-enfolders, i.e. all conscious beings.

懶 Lazy, negligent, disinclined. 懶惰.

攀 To grasp, drag, pull, detain; climb, clamber.

攀緣 Something to lay hold of, a reality, cause, basis; used for 緣 q.v.

攀覺 Seizing and perceiving, like a monkey jumping from branch to branch, i.e. attracted by externals, unstable.

曠 Spacious, extensive; waste; wilderness; far, long, wide.

曠劫 A past kalpa; the part of a kalpa that is past.

曠野 A wilderness, wild, prairie.

爍 Bright, glistening, flashing, shining; translit. c, ś.

爍羯囉 Śakra, cf. 賒; 釋 name of Indra.

爍覩嚧 cf. 說 śatru, enemy, a demon.

爍迦羅 cakra, a wheel, cf. 斫.

犢 vatsa; a calf, young animal, offspring, child.

犢子 Vatsa, the founder of the犢子部, Vātsīputrīyas (Pali Vajjiputtakas), one of the main divisions of the Sarvāstivāda (Vaibhāṣika) school; they were considered schismatics through their insistence on the reality of the ego;

"their failure in points of discipline," etc.; the vinaya as taught by this school "has never reached China". Eitel. For other forms of Vātsīputrīya, v. 跋私; also 婆 and 佛.

獸 An animal, a brute.

獸主 Paśupati, lord of the animals, or herds; Śiva; also name of a non-Buddhist sect. Cf. 畜生 10.

瓣 A section, or division (of a melon).

瓣香 Incense with sections resembling a melon.

kumbha, a pitcher, jar, pot.

甕形 Jar-shaped, kumbhāṇḍaka, v. 鳩.

癡 v. 痴 13.

礙 A stumbling-block; hindrance; cf. 障.

簸 A winnowing fan; to winnow.

簸臈復多 prabhūta, abundant, numerous; a yakṣa.

簸利婆羅闍迦 Parivrājaka, a Śivaitic sect; v. 般.

簿 Notebook, register, etc.

簿旬羅 or簿拘羅 Vakula, an intelligent disciple of Śākyamuni. A demon.

繩 String, cord.

繩床 A string-bed.

繫 To fasten, attach to, connect; think of, be attached to, fix the thoughts on.

繫念 To fix the mind, attention, or thought on.

繫珠 A pearl fastened in a man's garment, yet he, in ignorance of it, is a beggar.

繫縛 To fasten, tie; tied to, e.g. things, or the passions; 繫緣 and 繫著 are similar.

羆 A bear.

羆菩薩 The bodhisattva who appeared as a bear and saved a dying man by providing him with food; he told hunters of its lair; they killed it, gave him of its flesh, and he died.

羅 A net (for catching birds), gauze, open work; sieve; to arrange in order; translit. la and ra sounds, e.g. 南羅 S. Lāra; Lāḍa; Lāṭa, in Gujarāt; 北羅 N. Lāra, Valabhī, on the western coast of Gujarāt.

羅刹 (羅刹姿) rākṣasa, also羅叉娑; from rakṣas, harm, injuring. Malignant spirits, demons; sometimes considered inferior to yakṣas, sometimes similar. Their place of abode was Laṅkā in Ceylon, where they are described as the original

inhabitants, anthropophagi, once the terror of shipwrecked mariners; also described as the barbarian races of ancient India. As demons they are described as terrifying, with black bodies, red hair, green eyes,

devourers of men.

羅刹私 rākṣasī, also羅叉私; 羅刹斯; 羅刹女 Female demons, of whom the names of eight, ten, and twelve are given, and 500 are also mentioned.


羅刹天 The deva controlling these demons, who has his abode in the southwest corner of the heavens.

羅刹國 An island in the Indian Ocean, supposed to be Ceylon.

羅刹羅 akṣara, a syllable, word, letter.

羅十 Kumārajīva, also 羅什; v. 鳩.

羅婆 lava, also 羅預 A division of time, an instant.

羅婆那 Rāvana, king of Ceylon and ruler of the rākṣasas, overcome by Rāmacandra, v. the Rāmāyaṇa.

羅惹 rājan, rāja; king, sovereign, ruler.

羅摩 rāma, delightful, joyful; also the name of a grove, perhaps ārāma, a pleasaunce, garden.

羅摩伽 is tr. as 入法界 entering the realm of the law.

羅摩印度 Helmend a river rising in Afghanistan.

羅縠 A gauze-like ethereal garment.

羅漢 arhan, arhat; worthy, worshipful, an arhat, the saint, or perfect man of Hīnayāna; the sixteen, eighteen, or 500 famous disciples appointed to witness to buddha-truth and save the world; v. 阿.

羅睺 Rāhu, also羅護; 羅虎; "the demon who is supposed to seize the sun and moon and thus cause eclipses." M.W.

羅睺羅 Rāhula, the eldest son of Śākyamuni and Yaśodharā; also羅睺; 羅吼; 羅云; 羅雲; 曷怙羅 or 何怙羅 or 羅怙羅. He is supposed to have been in the womb for six years and born when his father attained buddhahood; also said to have been born

during an eclipse, and thus acquired his name, though it is defined in other ways; his father did not see him till he was six years old. He became a disciple of the Hīnayāna, but is said to have become a Mahāyānist when his father

preached this final perfect doctrine, a statement gainsaid by his being recognized as founder of the Vaibhāṣika school. He is to be reborn as the eldest son of every buddha, hence is sometimes called the son of Ā


羅睺羅多 Rāhulatta, of Kapila, the sixteenth Patriarch, "who miraculously transported himself to the kingdom of Śrāvastī, where he saw on the Hiraṇyavatī the shadow of five Buddhas"; a sage, Saṅghanandi, was there in

meditation and him he appointed as his successor.

羅睺阿修羅 Rāhu-asura, the asura who in fighting with Indra can seize sun and moon, i.e. cause eclipses.

羅被那 ravaṇa, clamorous, demanding.

羅誐 rāga, desire, covetousness.

羅越 Rājagṛha, v. 羅閱.

羅門 brāhmaṇa, v. 婆羅門.

羅閱 Rājagṛha, also 羅閱祇 (羅閱祇迦羅); 羅閱耆; 羅閱揭黎醯; 羅越; 囉惹訖哩呬 The capital of Magadha, at the foot of the Gṛdhrakūṭa mountain, first metropolis of Buddhism and seat of the first synod; v. 王舍.

羅陀 (羅陀那) ratna, anything precious, a gem, etc.; also 羅怛那 or 羅怛曩 or 羅怛囊. Cf. 寳 and 七寳.

羅齋 To collect contributions of food; an almsbowl.

臘 Dried flesh; to sacrifice to the gods three days after the winter solstice; the end of the year; a year; a monastic year, i.e. the end of the annual summer retreat, also called 戒臘; 夏臘; 法臘.

臘八 The 8th day of the last month of the year, the 8th of the 12th month, the day of the Buddha's enlightenment.

臘次 In order of years, i.e. of ordination.

臘伐尼 v. 嵐. Lumbinī.

臘佛 The offerings to Buddha after the summer retreat, maintained on the 15th day of the 7th month; also All Souls' Day, v. 盂 8; the臘餠 annual cakes are then offered and eaten.

臘縛 lava, a brief time; the 900th part of a day and night, or 1 minute 36 seconds.

藕 The water-lily root, arrowroot.

藕絲 Lily-root fibres.

藪 A marsh, reserve, retreat, refuge, lair: translit. s, su.

藪斗婆 v. 塔 13 stūpa.

藪達梨舍菟 Sudarśana, the fourth circle round Meru, cf. 蘇 20.

藤 Creepers, canes.

藤蛇 Seeing a cane and thinking it a snake.

Medicine, chemicals.

藥上菩薩 Bhaiṣajyasamudgata, bodhisattva of healing, he whose office, together with his brother, is to heal the sick. He is described as the younger of two brothers, the elder of whom is the 藥王 below.

藥叉 yakṣa; also 藥乞叉 v. 夜.


藥師 Bhaiṣajya-guru-vaiḍūrya-prabhāṣa; 藥師璢璃光如來; 大醫王佛; 醫王善逝, etc. The Buddha of Medicine, who heals all diseases, including the disease of ignorance. His image is often at the left of Śākyamuni Buddha's, and he is

associated with the east. The history of this personification is not yet known, but cf. the chapter on the 藥王 in the Lotus Sutra. There are several sutras relating to him, the藥王璢璃光, etc., tr. by Xuanzang circa A.D. 650, and

others. There are shrines of the 藥王三尊 the three honoured doctors, with Yaoshi in the middle and as assistants 日光邊照 the Bodhisattva Sunlight everywhere shining on his right and 月光邊照 the Bodhisattva Moonlight, etc., on his

left. The 藥王七佛 seven healing Buddhas are also all in the east. There are also the 藥王十二神將 twelve spiritual generals or protectors of Yaoshi, for guarding his worshippers.

藥王十二誓願 The twelve vows of the Buddha of Medicine are: (1) To shine upon all beings with his light; (2) to reveal his great power to all beings; (3) to fulfil the desires of all beings; (4) to cause all

beings to enter the Great Vehicle; (5) to enable all beings to observe all the moral laws; (6) to heal all those whose senses are imperfect; (7) to remove all diseases and give perfect health of body and mind and

bring all to perfect enlightenment; (8) to transform women into men (in the next rebirth); (9) to enable all beings to escape false doctrines and bonds and attain to truth; (10) to enable all beings to escape evil

kalpas, etc.; (11) to give superior food to the hungry; (12) and wonderful garments to the naked.

藥王菩薩 Bhaiṣajya-rāja Bodhisattva, the elder of the two brothers, who was the first to decide on his career as bodhisattva of healing, and led his younger brother to adopt the same course; see above. They are also styled

Pure-eyed and Pure-treasury, which may indicate diagnosis and treatment. He is referred to in the Lotus Sutra as offering his arms as a brunt sacrifice to his Buddha.

藥王樹 藥樹王 The king of healing herbs and trees.

藥樹王身 The body or form which is taken by this bodhisattva at any time for healing the sick.

藥草 Medicine, herbs.

蟻 Ant.

蟻術 The duty and mode of saving the lives of ants.

譏 Ridicule, jeer at; inspect.

譏嫌 To hold in contempt; to satirize.

譚 Gossip, talk; to boast.

譚婆 Translit. of a term defined as eaters of dog's flesh.

證 To prove, witness to, testify, substantiate, attain to; evidence; experience; realize; assurance, conviction; v. 阿 abhisaṃbuddha.

證入 Experiential entry into buddha-truth, (1) partial, as in Hīnayāna and the earlier Mahāyāna; (2) complete, as in the perfect school of Mahāyāna.

證得 To realize, to attain truth by personal experience.

證大菩提 To experience, attain to, realize, or prove, perfect enlightenment.

證德 Attainment of virtue, or spiritual power, through the four dogmas, twelve nidānas and six pāramitās, in the Hīnayāna and Madhyamayāna.

證悟 Mystic insight; conviction by thinking, realization, to prove and ponder.

證明 To prove clearly, have the clear witness within.

證智 adhigamavābodha. Experiential knowledge; realization; the attainment of truth by the bodhisattva in the first stage.

證果 The fruits or rewards of the various stages of attainment.

證覺 To prove and perceive, to know by experience.

證道 The way of (mystic) experience; to witness to the truth.

教證 The two ways of learning, by teaching or experience.

識 vijñāna, "the art of distinguishing, or perceiving, or recognizing, discerning, understanding, comprehending, distinction, intelligence, knowledge, science, learning . . . wisdom." M.W. parijñāna,

"perception, thorough knowledge," etc. M.W. It is intp. by 心 the mind, mental discernment, perception, in contrast with the object discerned; also by 了別 understanding and discrimination. There are

classifications of 一識 that all things are the one mind, or are metaphysical; 二識 q. v. discriminating the ālaya-vijñāna or primal undivided condition from the mano-vijñāna or that of discrimination; 三識 in the

Laṅkāvatāra Sutra, fundamental, manifested and discriminate; 五識 q.v. in the 起信論, i.e. 業, 轉, 現, 知, and 相續識; 六識 the perceptions and discernings of the six organs of sense; also of 8, 9, 10, and 11 識. The most important is

the eight of the 起信論, i.e. the perceptions of the six organs of sense, eye, ear, nose, tongue, body (or touch), and mind, together with manas, intp. as 意識 the consciousness of the

previous moment, on which the other six depend; the eighth is the ālaya-vijñāna, v. 阿賴耶, in which is contained the seed or stock of all phenomena and which 無沒 loses none, or nothing, is indestructible; a substitute for the

seventh is ādāna 'receiving' of the 唯識, which is intp. as 無解 undiscriminated, or indefinite perception; there is a difference of view between the 相 and the 性 schools in regard to the seventh and eight 識; and the latter

school add a ninth called the amala, or pure vijñāna, i.e. the non-phenomenal 眞如識. The esoterics add that all phenomena are mental and all things are the one mind, hence the one mind is 無量識 unlimited

mind or knowledge, every kind of knowledge, or omniscience. vijñāna is one of the twelve nidānas.


識主 The lord of the intellect, the mind, the ālaya-vijñāna as discriminator.

識住 That on which perception, or mind, is dependent; the four 識住are phenomenon, receptivity, cognition, and reaction; a further category of seven 識住 is divided into phenomenal and supra-phenomenal.

識宿命通 pūrva-nivāsānusmṛti-jñāna; knowledge of all forms of previous existence of oneself and others.

識幻 The illusion of perception, or mind.

識心 The perceptive mind.

識浪 The waves or nodes of particularized discernment, produced on the bhūtatathatā considered as the sea of mind.

識海 The ocean of mind, i.e. the bhūtatathatā as the store of all mind.

識無處邊 The brahmaloka of limitless knowledge or perception, v. 四空天 or 四空處 and 識處天. 識無處邊定 The dhyāna corresponding to it. 識無處邊解脫 The vimokṣa, or liberation from it to a higher stage.

識牛 Intellect the motive power of the body, as the ox is of the cart.

識界 vijñāna-dhātu, the elements of consciousness, the realm of mind, the sphere of mind, mind as a distinct realm.

識精 Pure or correct discernment or knowledge; the essence of mind.

識藏 The storehouse of mind, or discernment, the ālaya-vijñāna whence all intelligence or discrimination comes.

識蘊 vijñāna-skandha, one of the five aggregates or attributes.

識處天 The heaven of (limitless) knowledge, the second of the caturārūpyabrahmalokas, or four formless heavens, also see below.

識處定 The dhyāna, or abstract state, which corresponds to the above.

識變 Mental changes, i.e. all transformations, or phenomenal changes, are mental, a term of the 法相 school.

識食 Spiritual food, mental food, by which are kept alive the devas of the formless realms and the dwellers in the hells.

贊 To assist.

贊寧 Zanning, a learned Sung monk of the tenth century, author of many works, e.g. 宋高僧傳 the biographies of noted monks.

贊那曩 candana, sandal-wood incense.

贈 A present (at parting), a souvenir; posthumous honours; a title patent.

贈五重 A service of the Pure-land sect, consisting of five esoteric rituals, for admitting the deceased into the lineage of the Buddha to ensure his welfare in the next life.

贈別夜 The night (of ceremony) before a funeral.

辭 A phrase, words, language; to decline, resign.

辭無礙智 Unhindered knowledge of all languages or terms.

邊 A side, edge, margin, border.

邊地 The countries bordering on Jambudvīpa. The border land to Amitābha's Pure Land, where the lax and haughty, cf. 懈慢, are detained for 500 years, also called 胎宮 womb-palace and 邊界 border-realm.

邊州 The countries bordering on, or outside of India.

邊獄 The side hells, or Lokāntarika hells.

邊罪 Sins of expulsion from the order, i.e. sexual intercourse, killing, stealing, lying.

邊見 邊執見 The two extreme views of annihilation and personal immortality.

邊際 Utmost limit, ultimate, final.

邊際智 The perfect wisdom of a bodhisattva who has attained complete enlightenment.

醮 Libations or offerings, especially to ancestors; the offerings of All Souls' Day v. 盂 8; emptied, finished.

醯 Pickle. Translit. hi, he, hai.

醯兜婆拖部 Hetuvādapūrva Sthavirāḥ, the first school of the sthavirās treating of causality, or hetuvāda, the 因論 school; it was a subdivision of the Sarvastivādāḥ.

醯摩嚩多 醯摩跋陀 A ruler of the Himalayas, in the retinue of Vaiśravaṇa, v. 毘.


醯摩嚩多部 Haimavatāḥ, school of the snow mountains, "a schismatic philosophical school, one of the five subdivisions" of the Māhāsaṅghikāḥ. Eitel.

醯羅 Hiḍḍa, five miles south of Jellālabad. Eitel.

醯都 hetu, a cause, logical reason.

醯都費陀 hetuvidyā, 因明, logic.

醯都鉢羅底也 hetupratyaya, primary and secondary cause.

鏡 ādarśa. A mirror.

鏡像 The image in a mirror, i.e. the transient.

鏡谷 Mirror and gully, reflection and echo, i.e. the response of the buddhas to prayers.

鏧 A metal chime.

關 To shut, a closed place, barrier, frontier; to include, concern, involve.

關帝 Guandi, the god of War, a deified hero of the Three Kingdoms, a protector of Buddhism.

難 Difficult, hard; distress, adversity; opposite of 易 easy; translit. nan, nam.

難伏 Hard to subdue, or submit; unconquerable.

難入 Hard to enter, or attain.

難勝 Hard to overcome, or be overcome; unconquerable; the fifth of the ten bodhisattva 地 stages when all passion and illusion is overcome and understanding of all things attained.

難化 Difficult of conversion, or transformation.

難度 Hard to cross over, to save or be saved.

難度海 The ocean hard to cross, the sea of life and death, or mortality.

難思 Hard to think of, hard to realize, incredible.

難拏 daṇḍa, 檀難; a club, mace, Yama's symbol.

難提 Nandi, "the happy one," name of Viṣṇu, Śiva, and of a Buddhist monk; also said to be a term for stūpa.

難提迦 Nandika, brother of 調達 Devadatta.

難提迦物多 nandikāvarta; nandyāvarta; joyous, or auspicious turning; defined as turning to the right, i.e. curling as a Buddha's hair.

難有 Hard to have, similar to 希有, rare.

難陀 難陁 nanda, "happiness, pleasure, joy, felicity." M.W. Name of disciples not easy to discriminate; one is called Cowherd Nanda, an arhat; another Sundarananda, to distinguish him from Ānanda, and the

above; also, of a milkman who gave Śākyamuni milk; of a poor woman who could only offer a cash to buy oil for a lamp to Buddha; of a nāga king; etc.

難陀跋難陀 Nanda Upananda, two nāga brothers, who protected Magadha.

離 To leave, part from, apart from. abandon; translit. li, le, r, re, rai.

離佉 likh, to write; lekha, writings, documents.

離垢 To leave the impure, abandon the defiling influence of the passions, or illusion.

離垢世界 The world free from impurity, the name of Śāriputra's buddha-realm.

離垢地 The second of the ten bodhisattva stages in which he overcomes all passion and impurity.

離垢眼 To abandon the eye of impurity, or contamination, and attain the eye which beholds truth and reality.

離塵服 The monk's robe, or kaṣāya, freed from the dusty world, i.e. freed from the contamination of the senses.

離婆多 離波多; 離越; 離曰; 梨婆多 Revata; one of the twenty-eight Indian constellations, corresponding with 室 the 'house', (a) Markab, (b) Scheat, Pegasus; name of a disciple of Śākyamuni; of the leader of the second synod; of a

member of the third synod; cf. 頡.

離微 Apart from all the phenomenal; li is intp. as spirit, wei as its subtle, mysterious functioning; li is also intp. as nirvana in character, wei as prajñā , or intelligence, knowledge, [[Wikipedia:



離性無別佛 Apart from mind, or the soul, there is no other Buddha, i.e. the 性 is Buddha.

離染服 The monk's robe which separates him from contamination; also the nun's.

離欲 To leave, or be free from desire, or the passions.

離生 To leave the chain of rebirth.

離生性 The true nature of the holy man which leaves the round of mortality.

離生喜樂地 The first dhyāna heaven, where is experienced the joy of leaving the evils of life.

離相 One of the 三相 q.v.

離相戒 無相戒 The inner commands, or observance in the heart, in contrast with external observance or ritual.

離繫子 The Nirgrantha sect of naked devotees who abandoned all ties and forms.

離蓋 To abandon the 五蓋 q.v. five obscurers, or hindrances to truth.

離言 That which cannot be described in words, e.g. the bhūtatathatā, which is beyond definition.

離車 (離車毘); 離奢; 利車; 梨車毘; 隸車; 黎昌; 栗唱; 栗呫婆 or 栗呫毘. Licchavi, the kṣatriyas who formed the republic of Vaiśālī, and were "among the earliest followers of Śākyamuni". Eitel. The term is intp. as 皮薄 thin-skinned, or 豪 heroic, etc.

離間語 Talk which causes estrangement between friends; alienating words; one of the ten wicked things.

類 Class, species; to classify.

類智 Knowledge which is of the same order, e.g. the four fundamental dogmas (四諦 or 法智) applicable on earth which are also extended to the higher realms of form and non-form and are called 類智.

顚 Overturn, upset, upside down; the forehead, top.

顚倒 viparyaya; error. Upside down, inverted; contrary to reality; to believe things to be as they seem to be, e.g. the impermanent to be permanent, the apparent ego to be real; cf. 七 and八顚倒.

顚倒忘想 Upside-down and delusive ideas.


願 praṇihita; praṇidhāna; resolve, will, desire, cf. 誓.

願主 The original resolve in a previous existence which incites a man to build a pagoda, copy a sutra, etc., leading him to become Buddha or reach the Pure Land.

願佛 A Buddha of the vow, who passes through the eight forms of an incarnate Buddha, v. 八相.

願作 Resolve to be or become, e.g. 願作佛 resolve to become Buddha.

願力 The power of the vow.

願土 The land of the vow, the Pure Land of Amitābha.

願度 Salvation through trust in the vow e.g. of Amitābha.

願心 The heart of resolve (of Buddha to save all beings).

願智 Wisdom resulting from the vow.

願波羅蜜 The vow pāramitās, the eighth of the ten pāramitās, a bodhisattva's vow to attain bodhi, and save all beings to the other shore.

願海 The bodhisattva vow is deep and wide like the ocean.

願船 The Amitābha's vow likened to a boat which ferries all beings to his Pure Land.

願行 To vow and perform the discipline the vow involves.

願身 The resolve of a Buddha to be born in the Tuṣita heaven for the work of saving all beings, also idem願佛 above.

願輪 The vow-wheel, which overcomes all opposition; also the revolving of the bodhisattva's life around his vow.

願食 Vow-food; to nourish the life by the vow, and thus have strength to fulfil its duties.

鯨 A whale.

鯨魚 makara, sea-monster, whale.

鯨音 A reverberating sound, like that of a bell, or gong.

鵲 A magpie; jay, daw.

鵲巢 A magpie's nest, sometimes applied to a place of meditation.

鵲園 Magpie garden, applied to the Veṇuvana, v. 竹林.

麗 Elegant, beautiful; to display.

麗塔 An elegant pagoda.

麗M012278 毘 Licchavi, v. 離, 梨.

麗藏 The Korean tripiṭaka.

高麗 Korea.


勸 To exhort, persuade, admonish.

勸化 To exhort to conversion, to convert.

勸發 To exhort to start (in the Buddhist way).

勸誡 Exhortation and prohibition; to exhort and admonish; exhort to be good and forbid the doing of evil.

勸轉 The second, or exhortation turn of the Buddha's wheel, v. 三轉法輪, men must know the meaning and cause of suffering, cut off its accumulation, realize that it may be extinguished, and follow the eightfold path to


勸門 The method of exhortation or persuasion, in contrast with prohibition or command.

嚴 Commanding, strict, awe-inspiring, glorious. For 華嚴 v. Twelve Strokes.

嚴淨 Glorious and pure, gloriously pure.

嚴王 i.e. 妙莊王 in the Lotus Sutra.

嚴飾 Gloriously adorned.

孽 Retribution; an illicit son; son of a concubine.

罪孽 Sins, crimes.

ratna, precious, a treasure, gem, pearl, anything valuable; for saptaratna v. 七寶. Also maṇi, a pearl, gem.

寶乘 The precious vehicle of the Lotus Sutra; the Mahāyāna.

寶光天子 Precious light deva, Sūrya-deva, the sun-prince, a manifestation of Guanyin.

寶光明池 A lake in Magadha, where the Buddha is said to have preached.

寶典 The precious records, or scriptures.

寶刹 The precious kṣetra, or Buddha-realm; a monastery.

寶勝 Ratnaketu, one of the seven tathāgatas; also said to be a name for 寶生 q.v.

寶印 Precious seal, or symbol. (1) The second of the triratna, i.e. 法寶. (2) The three evidences of the genuineness of a sutra, v. 三法印. (3) The symbols of buddhas, or bodhisattvas. (4) Their magical 種子, i.e. germ-

letters, or sounds.

寶印三昧 The ratnamudrāsamādhi, in which are realized the unreality of the ego, the impermanence of all things, and nirvana.

寶吉祥天 deva of the precious omen, i.e. Candradeva, deva of the moon, a manifestation of Mahāsthāmaprāpta.

寶國 Precious country, the Pure Land.

寶坊 Precious place, or the abode of the triratna, a monastery.

大寶坊 The place between the desire-world and the form-world where Buddha expounded the 大集經.


寶城 The city full of precious things, in the Nirvana Sutra, i.e. the teaching of the Buddha.

寶塔 A stupa, or fane for precious things, or relics; a pagoda adorned with gems; the shrine of 多寶 Prabhūtaratna in the Lotus Sutra.

寶女 kanyā-ratna; precious maidens, one of the seven treasures of the cakravartin; also 玉女.

寶幢 ratnadhvaja; a banner decorated with gems. A deva in the Tuṣita heaven who presides over music.

寶性 The precious nature, or tathāgatagarbha, underlying all phenomena, always pure despite phenomenal conditions.

寶悉底迦 The precious svastika, or sign on Buddha's breast.

寶手 Precious hand, the hand which gives alms and precious things.

寶所 The place of precious things, i.e. the perfect nirvana.

寶林 The groves, or avenues of precious trees (in the Pure Land). The monastery of Huineng, sixth patriarch of the Chan sect, in 韶州典江縣 Dianjiang Xian, Shaozhou, Guangdong, cf. 慧 15. The 寶林傳 and supplement contain

the teachings of this school.

寶樹 The jewel-trees (of the Pure Land).

寶池 The precious lake of the eight virtuous characteristics in the Pure Land.

寶沙麽洗 pauṣamāsa, the tenth Indian month, "beginning on the 16th day of the 12th Chinese month." Eitel.

寶洲 The precious continent, or wonderful land of a Buddha.

寶渚 ratnadvīpa; precious islet, island of pearls or gems; synonym for perfect nirvana; also an old name for Ceylon. (Eitel.)

寶王 The Precious King, or King of Treasures, a title of Buddha; the ruler of the continent west of Sumeru, also called 寶主 Jewel-lord, or Lord of jewels.

寶王三昧 The King of Treasures samādhi, achieved by fixing the mind on Buddha.

寶珠 maṇi, a precious pearl, or gem; a talisman; a symbol of Śāriputra.

寶甁 kuṇḍikā, a precious vase, vessels used in worship; a baptismal vase used by the esoteric sects for pouring water on the head.

寶生 Ratnasaṃbhava, one of the five dhyāni-buddhas, the central figure in the southern 'diamond' maṇḍala, The realm of Subhūti on his becoming Buddha.

寶界 The saptaratna realm of every buddha, his Pure Land.

寶相 The precious likeness, or image (of Buddha). ratnaketu, one of the seven tathāgatas; a name of Ānanda as a future buddha; the name under which 2,000 of Śākyamuni's disciples are to be reborn as buddhas.

寶積 ratna-rāśi, or ratna-kūṭa. Gem-heap; collection of gems; accumulated treasures.

寶積三昧 The samādhi by which the origin and end of an things are seen.

寶積佛 Buddha adorned with heaps of treasures, i.e. powers, truths, etc.

寶積經 v. 大寶積經.

寶積長者子 The sons of the elders of Vaiśālī, who are said to have offered canopies of the seven precious things to Śākyamuni in praise of his teaching.

寶筏 The precious raft of buddha-truth, which ferries over the sea of mortality to nirvana.

寶篋 ratna-piṭaka, or ratna-karaṇḍaka; a precious box, or box of precious things.

寶網 Indra's net of gems; also 帝網; 因陀羅網.

寶聚 Jewel-collection; a collection of precious things, e.g. the Buddhist religion.


寶華 Precious flowers, deva-flowers.

寶蓋 A canopy above an image or dais, decorated with gems.

寶藏 The treasury of precious things, the wonderful religion of Buddha.

寶藏如來 Ratnagarha; a Buddha to whom Śākyamuni and Amitābha are said to have owed their awakening.

寶處三昧 The samādhi of the precious place, the ecstatic trance of Śākyamuni by which he dispensed powers and riches to all beings.

寶號 Precious name or title, especially that of buddhas and bodhisattvas.

寶車 The precious cart (in the Lotus Sutra), i.e. the one vehicle, the Mahāyāna.

寶鐸 Bells hung on pagodas, etc.; also 風鐸; 簷鐸.

寶陀巖 Potalaka, the abode of Guanyin, v. 補.

寶雲 Baoyun, a monk of 涼州 Liangzhou, who travelled to India, circa A.D. 397, returned to Chang'an, and died 449 aged 74.

懸 Suspend, hang.

懸曠 Hanging and widespread, e.g. sun and sky, the mystery and extensiveness (or all-embracing character of buddha-truth).

懸記 Prophecy; to prophecy.

懸談 A foreword, or introduction, to be a discourse on a scripture, outlining the main ideas; also 玄懸.

懺 kṣamayati, "to ask pardon"; to seek forgiveness, patience or indulgence, kṣamā meaning patience, forbearance, tr. as 悔過 repentance, or regret or error; also as confession. It especially refers to the

regular confessional service for monks and for nuns.

懺儀 The rules for confession and pardon.

懺悔 chan is the translit. of kṣamā, 悔 its translation, i.e. repentance; but also the first is intp. as confession, cf. 提 deśanā, the second as repentance and reform.

懺摩 叉磨 kṣama, kṣamayati, see above; to forbear, have patience with; ask for consideration, or pardon.

懺摩衣 Clothing made of kṣauma, i.e. wild flax.

懺法 The mode of action, or ritual, at the confessional; also the various types of confessional, e.g. that of Guanyin, Amitābha, etc.

懺除 Confession and forgiveness.

爐 A stove, fireplace, censer.

爐壇 A fire-altar.

獻 To offer up, present.

爐身 To offer up one's body as a sacrifice.

獮 markaṭa, 獮猴 a monkey, typical of the mind of illusion, pictured as trying to pluck the moon out of the water; also of the five desires; of foolishness; of restlessness.

獮猴地 獮猴江 The place in Vaiśālī where Buddha preached.

癢 To itch.

癢和子 A back-scratcher; a term for 如意, a ceremonial sceptre, a talisman.

竸 To wrangle, emulate.

竸伽 v. 恒河. Gaṅgā, the Ganges.

竸伽河門 Gaṅgādvāra, the gate of the Ganges. "A famous devālaya, the object of pilgrimages, the present Hurdwar," or Haridwar. Eitel.

籌 To calculate, devise, plan; a tally.

籌量 Reckoning, to reckon and measure.

繼 To continue, inherit, adopt, 相繼; 繼嗣.

辮 To plait, a plait, queue.

辮髮 To plait the hair.

臛臛婆 The third of the cold hells, where the sinner's tongue is so cold that he can only utter the word hehepo or apapa. Also 嚯嚯婆, 阿波波.

藹 Luxuriant, graceful; translit. ai.

藹吉 (藹吉支) v. 毘; idem vetāla.

藹羅筏拏 Airāvaṇa, a king of the nāgas; Indra's elephant; also Elāpattra, v. 伊.

藿 Greens, bean-stalks, etc.; bishopwort, a kind of mint; the tamāla, 多摩羅 (多摩羅跋) Xanthochymus pictorius, Lauras cassia, and other odoriferous shrubs.

藿香 A scent from the above.

蘆 Reeds, rushes.

蘆葉達磨 Bodhidharma and his rush-leaf boat in which he is said to have crossed the Yangze.

skandha, v. 塞; older tr. 陰, intp. as that which covers or conceals, implying that physical and mental forms obstruct realization of the truth; while the tr. 蘊, implying an accumulation or heap, is a nearer

connotation to skandha, which, originally meaning the shoulder, becomes stem, branch, combination, the objects of sense, the elements of being or mundane consciousness. The term is intp. as the five

physical and mental constituents, which combine to form the intelligent 性 or nature; rūpa, the first of the five, is considered as physical, the remaining four as mental; v. 五蘊. The skandhas refer only

to the phenomenal, not to the 無爲 non-phenomenal.


蘊落 Any unit, or body, consisting of skandhas.

蘊處界 The five skandhas, twelve āyatana or bases, and eighteen 界 dhātu or elements.

蘊識 The skandha of intelligence, or intellectuation; also intp. as 有情 consciousness, or emotion.

蘊馱南 udāna, v. 優, an expression of joy, or praise; voluntary addresses (by the Buddha).

蘊魔 The evil spirit (or spirits) that works (or work) through the five skandhas.

蘇 Refreshing thyme; revive, cheer; Suzhou; translit. su, so, sa, s. Most frequently it translit. the Sanskait su, which means good, well excellent, very. Cf. 須, 修.

蘇伐剌 suvarṇa, gold, v. 金; also 蘇伐羅; 蘇嚩囉 and v. 素.

蘇伐剌拏瞿怛羅 Suvarṇuagotra, a matriarchal kingdom, somewhere in the Himalayas, described as the Golden Clan.

蘇偷婆 Stupa, v. 率.

蘇利耶 sūrya, the sun, also 蘇哩耶; 須梨耶.

蘇囉多 surata, enjoyment, amorous pleasures.

蘇怛羅 sūtra; thread; a classical work 經 especially the sermons or sayings of the Buddha, v. 素 and 修.

蘇悉地 susiddhi, a mystic word of the Tantra School, meaning "may it be excellently accomplished", v. the蘇悉地經 Susiddhi Sutra and 蘇悉地羯羅經 Susiddhikāra Sutra.

蘇揭多 sugata; svāgata; well come, or well departed, title of a Buddha; also 蘇伽多 or 蘇伽陁; v. 修, 沙, 渉, 索.

蘇摩 soma, to distil, extract, generate; the moon-plant, hence the moon; probably wild rhubarb (Stein). The alcoholic drink made from the plant and formerly offered to the Brahminical gods; tr. 神酒, wine of the

gods. Also rendered 香油 a sweet-smelling oil.

蘇摩提婆 Soma-deva, i.e. Candra-deva, the moon-deva.

蘇摩蛇 ? Sūmasarpa, a former incarnaton of Śākyamuni when he gave his body as a great snake to feed the starving people.

蘇末那 sumanā. A yellow sweet-smelling flower growing on a bush 3 or 4 feet high, perhaps the 'great-lowered jasmine'; associated by some with the soma plant, saumanā, a blossom; also 蘇摩那; 蘇蔓那; 須摩那.

蘇槃多 subanta, also 蘇漫多, the case of a noun.

蘇槃伐窣多 蘇婆薩都 Śubhavastu, the river Swat.

蘇樓波 surūpa, of beautiful form, handsome.

蘇油 ghṛta, ghee, or clarified butter; scented oil extracted from the sumanā plant.

蘇波訶 svāhā, Hail! A kind of Amen; a mystic word indicating completion, good luck, nirvana, may evil disappear and good be increased; in India it also indicates an oblation especially a burnt offering; the

oblation as a female deity. Also 蘇和訶; 蘇婆訶; 蘇呵, also with 沙, 娑, 莎, 薩, 率, ? as initial syllable.

蘇燈 A lamp using butter and fragrant oil; also 酥燈.

蘇盧多波 srota-āpanna 入流 v. 須 and 窣.

蘇跋陀羅 Subhadra, a learned brahmin, 120 years old, the last convert made by Śākyamuni.

蘇迷 (蘇迷盧) Sumeru, "the Olympus of Hindu mythology," M.W. It is the central mountain of every world. Also 蘇彌樓 v. 須.

蘇達多 Sudatta, v. 須 name of Anāthapiṇḍaka.

蘇達拏 Sudāna, name of Śākyamuni as a great almsgiver in a previous incarnation.

蘇達梨舍那 sudarśana, the fourth of the seven concentric circles around Sumeru; also 蘇跌里舍那; v. 修 and 須.


蘇部底 Subhūtti, also 蘇補底; v. 須 and the 般若 sutra.

蠕 Wrigglers, crawlers, e.g. worms.

蠕動 To wriggle, etc.

襪 Stockings, socks; also 韈.

bodhi, from bodha, 'knowing, understanding', means enlightenment, illumination; 覺 is to awake, apprehend, perceive, realize; awake, aware; (also, to sleep). It is illumination, enlightenment, or awakening in

regard to the real in contrast to the seeming; also, enlightenment in regard to moral evil. Cf. 菩提 and 佛.

覺了 Completely and clearly enlightened; clearly to apprehend.

覺人 An enlightened man who has apprehended buddha-truth.

覺他 To awaken others; to enlighten others.

覺位 The stage of perfect enlightenment, that of Buddha.

覺分 bodhyaṅga, the seven 菩提分q.v.; also applied to the thirty-seven bodhipakṣika, 三十七道品, q.v.

覺城 The walled city of enlightenment, into which illusion cannot enter. Gayā, where the Buddha attained enlightenment.

覺堅 Firm, or secure, enlightenment.

覺如 idem 覺眞如 v. 眞如.

覺山 The mountain of enlightenment, i.e. buddha-truth.

覺岸 The shore of enlightenment, which Buddha has reached after crossing the sea of illusion.

覺心 The mind of enlightenment, the illuminated mind, the original nature of man.

覺性 The enlightened mind free from all illusion. The mind as the agent of knowledge, or enlightenment. Also used for dharmakāya, v. 三身; 三寶, etc.

覺悟 To awake, become enlightened, comprehend spiritual reality.

覺悟智 Enlightened wisdom; wisdom that extends beyond the limitations of time and sense; omniscience.

覺支 The various branches or modes of enlightenment; for the seven覺支 v. 七菩提分.

覺日 Timelessness, eternity, changelessness, the bodhi-day which has no change. Also 覺時.

覺樹 The tree of knowledge, or enlightenment, the pippala under which the Buddha attained enlightenment, also called bodhidruma and ficus religiosa. To plant virtue in order to attain enlightenment.

覺母 Mother of enlightenment, a title of Mañjuśrī as the eternal guardian of mystic wisdom, all buddhas, past, present, and future, deriving their enlightenment from him as its guardian; also 佛母.

覺海 The fathomless ocean of enlightenment, or buddha-wisdom.

覺王 The king of enlightenment, the enlightened king, Buddha; also覺帝.

覺用 nirmāṇakāya, v. 三身; 三寶, etc.

覺相 saṃbhogakāya, v. 三身; 三寶, etc..

覺策 To awaken and stimulate the mind against illusion and evil.

覺者 An enlightened one, especially a buddha, enlightening self and others, 自覺覺他.

覺苑 Garden of enlightenment, a Pure Land, or Paradise; also the mind.

覺華 The flower of enlightenment, which opens like a flower.

覺行 The procedure, or discipline, of the attainment of enlightenment for self and others.


覺觀 Awareness and pondering, acts of intellectuation, later called 尋伺, both of them hindrances to abstraction, or dhyāna. They are described as 麤 and 細, general and particular, respectively.

覺道 The way of enlightenment, also 覺路.

覺道支 (覺道) The 七覺 and 八正道 q.v.

覺雄 The lord, or hero, of enlightenment, Buddha; also 世雄.

觸 To butt, strike against; contact. sparśa, touch, contact, collision, the quality of tangibility, feeling, sensation. M.W. Eleven kinds of sensation are given— hot, cold, hard, soft, etc. sparśa is one of the

twelve nidānas, cf. 十二因緣, and of the sadāyatana, cf. 六入. It is also used with the meaning of 濁 unclean.

觸因 Touch, or sensation cause, v. 二十五圓通.

觸塵 The medium or quality of touch.

觸指 The fourth and fifth fingers of the left hand which in India are used at stool, the unclean fingers.

觸桶 觸甁 A commode, ordure tub, etc.

觸樂 The pleasure produced by touch.

觸欲 Desire awakened by touch.

觸毒 The poison of touch, a term applied to woman.

觸禮 To prostrate one's hand to a stool, footstool, in reverence.

觸穢 To touch anything unclean and become unclean.

觸鐘 To strike a bell.

觸食 Food made unclean by being touched, or handled; any food soiled, or unclean; the food of sensation, or imagination, mentally conceived.

警 To warn.

警覺 To warn, arouse, stimulate.

警策 A switch to awaken sleepers during an assembly for meditation.

譯 To translate, 繙譯; 翻譯. An oral interpreter, 傳譯; 譯官.

譬 To compare, allegorize; like, resembling; parable, metaphor, simile.

譬喩 A parable, metaphor; the avadāna section of the canon, v. 阿波; there are numerous categories, e.g. the seven parables of the Lotus Sūtra, the ten of the Prajñā and Vimalakīrti sūtras, etc.

譬喩師 (譬喩論師) Reputed founder of the 經量部 Sautrāntika school, also known as 日出論者.

譬喩量 The example in Logic.

譫 Incoherent talk.

譫浮洲 Jambudvīpa, v. 贍部洲.

贍 To supply; supplied, enough; translit. jam.

贍部 jambū, 'a fruit tree, the rose apple, Eugenia jambolana, or another species of Eugenia.' M.W. Also 贍部提; 閻浮; 剡浮; 譫浮; also applied to Jambudvīpa.

贍部洲 Jambudvīpa. Name of the southern of the four great continents, said to be of triangular shape, and to be called after the shape of the leaf of an immense Jambu-tree on Mount Meru, or after fine gold that is found below the

tree. It is divided into four parts: south of the Himālayas by the lord of elephants, because of their number; north by the lord of horses; west by the lord of jewels; east by the lord of men. This seems to imply a

region larger than India, and Eitel includes in Jambudvīpa the following countries around the Anavatapta lake and the Himālayas. North: Huns, Uigurs, Turks. East: China, Corea, Japan, and some islands. South:

Northern India with twenty-seven kingdoms, Eastern India ten kingdoms, Southern India fifteen kingdoms, Central India thirty kingdoms. West: Thirty-four kingdoms.

贍部金 (贍部) jambūnada, the produce of the river Jambūnadī, i.e. gold, hence 贍部光像is an image of golden glory, especially the image of Śākyamuni attributed to Anathapiṇḍaka.

贍部捺陀金 jambūnadasuvarṇa, the gold from the Jambūnadī river.

釋 To separate out, set free, unloose, explain; Buddhism, Buddhist; translit. śa, śi; also ḍ, ḍh.

釋侶 Any follower or disciple of the Buddha; any Buddhist comrade; Buddhists.

釋典 The scriptures of Buddhism.

釋女 The women of the Śākya clan.

釋子 śākyaputriya, sons of Śākyamuni, i.e. his disciples in general.

釋宮 The Śākya palace, from which prince Siddhārtha went forth to become Buddha.

釋家 The Śākya family, i.e. the expounders of Buddhist sūtras and scriptures.

釋帝 Śakra, Indra, lord of the thirty-three heavens; also 帝釋; 釋迦 (釋迦婆) q.v.

釋師 The Śākya teacher, Buddha.

釋師子 The lion of the Śākyas, Buddha.

釋提桓因 Śakro-devānāmindra, 釋 Śakra 提桓 devānām 因 Indra; Śakra the Indra of the devas, the sky-god, the god of the nature-gods, ruler of the thirty-three heavens, considered by Buddhists as inferior to the

Buddhist saint, but as a deva-protector of Buddhism. Also 釋羅; 賒羯羅因陀羅; 帝釋; 釋帝; v. 釋迦. He has numerous other appellations.


釋摩男 Śākya Mahānāma Kulika, one of the first five of the Buddha's disciples, i.e. prince Kulika.

釋教 Buddhism; the teaching or school of Śākyamuni.

釋梵 Indra and Brahma, both protectors of Buddhism.

釋氏 The Śākya clan, or family name; Śākyamuni.

釋疑 Explanation of doubtful points, solution of doubts.

釋種 Śākya-seed; Śākya clan; the disciples of Śākyamuni, especially monks and nuns.

釋翅 (釋翅搜) ? Śākyesu, defined as a name for Kapilavastu city; also 釋氏廋.

釋藏 The Śākya thesaurus, i.e. the Tripiṭaka, the Buddhist scriptures, cf. 藏.

釋論 The Prajñā-pāramitā-sūtra; also explanatory discussions, or notes on foundation treatises.

釋輪 Śakra's wheel, the discus of Indra, symbol of the earth.

釋迦 Śākya. the clan or family of the Buddha, said to be derived from śāka, vegetables, but intp. in Chinese as powerful, strong, and explained by 能 powerful, also erroneously by 仁charitable, which belongs rather to

association with Śākyamuni. The clan, which is said to have wandered hither from the delta of the Indus, occupied a district of a few thousand square miles lying on the slopes of the Nepalese hills and on the plains to the south. Its

capital was Kapilavastu. At the time of Buddha the clan was under the suzerainty of Kośala, an adjoining kingdom Later Buddhists, in order to surpass Brahmans, invented a fabulous line of five kings of the

Vivartakalpa headed by Mahāsammata 大三末多; these were followed by five cakravartī, the first being Mūrdhaja 頂生王; after these came nineteen kings, the first being Cetiya 捨帝, the last Mahādeva 大天; these were succeeded by

dynasties of 5,000, 7,000, 8,000, 9,000, 10,000, 15,000 kings; after which long Gautama opens a line of 1,100 kings, the last, Ikṣvāku, reigning at Potala. With Ikṣvāku the Śākyas are said to have begun. His four sons reigned at

Kapilavastu. 'Śākyamuni was one of his descendants in the seventh generation.' Later, after the destruction of Kapilavastu by Virūḍhaka, four survivors of the family founded the kingdoms of Udyana, Bamyam, Himatala, and

Sāmbī. Eitel.

釋迦 (釋迦婆) Śakra.

釋迦提婆因 (or 釋迦提桓) (釋迦提婆因陀羅) Śakra-devendra; Śakra-devānāminindra; v. 釋迦帝 i.e. Indra.

釋迦尊 The honoured one of the Śākyas, i.e. Śākyamuni.

釋迦牟尼 釋迦文 (釋迦文尼); 釋伽文 Śākyamuni, the saint of the Śākya tribe. muni is saint, holy man, sage, ascetic monk; it is: intp. as 仁 benevolent, charitable, kind, also as 寂默 one who dwells in seclusion. After '500 or 550' previous

incarnations, Śākyamuni finally attained to the state of Bodhisattva, was born in the Tuṣita heaven, and descended as a white elephant, through her right side, into the womb of the immaculate Māyā, the purest woman on

earth; this was on the 8th day of the 4th month; next year on the 8th day of the 2nd month he was born from her right side painlessly as she stood under a tree in the Lumbinī garden. For the subsequent miraculous events v. Eitel.

also the 神通遊戲經 (Lalitavistara), the 釋迦如來成道記, etc. Simpler statements say that he was born the son of Śuddhodana, of the kṣatriya caste, ruler of Kapilavastu, and Māyā his wife; that Māyā died seven days later, leaving

him to be brought up by her sister Prājapati; that in due course he was married to Yaśodharā who bore him a son, Rāhula; that in search of truth he left home, became an ascetic, severely disciplined himself, and finally at 35

years of age, under a tree, realized that the way of release from the chain of rebirth and death lay not in asceticism but in moral purity; this he explained first in his four dogmas, v. 四諦 and eightfold

noble way 八正道, later amplified and developed in many sermons. He founded his community on the basis of poverty, chastity, and insight or meditation, ad it became known as Buddhism, as he became known as Buddha, the

enlightened. His death was probably in or near 487 B.C., a few years before that of Confucius in 479. The sacerdotal name of his family is Gautama, said to be the original name of the whole clan, Śākya being that

of his branch, v. 瞿, 喬.; his personal name was Siddhārtha, or Sarvārthasiddha, v. 悉.

釋迦獅子 Śākyasiṃha, the lion of the Śākyas, i.e. the Buddha.

釋迦菩薩 Śākya-bodhisattva, one of the previous incarnations of the Buddha.


釋門 The school of Śākyamuni, Buddhism.

釋雄 The hero of the Śākyas, Buddha; also 世雄.

釋風 The custom of Buddhism; also its 'breeze' or progress.

鐘 ghaṇṭā, 犍稚 a bell, a chime.

百八鐘 The 108 strokes of the temple bell struck at dawn and dusk.

鐘樓 Bell-tower.

鐼子 xun-zi, a bowl (or bowls) within an almsbowl. Buddha's bowl consisted of four heavy deva-bowls which he received miraculously one on the other; they are to be recovered with the advent of Maitreya; v. 鍵M086767.

鐃 A hand-bell, cymbals.

闡 To open, spread, enlarge, expand, expound; translit. chan.

闡提 v. 一闡提 icchantika, intp. as unable to become Buddha (a) because of unbelief, or abandoned character; (b) because of a bodhisattva vow.

闡陀 Chandaka, name of the Buddha's driver when he left home; he became a monk; also 闡那; 闡擇迦; 闡釋迦; 闡鐸迦; 車匿; also a form of metre; poetry; hymns; a style of poetic recitation.

騷 Trouble, sad; poetic, learned; translit. su, s.

騷伽陁 騷揭多 Sugata, v. 修.

騷毗羅 ? parisrāvana, a filtering cloth or bag, v. 鉢里.

騰 To mount, rise; translit. tang.

騰蘭 Tang and Ran, i.e. Mātaṇga (Kāśyapa Mātaṇga) and Gobharaṇa, the two monks brought to China, according to tradition, by Ming Di's emissaries, v. 摩, 迦, and 竺.

鰐 A crocodile.

鰐魚 v. kumbhīra.

鶖 A stork.

鶖子 (鶖鷺子) Śāriputra, also 秋露子 meaning son of Śārī, his mother; śārī is a kind of bird 'commonly called the Maina'. M.W. It is tr. as a stork. Cf. 舍.

鹹 Salty, salted.

鹹水 Salt water.


嚼 To chew.

嚼蠟 Chewing wax, tasteless.

囀 Translit. vā.

囀羅呬 Vārāhī, tr. as the gods below the earth.

Fear, dread; translit. gu.

懼曩 guṇa, a power, quality, v. 求.

攝 To collect, gather together, combine, include; lay hold of; assist, act for or with; control, direct, attend to; translit. ś, śa.

攝取 攝受 To gather, gather up, receive.

攝哩藍 śarīra, v. 舍 relics.

攝嚩 śava, a corpse (not yet decayed).

攝大乘論 Mahāyāna-saṃparigraha-śāstra, a collection of Mahāyāna śāstras, ascribed to Asaṅga, of which three tr. were made into Chinese.

攝心 To collect the mind, concentrate the attention.

攝念山林 The hill-grove for concentrating the thoughts, a monastery.

攝意音樂 Music that calms the mind, or helps to concentration.

攝拖苾馱 Śabda-vidyā, (a śāstra on) grammar, logic.

攝摩騰 Kāśyapa-Mātaṇga, v. 迦 according to tradition the first official Indian monk (along with Gobharana) to arrive in China, circa A.D. 67; tr. the Sūtra of the Forty-two Sections.

攝衆生戒 接生戒 The commands which include or confer blessing on all the living.

攝論 The collected śāstras, v. supra.

攝論宗 The school of the collected śāstras.

曩 Of old, ancient; translit. na.

曩莫 nāmaḥ, v. 南.

欄 A rail, handrail; pen, fold.

欄楯 Barrier, railing.

灌 To water, sprinkle, pour; to flow together, or into, accumulate.

灌佛 浴佛 To wash a Buddha's image with scented water, which is a work of great merit and done with much ceremony.

灌室 The building in which the esoterics practise the rite of baptism.

灌洗 To wash a Buddha's image.

灌臘 The washing of a Buddha's image at the end of the monastic year, the end of summer.

灌頂 abhiṣecana; mūrdhābhiṣikta; inauguration or consecration by sprinkling, or pouring water on the head; an Indian custom on the investiture of a king, whose head was baptized with water from the four seas and from the rivers

in his domain; in China it is administered as a Buddhist rite chiefly to high personages, and for ordination purposes. Amongst the esoterics it is a rite especially administered to their disciples; and they have

several categories of baptism, e.g. that of ordinary disciples, of teacher, or preacher, of leader, of office-bearer; also for special causes such as relief from calamity, preparation for the next life, etc.


灌頂住 The tenth stage of a bodhisattva when he is anointed by the Buddhas as a Buddha.

爛 Glittering, as iridescent fish.

爛魚 Rotten, soft; pulp.

瓔 A gem, a necklace.

瓔珞 A necklace of precious stones; things strung together.

竈 A kitchen-stove.

竈神 The kitchen-stove god, or kitchen-god who at the end of each year is supposed to report above on the conduct of members of the family.

纏 To bind with cords; bonds; another name for 煩惱 the passions and delusions, etc.

纏報 The retribution of transmigrational-bondage.

纏無明 The bondage of unenlightenment.

纏縛 Bondage; to bind; also the 十纏 and 四縛 q.v.

續 To join on; continue, add, supplementary, a supplement.

續命 (Prayers for) continued life, for which the 續命神幡 flag of five colours is displayed.

羼 Crowding sheep, confusion; translit. kṣan, ṣan.

羼底 (or羼提) kṣānti, patience, forbearance, enduring shame, one of the six pāramitās.

羼提仙人 Kṣāntiṛṣi, name of Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation, the patient or enduring ṛṣi.

羼提羅 śaṇḍila, a sterile woman, cf. 扇.

蘭 The epidendrum, orchid; scented, refined; pledged, sworn; translit. ra, ram, ran; abbrev. for 偸蘭遮 q.v.

蘭室 蘭若 araṇya, lit. forest, hence hermitage, v. 阿; a monastery.

蘭盆 (蘭會) Ullambana, Lambana, Avalamba, v. 盂. The festival of masses for destitute ghosts on the 15th of the 7th month.

蘭菊 Orchid and chrysanthemum, spring and autumn, emblems of beauty.

蘭闍 蘭奢 (蘭奢待) A Mongol or Turkish word implying praise.

蘭香 Orchid fragrance, spring.

蘖 A shrub, tree stump, etc., translit. g, ga, gan.

蘖哩訶 蘖羅訶 Gṛha; Grāha; the seizer, name of a demon.

蘖喇婆 garbha, tr. 中心; the womb, interior part.

蘖嚕拏 v. 迦 garuḍa.

蘖馱矩吒 Gandhakutī, a temple for offering incense in the Jetavana monastery and elsewhere).

蠟 Wax.

蠟印 To seal with wax, a wax seal.

覽 To look at, view; translit. raṃ-; associated with fire.

護 To protect, guard, succour.

護世者 The four lokapālas, each protecting one of the four quarters of space, the guardians of the world and of the Buddhist faith.

護命 Protection of life.

護國 The four lokapālas, or rāṣṭrapālas, who protect a country.

護寺 vihārapāla, guardian deity of a monastery.

護念 To guard and care for, protect and keep in mind.

護戒神 The five guardian-spirits of each of the five commandments, cf. 二十五神.

護摩 homa, also 護磨; 呼麽 described as originally a burnt offering to Heaven; the esoterics adopted the idea of worshipping with fire, symbolizing wisdom as fire burning up the faggots of passion and

illusion; and therewith preparing nirvāṇa as food, etc.; cf. 大日經; four kinds of braziers are used, round, semi-circular, square, and octagonal; four, five, or six purposes are recorded i.e. śāntika, to end calamities; pauṣṭika

(or puṣṭikarman) for prosperity; vaśīkaraṇa, 'dominating,' intp. as calling down the good by means of enchantments; abhicaraka, exorcising the evil; a fifth is to obtain the loving protection of the Buddhas and

bodhisattvas; a sixth divides puṣṭikarman into two parts, the second part being length of life; each of these six has its controlling Buddha and bodhisattvas, and different forms and accessories of worship.

護明大士 Prabhāpāla; guardian of light, or illumination, name of Śākyamuni when in the Tuṣita heaven before earthly incarnation.

護法 To protect or maintain the Buddha-truth; also name of Dharmapāla q.v.

護法神 The four lokapālas, seen at the entrance to Buddhist temples, v, supra.

護童子法 Method of protecting the young against the fifteen evil spirits which seek to harm them.

護符 A charm used by the esoterics.

護苾那 Hupian, 'the capital of Vridjisthāna, probably in the neighbourhood of the present Charekoor... to the north of Cabool.' Eitel.

護身 Protection of the body, for which the charm 護符 is used, and also other methods.

辯 To discuss, argue, discourse.

辯才 Ability to discuss, debate, discourse; rhetoric.

辯才天 Sarasvatī, goddess of speech and learning, v. 大辯才天.

辯無礙 Power of unhindered discourse, perfect freedom of speech or debate, a bodhisattva power.


鑁 Translit. vaṃ, associated with water and the ocean; also, the embodiment of wisdom.

鐶 A metal ring; a ring.

鐶釧 Finger-rings and armlets.

鐵 Iron.

鐵圍山 Cakravāla, Cakravāda. The iron enclosing mountains supposed to encircle the earth, forming the periphery of a world. Mount Meru is the centre and between it and the Iron mountains are the seven 金山 metal-mountains and the

eight seas.

鐵城 The iron city, hell.

鐵札 Iron tablets in Hades, on which are recorded each person's crimes and merits.

鐵輪 The iron wheel; also 鐵圍山 Cakravāla, supra.

鐵輪王 Iron-wheel king, ruler of the south and of Jambudvīpa, one of the 四輪王.

鐵鉢 Cf. 四鉢. Iron pātra, or almsbowl.

鐵際 The boundary of the 鐵圍山 Cakravāla, v. supra.

鐸 A bell with a clapper; translit. da.

鐸曷攞 dahara, small, young; a monk ordained less than ten years.

闢 To open; translit. pi, v. 毘.

闢妄 To explain, or set free from, illusion.

闢展 Pidjan, or Pizhan, near Turfan.

闥 An inner door (especially of the women's rooms); a recess, corner; translit. da, dha, etc.

闥婆 gandharvas, v. 乾.

露 Dew; symbol of transience; to expose, disclose.

露命 Dew-like life; transient.

露地 Bare ground; like dew on the ground, dewy ground.

露形 露身 Exposed form, naked, e.g. the Nirgrantha ascetics.

露牛 The great white ox and oxcart revealed in the open, i.e. the Mahāyāna, v. Lotus Sūtra.

霹 Crash, rumble.

霹靂 A thunder-crash.

饑 Hunger, famine.

饑餓地獄 The hell of hunger.

饑饉災 The calamity of famine.

饒 Spare; abundance, surplus; to pardon.

饒王 (饒王佛) Lokeśvara, 'the lord or ruler of the world; N. of a Buddha' (M.W.); probably a development of the idea of Brahmā, Viṣṇu or Śiva as lokanātha, 'lord of worlds.' In Indo-China especially it refers to

Avalokiteśvara, whose image or face, in masculine form, is frequently seen, e.g. at Angkor. Also 世饒王佛. It is to Lokeśvara that Amitābha announces his forty-eight vows.

饒益 To enrich.

饒舌 A fluent tongue; loquacious.

驅 To drive out or away, expel, urge.

驅烏 Scarecrow, term for an acolyte of from seven to thirteen years of age, he being old enough to drive away crows.

驅龍 Dragon-expeller, a term for an arhat of high character and powers, who can drive away evil nāgas.

髏 kapāla; a skull.

髏鬘 A chaplet or wreath of skulls, worn by the Kāpālikas, a Śivaitic sect; kapālī is an epithet of Śiva as the skull-wearer.

鬘 A head-dress, coiffure; a chaplet, wreath, etc.; idem 末利.

魑 A mountain demon resembling a tiger; 魅 is a demon of marshes having the head of a pig and body of a man. The two words are used together indicating evil spirits.

魔 魔羅 Māra, killing, destroying; 'the Destroyer, Evil One, Devil' (M.W.); explained by murderer, hinderer, disturber, destroyer; he is a deva 'often represented with a hundred arms and riding on an elephant'. Eitel. He sends

his daughters, or assumes monstrous forms, or inspires wicked men, to seduce or frighten the saints. He 'resides with legions of subordinates in the heaven Paranirmita Vaśavartin situated on the top of the Kāmadhātu'. Eitel.

Earlier form 磨; also v. 波 Pāpīyān. He is also called 他化自在天. There are various categories of māras, e.g. the skandha-māra, passion-māra, etc.

魔事 Māra-deeds, especially in hindering Buddha-truth.

魔天 Māra-deva, the god of lust, sin, and death, cf. Māra.

魔女 The daughters of Māra, who tempt men to their ruin.

魔忍 Māra-servitude, the condition of those who obey Māra.

魔怨 Māra enmity; Māra, the enemy of Buddha.

魔戒 Māra-laws, Māra-rules, i.e. those of monks who seek fame and luxury.


魔梵 Māra and Brahmā; i.e. Māra, lord of the sixth desire-heaven, and Brahmā, lord of the heavens of form.

魔檀 Māra-gifts, in contrast with those of Buddha.

魔民 mārakāyikas, also 魔子魔女 Māra's people, or subjects.

魔旬 (魔波旬) Māra-pāpīyān, cf. 波.

魔王 The king of māras, the lord of the sixth heaven of the desire-realm.

魔界 The realm of the māras; also 魔境; 魔道.

魔禪 māra-dhyāna, evil thoughts, wrong and harmful meditation.

魔縛 Māra-cords; Māra-bonds; also 魔繫.

魔緣 Māra-circumstance, or environment, or conditioning cause, i.e. hindering the good.

魔網 The net of Māra.

魔羅 Māra, v. 魔; also 麽羅; for 魔羅耶 v. 摩.

魔軍 The army of Māra.

魔道 The Māra path, or way, i.e. one of the six destinies.

魔鄕 Māra-country, i.e. the world.

魔醯首羅 Maheśvara, Śiva.

魔醯因陀羅 Mahendra, a younger brother of Aśoka.

魔醯濕羅補羅 Maheśvarapura, the present Machery in Rajputana.

魔醯邏矩羅 Mihirakula, king of the Punjab, later of Kashmir, about A.D. 400, a persecutor of Buddhism, v. 摩.

魔障 Māra-hindrances; also 障 is an interpretation of 魔.

鷄 v. 雞 Eighteen Strokes.

鶴 The crane; the egret; translit. ha, ho.

鶴林 鶴樹 Crane grove, a name for the place where Śākyamuni died, when the trees burst into white blossom resembling a flock of white cranes.

鶴勒那夜奢 Haklenayaśas, or Padmaratna, the twenty-third patriarch, born in the palace of the king of Tokhara.

鶴悉那 Hosna, or Ghazna, 'the capital of Tsaukūṭa, the present Ghuznee' (Ghazni) in Afghanistan. Eitel.

鶴秣 Homa, 'a city on the eastern frontier of Persia, perhaps the modern Humoon' Eitel.

鶴苑 Crane-garden, a term for a monastery.

鶴薩羅 Hasara, 'the second capital of Tsaukūṭa, perhaps the modern Assaia Hazaréh between Ghuznee and Kandahar in Afghanistan.' Eitel.


囉 To chatter, translit. ra sounds; cf. 羅, 邏, 嚕.

囉逝 rājñī, a queen, a princess.

囉惹 rāja, a king.

囊 A bag, sack, purse; translit. na.

囊莫 囊謨; v. 南 nāmaḥ.

囊哦羅賀羅 Nagarahāra, Nagara, a city on the Kabul river, v. 那.

攞 To split; wipe; choose; translit. la.

攞乞尖拏 v. 相 lakṣaṇa.

攞都迦 laḍḍuka, a cake, or sweet meat, identified with the 歡喜丸 joybuns, q.v.

權 The weight (on a steelyard), weight, authority, power; to balance, adjudge; bias, expediency, partial, provisional, temporary, positional; in Buddhist scriptures it is used like 方便 expediency, or temporary; it is the

adversative of 實 q.v.

權化 The power of Buddhas and bodhisattvas to transform themselves into any kind of temporary body.

權大乘 The temporary, or partial, schools of Mahāyāna, the 通 and 別, in contrast with the 實大乘 schools which taught universal Buddhahood, e.g. the Huayan and Tiantai schools.

權實 Temporal and real; 權 referring to the conditional, functional, differential, or temporary, 實 to the fundamental, absolute, or real.

權實不二門 The two divisions, the provisional and the perfect, are not two but complementary, v. 權教 and 十不ニ門.

權悲 Pity in regard to beings in time and sense, arising from the Buddhas 權智 infra.

權教 Temporary, expedient, or functional teaching, preparatory to the perfect teaching, a distinguishing term of the Tiantai and Huayan sects, i.e. the teachings of the three previous periods 藏, 通 and 別 which were regarded as

preparatory to their own, cf. 圓教.


權方便 Expedients of Buddhas and bodhisattvas for saving all beings.

權智 Buddha-wisdom of the phenomenal, in contrast with 實智 knowledge of the fundamental or absolute.

權現 Temporary, or ad hoc manifestations, similar to 權化.

權理 Partial, or incomplete truth.

權者 A Buddha or bodhisattva who has assumed a temporary form in order to aid beings; also 化者; 權化; 大權, etc.

權謀 Temporary plans, methods suited to immediate needs, similar to 方便.

權迹 Temporal traces, evidences of the incarnation of a Buddha in human form.

權門 The sects which emphasize 方便, i.e. expediency, or expedients; the undeveloped school, supra.

nanda. Pleased, glad.

歡喜 Pleased, glad; pleasure, gladness.

歡喜丸 (or 歡喜團, 喜團) Joy-buns, a name for a kind of honey-cake.

歡喜光佛 Buddha of joyful light, Amitābha.

歡喜國 妙喜國 Abhirati, the happy land, or paradise of Akṣobhya, east of our universe.

歡喜苑 歡樂園; 喜林苑 Nandana-vana. Garden of joy; one of the four gardens of Indra's paradise, north of his central city.

歡喜地 pramuditā. The bodhisattva's stage of joy, the first of his ten stages (bhūmi).

歡喜天 大聖歡喜天; 聖天; (大聖天) The joyful devas, or devas of pleasure, represented as two figures embracing each other, with elephants' heads and human bodies; the two embracing figures are interpreted as Gaṇeśa (the

eldest son of Śiva) and an incarnation of Guanyin; the elephant-head represents Gaṇeśa; the origin is older than the Guanyin idea and seems to be a derivation from the Śivaitic linga-worship.

歡喜日 The happy day of the Buddha, and of the order, i.e. that ending the 'retreat', 15th day of the 7th (or 8th) moon; also every 15th day of the month.

歡喜會 The festival of All Souls, v. 盂.

灑 To sprinkle, translit. sa.

灑水 To sprinkle water.

灑淨 To purify by sprinkling.

禳 To pray to avert.

禳日蝕 禳月蝕 to avert the calamity threatened by an eclipse of sun or moon.

禳災 Ceremonies to avert calamity, indicating also the Atharva-veda, and other incantations.

籠 A cage, crate; to ensnare.

籠頭 Blinkers for a horse's head.

聽 To hear, listen, hearken; listen to, obey.

聽教 Those who hear the Buddha's doctrine; those who obey.

聽聞 To hear; to hear and obey.

讀 To read; a comma, full stop.

讀師 A reader to an assembly.

讀經 Ditto 讀師; also to read the scriptures.

讀誦 Reading and reciting.

贖 To redeem, ransom.

贖命 To redeem life; a redeemer of life, said of the Nirvāṇa sūtra.

鑑 A mirror 明鑑; to note, survey, 鑑察.

鑊 Caldron, rice pan.

鑊沙 烏鎩 Ōsh, or Ūsh, 'an ancient kingdom north of the Śītā, probably the present Ingachar'; possibly Uch-Turfān or Yangishahr, 依耐 or 英吉沙爾.

鑊湯地獄 The purgatory of caldrons of molten iron.

響 pratiśrut. Echo, resonance.

影響 Shadow and echo.

顩 Translit. kam in 顩鉢羅 kambala, a woollen garment, or blanket.

鷓 A partridge 鷓鴣.

鷓鴣斑 Spotted like a partridge, a kind of incense.

龕 A shrine; a cabinet, box; a coffin (for a monk); to contain.

龕塔 A pagoda with shrines.


巖 A crag, cliff.

巖谷 Cliffs and gullies.

戀 To be fond of, hanker after, cleave to; 戀慕.

曬 To dry in the sun.

曬罽 sukha, delight, joy.

癰 A tumour, abscess.

癰瘡 A tumour of pus, a running sore.

蘿 Creeping or climbing plants.

蘿衣 Coarse garments worn by ascetics.


變 To change, alter, transmute, transform.

變化 To transform, change, change into, become, especially the mutation of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, e.g. 變化人 becoming men; also 變化土 the land where they dwell, whether the Pure Land or any impure world

where they live for its enlightenment.

變化法身 The dharmakāya in its power of transmutation, or incarnation.

變化生 Birth by transformation, not by gestation.

變化身 The nirmāṇakāya, i.e. transformation-body, or incarnation-body, one of the 三身 trikāya, q.v.

變壞 Destroyed, spoilt, turned bad.

變成 To become, turn into, be transformed into.

變成王 Bian-cheng Wang, one of the kings, or judges of Hades.

變成男子 To be transformed from a female to a male. Every Buddha is supposed to vow to change all women into men.

變易 Change, to change, similar to 變化.

變易生死 Mortal changes, or a body that is being transformed from mortality, e.g. 變易身 bodies that are being transformed in a Pure Land, or transformed bodies.

邏 Patrol; translit. la, ra.

邏吃灑 邏乞洒 lakṣaṇa, v. 相, a distinguishing mark, sign, or characteristic.

邏求 laghu, light, nimble.

邏闍 rāja, v. 羅.

鑠 To melt; bright; translit. sa.

鑠枳底 鑠訖底 śakti, a halberd or lance; a tally or sign.

鑠迦羅阿逸多 Śakrāditya, also 帝日, a king of Magadha, sometime after Sakymuni's death, to whom he built a temple.

鑠雞謨儞 Śākyamuni, v. 釋.

顯 Manifest, reveal, open, clear, plain, known, illustrious; exoteric.

顯典 顯經 The exoteric or general scriptures, as distinguished from the 密 hidden, external or internal (illumination, or powers).

顯宗 顯家 The exoteric sects, in contrast with the exoteric schools.

顯明 Open, manifest; pure; to reveal.

顯本 The revelation of his fundamental or eternal life by the Buddha in the Lotus Sūtra.

顯正 To show the truth, reveal that which is correct.

顯示 To reveal, indicate.

顯色 The visible or light colours.

顯密 Exoteric and esoteric; the 眞言 Shingon, or True-word sect, is the esoteric sect, which exercises occult rites of Yoga character, and considers all the other sects as exoteric.

顯識 Manifest, revealing, or open knowledge, the store of knowledge where all is revealed both good and bad, a name for the ālaya-vijñāna.

顯露 To reveal, disclose.

驚 uttras-; santras-; alarm, startle, arouse.

驚覺 Arouse, stimulate.

驗 To examine into, hold an inquest; to come true, verify.

驗生人中 An inquiry into the mode of a person's death, to judge whether he will be reborn as a man, and so on with the other possible destinies, e.g. 驗生地獄 whether he will be reborn in the hells.

髑 A skull 髑髏.

Body, limbs; corpus, corporeal; the substance, the essentials; to show respect to, accord with.

體內方便 體外方便 A term of the Tiantai school indicating that the 'expedient' methods of the 方便 chapter of the Lotus Sūtra are within the ultimate reality of that sūtra, while those of other schools are without it.

體大 Great in substance, the 'greatness of quintessence' or the fundamental immutable substance of all things; cf. Awakening of Faith 起信論.

體性 ātmakatva; dharmatā; the essential, or substantial nature of anything, self-substance.

體智 Fundamental wisdom which penetrates all reality.

體毘履 v. 他 Sthavira, elder, president.

體法 The universality of substance and the unreality of dharmas or phenomena, the view of the 通教 as contrasted with that of the 藏教.

體用 Substance, or body, and function; the fundamental and phenomenal; the function of any body.

體相 Substance and phenomena or characteristics, substance being unity and phenomena diversity.

體相用 The three great fundamentals in the Awakening of Faith— substance; characteristics, function.

體空 The emptiness, unreality, or immateriality of substance, the 'mind-only' theory, that all is mind or mental, a Mahāyāna doctrine.

體達 The universal fundamental principle all pervasive.

體露 Complete exposure or manifestation.

鷲 A vulture.

鷲山 Gṛdhrakūṭa, Vulture Peak near Rājagṛha, 'the modern Giddore, so called because Piśuna (Māra) once as assumed there the guise of a vulture to interrupt the meditation of Ānanda' (Eitel); more probably because of its shape,

or because of the vultures who fed there on the dead; a place frequented by the Buddha; the imaginary scene of the preaching of the Lotus Sūtra, and called 靈鷲山 Spiritual Vulture Peak, as the Lotus Sūtra is

also known as the 鷲峯偈 Vulture Peak gāthā. The peak is also called 鷲峯; 鷲頭 (鷲頭山); 鷲臺; 鷲嶽; 鷲巖; 靈山; cf. 耆闍崛山.

麟 The lin, or female unicorn.

麒麟 Male and female unicorns; the qilin in general.

麟角 The unicorn with its single horn is a simile for 獨覺 q.v. pratyekabuddha.



囑 To bid, order, tell, enjoin on.

囑累 To entrust to, lay responsibility upon.

攬 To seize, hold in the arms, embrace; monopolize.

蠶 The silkworm.

蠶繭 A silkworm's cocoon, simile of the self-binding effects of the passions, etc.

衢 A thoroughfare, a way, cf. 瞿 18.

讖 To prognosticate, prophesy; supplicate, fulfil, a password; translit. kṣa.

讖羅半尼 kṣārapāṇīya, ash-water, also intp. as an ash-coloured garment, v. 差 10.

Spirit, spiritual, energy, effective, clever.

靈供 Offerings to the spirits who are about the dead during the forty-nine days of masses.

靈像 Spirit-image, that of a Buddha or a god.

靈妙 Abstruse, mysterious; clever.

靈山 靈嶽; 靈驚山 The Spirit Vulture Peak, Gṛdhrakūṭa, v. 耆 10 and 驚 23.

靈感 靈應 Spirit-response, efficacious as in response to prayer.

靈瑞華 The udumbara flower, which appears but once in 3,000 years, a symbol of Buddha; v. 優曇 17.

靈界 The realm of departed spirits; the world of spirits.

靈神 The spirit, soul; an efficacious spirit.

靈祠 Spirit-temple, a monastery.

靈芝 The auspicious plant, emblem of good luck, or long life; name of 元照 Yuanzhao, q.v.

靈骨 Spirit-bones, Buddha-relics.

靈魂 A spirit, soul.

靈龕 A coffin.

鬭 To contest, fight.

鬭勝 To overcome in a contest of any kind.

鬭諍 Argument, debate, contention.

鬭諍王 The fractious king, Kalirāja, v. 羯 15.

鹽 Salt; translit. ya.

鹽天 Yama, v. 焰 12.

鹽牟那 (鹽牟尼那); 搖尤那 The river Yamunā, or Jamna, a tributary of the Ganges.

鹽香 Salt-smell, i.e. non-existent.

鼈 A turtle, tortoise.

鼈不愼ロ The tortoise, clinging to a stick with its mouth, being carried in fight, warned not to open its mouth to speak, yet did, fell and perished; moral, guard your lips.


觀 vipaśyanā; vidarśanā. To look into, study, examine, contemplate; contemplation, insight; a study, a Taoist monastery; to consider illusion and discern illusion, or discern the seeming from the

real; to contemplate and mentally enter into truth. 覺 is defined as awakening, or awareness, 觀 as examination or study. It is also an old tr. of the word Yoga; and cf. 禪 17. Guan is especially a doctrine of

the Tiantai school as shown in the 止觀 q.v.

觀世音 Regarder of the world's sounds, or cries, the so-called Goddess of Mercy; also known as 觀音; 觀世音善薩; 觀自在 (觀世自在); 觀尹; 光世音 (the last being the older form). Avalokiteśvara, v. 阿 8. Originally represented as a

male, the images are now generally those of a female figure. The meaning of the term is in doubt; it is intp. as above, but the term 觀自在 (觀世自在) accords with the idea of Sovereign Regarder and is not associated with sounds or cries.

Guanyin is one of the triad of Amida, is represented on his left, and is also represented as crowned with Amida; but there are as many as thirty-three different forms of Guanyin, sometimes with a bird, a vase, a willow

wand, a pearl, a 'thousand' eyes and hands, etc., and, when as bestower of children, carrying a child. The island of Putuo (Potala) is the chief centre of Guanyin worship, where she is the protector of all in distress,

especially of those who go to sea. There are many sūtras, etc., devoted to the cult, but its provenance and the date of its introduction to China are still in doubt. Chapter 25 of the Lotus Sūtra is devoted to

Guanyin, and is the principal scripture of the cult; its date is uncertain. Guanyin is sometimes confounded with Amitābha and Maitreya. She is said to be the daughter of king Śubhavyūha 妙莊王, who had her killed by

'stifling because the sword of the executioner broke without hurting her. Her spirit went to hell; but hell changed into paradise. Yama sent her back to life to save his hell, when she was miraculously

transported on a Lotus flower to the island of Poo-too'. Eitel.

觀世音母 Tara, the śakti, or female energy of the masculine Avalokiteśvara.

觀佛 To contemplate, or meditate upon, Buddha.

觀佛三昧 A samādhi on the characteristic marks of a Buddha.


觀像念佛 To contemplate the image of (Amitābha) Buddha and repeat his name.

觀在薩埵 Idem Guanyin Bodhisattva, v. 觀世音.

觀察 pravicaya; investigation; meditation on and inquiry into; vibhāvana, clear perception.

觀察門 Contemplation of the joys of Amitābha's Pure Land, one of the 五念門.

觀心 Contemplation of the mind, mental contemplation, contemplation of all things as mind.

觀念 To look into and think over, contemplate and ponder.

觀想 To meditate and think.

觀想念佛 To contemplate Buddha (especially Amitābha) in the mind and repeat his name.

觀慧 The wisdom which penetrates to ultimate reality.

觀智 Wisdom obtained from contemplation.

觀樹 Contemplating the tree (of knowledge, as Śākyamuni is said to have done after his enlightenment).

觀法 Methods of contemplation, or obtaining of insight into truth, cf. 六觀法 and 止觀.

觀無量壽經 An important sūtra relating to Amitayus' or Amitābha, and his Pure Land, known also as 佛說觀無量壽佛經. There are numerous commentaries on it. The title is commonly abbreviated to 觀經.

觀照 To be enlightened (or enlighten) as the result of insight, or intelligent contemplation.

觀照般若 The prajñā or wisdom of meditative enlightenment on reality.

觀禪 Contemplation and meditation, to sit in abstract trance.

觀空 To regard all things as unreal, or as having no fundamental reality.

觀行 Contemplation and (accordant) action; method of contemplating.

觀行佛 觀行卽 The third of the 六卽, the bodhisattva or disciple who has attained to the 五品 stage of Buddhahood.

觀解 To contemplate ultimate reality and unravel or expound it.

觀象 Describing an elephant from sight rather than 摸觀, as would a blind man, from feeling it; i.e. immediate and correct knowledge.

觀道 Contemplation, meditation, insight.

觀達 To penetrate to reality through contemplation.

觀門 Contemplation or meditation as one of the two methods of entry into truth, i.e. instruction and meditation; also one of the 六妙門.

觀門十法界 cf. 十 and 法.

觀頂三昧 The samādhi of the summit of contemplation, i.e. the peak whence all the samādhis may be surveyed.


讚 stotra, hymn, praise.

讚佛 To praise Buddha.

讚唄 A hymn in praise (of Buddha).

讚嘆 讚歎 To praise (Buddha).

讚禮 To praise and worship.

讚衆 The assembly of praise-singers, led by the 讚頭 precentor.

讚誦 To praise and intone; to sing praises; a tr. of Rigveda.

驢 khara, an ass, donkey.

驢年 Donkey-year, i.e. without date or period, because the ass does not appear in the list of cyclic animals.

驢脣 Kharostha, 'donkey lips, ' name of a sage celebrated for his astronomical knowledge.



鬮 A 1ot, tally, ballot, ticket, made of wood, bamboo, or paper; also ?. To cast lots for good or ill fortune.

鑽 To bore, pierce; an awl.

鑽水求酥 To churn water to get curd.


鸚 śuka; a parrot 鸚鵡.

鸚鵡賓 v. 甄 14 kiṃsuka, 'a tree with red flowers, said to be the butea frondosa. ' Eitel.


鬱 Dense, oppressive, anxious; translit. u sounds; cf. 郁, 優, 嗢, 殟, 烏.

鬱多摩 uttama, highest, chief, greatest.

鬱多羅 uttara, upper, higher, superior; subsequent; result; excess; the north; also 鬱恒羅, etc.

鬱多羅僧伽 (鬱多羅僧) uttarāsaṅga, an upper or outer garment; the seven-patch robe of a monk; also used for the robe flung toga-like over the left shoulder.

鬱多羅究留 Uttarakuru, also 鬱多羅拘樓; 鬱多羅鳩婁; 郁多羅拘樓; 郁恒羅拘瑠; 郁恒羅越; 郁軍越, etc. The northern of the four continents around Meru, square in shape, inhabited by square-faced people; explained by 高上作 superior to or higher than other

continents, 勝 superior, 勝生 superior life, because human life there was supposed to last a thousand years and food was produced without human effort. Also, the dwelling of gods and saints in Brahmanic

cosmology; one of the Indian 'nine divisions of the world, the country of the northern Kurus. situated in the north of India, and described as the countπy of eternal beatitude.' M. W.

鬱持 uda; also 鬱持迦; 優陀伽; 鳥娜迦 udaka; water.

鬱瑟尼沙 鬱失尼沙. 烏 uṣṇīṣa.

鬱頭藍 (鬱頭藍佛) Udraka Ramaputra; 鬱頭藍子; 鬱陀羅羅摩子 A Brahman ascetic, to whom miraculous powers are ascribed, for a time mentor of Śākyamuni after he left home.

鬱金 kuṅkuma, saffron; a plant from which scent is made.

鬱鉢羅 v. 優鉢羅 utpala, blue lotus.

鬱陀 cf. 憂 15 and 鬱頭.

鬱陀那 v. 優陀那 udāna, voluntary addresses.

鬱鞞羅 Uruvilvā, the forest near Gaya where Śākyamuni was an ascetic for six years; also defined as a stream in that forest; cf. 優樓頻螺.


麤 sthūla. course, rough, crude, unrefined, immature.

麤人 麁人 The immature man of Hīnayāna, who has a rough foundation, in contrast with the mature or refined 細人 man of Mahayana. Tiantai applied 麤 to the 藏, 通, and 別 schools, reserving 細 for the 圓 school.

麤惡苑 (麁惡苑) The rough and evil park, one of Indra's four parks, that of armaments and war.

麤惡語 Coarse, evil, slanderous language.

麤相 (麁相) The six grosser or cruder forms 六麤 of unenlightenment or ignorance mentioned in the 起信論 in contrast with its three finer forms 三細.

麤言 麁言 Coarse, crude, rough, immature words or talk; evil words. Rough, outline, preliminary words, e. g. Hīnayāna in contrast with Mahāyāna. The rough-and-ready, or cruder ' words and method of 誡 prohibitions from evil, in

contrast with the more refined method of 勸 exhortation to good.

Date: 2003.03.02 Author: Charles Muller

Creative Commons License

These pages are licensed under a Creative Commons License.