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An Early Tibetan Commentary on Atiśa’s Satyadvayāvatāra: Diplomatic Edition with Introduction and Notes

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by James B. Apple, Ph.D.

University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,

Canada

jbapple@ucalgary.ca


Abstract:


An earlier article (Apple 2013) identified for the first time a brief Tibetan commentary to Atiśa Dīpaṃkaraśrījñāna’s (982–1054 C.E.) well-known “Entry to the Two Realities” (Satyadvayāvatāra) and provided an annotated translation of the work. This article provides an annotated diplomatic edition of the Tibetan commentary. The manuscript of the commentary is a facsimile reprint located in the recently published “Collected Works of the Bka’-gdams-pas” (bka’ gdams gsung ’bum). The early Tibetan commentary to Atiśa’s Satyadvayāvatāra provides direct textual evidence of the beginnings of scholasticism in Tibet and offers an early perspective on the formative developments in the intellectual history of Tibetan Madhyamaka.


Keywords: Madhyamaka, Atiśa, Candrakīrti, satyadvaya, Bka’-gdams-pa

Introduction


An earlier article (Apple 2013) identified for the first time a brief commentary to Atiśa Dīpaṃkaraśrījñāna’s (982–1054 C.E.) well-known “Entry to the Two Realities” (Satyadvayāvatāra) and provided an annotated translation of the work. This article provides an annotated diplomatic edition of the Tibetan commentary known as the Dbu ma’i man ngag gi ’bum. The manuscript of the commentary is a facsimile reprint located in the recently published, but not easily accessible, “Collected Works of the Bka’-gdams-pas” (bka’ gdams gsung ’bum). This collection consists of a number of lost Tibetan manuscripts that were recovered from temples within Drepung (’bras spungs) and Sera monasteries outside of Lhasa in 2003. Currently comprised of over ninety volumes (with plans for another thirty volumes), the

collection contains works related to Buddhist scholastic topics such as Madhyamaka (dbu ma), Pramāṇa (tshad ma), and Abhidharma (chos mngon pa) by Tibetan authors ranging from the late 10th century up to the early 15th century who are generally considered bka’-gdams-pa authors. The volumes of these handwritten manuscripts were purportedly a part of the library of the fourth Tsang king, Kar-ma bstan-skyong dbang-po (r. 1622–42). The manuscript of the Dbu ma’i man ngag gi ’bum, whose content is a brief commentary on Atiśa’s Satyadvayāvatāra, consists of sixteen folios (Roman pp. 371-401), eight lines per page written in clear Tibetan headless cursive script (dbu med). The consistency of the handwriting in headless cursive script indicates the work of a single copyist. The manuscript has


the following orthographic characteristics:

• Consistent use of tsheg before a shad;

• Palatalisation of ma by ya btags before vowels i and e (e.g. myed, myin);

• Use of superabundant ’a rjes ’jug (e.g. mdo’, dbu’ ma ba);

• The use of double shad to mark a new section of the commentary;

• Consistent spelling of lasogs pa for la sogs pa;

Archaic transcription for Sanskrit terms (e.g. pan pi ta for paṇḍita [1a1, 1a5], bu ta for

buddha [6b3, 8a4], lo tsha ba for lo tsa’ ba).

The manuscript also often applies the la-don connector (la don gyi sgra, i.e., -r, -ru, -su, -tu, -du, -na, and -la) to the final letter of the preceding word in an unusual manner. For instance, kun rdzob du instead of kun rdzob tu. The numbering of the title page is given as “ka gcig” which reflects a mid-range chronological style of page numbering based on Scherrer-Schaub’s manuscript typology (2002). The opening siddham (mgo yig) marker, found at the beginning of each folio, is more developed indicating that the manuscript most likely dates from between the

15th-17th century, although the copied textual recension may be much older than this. The text is found in volume 19 of the Bka’ gdams gsung ’bum published by Dpal brtsegs bod yig dpe rnyig zhib ’jug khang (2003). Conventions

The Roman transliteration of Tibetan follows the Wylie System proposed in Turrel Wylie, “A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription,” Harvard Journal of Asian Studies 22 (1959): 261 267, with the following modifications:

I reversed gi-gu
M anusvāra
a’, i’, u’, e’, o’ long vowels (ā, ī, ū, ē, ō) expressed by subfixed a-chung
^a transliterated Tibetan letter Wylie “a” as consonantal element
s +ho sa with subscribed ha plus na-ro vowel sign.
$ page initial sign head mgo-yig
tsheg written with two dots

  • abc* Insertions: letter, word, or phrase written below the line [abc]xxx Scribal notation written above the line

[#a#] Page and line number
 

{abc} Written page number on left edge of folio The commentary is transcribed in normal print. I have used bold print for words which appear in the commentary that correspond with the Satyadvayāvatāra. I have used italic and bold print in brackets to represent the Satyadvayāvatāra which is not included in the actual manuscript. I have placed in notes the correspondence of the Satyadvayāvatāra verses with the editions of Lindtner (1981) and Ejima (1983) and have also noted major variants in the Satyadvayāvatāra, indicating

the reading I follow before the lemmata. I have used italic print in the commentary to indicate a direct citation from a textual source.


1A {ka$gcig} [1a1] dbu ma’i man ngag gi ’buM /


[1b1] $$$// // bcom ldan ’das ’jam pa’i dbyang la phyag ’tshal lo /

/spyir shes rab *can* chos kyi rjes su ’brang ba dang / dad pa can gang zag gi rjes su ’brang ba’i ’jug pa gnyis las / rang cag ni dad pa can du byas la yid ches pa’i gang zag gi rjes su ’brang ba kho nar grub pa cig tu [1b2] byed dgos pa yin / de la chos ’di kun yid ches pa’am dad pa’i gnas su ni grub pa kho na yin te / zab mo’i don la mos pa chen po dang ldan pa / rnal ’byor pa chen por gyur pa’i gsang phu bas gsol bag tab */* rig pa’i gnas thams cad la slob dpon gyi go ’phang brnyes pa’i pan pi ta1 chen pos mdzad / [1b3] rgya bod gnyis ka’i chos la go yul chen po brnyes


pa’i sgyur byed kyis bsgyur bas bzang bar nas bton pa yin la / dge bshes dgon pa bas ’di gzigs nas nga la ^a ti shas gdam ngag gnang ba bzhin tu ’di na bris nas ’dug gsung bar gda’ bas / khong rgyud dangs pa de kun la gnang ba bzhin du gsungs pa [1b4] yin pas[ra] / [[[nya]]] bden pa gnyis la ’jug pa las klu sgrub slob ma zla grags yin / /de las rgyud pa’i man ngag gis2 / /chos nyid bden pa rtogs par ’gyur ces gsungs pa’i man ngag kho na yang ’di bzhin du yin par nges par bzung la / [ra]dgon pa ba nyid kyis shes rab kyi gdams pa gnang ba’i [1b5] dus na yang ’di tshig sgros kyang ma nyams par gnang ba lags par gda’ / [na]chos ’di gsum tsam men pa go dang sla sla ’dra ba jo bo la kha ’phangs pa mang ba cig yod de ’di kun dang yang lugs ye mi ’dra pan pi ta’i chos ye men / jo bo’i gsung las go yul ’dra ba en re byung yin rkag rkog du byas pa [1b6] yin

1 pan pi ta ≈ Skt. paṇḍita 2 Satyadvayāvatāra [15d-16b]:

pas yid ches pa’i gnas pa yin / slob dpon gyi lugs kyi bden pa gnyis byas kyin khus gtab kyang mi dgos / chos ’di kun bzhin du byas pas chog / rgya gar skad dang bod skad ’di kun khong gi chos la med / [/ rgya gar skad du / sa tya dwa ya’a ba ta’ ra / bod skad du / bden pa gnyis la ’jug pa /]3 sngon gyi rgyal blon chen po rnams dang po lo tsha ba chen po rnams [1b7] bka’ bgros nas / dgos pa chen po gsum thugs la bzhag nas rgya gar *skad* klad la bris pa yin / de la dgos pa gsum ni rgya gar la byas pa shes shing byas pa drin du gzo ba’i gos pa dang / khungs btsun pa’i dgos pa dang / bod skad cig kyang dod du bris pa de skad ldob pa la phan pa’i don du [1b8] yin / de la dang po ni bod thams cad chos ma byung gi gong rol du mun rum dang ’dra zhing dud ’gro dang lag len khyad med par ’dug pa las / shes rab kyi snang ba cung zad shar zhing / mngon par mtho ba dnag nges par legs pa sgrub pa’i lag leng cung zad byed shes pa ’di chos kyi drin yin la


{gnyis} [2a1] $$ / / bden pa ’dod pa de tsam du bden pa zhes bya’i rnal mar na de nyid rigs pas dpyad na skye ba myed pa’i rang bzhin ye gnas gnas pa’i chos nyid don dam pa’i bden pa dang gnyis yin la / de ltar bden pa gnyis kyi mtshan nyid dang / don dam pa’i bden pa sgom pa’i dbang du byas na / de tshu rol [2a2] mthong ba’i tshad ma’am rtog ges mi rtogs pas / bla ma’i gdam ngag las rtogs par bya ba yin pa dang / de rtogs na grol bathob pa las kun rdzob kyi bden pa la rten pa’i thabs kyi cha rnams sngon du song zhing de dang bcas par bsgoms na rtogs par ’gyur gyi / stong pa nyid rgyas par thabs [2a3] ma bsgoms pas mi rtogs pa rnams thos bsam gyis chod par byas nas / dang po kun rdzob kyi bden pa la rten pa’i rgyu ’bras la yid ches pa’i sgo nas thabs kyi cha dag brtan par bya ste / bsod rnams bsags pa’i blo’i ’phul dang *:* bla ma’i gdam ngag la brten nas / thabs shes rab gnyis zung [2a4] du ’jug pa nyid du sgom pa la rims kyis zhugs

3 Satyadvayāvatāra (Ejima 1983, not included; Lindtner 1981, not included; D, 72a3; G, 90a4; Dpe, p. 1050; N, 65a3, sattya dwa ya’a ba ta’ ra)

pas / mthar skye ba myed pa’i don rtogs nas kun rdzob pa’i dngos po thams cad rgyun ’chad par ’gyur zhing / chos nyid la mnyam par bzhag pa’i ngang gis ngas la / de nyid kyi mthus gzhan gyi don bskal ba ji lta ba bzhin du lhun gyis grub [2a5] pa dang / rgyun mi ’chad par ’byung ba rnams gang zag gi blo la rim gyis skye ba yin la / btags nas sgra don gyi spyi blo la snang ba dang / gzhung yi ger bris pa gnyis kyang de zhes bya’o / [[[thugs rje chen po]] la phyag ’tshal lo]4 /lo tsha ba’i phyag ’tshal ba ni / rgya gar nyid du bsgyur bas bka’ bcad rgyus myed pa’i rang dga’ [2a6] yin la / dgos pa ni bar chad bzlog cing brtsams pa mthar phyin par gyur ba dang / ya rabs dang mthun pa gnyis yin te / lo tsha ba’i dgos pa grub zin / rang cag theg pa chen po rnams kyis bden pa gnyis rtogs par bya ba nyid du brtsams pa yin pas / de bzhin gshegs [2a7] pa mngon sum du byas la phyag btsal mchod pa phul la bden pa gnyis rtogs pa’i gags su gyur pa’i las sgrib rnams de bzhin gshegs pa dpang du gsol la bshags / bden pa gnyis kyi don ji lta ba bzhin du rtogs par mdzad du gsol zhes gsol ba btab na de’i byin brlabs kyis bden pa gnyis rtogs [2a8] par gyur ba las / de gnyis rtog ges gtan la dbab par mi nus pa’o / / [[[sangs rgyas]] rnams kyis5 chos bstan pa / /bden pa gnyis la yang dag brten / /’jig rten kun rdzob bden pa dang / /de bzhin don dam bden pa’o / / 1 //]6 [2a8] / / gzhung gi don las sangs rgyas rnams kyis chos bstan pa / /bden pa gnyis la yang dag rten / ces pa ni / sang rgyas kyi bka’i brjod bya thams cad bden pa gnyis su ’dus


[2b1] pa’i don te / spyir so so’i blo la yod kyang slob dpon klu sgrubjig rten du ma byon gyi gong rol tu theg pa che chung gnyis su gzhung btsugs pa myed / slob dpon gyis theg pa chen po’i

4 Satyadvayāvatāra homage (Ejima 1983, not included; Lindtner 1981, not included; Derge, 72a3; Gser bris ma, 90a4; Dpe bsdur ma, p. 1050; Snar thang, 65a3-4) 5 kyis Derge, Ejima 1983, Dpe bsdur ma] kyi Gser bris ma, Lindtner 1981, Snar thang 6 Satyadvayāvatāra, v. 1 (Ejima 1983: 361; Lindtner 1981:190).

gzhung btsugs pa yin / slob dpon thogs myed ma byon gong du theg pa chen po la dbu ma sems tsam gnyis med / [2b2] thogs myed kyis sems tsam bsgrubs / slob dpon phyogs kyi glang pojig rten du ma byon gyi gong du sems tsam la rnam pa bden rdzun gnyis myed / des rnam pa bden pa’i gzhung btsugs pa yin zhes jo bo gsung ba lags par gda’ / spyir sangs rgyas kyi bka’i mtshan nyid ’dus byas thams cad mi rtag pa dang / [2b3] zag pa dang bcas pa thams cad sdug bsngal ba dang / chos thams cad bdag myed pa dang / myan ngan las ’das pa zhi ba bzhi ston pa yin / sangs rgyas pa la spyir gzhung chen po bzhi las / nyan thos sde pa bco brgyad la rtsa ba’i sde bzhis bsdus pa la grub pa’i mtha’ ’dzin pa mdo’i sde pa [2b4] dang / bye brag tu smra ba gnyis yin / de


gnyis kyang mdzod kyi ti ka snga ma las rtsa ba bye brag tu bshad mtsho tshad mar byas nas shes bya’i gzhi lngajog pa dang / mdo’i sde tshad mar byas nas shes bya’i gzhi lnga ’jog pa’i khyad par gyis de skad ces bya ba ’byung / jo bo’i zhal nas sde pa bco brgyad [2b5] la sdom pa’i gtong ’thob dang / rten ’brel yan lag bcu gnyis kyi ’jog lugs dang / mthong ba’i lam gyi ye shes skad cig ma bcu drug po thams cad la ’dod lugs mi ’dra ba bco brgyad yod pa yin gsung bar gda’ / sde pa re re la yang bye brag smra ba’i grub pa’i mtha’ la mos pa [2b6] dang / mdo sde ba’i la mos pa gnyis gnyis kyang yod pa yin par gda’ / bka’ rtags kyi phyag rgya bzhi las ’dus byas thams cad mi rtag pa la skad cig ma’i mi rtag pa dang / rgyun gyi mi rtag pa gnyis te / rgyun gyi mi rtag pa sang rgyas pa thams cad kyis khas len / skad cig [2b7] ma sde pa kha cig gis khas mi len pa yang mdo’ sde’i rgyan las dgag pa gsungs te / kho rang gis rags pa ’di la ’khrul nas ma rtogs pas khas mi len par zad / dang po mi ’jig mthar mi ’gyur gyi rigs pa de nyid kyis skad cig mar grub pa yin / zag pa dang bcas pa thams cad sdug [2b8] bsngal ba thams cad kyis khas len pa yin / chos thams cad bdag myed pa la gnas ma bu’i sde pa lasogs pa kha cig gis phung po las de nyid dang gzhan du brjod du myed pa’i gang zag yod ces kyang zer te / grangs bod du ’gyur ba’i bstan bcos kun nas yang mi mthun pa khan na bzhugs / myang ngan las


3A {gsuM} [3a1] $$/ / ’das pa zhi ba thams cad kyis ’dod mod kyi / bye brag tu smra ba dang rnal ’byor sbyod pa bas rdzas su khas len / mdo sde pa dang dbu ma bas btags pa tsam du khas len / de dag kyang dang po gnyis kun rdzob kyi bden par ’du la / tha ma don dam pa’i bden pa / bdag myed [3a2] pa’i chos thams cad kyi spyi’i mtshan nyid de bzhin nyid kyi dbang du byas na don dam pa’i bden pa yin la / sdug bsngal gyi bden pa’i chos su byas na kun rdzob bden pa yin / spyir shes bya thams cad shes bya’i gzhi lngar bsdud pa las / rnal ’byor spyod pa bas snang ba gzugs kyi gzhi shes [3a3] khyad par brjod / sde pas gzhugs kyi gzhi / gtso bo sems kyi gzhi / sems las byung ba’i gzhi / ldan pa ma yin pa’i ’du byed kyi gzhi / mi ’gyur ba ’dus ma byas kyi gzhi zhes pa nyid las snang ba’i khyad par mi brjod / de la bye brag smra bas gzugs kyi gzhi chos [3a4] bco lnga’i bdag nyid / kha dog dang dbyibs gnyis ka rdzas su grub par ’dod / mdo sde bas chos bcu bzhi / kha dog rdzas su grub la / dbyibs btags yod yin ’dod de / de gnyis la rdzas dang btags pa’i khyad par yang rnyed par dka’ / sde pa gnyis khas kyang gtso bo [3a5] sems rnams par shes pa’i tshogs drug du ’dod la / sems tsam pas drug du ’dod pa dang / brgyad du ’dod pa dang / gcig tu ’dod pa’i lugs tha dad / dbu ma bas kyang phal cher drug tu bzhed / de dag gi skye lugs ni bye brag du smra bas rnam myed du skye bar ’dod la / mdo sde [3a6] bas rnam bcas su skye bar ’dod de / de yang sang rgyas kyi sa tshun chad du khyab par khas len pa las / ye shes grub pa lasogs pa zab mo’i don ston pa dag las sangs rgyas kyi sa la de gnyis ka las ’das pa nyid du bsgrubs pa yang gsungs / rnal ’byor spyod pa bas rnam pa bden par skye ba [3a7] dang rdzun par skye ba gnyis su ’dod de / dbu ma bas de lta bu’i rdzas su grub pa gang yang khas mi len / sems las ’byung ba kha cig gis btags yod du ’dod pa mdo’ sde rgyan las ’byung ba bzhin du yin la / kha cig gis rdzas su grub par ’dod / ldan pa ma yin pa’i ’du byed bye [3a8] brag tu smra bas

rdzas su grub par ’dod la / mdo’ sde pa yan chad kyis snga ma gsum po nyid kyi gnas skabs la btag par’ dod / / mi ’gyur ba ’dus ma byas la gzhung chen po bzhi char la ’dod lugs mi ’dra ba re yod / theg pa chen po ba dag kyang dang po mdo sde ba las rab tu

[3b1] byung ba’i ’am de’i dge bsnyen yin na / chos kyi tha snyad *thams cad* mdo sde ba bzhin du ’jog la / bye brag du smra ba las ni de’i tha snyad bzhin du ’jog pa yin gsungs / de la spyir sde pa’i sgrub pa’i mtha’ bden pa bzhi la brten nas bzhag sla bas / kun nas nyon mongs pa dang rnam par byang ba’i [3b2] rgyu ’bras gnyis kyis bsdus pa’i bden pa bzhi’i sgo nas gtan la ’bebs pa las / kun nas nyon mongs pa’i rgyu’i dus na yang byed *pa* pa’i bdag myed / las dang nyon mongs pa gnyis kun ’byung gi bden pa tsam / ’bras bu’i dus na’ang za ba po’i bdag myed de sdug bsngal tsam / [3b3] rnam par byang ba’i rgyu ’bras gnyis kyi dus na yang lam sgom pa po dang grol ba po’i bdag myed / lam dang ’gog pa tsam zhig du ’dod pa las de dag kyang bden pa gnyis mtha’ gnyis dang bral ba’i don gyi dbu’ mar ’jogs lugs sde pa nyid la yang yod la / dbu ma bas kyang bden pa dang po gsum [3b4] ni kun rdzob kyi bden par bsdus la / ’gog pa’i bden pa ni don dam pa’i bden pas bsdus pa rigs pa drug bcu pa’i ’grel pa dang / dbu ma la ’jug pa lasogs par gsungs so / /

[3b4] / / rnal ’byor spyod pa’i grub pa’i mtha’ mtshan nyid gsum gyi sgo nas bzhag sla [3b5] bas de’i thad snyad kyi ’jog pa las / ’byang ba dang ’byung ba las ’gyur ba gzugs kyi gzhi dang / de ’dzin pa’i rnam par shes pa’i tshogs drug ni kun tu btags par ’dod / sems kyi gzhi dang [sa]sems las byung ba’i gzhi rnam par rig pa tsam gyi gzhan dbang dang / ldan pa ma yin [3b6] pa’i ’du byed kyi gzhi de nyid kyi gnas skabs la btags pa / mi ’gyur ba’i ’dus ma byas kyi gzhi yongs su grub par ’dod pa yin / / de nyid kyis kyang bden pa gnyis mtha’ gnyis dang bral ba’i don gyi dbu’ ma zhes kyang ’dod de / kun du btags pa ni kun rdzob du yang myed pa’am kha cig

[3b7] log pa’i kun rdzob du ’dod la / rnam bden pa ltar na rnam par shes pa nyid yul gyi rnam par skyes par ’dod la / rnam rdzun pa ltar na rnam par shes pa nyid yul gyis kha ma bsgyur ba shel dag pa lta bu yin la / rnam pa sna tshog snang ba ’di myed pa snang bar ’dod pa’am / [3b8] yang na sna tshogs su snang ba ’di shes pa nyid de ltar snang ba yin la / snang ba de nyid shes pa ’khrul ba’i rang bzhin te / rnam par rig pa tsam snga ma la brten nas phyi ma ’byung ba gzhan gyi dbang ni kun rdzob kyi bden pa / de la des stong pa’i chos nyid de bzhin nyid lasogs pa’i ’dus ma byas

{bzhi} [4a1] $$/ /kyi gzhi mi gyur ba’i yongs su grub pa dang / de yul du byed pa’i mnyam par gzhag pa’i ye shes dang / phyin ci ma log pa’i yongs su grub pa gnyis ni don dam pa’i bden par ’dod pa yin gsungs / sngar ni dag pajig rten pa’i ye shes bzhan dbang *yul* du byed pa yang phyin ci ma [4a2] log pa’i yongs su grub pa don dam pa’i bden par ’dod pa yin / slob dpon shan ti bas ni mtshan nyid gsum char la yang rjod pa’i bdag nyid kun rdzob kyi bden pa dang / don dam pa’i bden pa gnyis gnyis su yang yum gyi man ngag las gsungs pa las / dbu ma ba ltar na tha snyad dang des rjod [4a3] pa’i gzhi thams cad ni kun rdzob kyi bden pa ste / kun tu btags pa ni log pa’i kun rdzob baM ’jig rten pa’i kun rdzob ces bya la / phyin ci ma log pa’i yongs su grub pa yang gzhan dbang du ’du bas gzhan thams cad ni kun rdzob kyi gnas lugs yin zhing / mi ’gyur ba’i yongs su grub [4a4] pa don dam pa’i bden par bsdus par ’dod pa yin / / [4a4] / / de nas sangs rgyas kyi bka’i brjod bya thams ca ni bden pa gnyis kyis bsdus la / bden pa gnyis po de snyid sa bcu pa’i mdo’ lasogs pa las tshan nyid kyi bden pa lasogs pa mang po yang gsung pa las / [4a5] ’di dang gang yin zhe na / ’jig rten kun rdzob pa dang / de zhin don dam bden pa’o7 zhes smos te / dbu ma’i man ngag las ’byung ba zhin du phung po dang khams dang

7 Satyadvayāvatāra, v. 1cd (Ejima 1983:361; Lindtner 1981:190).

skye mched kyis bsdus pa’i chos thams cad tshu rol mthong ba’i ngor byas nas rgyu dang ’bas bu lasogs pa ji ltar rnam [4a6] par bzhag pa ni / ’jig rten pas bden par ’dod pa de tsam du bden pa zhes bya la / ’das pa dag gi kun rdzob kyi gnas lugs thugs su chud pas rdzun pa nyid du snang gi bden par sgro ’dogs pa dang rlom pa myed pas kun rdzob tsam zhes bya ste / brda la byang ba gzugs brnyan la lta [4a7] ba’am nam mkha’i ’ja’ bzhin du snang ba yin la / de dag la snang ba la yang don byed nus pa ni yod de / de’ang sgyu ma’i don byed nus pa tsam mo / /bden pa gnyis kyi don la blo gros ma ’khrul ba zla ba grags pas kyangjig rten pas bden par ’dod pa tsam zhig la kun rdzob kyi bden pa zhes [4a8] gsungs kyi rdzas su ma grub par gsung so / /

[4a8] / / don dam pa’i bden pa ni don gyi dam pa ste / sems can ’khor bar ’ching ba’i rtsa ba dngos par ’dzin pa yin la / de spong ba’i gnyen po don dam skye ba myed pa’i don rtogs pa yin *pas* yang / don du gnyer ba’am

[4b1] sgrub par bya ba’i gtso bo de yin pa’am / ye shes dam pa’i yul du gyur pas na yang don dam pa ste / kun rdzob kyi gnas lugs ye nas skye ba myed pa’i don to / / [[[kun rdzob]] rnam pa gnyis su ’dod / log pa dang ni yang dag go // dang po gnyis te chu zla dang / / grub mthangan pa’i rtog pa’o // 2 //]8 [4b1] / / de la kun rdzob ni gnyis yin la / de yang log pa dang yang dag gnyis las / dang po [4b2] log pa ni gnyis te / chu zla lasogs sgyu ma’i dpe brgyad ni zla ba dngos dang smyig rgyus chu dngos kyi don byed nus pas stong pas ’jig rten pas log par ’dod pas na log pa ste / snang du ’dra yang don byed dag /nus pa’i phyir dang mi nus phyir / yang dag yang dag ma yin pa’i / /

8 Satyadvayāvatāra, v. 2 (Ejima 1983: 361; Lindtner 1981).

[4b3] kun rdzob kyi ni dbye ba byas9 ces pa dang / ji ltar smyig rgyu chu ’dra yang / /chu myin10 ces gsung pa bzhin du yin gyi / dpe’ brgyad nyid kyi gnas lugs ni log pa ma yin te / dag pajig rten pa’i ye shes kyis kyang de bzhin du mkhyen pa yin no / /des na bden pa [4b4] gnyis ka’i dper byed pa yin te / sgyu ma’i rta glang lasogs pa sna tshogs su snang yang de dag dngos kyis stong pa dang ’dra ba ni don dam pa’i dpe ste / ji ltar snang ba ’di nyid rig pas brtags na ci’i ngo bor yang ma grub pa dang ’dra la / de dag dngos kyis stong pa bzhin du sgyu ma’i rgyu rkyen las [4b5] de dag du snang ba ni kun rdzob kyi dpe ste / brtags na ma grub bzhin du snang bas so / /des na slob dpon gyis kyang/ gang dag rten nas dngos po rnams / /chu’i zla ba lta bur ni / / yang dag ma yin log min par / /’dod par de dag lhas mi phrogs11 zhes gsung so / / [4b6] / / grub mthangan pa’i rtog pa yang / log pa’i kun rdzob ste / rnam rig pa man chad thams cad la de skad ces bya la / de dag gis yang dag du btag pa’i yul de dag ni kun rdzob du yang myed pa yin la / rtog byed kyi blo de dag la ’dir de skad ces bya ste / grub mtha’am lta ba [4b7] phyin ci log spong ba’am dang / ’ching ba grol bar ’dod pa las / de dag gis phyin ci log ’phel zhingching ba dam du byed kyi / ji ltar btags pa bzhin du yang dag pa’i don mi byed pa’i phyir ro / /

[4b7] / / chu zlas spre’u rnams khron par shi ba dang / smigs sgyus ri dags rnams kha btags pa dang / grub mthangan pas ’khor bar bcings shing ngan song du lhun ba’i rgyu don ma


9 Satyadvayavibhaṅgakārikā, verse 12: snang du ’dra yang don byed dag / nus pa’i phyir dang mi nus phyir/ /yang dag yang dag ma yin pa’i {Eckel pas} / /kun rdzob kyi ni dbye ba byas. (Tibetan, Eckel 1987:163) 10 Ratnāvalī, 1.54a-b: ji ltar smig rgyu chu ’dra yang {Hahn, ba} // chu min don du ma yin pa ; Skt. marīcis toyasadṛśī yathā nāmbho na cārthataḥ (Hahn 1982:22) 11 Yuktiṣaṣṭikā, verse 45: gang rten {brten} nas dnogs po rnams / /chu yi zla ba lta bur ni / yang dag ma yin log min par/ /’dod pa de dag lhas {em. ltas} mi phrogs {var. ’phrogs} / The reading in 45a, rten, follows the paracanonical edition of Pa tshab’s translation. See Scherrer-Schaub 1991:15.

yin pa ni shin tu yang byas te / de’i ngos nas yang dag kun rdzob kyi mtshan nyid dang ldan pas yang dag nyid do / /

[4b8] / / grub mthangan pa grangs can pas de kho na nyi shu rtsa lngar ’dod pa dang / 5A

{lnga} [5a1] $$ / / bye brag pas tshig gi don drug dang / rigs byed kyi mtha’ pas snang ba ’di thams cad bdag chen po cig gi rang bzhin du ’dod de / nyi zla gnyis ni de’i myig / nam mkha’ ni de’i rgyab / sa gzhi ni lto ba / phyogs bzhi ni de’i yan lag / skar ma rnams ni [5a2] de’i ba spu / zhes spyan ras gzigs kyi brtul zhugs kun nas gsung te / de dag gis rang cag la gnod pa chung / bon po’i gzhung ’di bye brag pa’i le’u lag tu yig snying dag las ’byung ste / rtog ge la ’bar ba las de thams cad *sgong nga las* srid par ’dod pa byung / bon gyi kyang [5a3] de bzhin du ’dod pas yin tshod du ’dug / de myen12 phyi rol bar gzhung btsugs pa myed te / bag chags ngan pa rang chas su byung ba’i lta ba phyis byas zer ba dang / las ’bras myed par lta ba pu to ba dang ’grogs pa de kun ’dra ba’i gnod pa yod / da lta’i rnal ’byor ’di kun [5a4] ’dra ba sangs rgyas kyi gzhung la ye myed / rang gi sde pa dag gis btsugs lugs ni sngar bstan pa dag bzhin du yin te / de dag ni grub pa’i mtha’ gong ma gong mas log par ’dod pa yin no / / [ma brtags gcig pu nyams dga’ba’i / skye ba dang ni ’jig13 pa’i chos / /don byed nus dang ldan pa ni / /yang dag kun rdzob yin par ’dod // 3 //]14

[5a4] / / yang dag pa’i kun rdzob gang zhe na / ma brtags gcig pu zhes bya ba [5a5] smos te / skye ba dang ’jig pa’i chos don byed nus pa dang ldan pa zhes pa ni sde pa dang / rnal ’byor spyod pa rdzas su khas len pa dag gis kyang ’dod pa las / ma brtags gcig pu nyams dga’ zhes pa ’dis khyad par du byed de / brtags na rigs pa’i khur mi theg pas kun rdzob srab mo


12 Tib. myen ≈ min 13 ’jig Derge, Ejima 1983, Gser bris ma, Lindtner 1981, Dpe bsdur ma] ’jigs Snar thang 14 Satyadvayāvatāra, v. 3 (Ejima 1983: 362; Lindtner 1981).

[5a6] nyid du grub pa’i don yin / dbu’ ma’i gzhung nyid las kyang / rdzas su ma grub na kun nas nyon mongs pa dang rnam par byang ba’i chos rnams kyi bcings pa dang grol ba nyid kyang mi ’thad pas / don dam par ni ma grub la kun rdzob du rdzas nyid du khas len pa bzhin du bshad par mngon pa yang [5a7] yod de / gnas lugs ni kun rdzob ces pa rdzun pa’i don yin la / rdzas su grub pa myed bzhin du kun nas nyon mongs pa dang / rnam par byang ba’i rgyu ’bras kyang ma ’khrul bar gnas pas na zab ces bya ste / myig rab rib kyis nyams pa la skra shad du snang ba dang /[5a8] rnam par rtogs pa’i rab rib kyis shes rab kyi myig nyams pa la ’jig rten sna tshogs su snang ba gnyis ni khyad par myed la / mdo’ sde dag las dper na skye bo’ mang po’i mdun du sgyu ma’i mkhan po zhig gis sgyu ma’i skyes bu zhig sprul te / byang chub sems bskyed pa nas bla na myed pa’i byang chub


[5b1] kyi bar la bkod na de ji snyam du sems / sus kyang su yang byang chub du sems bskyed pa yod dam zhes smos / myed par khas blangs pa dang / dang po byang chub du sems bskyed pa nas sangs rgyas kyi bar thams cad kyang de dang ’dra bar gsungs pa lasogs pa’i sgyu ma’i rkyen gyi tshogs pa las sgyu ma’i bye brag mi [5b2] ’dra ba sna tshogs ’byung ba bzhin du / rdzas su grub pa myed kyang ji srid du dngos pordzin pa yod ring la / kun rdzob kyi rgyu rkyen las ’bras bu kun rdzob pa rnams ’byung ba bsnyon du med de / da lta de lta bu’i sgyu ma rlabs can byar yang mi ’dod / bstan pa zhig nas ye rang mi btub pa yin [5b3] gsungs / /

[5b3] / / spyir shes bya la ’dus byas dang ’dus ma byas gnyis las / ’dus byas la kun rdzob ces bya la / ’dus byas zhes pa ni rgyu ’bras rten cing ’brel par byung ba ste / rgyu dang rkyen la brten nas skye ba dang ni / skyes nas ’jigs pa’i chos / rang rang dang [5b4] mthun pa’i don byed nus pa dang ldan pas ni / yang dag kun rdzob yin par ’dod la / kun rdzob du khas blangs nas don byed nus pas stong pa skye ba myed pa nyid kyi steng du gtong ba dang / rdza su grub par


’dod pa gnyi ga ni mthar ltung ba kho na ste / kun rdzob rdzas su grub pa yang ye ma yin15 [5b5] la / so so dang mthun pa’i ’bras bu skyed pa’i don byed kyang nus shing / blo sngon du gtong ba’i byed pa yang myed la / rgyu rkyen gyi tshogs pa yod pa tsam las ’bras bu ’byung ba yang yod pa ste / rgyu myi’i dge ba las ’bras bu ngan song gsum du skye zhing / bde ’gro dag du skyes na [5b6] yang rnam smyin dang rgyu mthun gnyis gnyisbyin pa lasogs pa dang / zag bcas kyi dge ba las bde ’gro dang / zag pa myed pa’i lam dag las ’phags pa’i ’bras bu rnams ’byung ba’o / /

[5b6] / / de la kun rdzob tsam du yang myed pa’i dpe’ ni nam mkha’i me tog dang mo gsham [5b7] gyi bu lasogs pa yin la / don dam par myed bzhin du kun rdzob du snang ba’i dpe’ ni sgyu ma lasogs pa ste / rdzas su grub pa myed bzhin du nyes dmyigs can dang / phan yon can gyi rgyu las nyes dmyigs can dang phan yon can gyi ’bras bu ’byung la / de la brten nas phan yon [5b8] ’byung ba yang yod la / de dag kyang rgyu’i ngos nas bltas na rgyu nye tshe brgyud pa ’dra / ’bras bu’i ngos nas bltas na ’bras bu nye tshe brgyud pa ’dra ste / phan tshun ltos pa tsam mo / / des na slob dpon gyis khyod kyi skye ba thams cad ni / / sgyu ma’i skye ba lta bur mkhyen zhes bstod 6A

drug [6a1] $$/ / pa bzhin du yin la / chos kyi dbyings kyi bstod pa las kyang kun rdzob tsam du yang myed pa’i dper ri bong gi rwa dang / don dam par myed la kun rdzob tu yod pa’i dpe’ / ba glang gi rwa yin no zhes gsungs la / ’jig rten pa dag kyang til mar ’dod pas bye ma spangs nas til [6a2] ’tshir ba la ’jug / sman gyi phyir bse ru dang rgya ru la ’jug gi ri bong gi rwa la mi ’jug / gzhu’i phyir g.yag rgod kyi rwa tshol gyi / ri bong gi rwa mi ’tshol ba mthong bas grub pas ’jig rten pa grub mthas blo ma bsgyur ba dag gis ji ltar khas len pa de bzhin du log pa

15 yin is written vertically at the end of the folio line.

dang yang dag kyang rnam par [6a3] bzhag par bya ste / des dbang po rab rib kyis nyams pa la skra shad du snang ba ni log pa’i kun rdzob tu ’dod la / dbang po ma nyams pa la kha dogs lasogs par snang ba ni yang dag par ’dod pa tsam zhig go / /spyir dbu’ ma thams cad kyis sgrib par byed pa’i don gyis na kun rdzob ces zer te / [6a4] rang bzhin mthong ba la sgrib par byed pa nyon mongs pa can gyi ma rig pa dang / nyon mongs pa can ma yin pa’i ma rig pa gnyis las / de gnyis la kun rdzob ces bya’i bden pa zhes mi bya / log pa’i kun rdzob la yang bden pa zhes mi bya / srid pa’i yan lag du gtogs pa nyon mongs pa can [6a5] gyi ma rig pa’i dbang gis ’jig rten pa la snang ba la de bzhin du bden par zhen pa la de’i ngos nas bden pa bden pa zhes bya la / ’phags pa snang ba dang bcas pa dag la shes bya’i sgrib pa’i dbang gis snang ba yod kyang snga ma bzhin du bden par zhen pa myed pas / de la yang kun rdzob tsam zhes bya’i bden pa zhes [6a6] mi bya la / ^a’ rya byang chub sems dpa’ mnyam bzhag du don dam skye myed gzigs pa dang / rjes la sgyu ma tsam zhig du snang ba dang bcas pa des de gnyis sa bcu dag du goms par byas pa las rims kyis shes bya’i sgrib pa je srab tu song ba las mthar rjes kyi snang ba yang ’gags te bud dha’i sa la kun [6a7] rdzob kyi rnam par bzhag pa gang yang mi bzhed pa ni ’di kun gyi gzhung yin la / sang rgyas kyi sa la rjes kyi snang ba bzhed pa yang yod de / yod kyang yon tan thams cad kyi rten dang sems can thams cad kyi gsos su gyur pa cig las gnod pa myed la / myed kyang gzhan don rgyun mi ’chad cing lhun [6a8] gyis grub par ’byung yang dge bshes ston pa gsungs pa bzhin yin / /

[6a8] / / dge bshes ston pa’i zhal nas dag pajig rten pa’i rjes shes la yang dag pa’i kun rdzob zer ba yin lhab ston la gsungs par gda’ ste / kun rdzob kyi gnas lugs snang ba tsam po de nyid yin la / bden pa gnyis


[6b1] kyi don legs par rtogs na zung du ’jug pa’i lam zhes bya ste / de la snga ma nas goms pa’i sa bon yod cing tshogs bsags la ’di la yang dge ba’i bshes gnyen gyis zin pa cig dgos / de dag ’dzom pas de gnyis rtogs na / bden gnyis rnam dbye shes pa dag / / thub pa’i dka’ la myi rmongs te / / [6b2] de dag ma lus tshogs bsags nas / /phun tshogs pha rol ’gro ba nyid16 ces pa’i tshul gyis thub pa’i bka’i brjod bya thams cad bden pa gnyis su ’dus pa sngar bstan pa bzhin du yin pas de la mi rmongs la / ma rmongs pa’i dgos pa kun rdzob la ma rmongs pas de la brten nas bsod nams kyi tshogs bsags shing / [6b3] don dam pa la ma rmongs pa’i sgo nas bdag myed gnyis bsgoms te ye shes kyi tshogs bsags pas mthar de gnyis rdzogs pa dang / phun sum tshog pa thams cad kyi pha rol bu ta’i17 sar ’gro ba’o //

[6b3] // spyir sde pa’i grub mthakun nas nyon mongs pa dang / rnam par byang ba’i rgyu ’bras bden [6b4] pa bzhis bsdus pa dag la brjod bya mang ste / kun nas nyon mongs pa’i rgyu zag pa dang bcas pa’i las dge mi dge dang / de kun nas blong ba’i rkyen nam rtsa ba’i rgyu nyon mongs pa dang / nye ba’i nyon mongs pa rnams la yang brjod par bya ba mang / ’bras bu sdug bsngal gyi bden pa la yang sems can [6b5] skye ba ’gro ris lngas bsdus pa dang / skye ba’i gnas snod kyi ’jig rten gnyis kyis bsdus pa la dpag du myed / rnam par byang ba’i rgyu bslab pa gsum / las dang nyon mongs pa sunbyin pa’i gnyen po *lhag pa’i* tshul khrims dang / mgo gnon pa’i gnyen po sems kyi dang / rtsa ba nas [6b6] spong ba’i gnyen po shes rab gsum car la yang brjod par bya ba mang / ’bras bu byang chub gsum gyi spangs pa dang yon tan gyi cha dag las kyang mang / de bas mtshan nyid gsum nyung / de bas bden pa nyis nyung ste / rtsa zungs su bya ba dbu ma’i man ngag gi tshig gnyis po de nyid tsam [6b7] las myed pa yin / gzhan gyi ’dod pa dgag pa las ’phros nas gzhung chen po dag kyang byung ba yin / ming dang tshig dang ye ge’i


16 Satyadvayavibhaṅgakārikā, verse 2: bden gnyis rnam dbye shes pa dag / thub pa’i dka’ {em. bka’} la rmongs te / de dag ma lus tshogs bsags nas / / phun tshogs pha rol ’gro ba nyid / (Tibetan, Eckel 1987:155). 17 bu ta ≈ Skt. buddha

tshogs tha snyad dang / des brjod pa’i skye ba myed pa lasogs pa la brten nas don dam rtogs pa ’byung bas rnam grangs kyi don dam zhes kyang shar ba dag las ’byung [6b8] ste / rang bzhin

mtshon pa’i chos nyid rang bzhin skye ba myed pa de la don dam pa zhe bya / pu to ba’i zhal nas bden pa gnyis sprags klungs bzhin du spangs pa yin pa la / rang cag nyin srib la ’byar ba bzhin du song nas 7A

{bdun} [7a1] $$/ /kun rdzob du las ’bras lasogs pa yod yas tsa na rdzas su ’dzin / don dam pa stong byas tsa na kun rdzob kyi las ’bras la yang skar pa ’debs / slob dpon pas kun rdzob bya ba phu byas pas yal nas ’gro ba tsam zhig tu gsung te / rang cag la ye gting tshugs pa [7a2] bzhin du ’dug na gsung pa’o / / [[[dam]] pa’i don ni gcig nyid de / /gzhan dag rnam pa gnyis su ’dod / cir yang ma grub chos nyid de / /gnyis dang gsum sog ga la ’gyur / / 4 / /]18

[7a2] / / don dam pa’i bden pa ni chos nyid stong pa nyid kyi rang bzhin yin pas/ dbye ba myed pa nyid du bstan pa ni don pa’i don ni gcig nyid de zhes pa ste / chos nyid rang la dbye ba myed pa nyid kyis rigs can du ma dang theg pa tha dad myed par yang dam [7a3] pa’i chos pad ma dkar po las gsung la / rigs pa drug bchu pa’i ’grel par mthong rgyu *g*cig las myed pas mthong lam skad cig ma gcig yin par yang gsung pa yin / de ni ma bcos pa’i rnas lugs yin zhing de’i ngang du gur na nyams par ’gyur ba myed pas don du gnyer bar bya ba’i dam pa [7a4] ste / mtshan nyid myed par mtshan nyid gcig par yin la / zhan dag rnal ’byor spyod pa ba dag gis sngar bstan pa bzhin du / ’gyur ba myed pa’i yongs su grub pa’i dang / phyin ci ma log pa’i yongs su grub pa don dam gnyis su ’dod pa las de ni rigs pas phye na ’thad pa ma yin [7a5] pas /

18 Satyadvayāvatāra, v. 4 (Ejima 1983: 362; Lindtner 1981:190).

dge bshes ston pa dang khu ’dol ’bel gtam mdzad pa’i dus su don dam pa’i bden pa ci yang ma yin par gsungs pa’am / mdzod khur gang yang ci yang ma yin pa gsungs ba bzhin du gzugs can dang de ma yin pa dang rgyu dang ’bras bu dang shes pa dang shes bya lasogs pa cir yang ma grub pa’i [7a6] chos nyid yin pas na / bgrang bya’i dngos par ma grub pas gnyis dang gsum lasogs pa’i grangs su la ’gyur ces pa’o / / [bstan pa’i tshig gis19 sbyor ba yis / skye med ’gag med sogs pas mtshon // don dam thad dad med tshul gyis / / chos can med cing chos nyid med / / 5 //]20

[7a6] // dbye ba myed na mdo’ sde dag las skye ba myed pa dang ’gag pa myed pa stong pa nyid dang / mtshan ma myed pa dang smon pa myed pa dang / [7a7]de zhin nyid dang / yang dag pa’i mtha’ dang chos nyid ces pa lasogs pa’i rnam grangs mang pos gsungs pa de dag ji ltar yin zhe na / bstan pa’i tshig gi spyor ba yis / /skye myed ’gag myed lasogs pas mtshon ces smos te / gdul bya’i bsam pa mi ’dra ba dag gi sgro ’dogs [7a8] gcad pa’i dbang gis zla ba ston pa’i mdzub mo bzhin du rnam grangs kyi tshig gis bstan gyi / don dam pa nyid kyi dbang du byas na sgro ’dogs su ma bcad pa’i ldog pa du ma yang yod pa ma yin no / /

[7a8] // don dam pa ni spros pa thams cad dang bral ba yin wang tha dad pa gang yang myed


[7b1] pa’i tshul lam mtshan nyid kyis rang gi ngo bo la dbyer myed par ma zad chos can dang chos nyid gnyis kyang myed / de yang spros pa dang bcas pa gnyis kyi spyod pa yin pas don dam pa’i steng du phyin pa ma yin no /


19 gis Derge, Ejima 1983, Lindtner 1981, Dpe bsdur ma] gi Gser bris ma, Snar thang

20 Satyadvayāvatāra, v. 5 (Ejima 1983: 362; Lindtner 1981:190).


[[[stong pa nyid]] la thad dad ni / /cung zad yod pa ma yin te / /rtog21 med tshul gyis rtogs pas na / /stong nyid mthong zhes tha snyad gdags // 6 // ma mthong ba nyid de mthong bar / /shin tu zab pa’i mdo las gsungs / 7ab]22 / der ma zad yul dang yul can gyi sgo nas kyang stong pa nyid la tha dad ni / cung zad yod pa ma yin te / de yang gnyis kyi spyod pa yin pas so / /

[7b2] chos can dang chos nyid dang yul dang yul can gyi sgo nas rnam par bzhag tu yod na / chos can gang zhig la spros pa bcad nas bsgom pa dang / bsgoms pas mnyam bzhag dang rjes gnyis la chos nyid dang chos can gnyis [7b3] rtog pathad pa zhig na / de dag gang gi sgo nas kyang rnam par bzhag tu myed na don dam / sgom pa dang bsgoms pas rtogs pa gang yang mi ’thad par ’gyur ro zhe na / rtogs myed tshul gyis zhes pa ste / spros pa dang bral ba don dam pa de nyid de bzhin gshegs pa’i lung dang / [7b4] dge ba’i bshes gnyen gyi gdam ngag la brten nas thos shing rang gi tshul bzhin yid la byed pas bsams pas nges pa thob pa ni lta ba zhes bya la / de nyid kyi thabs *kyi cha* dang ma bral bar yang dang yang du goms par byas pa las / goms pa mthar phyin pa’i dus su / khang pa zhi pas de’i nang [7b5] gi nam mkhanam mkhabyin po dang ’dres pa’am / chu dang chu ’dres pa’am / mar dan mar ’dres pa bzhin du dngos pordzin pa’i sgro ’dogs zad pas chos kyi dbyings kyi ngang du ’gyur pa tsam zhig la rtogs myed tshul gyi rtogs pas na / stong nyid mthong zhes tha snyad gdags ces so / / [7b6] de ltar ces shes snyam na ma thong ba nyid de mthong bar chos yang dag par sdud pa lasogs pa shin tu zab pa’i mdo las gsung te / lang kar gshegs pa las kyang / / gang gis nga la sgra shes shing / / gang gis nga la gzugs su mthong / /log par spong bar zhugs pa ste / /skyes bo des [7b7] ni nga mi


21 rtog Derge, Ejima 1983, Gser bris ma, Snar thang, Dpe bsdur ma] rtogs Lindtner 22 Satyadvayāvatāra, v. 6-7ab (Ejima 1983: 362; Lindtner 1981:190).

mthong / /sang rgyas rnams ni chos kyi sku / / ’dren pa rnams ni chos nyid lta23 / /zhes gsungs la / ’phags pa sdud pa las kyang / ’dus byas ’dus ma byas dang dkar nag chos / /shes rab rnam par bshigs nas rngul tsam mi dmyigs tshe / / ’jig rten [7b8] dag na shes rab pha rol phyin drangs ’gro /nam mkha’ gang la’ang chung zad mi gnas de dang ’dra24 ces pa dang / nam mkha

mthong zhes sems can tshig tu rab rjod pa / nam mkha’ ji ltar mthong ste don ’di brtag par gyis / /de ltar chos mthong ba yang de bzhin gshegs pas bstan / 8A {brgyad} [8a1] $$/ / mthong ba dpegzhan gyis ni bsnyad par nus ma yin25 ces gsung la / yum bar ma lasogs pa las kyang yum la yid ches pas gzugs la yid mi ches zhes gsungs la / ’jig rten pha rol mthong ba rnams kyis bden pa’i kun rdzob ma thong ba nyid sangs rgyas kyi gnyis su myed pa’i [8a2] ye shes kyis don dam pa mthong zhes bya ba’i mthong rgyu nyid du grub pa cig ni yod pa ma yin te / jo bo la snang ba mi sel ba dang sel ba gang lugs zhus pa la / mi blo dang ldan pa’i myi’i *myig* rab rib kyis zin pa’i dpe’ gsungs nas / yas dag rang spyod gsung pa la / gnyis


23 Actually from the Vajracchedikā. For a discussion on these verses see Almogi 2009: 252n46. Cf Vajracchedikā, 26, k.1–2ab: yo māṃ rūpeṇa cādrākṣur yo māṃ ghoṣeṇa cānvaguḥ / mithyāprahāṇapraṛtā na māṃ drakỵanti te janāḥ / 1 / dharmato buddho draṣṭavyo dharmakāyā hi nāyakāḥ /. 24 Prajñāpāramitāratnaguṇasaṃcayagāthā 7.3: Tib. gang tshe ’dus byas ’dus ma byas dang dkar nag chos / /shes rab rnam par bshigs nas rdul tsam mi dmigs tshe / /’jig rten dag na shes rab pha rol phyin grangs ’gro / nam mkha’ gar gang la’ang chung zad mi gnas de dang ’dra {3d follows Tib. Recension B, (Yuyama 1976:3n3d) Recension A, 3d reads: mi gnas pa ji yang med pa bzhin} // 3 // (Yuyama 1976: 167). Skt. yada dharma saṃskṛta asaṃskṛtakṛṣṇaśuklā aṇumātru no labhati prajñā vibhāvamānaḥ / tada prajñapāramita gacchati saṃkhya loke ākāśu yatra na pratiṣṭhitu kiṃ ci tatra // 3 // (Yuyama 1976:35-36). Tibetan Recension B is the early ninth century translation of Vidyākarasiṃha and Dpal-brtsegs. As Yuyama (1976: xxxiii) notes, the Prajñāpāramitāratnaguṇasaṃcayagāthā is listed as ’phags pa sdus pa tshigs su bcad pa ≈ Āryasaṃcayagāthā in the ninth century Dkar chag ldan dkar ma catalog. 25 Prajñāpāramitāratnaguṇasaṃcayagāthā, Tib. 12.9: nam mkhamthong zhes sems can tshig tu rab brjod pa / /nam mkha’ ji ltar mthong ste don ’di brtag par gyis / /de ltar chos mthong ba yang de bzhin gshegs pas bstan / /mthong ba dpe gzhan gyis ni snyad par nus ma yin / (Underlined portions differ from the critical edition,Yuyama 1976:171). Skt. 12.10: ākāśadṛṣṭu iti sattva pravyāharanti khanidarśanaṃ kutu vimṛṣyata etam arthaṃ / tatha dharmadarsanu nidiṣṭu tathāgatena na hi darśanaṃ bhaṇitu śakya nidarśanena // 10 // (Yuyama 1976:52).


kas kyang [8a3] nga’i bzhin yin zer te / gang zag gcig nyid la mtshan pa’i dpeyin / las dang po pa ni myig nad kyis myig nyams pa lta bu dang / tshogs lam chen po nas sbyor lam kun na ’jeb du srab du song ba dang / mthong lam skyes yan chad du myig nad sos la *ma* byang ba lta bu dang / ’bras bu’i [8a4] sa gsum ’am bu ta’i26 sa la bya ba lta bu yin te / myig nad sos tsa na skra

shad ma mthong ba nyid des dben pa mthong ba lta bu’am / dbu ma la ’jug pa las myig rab rib kyi nad kyis zin pa cig bse ru lasogs pa’i snod skra shad kyis gang bar mthong bas de gsal ba’i phyir / snod de sgre zlog pa’i tshog*s* [8a5] thob par gyur pa las / myig dag pa dang ldan pa’i myis skra shad yod ces zer ba’i yul der myig gtad cing ched du gnyer bas bltas kyang skra bshad ma mthong la / myig nad can des skra shad yod do zhes sgro ’dogs pa’i phyin ci log bsal ba’i phyir / skra shad myed ces brjod kyang de skra shad yod pa la skur pa [8a6] btab pa yang myed la / rab rib can gyi snang ba des myig dag pa’i snang ba la gnod pa yang myed de / skra bshad ma mthong nyid des dben pa mthong ba yin pa bzhin du / ’jig rten ma rig pa’i ling tog gis shes rab kyi myig bkab pa dag gi snang ba la kun rdzob snang ba ’di nyid ’phags pa’i spyan gyis ma [8a7] gzigs pa la / don dam mthong zhes bya la / de las snga mas gnod pa yang ma yin zhing / phyin ci log spang ba’i phyir dgag pa’i tshig brjod kyang skur pa btab pa yang myed de / rang cag la bden par snang ba’i ring la yang / thag ring nas ni mthong ba’i gzugs / /nye ba rnams kyis [8a8] gsal bar mthong / /smyig sgyu gal te chu yin na / /nye ba rnams kyis cis mi mthong / /ji ltar ring ba rnams kyis ni / /’jig rten ’di ni yang dag mthong/ /de ltar de dang de rnams kyis / /mi mthong mtshan myed smyig sgyu bzhin27 zhes gsungs pa bzhin du [8b1] rang cag gis bzung ba ’di


26 bu ta ≈ buddha 27 Ratnāvālī, 1.52-53: thag ring nas ni mthong ba’i gzugs / / nye ba rnams kyis gsal bar mthong / / smig rgyu gal te chu yin na // nye ba rnams kyis cis mi mthong // 52 // ji ltar ring ba rnams kyis ni / / ’jig rten ’di ni yang dag mthong // de ltar de dang de {nye, Hahn} rnams kyis / / mi mthong mtshan med smig rgyu bzhin / Skt. durād ālokitaṃ rūpam āsannair dṛśyate sphuṭam / marīcir yadi vāri syād āsannaiḥ kiṃ na dṛśyate / / 52 // dūrībhūtair yathābhūto loko ’yaṃ dṛśyate tathā / na dṛśyate tadāsannair animitto marīcivat // 53 // (Hahn 1982:22)


bden na ’phags pa rnams kyis kyang gzigs dgos pa las / de dag gis ma gzigs pas na phyin ci log yin snyam du lta ba spyang ba gal che / / [de la mthong dang mthong byed med / /thog ma tha ma med zhi ba // 7cd // dngos dang dngos med rnam par spangs / /rnam par rtog med dmigs pa bral / /gnas pa med pa gnas med pa //’gro ’ong med cing dpe dang bral // 8 // brjod du med bltar med pa / /’gyur ba med pa ’dus ma byas / /rnal ’byor pa yis de rtogs na/ /nyong mongs shes bya’i sgrib pa spangs28 // 9 //]29


[8b1] // don dam pa’i bden pa de nyid spros pa tham cad las ’das par bstan pa ni / don dam pa’i bden pa de la [8b2] mthong bya las su bya ba dang / byed pa po mthong byed dang / des de mthong ces pa’i bya ba gang yang myed de / phrad pa brtags pa las *da na la* phrad pa mi ’thad la tha dad na yang phrad pa mi thad pa bzhin no / / ’dus byas kyis rang bzhin du ma grub pas thog ma ma byung ba las byung ba’i skye ba dang / byung nas ’jig [8b3] par ’gyur ba’i tha ma myed la / de gnyis myed pas ltos pa myed pa’i phyir dbus kyi rang bzhin du yang ma grub pas zhi ba’o / /dgag bya yod pa ma yin pas / /yang dag du na bkag myed gsal30 / yod pa dmyigs pa ma yin na / /myed pa gang gis yin par ’gyur31 / /dngos po myed par [8b4] dngos myed min / /dngos dang dngos myed cig par myin32 ces pa’i tshul gyis don byed nus pa’i dngos por ma grub cing de la ltos pa’i dngos myed kyang rnam par spangs la / yum gyi mdo’ las rnam par

28 spangs Derge, Ejima 1983, Dpe bsdur ma] spong Gser bris ma, Lindtner 1981, Snar thang

29 Satyadvayāvatāra, v. 7cd-9 (Ejima 1983: 363; Lindtner 1981:190) 30 Satyadvayavibhaṅgakārikā, verse 9cd: dgag bya yod pa ma yin pas / / yang dag tu na bkag med gsal / / 31 This most likely represents an old Tibetan translation of Mūlamadhyamakakārikā 5.6ab which was intially translated by Jñānagarbha and Klu’i rgyal mtshan. The bsTan ’gyur translation, a revision by Sumati, Pa tshab nyi ma grags, Kanaka, and De nyid, reads (tsa 4a4-5): dngos po yod pa ma yin na / /dngos med gang gi yin par ’gyur / Skt. (LVP 132.5-7): avidyamāne bhāve ca kasyābhāvo bhaviṣyati 32 Cited from the Śūnyatāsaptati (Lindtner 1997:100-101): dngos po med par ngos med min (20a) / dngos dang dngos med cig par { car, Lindtner} min (19a) /


rtogs pa thams cad ni / gzugs nas rnam pa thams cad mkhyen pa nyid kyi bar la brten la [8b5] gzugs nas rnam pa thams cad mkhyen pa nyid kyi bar gyi pha rol na rnam par rtog pa gang yang med do zhes gsungs te / de dag gi pha rol na don dam pa’i bden pa la rnam par rtog pa gang yang myed pa bstan pa bzhin du / yod pa dang / med pa dag / gzugs can dang / de ma yin pa dang / [8b6] shes rab yang rnam par rtog pa’i rang bzhin du yang ma grub ste / brtag bya’i dmyigs pa dang bral ba’i phyir ro / /mkha’ la rlung brten / de la chu’i phung po brten / / de la sa chen ’di brten / de la ’gro ba brten / sems can las la spyod pa’i rgyu ni de ’dra ste / /nam mkha’ gang la [8b7] gnas yin don ’di bsam par gyis ces pa bzhin du tshul bzhin ma yin pa’i yid la byed pa las / chags sdang gi nyon mongs pa / de las zag pa dang bcas pa’i las / de las khams gsum pa’i skye ba grub kyang tshul bzhin ma yin pa’i yid la *byed pa la* rten gang yang myed pas chos thams cad [8b8] rtsa ba myed pa’i rtsa ba can zhes bya ba’i gnas pa dang gnas gang yang myed la / kun rdzob tu rgyu’i don gyis na chos kyi dbyings zhes byas bas / skye ba myed pa don dam pa’i bden pa la dmyigs nas bsgoms na / ’phags pa’i gang zag gsum gyi yon tan thams cad skye bas / ’phags

9A {dgu} [9a1] $$/ /pa’i gang zag thams cad ’dus ma byas kyis rab tu phye ba’o33 zhes gsungs pa las / don dam nyid kyi gnas lugs la / ’phags pa’i yon tan nam ye shes gnas pa dang / chos nyid don dam pa’i bden pa gnas su grub pa yang myed la / ’phags pa chos ’phags [9a2] kyis chos nyid la ’gro ’ong myed par gsungs pa bzhin du / don dam pa’i bden pa la so so’i skye bo’i sa nas ’phags pa’i sar ’gro ba dang / de nas de ’ong ba yang myed cing / dpes mtshon par bya ba’i don gyi rang bzhin du ma grub pas dpe’ dang bral te nam mkha’ dper byas pa yang mtshon pa tsam mo / / [9a3] ’phags pa blo gros mi zad pa’i mdo’ las don dam pa’i bden pa gang la sems


Cf. Vajracchedikā prajñāpāramitā §7 (Harrison and Watanabe 2006:117): asaṃskṛtaprabhāvitā hy āryapudgalāḥ. See also Apple 2008:65, Ruegg 1989:37.


rgyu ba yang myed na / yi ge’i rgyu ba lta smos kyang ci dgos34 ces gsungs pa’i tshul gyis sgras brjod du myed cing sems sam spyan lngas kyang ltar myed pa dang / sngar gyi yum gyi mdo’ las gsung pa bzhin du so so’i skye [9a4] bo nas sangs rgyas kyi bar du de bzhin nyid la ’gyur ba myed la / ’dus byas kyi mtshan nyid skye ba dang ’jig pa dang gnas pa las bzhan du ’gyur ba gsum dang bral zhing / rgyu rkyen gyis ma bcos pas na ’dus ma byas zhes bya la / /

[9a4] / / don dam pa spros bral de snga ma [9a5] bzhin du rtogs na sgrib pa gnyis bag chags dang bcas pa spong ba’i phan yod yod pa ni rnal ’byor pa yis ces pa ste / sngar bstan pa bzhin du bsgoms pa las mthar phyin pa na nyon mongs pa ’dod chags lasogs pa nyid sgrib pa yin pas / nyon mongs pa’i sgrib pa dang / shes bya la sgrib par byed [9a6] pas sgrib pa ste / de gnyis spong ba’o / /de ltar *don bsu ba* na bden pa gnyis kyi dbye ba dang / kun rdzob kyi dbye ba dang / kun rdzob so so’i rang bzhin dang / don dam pa dbye ba myed pa dang / gzhan dag yod par ’dod pa dgag pa dang / don dam spros bral du bstan pa dang / de rtogs na [9a7] sgrib pa tham cad spong bar bstan pa’o / /

[[[mngon sum]] dang ni rjes su dpag / /sangs rgyas pa yis de gnyis gzung / / gnyis pos stong nyid rtogs so zhes / tshul rol mthong ba’i rmongs pa smra // 10 // mu stegs nyan thos rnams kyis kyang / /chos nyid rtogs par thal bar ’gyur / /rnam rig pas lta smos ci dgos / /dbu ma pa la mi mthun med // 11 / des na grub mtha’ thams cad kyang / tshad ma ’jal phyir mthun par ’gyur / / 12ab //]35


34 Ārya Akṣayamatinirdeśasūtra, (Braarvig (1993: vol. 1, 73.3-4) reads: don dam pa’i bden pa ni: gang la sems kyi rgyu ba med pa ste / yi ge lta ci smos / Cited in Prasannapadā (LVP 374.2) reads: paramārthasatyaṃ katamat / yatra jñānasyāpy apracāraḥ kaḥ punar vādo ’kṣarāṇām. Tibet translation by Mahāsumati and Pa tshab nyi ma grags (vol. ‘a, 120a3-4): don dam pa’i bden pa gang zhe na / gang la sems kyi rgyu ba yang med na / yi ge rnams la lta smos kyang ci dgos… 35 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 10-12ab (Ejima 1983: 363-364; Lindtner 1981:191).


[9a7] de rtogs na lta phan yod de tsam yod na de rtogs pa’i thabs nyid gang yin zhe na / tshul rol mthong ba’i mngon sum dang rjes su dpag pas rtogs pa ma yin gyi / yid ches pa’i bla ma’i gdam ngag la brten nas bsgoms na de rtogs [9a8] pa nyid du ston pa ni / mngon sum dang ni rjes su dpag / sangs rgyas pa yis de gnyis gzung ces pa lasogs pa ste / phyi rol ba dag gis ni de nyid bsdus pa kun las mngon sum dang / rjes su dpag pa dang / sgra las ’byung ba dang / dpe dang / nye bar ’jal ba dang / 9B

[9b1] don gyi go ba drug tu ’dod pa yang yod pa dang / rtsod pa zlog pa las mngon sum dang / rjes su dpag pa dang / nye bar ’jal ba dang / lung bzhir ’dod pa yang yod par gsungs pa dag las khyad par du byas te / lung ni mngon sum rnams kyi mchog sangs rgyas kyi thams cad mkhyen [9b2] pa’i ye shes kyis mkhyen nas gsungs pa mngon sum du ’du la / mngon sum la sgo lnga’i rnam shes dbang po’i dang / yid kyi rnam shes yid kyi dang / rnal ’byor spyod pa bas ’dod pa’i rnam par rig pa rang rig pa’i dang / rnal ’byor gyi mngon sum bzhi ste / mngon par shes [9b3] pa tham cad rnal ’byor gyi mngon sum yin la / mthar thug pa ni thams cad mkhyen pa’i ye shes so /


[9b3] / / rjes su dpag pa ni don lkog tu gyur pa rtags kyis dpog pa ste / ’bras bu dang rang bzhin

gcig pa’i ’brel pa gnyis kyis gtan la ’beb pa yin / mi dmyigs pa’i spyor ba bcu gcig lasogs pa mang du yang gsungs pa las / rtsa ba snang ba mi dmyigs pa ste / rtog ge rten cing ma nges la / /ma khyab kun rdzob skye ba can / /byis pa la [9b5] ni brten par ’dod / /de phyir de dag de’i yul myin36 ces pa’i tshul gyis rjes dpag gi shes bya dpe’ myed gtan la mi phebs / de gnyis kyis stong


36 Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra 1.12 (Levi); niśrito ’niyato ’vyāpī sāṃvṛtaḥ khedavān api / bālāśrayo matas tarkas tasyāto viṣayo na tat // 12 // MSA, Phi, 2b2: rtog ge rten cing ma nges la // ma khyab kun rdzob skyo {skye, Derge} ba can // byis pa la ni brten par ’dod // de phyir de dag {ni,


pa nyid rtogs par tshul rol mthong ba rmongs pa dag smra’o / /pha rol gzigs pa dag ni ma yin te / de rnam par mi rtog pa’i ye shes kyis so sor rang [9b6] gis rig par bya ba yin gyi / rtog ge’i yul las ’das par mkhyen pas so / /snga ma ni rig pa ma yin te / de lta na dngos sum rjes dpag gnyis grub mthasmra ba thams cad kyis rjod pas mu stegs nyan thos rnams kyis kyang / chos nyid rtogs pa thal bar ’gyur la [9b7] rnam rig pas rtogs par ’gyur ba la lta smos kyang ci dgos / dbu’ ma bas chos nyid rtogs ma rtogs la yang the tsam yang myed par ’gyur ba’am / mdo’ sde spyod pa dang rnal ’byor spyod pa ces pa’i mi mthun pa yang myed par gyur te / de grub mtha’ thams cad kyang tshad mas ’jal phyir [9b8] mthun par ’gyur ro / / [[[rtog ge]] thams cad mi mthun pas / /tshad mas ’jal ba’i37 chos nyid kyang // 12cd // mang po

nyid du mi ’gyur ram // mngon sum rjes dpag dgos pa med // mu stegs rgol ba bzlog pa’i phyir / / mkhas pa rnams kyis byas pa yin // 13 / lung las kyang ni gsal po ru / / rtog bcas rtog pa med pa yi / /shes pa gnyis kyis mi rtogs shes / /slob dpon mkhas pa bha bya gsung / /14//]38 [9b8] // tshad ma nyid mi mthun pas grub mtha’ mthun par mi ’gyur ro zhe na / rtog ge thams cad mi mthun pas / /tshad mas gzhal ba’i chos nyid kyang / /mang po nyid du ’gyur ro / / des na chos nyid rtogs pa’i thabs su de gnyis dgos pa myed 10A

{bcu tha$ pa} [10a1] $$/ /ces bya’o / / [10a1] / / ’on na phyogs kyi glang po lasogs pa mkhas pa rnams kyis tshad ma’i bstan bcos byas pa don myed par ’gyur ro zhe na / mu stegs rgol ba zlog pa’i phyir bud dha’i bstan pa srung ba la mkhas pa rnams kyis byas pa yin / jo bas *’di* bzhin du gsungs [10a2] mtshan nyid pa dag


12. “La Dialectique a un soubassement; elle n’a rien de définitif; elle manque d’extension, elle est contingente; elle se fatigue; elle a pour Fond les esprits puérils; clone le Grand Véhicule n’est pas son domaine.” 37 ’jal ba’i Derge, Ejima 1983, Ganden, Narthang, Dpe dur ma] gzhal ba’i Lindtner 1981


1.Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 12cd-14 (Ejima 1983: 364; Lindtner 1981:191).


tshad ma ba dang grub mtha’ ba zer nas blo zhib shos dang rtsing shos gnyis su byed pa la / spyir tshad ma bya ba grub mtha’i yan lag yin pas / phyi rol ba nas dbu’ ma’i bar thams cad kyis gzhan gyi phyogs sunbyin pa dang / rang gi phyogs sgrub pa thams cad tshad mas byas [10a3] par ’dod pa yin la / jo bos gsungs pa ’di yang yin te / chos nyid rtogs pa nyid de gnyis las ’byung ba yin na skyon ’di dag gnas pa kho na yin la / zla ba ston pa’i mdzub mo bzhin du dang po thos bsams gyis bden pa gnyis gtan la ’bebs pa de gnyis kho nas byas pa yin te / [10a4] ’og nas rigs pas brtag na ces pa’o / /rigs pa yang ’di gnyis las myed pa yin / mdzub mo las ma ’das na / zla ba mi mthong ba bzhin du rtog ge las ma ’das na mi rtog pa’i ye shes mi skye bas don dam pa’i bden pa ma rtogs pa yin / de gnyis kyis de mi rtogs pa yang rang [10a5] dgar smras pa lta bu ni ma yin te / sangs rgyas kyi lung rgyal ba’i yum lasogs pa las kyang gsungs pa la / legs ldan


byed pa dag kyang shes rab sgrol ma dang rtog ge la ’bar ba gnyis las gsungs te / rtog bcas ni rjes dpag / rtogs myed tshul rol mthong ba’i mngon sum gnyis [10a6] kyis so / / [[[stong nyid]] gang gis rtogs shes na / /de bzhin gshegs pas lung bstan zhin / / chos nyid bden pa gzigs pa yi / /klu sgrub slob ma zla grags yin / / de las brgyud pa’i man ngag gis / / chos nyid bden pa rtogs par ’gyur / / 15-16ab / /]39 [10a6] / / de gnyis kyis mi rtogs na stong nyid gang gis rtogs zhe na / de bzhin gshegs pas lang kar gshegs pa nas / nga ni mya ngan ’das gyur nas / /lo ni bzhi brgya lon pa na / /lho phyogs ’be’ ta’i yul du ni / /dge slong dpal ldan zhes [10a7] grags pa / /de mying klubod pa ste / /yod dang myed pa’i phyogs ’jig byed / / nga’i theg pajig rten du / /bla myed theg cheg rab bstan nas / / rab du dga’ ba’i sa sgrub te / /bde ba can du de ’gro’o40 zhes pa dang / sprin chen po las kyang / li tsha [10a8] byi gzhon nu sems can thams cad kyis mthong na dga’ ba zhes bya ba ’di


39 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 15-16ab (Ejima 1983: 364; Lindtner 1981:191) 40 Laṅkāvatārasūtra (Nanjio 1923:286), 10.164c, 165abc: mahāmate nibodha tvaṃ / dakṣiṇāpathavedalyāṃ bhikṣuḥ śrīmān mahāyaśāḥ / nāgāhvayaḥ sa nāmnā tu. 10.166cd (Nanjio 1923:286): āsādya bhūmiṃ muditāṃ yāsyate 'sau sukhāvatīm /.


ni / nga mya ngan las ’das nas lo bzhi brgya lon pa na / klu zhes bya ba’i dge slong du ’gyur nas nga’i bstan pa rgyas par rab tu bstan te / mthar gyis rab du dga’ ba’i ’od ces byas pa’i ’jig rten gyi khams su


[10b1] de bzhin gshegs pa dgra mcom pa yang dag par rdzogs pa’i sangs rgyas ’byung gnas ’od ces bya bar ’gyur41 ces bya bar lung bstan la / de bzhin du rnga bo che’i mdo dang / ’jam dpal

gyi rtsa ba’i rgyud dang / gser ’dod dam pa lasogs pa nas kyang lung bstan la / de’i rgyu yang chos nyid bden [10b2] pa gzigs pa’i / klu sgrub kyi slob ma zla ba grags pa nas / brgyud pa’i man ngag gis rtogs ces pa ste / rten sngon tshogs dpag tu myed pa bsags shing / stong pa nyid la sgom pa’i sa bon drung po yod pas / so so’i skye bo’i dus na yang stong pa nyid thos nas / nang tu rab [10b3] du dga’ ba yang dang yang du ’byung zhing / rab tu dga’ ba las ’byung ba’i mchi mas myig brlan zhing / lus kyi ba spu ldang ba skye bar ’gyur gang yin pa de la rdzogs pa’i sangs rgyas kyi sa bon yod42 ces pa’am / gang blo yod dang myed pa las / /rnam par ’das shing mi gnas pa / /[10b4] de dag zab mo dmyigs myed pa’i / /rkyen gyi don la rnam par bsgoms43 ces pa’i chos de dag dang ldan pa cig gis ’dir yang theg pa chen po’i dge ba’i bzhes gnyen la brten te

41 The author is citing the Mahāmegha from the Madhyamakāvatāra as the citation from the canonical sūtra differs. See Madhyamakāvatāra (LVP 1970: 76-77). For the extensive citation of the Mahāmegha by Atiśa and comparative notes see Apple 2010:174-178. 42 Madhyamakāvatāra 6.4-5a (LVP 78.2-6). The bKa’ gdams author’s reading follows a recension close to the translation of Pa tshab nyi ma grags, although not exactly, and the readings may represent a paraphrase from memory or even an early, pre-Tanjur version, of Pa tshab’s translation. The variants for Nag tsho tshul khrim’s translation differ. See Ruegg (1969:115116) for another variant reading of this verse in Tsong kha pa’s Gser phreng as well as the extant Sanskrit. 43 Yuktiṣaṣṭikā, verse 1. The citation of this verse is from the Tibetan translation by Ye shes sde (ninth century) of the commentary, the Yuktiṣaṣṭikā-vṛtti of Candrakīrti. The Tibetan translation by Pa tshab nyi ma grags of this verse from the Yuktiṣaṣṭikā differs. See Scherrer-Schaub 1991: 7, 24-25. The verse is preserved in Sanskrit in the Sekoddeśaṭīkā (Scherrer-Schaub 1991:116n42): asti-nāsti-vyatikrāntā buddhir yeṣāṃ nirāśraya / gambhīras tair nirālambaḥ pratyayārtho vibhāyate /


/ byang chub lam gyi sgrol ma nas gsungs pa bzhin du las rgyu dang ’bras bu sgom pa nas / bsam gtan gyi [10b5] bar thams cad kyi cha dag brtan por bsgoms zhing tshogs bsags pa dang sdig pa sbyang ba byas la / dge ba’i bshegs gnyen slob dpon zla ba grags pa nas brgyud pa’i man ngag yod pa cig las gdam ngag tshul bzhin du mnos nas / thabs kyi cha dag dang ma bral bar spyor ba gus pa yun ring ba bar [10b6] ma chad par bsgom na chos nyid bden pa rtogs par ’gyur gyi / stong pa nyid ga pur lta lta bu de skyobs thams cad kyi cha dag dang bral bar goms par byas kyang nad gzhan ldang bas / de nyid kyang mi rtogs la rtogs kyang nyan thos su cha ba yin / zla ba grags pa las brgyud pa’i man ngag kyang dbu [10b7] ma’i man ngag kho na yin te / dbu’ ma phung po lnga nas de kho na bzhin du gsungs / stong pa nyid tshul de bzhin du rtogs kyi rtog ges mi rtogs pa nges don kho na yin te / na ro pa kun kyang tshad ma la spyang ba byas pa yin mi zer / dang po nas spyod pa ba nyid cig yin par gda’ ste / [10b8] tshogs bsags pa dang bla ma’i byin brlabs kyis tho ba’i tag sgras rkyen byas nas / rten cing ’brel par ’byung ba lugs dang mthun pa dang / de las bzlog pa’i gnas lugs rtogs / dho bhi bas de gong du ka kha yang ngo mi shes pa yin par gda’ ste / sngon gyi tshogs dang sa bon yod 11A

{bcu gcig} [11a1] $$/ /pa dang bla ma’i byin brlabs kyis bden pa gzigs / gdams pa yang dam bca’ ba tsam brjod pa nyid kyis yin gyi rtog ges brtag pa’i gdams pa gsungs pa las skyes pa ma gsungs / tshig gsal las slob dpon dang de’i slob ma dang de’i yang slob ma dag kyang ’das te de dag gi [11a2] lugs kyang nub pa’i smre ngags mang po gsungs pas de de’i dngos kyi slob ma myen la / grub mtha’ ’dzin pas de zhes zer te / de ma nges de gnyis kyis lo drug brgya dang bzhi brgya ’dzam bu gling ’dir bzhugs par gsungs pas / sku’i tshe smad dang stod gnyis la lo bcu tsam bsten du byung yang chu [11a3] snod cig nas gcig du byo ba bzhin du ’ong / de nas tshig gsal rtsom pa’i dus na thams cad ’das shing nub pa yang mi lto / deng sang na tshe lo brgya pa las


kyang ches thung du song ba’i dus yin te yang / kho bo’i ring la yang sku mched gsum dang de’i slob ma chen po dag dang de dag gi slob [11a4] ma dag kyang ’das shing de dag gi lugs kyang nub la / lugs mi ’dra ba sna tshogs byung ba yin / jo bos dbu ma’i lta ba ^a ba ’du ti pa44 las brnyes par gsung te / slob dpon de kun sku tshe ring bas slob dpon dang *de’i slob ma* zla ba grags pa dang / *des* rig pa’i khu byug dang / *des* ^a ba ’du ti [11a5] ba rnams las brgyud pa myed pa yin / chos nyid bden pa rtogs na sgrib pa thams cad spong la de yang tshul de ltar rtogs par ’gyur ba yin no/ /

[[[chos nyid]] phung po brgyad khri dang / /bzhi stong gsung pa thams cad ni / /chos nyid ’di la gzhol zhing ’bab / /16c-e]45 [11a5] / / ’o na sangs rgyas kyis chos kyi phung po brgyad khri dang bzhi stong lasogs pa gzhan / gsung pa *ji ltar* yin snyam na / chos kyi phung po [11a6] brgyad khri dang / /bzhi stong gsungs pa thams cad kyang / / chos nyid ’di la brgyud par gzhol zhing / dngos su ’bab ces pa ste / chos mngon pa’i phung po’i tshad tsam pa de snyed dam / yang na brjod bya phung po lasogs de snyed ston pa lasogs pa ste / phyogs mtshon pa tsam yin chos kyi [11a7] phung po dpag tu myed pa gsungs pa thams cad kyang ces pa’i don yin / gzhol lugs ni ’jig rten pa’i las rgyu dang ’bras bu lasogs pa bstan pas kyang stong pa nyid du tshen gyis phyin pa yang yong la / de’i steng du ma phyin yang theg pa gsum gyi don la gzhol ba yin la / nyan rang gi theg pa dag [11a8] kyang theg pa chen po la gzhol zhing / theg pa chen po nyid kyi tshad myed pa bzhi yang byang chub kyi sems la gzhol la / byang chub kyi sems kyang byang chub sems pa’i spyod pa la gzhol / spyod pa bsam gtan yan chad thabs kyi cha dag kyang chos nyid rtogs pa la gzhol zhing ’bab pa



44 ^a ba ’du ti pa ≈ Avadhūtipa 45 Satyadvayāvatāra vs. 16c-e (Ejima 1983: 365; Lindtner 1981:191).


[11b1] yin te / snga ma la brten phyi ma skye zhes gsungs la / bsod nams bya ba’i dngos po gsum yang snga ma snga ma phyi ma la gzhol / bslab pa gsum yang de zhin yin la / bsod nams kyi tshogs kyang ye shes kyi tshogs la gzhol / gang zag gi bdag myed kyang chos kyi bdag myed [11b2] la gzhol / spyad pa brgyad khri bzhi stong gi gnyen por chos kyi phung po brgyad khri bzhi stong gsungs pa las / spyad pa thams cad kyang dngos pordzin pa’i rtsa ba can yin pas spyad pa rtsa ba nas spong ba la chos nyid stong pa nyid rtogs dgos la / de la yang dang por spyad pa rnam par sbyang ba dag gis spyad pa [11b3] dag mog gnon dgos la / dang por ’jug pa’i tshul du rnam par thar pa’i sgo ga nas zhugs kyang khul du tshud nas mthar stong nyid rtogs pa’i steng du phyin par ’gyur ba yin te / rnam par snang mdzad ring ba’i rgyu / /mu stegs can la smad mi bya / /zhes rgyud de nyid las ’byung bas phyi rol ba’i gzhung [11b4] lugs thams cad kyang rtog ges cung zad gzeng bstod pa’am / bu tas ’jig rten du byon nas chos gsungs pa’i snga ltas su byung ba yang gsungs la / sangs rgyas kyi bstan pa dang mi mthun pa’i phyogs phyin ci log shes par bya ba’i don du sangs rgyas kyi byin brlabs kyis byung ba yin pas [11b5] rnam par snang mdzad ces pa chos nyid rtogs pa’i ring ba ste brgyud pa’i rgyu yin la / rang gi sde pa bye brag tu smra bas gzhung gis ring pordzin pa thams cad bshig nas / mdo’ sde bas de las mi ldan pa’i ’du byed bcu bzhi lasogs pa *rdzad su* ma grub par bstan cing / rnal ’byor spyod pa bas gzung ’dzin [11b6] thams cad bkag la / dbu ma’i gzhung gis rnam par rig pa tsam yang bkag pas thams cad


kyang chos nyid ’di la brgyud pas gzhol ba dang dngos su ’bab ces pa’o / / [[[stong nyid]] rtogs pas grol ’gyur gyi / /sgom pa lhag ma de don yin // 17ab]46 [11b6] / / de ltar gzhol zhing ’bab pa yang sems can ’khor bar dngos pordzin pa’i rtsa ba can gyi sgrib pa 247 [11b7] kyis bcings la / skye ba myed pa’i don rtogs na dngos pordzin pa spangs pas grol bar ’gyur ba’o / / ’o na sgom pa gzhan dgos pa myed dam snyam na / de nyid rtogs pa la


46 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 17ab (Ejima 365, vs.16bc; Lindtner 1981, vs. 17ab). 47 Tibetan number “2” used at end of line for “gnyis.”


sgom pa gzhan dgos pa sngar bstan pa bzhin du yin pas de’i don yin ces pa ste / dbu ma la ’jug [11b8] pa las kyang spyin pa myed na ’tsho ba gzhan gyi ngor lta dgos pa dang / tshul khrims myed na ngan ’gror skye la / bzod pa myed na ngan ’gror skye zhing mir na yang gzugs ngan du skye bas bla mas thugs la mi ’dogs shing stong pa nyid sgom pa’i gdams pa mi ’thob / snying rje myed na stong pa 12A

{bcu gnyis} [12a1] $$/ /nyid bsgoms kyang sangs mi rgya / dge ba’i rtsa ba rdzogs pa’i byang chub du bsngo ba myed na yang bar ma dor stong pa nyid sgom pa rgyun ’chad / byang chub sems dpa’ la ma gus na’ang stong pa nyid byang chub sems dpa’ ma gtogs pa sus kyang ston par mi nus pas / stong pa nyid ston pa’i [12a2] dge ba’i bshes gnyen dang mi ’jal bas / stong pa nyid sgom pa las mi nyams pa la de thams cad dgos par gsungs la / spyod pa la ’jug pa las kyang bdog pa ’di dag thams cad kyang / bdag dang gzhan gyi shes rab don48 zhes gsungs / slob dpon gyis kyang de phyir ji srid ngar [12a3] ’dzin pa / sel ba’i chos ’di ma shes pa / /de srid sbyin dang tshul khrims dang / /bzod pa’i chos la gus par mdzod49 ces pa dang / ’di gnyis gtso bo


48 The Tibetan here follows the earlier Bodhicaryāvatāra translation of Sarvajñādeva and dPal brtsegs rakṣita (ca. 800 c.e.) perhaps providing a clue that our anonymous author was writing before the canonical Tibetan translation of Sumatikīrti and Blo ldan shes rab (11th-12th Century c.e.). The Tibetan translation by Sarvajñādeva and dPal brtsegs rakṣita, Byang chub sems dpa’i spyod pa la ’jug pa, as edited in Saito (2000) from St. 628, 629 and 630. Page 49.4-7 reads: bsdog pa ’di dag thams chad kyang / / bdag dang bzhan gyi shes rab don / de bas mya ngan ’das pa dang / / bde ba ’dod pas shes rab skyed /. The Tibetan Tanjur translation of Sumatikīrti and Blo ldan shes rab (11th-12th Century A.D.), Byang chub sems dpa’i spyod pa la ’jug pa, in Tg, vol. la, 1b1-40a7 reads: // yan lag ’di dag thams cad ni / / thub pas shes rab don du gsungs / / de yi phyir na sdug bsngal dag / / zhi bar ’dod pas shes rab bskyed / “All these ancillaries the Sage has taught for the sake of wisdom; so he that seeks to still suffering must cultivate wisdom.” 49 Ratnāvalī verse 2.25: de phyir ji srid ngar ’dzin pa / /sel ba’i chos ’di ma shes pa / de srid sbyin dang tshul khrims dang / / bzod pa’i chos la gus par mdzod / tasmād yāvad avijñāto dharmo ’haṃkāraśātanaḥ |dānaśīlakṣamādharme tāvad ādaravān bhava //25//. Hahn 1982:49.17-20.


shes rab ste / /de’i sngon ’gro dad pa yin50 ces pa dang / brda sprod pa dag dang por yi ge phyi mo ’dzin du ’jug pa bzhin du [12a4] skye myed rtogs pa la dang po thams kyi cha dag dgos par gsung la / sgom pa’i rim pa las kyang thams cad mkhyen pa’i ye shes ni snying rje’i rtsa ba can yin / byang chub kyi sems kyi rgyu las byung ba yin / thabs kyis mthar phyin pa yin51 zhes gsungs

/ legs ldanbyed pas [12a5] kyang rtog gebar ba las / dam chos sgron dang bcas pa la / /mi khoms brgyad spangs khoms pa ’di / /skyes bu chen po’i spyod pa yis / /’bras bu yod pa’i bya ba’i rigs52 ces pa las skyes bu chen po’i spyod pa thub pa’i brtul zhugs thabs kyi cha dag sngon

du song bas de khon na’i [12a6] don tshul ba gsungs pa yin / mnyam bzhag yang dag ji bzhin du / shes par ’gyur zhes thub pas gsungs pas53 / mnyam par bzhag pa’i shes rab kyi skye myed rtogs pa la ting nge ’dzin dgos la / de kye ba la yang de’i tshogs shi la rnam par dag pa dang / dben par gnas pa [12a7] dang / de’i yan lag tu don dang bya ba nyung ba dang / de’i yan lag tu ’dod pa chung zhin chog shes pa lasogs pa dgos pas / dang por ’chi ba rjes su dran pa lasogs pa srid pa’i nyes dmyigs rnams sgom zhing / des yid byung ba thob tsam na de thams cad kyi rtsa ba dngos pordzin pa yin [12a8] par shes par bya la / dang por gang zag gi bdag myed pa sgom / de nyid kyis kyang ’jebs shig ’jigs pa dang bral bar ’gyur / ’jigs pa dang bral nas lhod kyis btang bar yang mi bya / bdag myed pa da lta yang yin te / dug dang tsher ma lasogs pa dang / zas dang


50 Ratnāvalī verse 1.5cd: ’di gnyis gtso bo shes rab ste / /’di sngon ’gro ba dad pa yin /. Skt. prajñā pradhānaṃ tv anayoḥ śraddhā pūrvaṃgamāsya tu. Hahn 1982: 3.20-23. 51 Bhāvanākrama, Tib. thams cad mkhyen pa’i ye shes {insert de, Derge} ni snying rje’i rtsa ba can {byung ba, Derge} yin / /byang chub kyi sems kyi rgyu las byung ba yin / /thabs kyi {kyis, Derge} mthar phyin pa yin / Skt. sarvajñajñānaṃ karuṇāmūlaṃ bodhicittahetukam upāyaparyavasānam. Cited from the Vairocanābhisaṃbodhitantra three times by Kamalaśīla, Bhāvanākrama I (p.275), Bhāvanākrama II (p. 201, 221). 52 Madhyamakahṛdayam 1.33, D, DZA, fol. 3a5: dam chos sgron dang bcas pa la / /mi khoms brgyad spangs khoms pa ’di / /skyes bu chen po’i spyod pa yis / /’bras bu yod pa’i bya ba’i rigs (Lindtner 2001:4): sasaddharmapradīpo hi praṇaṣṭāṣṭākṣaṇaḥ kṣaṇaḥ / saphalīkaraṇīyo’yaṃ mahāpurūṣacaryayā // 33 // 53 Śikṣāsamuccaya, k.9: samāhito yathābhutaṃ prajānāti iti avadan muniḥ śamāc ca na calec cittaṃ bāhya ceṣṭā nivartanāt ; Tibetan: mnyam gzhag yang dag ji bzhin du / shes par ’gyur zhes thub pas gsungs phyi rol g.yo ba bzlog pa yis / sems ni zhi las mi g.yo ’gyur //


[12b1] gos dag las sdug bsngal dang bde ba ’byung ba nyams su myong bas grub / de bzhin du bdag lta ma zad kyi bar du las ’bras chud mi za bar shes par byas la / sdig pa spang ba dang dge ba sgrub pa la yang ches grims par bya zhing / rim kyis chos gzugs can dang de ma yin pa thams cad kyang [12b2] rgyal po’i btsun mo shi ba brda’ sprod pa’i tshul bzhin du sgom la / de yang rang rten dang gdam ngag dang sbyor bar sngar bstan pa bzhin bsgoms na de rtogs pa byung gi / sgom pa lhag ma myed par de nyid kyang mi rtogs pas / yum gyi mdo’ las zab pa myed de mkhyen pa gsum gyi skabs su [12b3] mi dmyigs pa shas che so tsam / sbyor ba’i rten nas bzung nas thabs and shes rab gnyis ya ma bral bar lto za khas pa bya na dang zan spel ba bzhin du gsungs pa yin / slob dpon pa’i bzhed pas stong pa nyid ma rtog par gang zag gi bdag myed nyid kyang mi rtogs la / de ma rtogs pas [12b4] nyan rang gi ’bras bu thob kyang gtan thar pa ma yin pa dang / nyan thos kyis kyang chos kyi bdag myed rtogs mod kyi / rang gi rten gyis bsdu pa tsam las rnam pa thams cad du yang ma yin la / thabs kyi cha dang bral bas ’bras bu mthar thug mi ’thob par bzhed pa yin / / [12b5] de ltar *don bsu ba* na tshu rol mthong ba’i mngon sum dang rjes su dpag pa gnyis kyis chos nyid mi rtogs pa dang / klu sgrub slob ma zla ba grags pa las brgyud pa’i gdam ngag la brten nas bsgom na de rtogs par ’gyur ba dang / bud dha’i chos ji snyed gsungs pa thams cad kyang stong pa nyid rtogs pa’i [12b6] thabs su gsungs la / de rtogs na grol ba thob cing de nyid rtogs pa la sgom pa gzhan thams cad dgos par bstan pa yin no / / [[[yang dag kun rdzob]] khyad bsad nas / /stong pa nyid la goms byed na / /kun rdzob rgyu ’bras dge sdig sogs / /’jig rten pha rol bslus par ’gyur / 17c-f ]54 [12b6] / / de ltar yin pa las yang dag pa’i kun rdzob rgyu dang ’bras bu’i mtshan nyid thams cad khyad du bsad nas / stong nyid sgom pa cig pus [12b7] chog gi thabs kyi cha dag dgos pa

54 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 17c-f (Ejima 365, vs.17a-d; Lindtner 1981, vs. 17c-f)

myed pa dang / stong pa nyid la cis kyang mi gnod zer nas sdig pa la mi ’dzem par stong pa nyid la goms par byed pa skad zer ba dag ni / kun rdzob bstan pa yin mod kyi dnos pordzin pa yod ring la rdzas su grub pa bzhin du rgyu ’bras mi bslus bas / dge ba ma byas [12b8] pas de’i phan yod mi ’byung la / sdig pa ma spangs pas de’i nyes dmyigs rnams ’byung ba’i phyirjig rten pha rol bslus par ’gyur ro / /stong pa nyid legs mor go na sdig pa bya don yang myed de / sdig pa byed pa ni bdag dang bdag gi bshes pa dang dgra’i phyogs gsum du phye nas byed la 13A

{bcu gsuM} [13a1] $$/ / bdag gi lus srog la gces su ’dzin pas / de’i ched du byed pa las gang gi ched du sdig pa bya ba’i bdag myed pa nyid du shes pas kyang sdig pa bya don myed la / gson pa’i ’jig rten ’di brtags na / shi ba yang ni gang zhig yin ces pa’i tshul gyis lus srog la gces su ’dzin pa nyid [13a2] kyang mi ’byung bas so / /des na chos thams cad stong pa nyid yin pas gang zag gi bdag gi bdag myed shes kyang sdig pa bya don myed / rang cag pha rol du phyin pa’i lugs sam / gsang sngags lugs na yang rung / lta ba bzang ngan srung sdom dang dam tshigs lasogs pa ci yang mi dgos par ci ste / [13a3] de tsha na yang bya dang bsgrub bya ci yang myed pa’i mi skya rgan po cig dang khyad myed du ’gro / gnas lugs rtogs na mtshams myed kyis kyang mi sgrib zer / de bden mtshams myed byas pas mnar myed du skye ba yang gnas lugs yin pas / de rtogs na stobs bzhi la ’bad pas mi sgrib pa yin / ga55 / [13a4] gnyen po kun tu spyod pa’i mchog stong pa nyid sgom pa yin te / de bsgoms pas sdig pa phyi ma byed ’phro chod na snga ma’i gnyen por ’gro’i / phyi ma la ma gnod na snga ma’i gnyen por yang mi ’gro la / kun rdzob khyad du bsad na sdig sgrib kyis bsgribs nas stong pa nyid rtogs pa nyid kyang mi skye / [13a5] des ni stong nyid cung zad goms la byed kyang kun rdzob khyad du bsad pa’i nyes dmyigs te / su


55 Letter ga appears to be a scribal note.


la stong nyid ’di srid pa / /de la chos rnams thams cad srid56 ces pa’i tshul gyis stong pa nyid yin pa kho nas kun rdzob kyi rgyu ’bras thams cad btub pa yin / su la stong nyid mi srid pa / / [13a6] / / de la chos rnams srid pa myed pas dngos por ’grub na rang bzhin gshan du ’gyur ba ’gal ba dang / rang bzhin dang bcos ma ’gal bas rgyu ’bras bslur mi btub pa yin / / [cung zad thos pa la brten te / / rnam par dben don mi shes shing / /mi gang bsod nams mi byed pa / /skyes bu tha shal de dag brlag / / stong pa nyid la blta nyes na / /shes rab chung ldan phung bar ’gyur / vs.18]57 [13a6] / / stong pa nyid sgom pa yang myed par cung zad thos pa tsam la brten nas kun rdzob khyad du bsad pa’i nyes dmyigs [13a7] ni / mdo’ dang bstan bcos dag las stong pa nyid bstan pa cung zad tsam thos pa la brten te / rnam par dben pa stong pa nyid kyi don bsam pas go yul skyes pa’i shes rab yang myed par / bsod nams byas na rnam rtog yin pas sgrib zer zhing de mi byed la / bsod nams ma yin pas stong pa nyid la myi [13a8] gnod zer nas byed pa’i skyes bu blun po tha shal de ni ngan song dang myi khoms par skye zhing / bsod nams kyi ’bras bu mi thob pas brlag ces bya ste / zab mo’i don kho na ston pa la slob dpon pa yab sras las lhag pa ma byon pa yin te gzu’58 ’di bzhin du rigs pa drug cu pa las btang ba yin /


[13b1] ’phags pa ’jam dpal tsam du rnam par dben pa’i don rtogs pa gzhan la myed de yang bsod nams sog pa la rgya mtshochen po chus mi ngoms pa bzhin du ngoms pa myed par gsungs / bslab pa kun las btus pa’i byang chub sems dge ’dun gyi yon tan rjes su dran pa’i skabs nas me


56 A citation of Vigrahavyāvartanī verse 70 that may be from the early translation of Jñānagarbha and dPal brtsegs (ca. 800). This differs from the canonical Tibetan (Lindtner 1997:299), the revised Tibetan tranlation of Jayānanda and mDo sde dpal (12th century), which is gang la stong pa nyid srid pa / /de la don rnams thams srid / /gang la stong nyid mi srid pa / / de la ci yang mi srid do. The Sanskrit is (Lindtner 1997:217): prabhavati ca śūnyateyaṃ yasya prabhavanti tasya sarvārthāḥ / prabhavati na tasya kiṃ cin na prabhavati śūnyatā yasya // 57 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 18 (Ejima 1983:365; Lindtner 1981:191-192). 58 gzu’ ≈ gzugs


tog phal cher [13b2] me tog bla re dang zhes pa lasogs pa gsungs pa de kun yang sa bcu’i dbang phyug kho na yin te / dkon mchog mchod pa la ngoms pa myed pas dang po phyag mthil nas ’od zer bkye ba nas ba spu’i khung bu thams cad nas kyang ’od zer bkye nas mchod par byed / rang cag mkhas par rloms pa dag tha shal dang blun po’i [13b3] spyod pa kho na las myed pa yin / des na stong pa nyid la blta nyes na / / shes rab chung ldan phung bar ’gyur te / blta nyes pa ni gnyis las stong pa nid la blta nyes na las dang ’bras bu lasogs pa la skur pa btab na thar pa’i sa bon ni yod la phyi ma la ngan song du ’gro ba dang / stong pa nyid la skrag [13b4] pas de la g.yang sa dang de ston pa la ’gro ba’i ’du shes su byas na thar pa’i sa bon yang myed la / ngan song du yang ’gro ba las ’dir snga ma yin / / [[[slob dpon]] zla grags ’di skad du // thabs su gyur pa kun rdzob bden pa dang / / thabs las byung ba don dam bden pa dag / gnyis po’i dbye ba gang gis mi shes pa / /de dag log par rtogs pas ngan ’gror ’gro // 19 //]59

[13b4] / / des na bden pa gnyis la brten nas thabs dang shes rab zung du ’brel pa nyid du sgrub dgos pa ni / slob dpon zla grags ’di [13b5] skad du ces pa ste / bden pa gnyis ni thabs dang thabs las byung ba yin pas de gnyis zung du ’jug pa cig dgos pa las / bden pa gnyis kyi dbye ba dang mtshan nyid dang / rgyu ’bras kyi ’brel ba mi shes pa de dag ni bden pa gnyis kyi don log par rtogs na ngan ’gror ’gro ba’am lam gol par [13b6] ’gro ste / zla ba grags pa nyid kyis ni slob dpon gyi lugs spangs na bden pa gnyis las nyams pa yin pas thar pa mi ’grub pa tsam du gsungs la / ’dir de tsam du yang ma zad pa ’di’o / / [[[tha snyad]] la ni ma brten par / / dam pa’i don ni rtogs mi ’gyur / /yang dag kun rdzob rnams kyi skas / /med par yang dag khang chen gyi / steng du ’gro bar byed pa ni/ /mkhas la rung ba ma yin no / 20]60


59 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 19 (Ejima 1983:365-366; Lindtner 1981:192).


[13b6] / / de nyid la lung bzhan yang brnan pa ni tha snyad la ni ma brten par ces pa ste / [13b7] tha snyad kun rdzob pa’i don skye myed ’gag myed lasogs kyis ma tshon par don dam pa’i bden pa’i go yul nyid kyang mi skye la / tha snyad la brten nas go yul skyes kyang / thabs kyi cha dag la ma brten par lam ma gol bar stong nyid bsgom pa dang / bsgom pas rtogs pa gang yang mi ’byung [13b8] ba ni sngar bstan pa bzhin te / las rgyu dang ’bras bu’i che ba la yid ches pas sdig paphra ba yang khyad du mi gsod pa nas byang chub kyi sems kyis ’phangs pa’i pha rol tu phyin pa lnga’i sgrub pa la che thang du gnas pa’i bar thabs kyi cha thams cad tshang ba cig dgos pas sangs rgyas kyis chos


{bcu bzhi} [14a1] $$/ / thams cad mnyam pa nyid rnam par spros pa ting nge ’dzin gyi rgyal po ’di thob par ’dod pas rgyal po’i khab ’di nyid du de bzhin gshegs pa’i ring srel la mchod pa ma phul ba’i dngos po gang yang myed ces pa lasogs pa gsung la / / [14a1] / / de ltar thabs dag yod kyang shes rab kyis dngos por [14a2] ’dzin pa ma spangs na yang rnam par grol ba mi ’thob pas dam pa’i don ni ma rtogs na / /mya ngan ’das pa ’thob mi ’gyur61

zhes gsungs pas don dam pa’i bden pa stong pa nyid sgom dgos de la yang de’i gdams pa phyin ci ma log pa ston pa’i dge ba’i bshes gnyen gyis zin pa cig dgos pas dge ba’i [14a3] bshes gnyen gyis phongs par mi ’gyur ba’i thabs la yang ’bad par bya’o / / [14a3] / / bden pa gnyis thabs dang thabs las byung ba nyid du lung gzhan gyis kyang sgrub pa ni / kun rdzob ces pa ste / ’di ni ’phags pa’i lam gyi tshogs dag la bya ste / kun rdzob yang dag pa [14a4] ces bya zhes dge bshes ston pa gsung pa lags par gda’ / / de’i skas myed par don dam rtogs pa mthar phyin pa thams cad mkhyen pa’i ye shes kyi steng du mi phyin ces pa las / lam


60 Satyadvayāvatāra vs. 20 (Ejima 1983:366, vs. 20-21; Lindtner 1981:192, vs. 20). 61 Mūlamadhyamakakārikā 24.10cd: dam pa’i don ni ma rtogs par / /mya ngan ’das pa thob mi ’gyur / Skt. paramārtham anāgamya nirvāṇaṃ nādhigamyate /


gyi rtogs pa nyid du skye ba shes rab kyis don dam pa’i bden pa bsgoms pa las skye ste / [14a5] de nyid la tha snyad brjod pa’i bdag nyid dang thabs thams cad dgos pa sngar bstan pa bzhin du yin la / skye myed sgom pa la bde’ ’gro’i rten thob dgos la de la yang thabs kyi cha dag dgos te / mi’i chos lugs legs spyad na / /lha yul bgrod pa thag mi ring / /lha dang mi’i [14a6] them skas la / / ’dzeg na thar pa gam na ’dug62 / ces gsungs pa bzhin no / /

[/ kun rdzob ji ltar snang ba ’di // rigs pas brtags na ’ga’ mi rnyed // ma rnyed pa nyid don dam yin / ye nas gnas pa’i chos nyid do /21]63 [14a6] / / bden pa gnyis la dngos po tha dad myed pa nyid du bstan pa ni / kun rdzob ’di ltar snang ba ’di ni ma rig rang bzhin sgrib phir kun rdzob ste64 / /ces pa’i tshul gyis [14a7] ma rig pa’i dbang gis myed pa snang ba yin pas / ’di nyid la rdo rje zegs ma lasogs pa’i rigs pa rnams kyis brtags na ’ga’ yang mi rnyed cing / ma rnyed pa nyid don dam yin pas de gnyis tha dad du grub pa ma yin la / rigs pas kyang yod pa ’chig pa ni ma yin gyi / [14a8] gnas lugs rtogs par byed pa yin pas ye nas gnas pa’i chos nyid do zhes bya’o / /’di nyid la mdo’ sde dag las de bzhin gshegs *pa’i* snying po zhe’am / rigs zhe ’am / sems kyi kham zhe ’am / kun gzhi zhes kyang gsungs so / rigs pa yang slob dpon gyis ni bdag las


62 Prajñāśataka, vs. 98 (Hahn 1990:60): mi yi chos lugs legs spyad na / /lha yul bgrod pa thag mi ring / /lha dang mi yi them skas las / / ’dzeg nas thar pa’ang gam na ’dug / 63 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 21 (Ejima 1983:366, vs. 22; Lindtner 1981:192, vs. 21) 64 The first half of the citation is found in the Madhyamakaratnapradīpa vs.9 (D261a): kun rdzob ’di ltar snang ba’ di / / rigs pas brtags na ’ga’ mi rnyed/ /ma rnyed pa nyid don dam yin/ /de phyir kun rdzob shes par bya/ Cf. Lindtner 1981:173. The second half of the citation is from the Madhyamakāvatāra vs. 28a (Poussin 1912:107): gti mug rang bzhin sgrib phyir kun rdzob ste / However, the bKa’ gdams pa author cites the half-verse as: ma rig rang bzhin sgrib phyir kun rdzob ste / This may reflect the use of an earlier translation of the Madhyamakāvatāra by the bKa’ gdams pa author.


[14b1] ma yin gzhan las myin / /gnyis las ma yin rgyu myed myin / /dngos po gang dang gang na yang / /skye ba nam yang yod ma yin65 zhes dam bca’ ba tsam nyid du gsungs la / de’i dgongs pa

skong ba phal cher gyis ni / rang la skye na skyon ’dir thal ces pa lasogs pa [14b2] thal ’gyur kho nar byas so / gcig dang du bral gyi rigs pa ni mi dmyigs pa’i gtan tshigs yin la / yum gyi mdo’ dag las ni gzugs nas rnam pa thams cad mkhyen pa nyid kyi bar du de dag nyid kyis stong ste / ce’i phyir zhe na / de’i rang bzhin de yin pa’i phyir ro zhes rang [14b3] bzhin gyi gtan tshigs nyid du gsungs la / yod pa yod pa’I phyir mi skye / /myed pa myed pa’i phyir mi skye66 ces pa

kun ni rang gzhin ’gal ba dmyigs pa lasogs pa’o / /mngon sum gyis khyod kyi ’dod pa mi ’grub ces pa’am / mngon sum dang ’gal ces pa tsam las [14b4] don dam pa’i bden pa rtogs par byed pa’i rigs pa dngos ma yin / / [rgyu rkyen dag gis bskyed pas na / /kun rdzob ji ltar snang ba grub / 22ab]67 [14b4] / / ’o na kun rdzob ’di ltar snang ba ’di nyid ji ltar grub zhe na / rgyu rkyen dag gis ces pa ste / rigs pas brtags na don dam par mi grub kyang snang tshod du rgyu rkyen dag gis bskyed pas na kun rdzob ’di ltar snang [14b5] ba ’grub ste / snang ba rnams kyi dma’ shos sems can dmyal ba’i snang ba nas lha dag gi ’gro ba’i bar ’gro ba rigs lnga’i snang ba sna tshogs pa rnams dang / zhings khams yongs du dag pa ’phags pa dag la snang ba thams cad so so’i rgyu rkyen dag gis bskyed pa snang ba thams cad yin gyi / dngos po [14b6] cig thams cad la mi mthun


Mūlamadhyamakakārikā 1.1 (Derge bsTan ’gyur, tsa 1a3 - 2b1): bdag las ma yin gzhan las min / / gnyis las ma yin rgyu med min / /dngos po gang dag gang na yang / /skye ba nam yang yod ma yin / LVP 1904: 12.13): na svato nāpi parato na dvābhyāṃ nāpy ahetutaḥ / utpannā jātu vidyante bhāvāḥ kva cana ke cana / / 1 / / 66 Citation from Śūnyatāsaptati vs 4. bKa’ gdams pa text reads: yod pa yod pa’i phyir mi skye / /med pa med pa’i phyir mi skye / This citation does not match what is preserved in the bsTan ’gyur and may preserve an earlier Tibetan edition. Lindtner’s critical edition (1997:94) of the Śūnyatāsaptatikārikā reads: yod phyir yod pa skye min te / /med phyir med pa skye ma yin / The verse within the Śūnyatāsaptativṛtti reads (Lindtner 1997:177): : yod pa yod phyir skye ma yin / /med pa med pa’i phyir ma yin / See also F. Tola and C. Dragonetti, 1987: 11. 67 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 22ab (Ejima 1983:366, vs. 23ab; Lindtner 1981:192, vs. 22ab).


par snang ba ni ma yin te / las dang nyon mongs pa sna tshogs pa dag gis bskyed pa’i snang ba tha dad pa nyid do / / [gal te grub mi rung na / /chu zla la sogs su yis bskyed // 22cd // des na rgyu rkyen sna tshogs kyis / /bskyed pas snang ba tham cad grub / / rkyen rnams rgyun ni chad gyur na / / kun rdzob tu yang mi ’byung ngo // 23 //]68 [14b6] / / snang lugs mi ’dra ba dang / rgyu rkyen mi ’dra ba rgyas par gsungs la / rdzas su grub pa myed na rgyu rkyen gyis ’grub pa [14b7] mi rung ngo snyam na / gal te rdzas su ma grub pas rgyu rkyen gyis ’grub tu mi rung na / chu zla dang sgyu ma lasogs pa su yis skyed de / de dag kyang rgyu rkyen la snang ba myed par ’gyur ba las / rdzas su grub pa myed kyang rgyu rken las snang ba ’thad pa des na snga ma bzhin du rgyu rkyen sna [14b8] tshogs pas skyed pas snang ba ’thad ’grub la / rkyen rnams rgyu ni chad par gyur na / kun rdzob tu’ang ’bras bu snang ba yang mi ’byung ste / rang gi gzhung gis snang ba ’di thams cad ma rig pa’i snang ba yin pas ma rig pa gtan nas zad tsa na rjes kyi snang ba gang yang mi ’byung zhing /


{bco lnga} [15a1] $$/ /mnyam gzhag ’ba’ zhig par bzhed pa yin la / spyod pa la ’jug pa na’ang ’di nyid bzhugs pas de kun ltar na / ye shes rgyun ’chad par bzhed pa yin / kun rdzob tsam nyid du yang mo gsham bu dang ri bong rwa lasogs pa skyed pa’i rgyu rkyen myed pas ’khrul pa [15a2] la snang ba tsam du’ang mi ’byung la / dmyal bar skye ba’i rgyu ma bsag pa’am / stobs bzhis rgyun bcad pa’am nus pa bcom na dmyal bar skye ba mi ’byung ba lasogs pa yin / ’dus byas skye ba’i rkyen ma tshang bas gtan mi skye ba la so sor brtags myin gyi ’gog pa zhes kyang bya la [15a3] bag chags ma byang bas ’gog pa yang yin ’bral ba ma yin zhes kyang gsungs te / de’i bdag nyid du gtan mi skye phyis bag chags la brten nas skye ba de gzhan yin / sngun rang


1.Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 22cd-23 (Ejima 1983:366, vs. 23cd-24abcd; Lindtner 1981:192, vs. 22cd-23).


spyod pa la ’jug pa gsungs pa’i dus na bud ta’i69 ye shes dang ’phrin las ’byung ba’i rgyu sems can yin pas seM(s ca)n [15a4] ma zad bar du bu ta’i70 ye shes dang ’phrin las kyang rgyu mi ’chad gsungs te / don ni de bzhin du yin gsungs / / [/de ltar lta bas ma rmongs shing / / spyod pa shing tu dag gyur na / /gol ba’i lam du mi ’gro shing / /’og min gnas su ’gro bar ’gyur / /24 / /]71 [15a4] / / bden pa gnyis zung du ’jug pa nyid du shes pa’i phan yon ni de ltar don dam shes pas lta bas ma rmongs shing / kun rdzob pa’i rgyu ’bras la mkhas pas [15a5] spyod pa shin tu dag par gyur na / gol ba’i lam ’khor ba dang theg pa dman pa dag du mi ’gyur zhing / ’og myin

longs sku dang sa bcu’i dbang phyug dag gi gnas su ’gro ces pa ste / dang por longs sku’i ’khor du ’gro la de nas de nyid du ’gro ba las / de yang dang por ’jig [15a6] rten pa’i yang dag pa’i lta bas rmongs shing / sdig pa phra ba yang khyad du mi gsod pa’i spyod pa dag par gyur pas / ngan song dang mi khom pa’i gnas su mi gol zhing / thar pa sgrub pa’i rten bde ’gro grub pa cig dgos te / bde dang sdug bsngal gang yin pa / / [15a7] las rnams yin par ngo shes mdzod ces pa’am / phung po ’dod rgyal las myin72 ces pa lasogs pa’i tshum gyis so / /de nas rims kyis ngan song du ma gol bar bde ’gro dag tu skyes kyang bde ba myed cing slu ba’i chos can du shes par ’gro kun

rgyu dang ’bras bu ste / /’di na sems [15a8] can gzhan ci yang myed / /stong pa kho na’i chos rnams las /

/stong pa’i chos rnams ’byung bar zad73 ces pa’i tshul gyis / gang zag gi bdag gis


69 bud ta ≈ Skt. buddha 70 bu ta ≈ Skt. buddha 71 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 24 (Ejima, 1983:367,vs 25; Lindtner 1981:192, vs. 24). 72 Suhṛllekha, verse 50a. See Klong-chen ye-shes-rdo-rje & Nāgārjuna 2005: 46-47.: phung po ’dod rgyal las min dus las min / /rang bzhin las min ngo bo nyid las min / / dbang phyug las min rgyu med can min te / /mi shes las dang sred las byung rig mdzod / / “The aggregates are not a simple whim, from neither time nor nature do they come, nor by themselves, from God, or without a cause; their source, you ought to know, is ignorance, from karmic deeds and craving have they come.” 73 Pratītyasamutpādahṛdayakārikā, verse 4. Dbu ma’i man ngag: ’gro kun rgyu dang ’bras bu ste / /’di na {var. la} sems can gzhan {om. gzhan} ci yang med / stong pa kho na’i chos rnams


stong pa’i chos tsam gyi rgyu las / ’bras bu yang gang zag gis stong pa’i chos tsam zhig ’byung bar shes pa’i lta bas ma rmongs shing /


[15b1] spyod pa blab pa gsum dag par gyur pas ’khor bar yang ma gol zhing thar pa ’thob la / mthar bden pa gnyis kyi don shes pas snga ma bzhin du ’byung ba la rim gyis bslab / / [[[tshe]] ni yun thung shes bya’i rnam pa mang / /tshe yi kyang ji tsam mi shes pas / /ngang pa chu la ’o ma len pa ltar / rang gi ’dod pa dang la blang bar gyis / / 25 / /]74

[15b1] / /de ltar bden pa gnyis zung du ’jug pas ma gol bar ’gro ba la yang sgrub pa kho na la bces su byed dgos [15b2] pas / tshe ni yun thun shes bya’i rnam pa ni rig pa’i gnas lngas bsdus pa shin tu mang / tshe yun thung ba de nyid kyi yang mthar skyol nges kyang myed de / tshe’i tshad kyang ji tsam mi shes pas / rang gi ’dod pa tsam zhig dang la blangs zhes pa ste / spyir rig pa’i gnas lnga dag la brtson pa ma [15b3] byas na / / ’phags mchog gis kyang thams cad mkhyen nyid mi ’gyur te / /de lta bas na gzhan dag tshar bcad rjes su gzung phyir dang / /rang nyid kun shes bya phyir de la de brtson bya75 ces gsungs pa la / tshe yun thung pa’i dus su skyes pas myur du ’chi la / yun thung ba de nyid kyi tshod kyang mi [15b4] shes pas / da res kyi tshe dum ’di la thams cad bslab long myed / slob dpon dbyig gnyen gyis gsungs pa bzhin du tshe mthar skyol yang dgu cu tsam las myed la / de la long mang po cig byis pa spang bya dang sgrub bya ci yang mi shes pas bskyal / de nas lhag ma phyed gnyid kyis bskyal [15b5] phyed la yang phar bcad tshur bcad byas tsa na sgrub pa nyid la zhugs kyang long ci yang myed / ci zhig tsam

                                                                                                                                                      las / /stong pa’i chos rnams ’byung bar {var. ba} zad / Skt. hetuphalañca hi jagat prajñaptiṃ vihāya anyo nāsti kaścidiha sattvaḥ / śūnyebhya eva śūnyā dharmāḥ prabhavanti dharmebhyaḥ. See La Vallée Poussin 1913: 122-124; Gokhale 1955; Sastri 1968; Lindtner 1982. 74 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 25 (Ejima 1983:367, vs. 26; Lindtner 1981:192, vs. 25). 75 Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra 11.60: vidyāsthāne pañcavidhe yogam akṛtvā sarvajñātvaṃ naiti kathaṃcit paramāryaḥ / ityanyeṣāṃ nigrahaṇānugrahaṇāya svājñārthaṃ vā tatra karoty eva sa yogam.      


na rgas nas ci yang mi nus par ’gro bas / chu dang ’o ma ’dres pa gzhan gyis mi phyed ngang pa rab dag’i mchus ’byed ba bzhin du / mkhas pa dag gis chu lta bu’i phyi rig pa dag bzhag la [15b6] ’o ma lta bu’i nang rig pa / de’i nang nas kyang rang gis khas blangs bsnyas khur ba dag ti kan ni kan du shes par byas pa nyams su blangs / bod la gzhan tshar bcad pa’i phyir rol pa’i gzhung btsugs pa tsam myed / bzo dang gso ba rig pa dag gis kyang gzhan mi zin / phal cher rang gi bar chad du [15b7] ’gyur bas / rang gi phyin ci log gi blo ngan phyogs snga mar byas shing / gnyen po’i phyogs phyi mas sun dbyung / de yang rang gis tshod mi shes yid ces pa’i bla ma’i gdam ngag la rag lus pa yin / rang cag la da shes bya rig pa’i gnas lnga la bslab snyam pa yang ye myed / mi sde dang lha sde [15b8] bskyang de dag gi dgra mgo mnan / mi chod dang thun mong ba’i nor sogs bya / bstan pa la zhugs pa dang gi bya ba mang po cig kyang bya snyam pa kho na mang ste / de tsa na lta bas rmongs shing spyod pas gol bas ’og kho nar ’gro bas snga ma bzhin du bya / sngon rang rang gi ’dod pa dang la blangs ba’i skabs su skyes 16A {bcu drug bzhugs s+ho} [16a1] $$/ /bu gsum gyi rim pa sbyang pa yang gsungs / chos bzhi gsum bcu gnyis byang chub kyi sems dang bcas pa dad pa’i rtsa ba la brten pa rnams zangs kyis sbyar ba yang gsungs / / des na nyid kyi bla ma chen po de la gdams mi dgos kyang phyi rabs kyi gang zag dag la gdams pa’o / / [tshu rol mthong ba’i rmongs pa dag gis ni / bden gnyis gtan la dbab par mi nus kyang / /bla ma rnams kyi gsung la brten nas ni / klu sgrub lugs ki bden gnyis bkod pa ’di // 26 //]76 [16a1] / / [16a2] bstan bcos rtsom pa’i rgyu ni tshu rol ces pa lasogs pa ste / zla ba grags pas kyang ’di bzhin *du* gsungs pa yin la / bla ma rnams gsungs kyang a’ ba ’du ti ba77 dang phyis


76 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 26 (Ejima, verse 27, 1983:367; Lindtner 1981:192-193, vs. 26). 77 a’ ba ’du ti ba ≈ Avadhūtipa


’gyur ba’i gzhen rje gshed kyi rnal ’byor pa gnyis las ni dbu ma’i bla ma bzhugs par yang mi gsung ngo / / [[[gser]] gling rgyal po’i ngor byas ’di la ni / /gal te ding sang skye bo dad gyur kyang / /legs par brtags la blang bar bya ba yi / /dad pa tsam dang gus pa tsam gyis min / / 27 / /]78

bla ma las [16a3] gzhan pa’i deng sang skye bo dag dad par gyur kyang / legs par brtags pa blang gi dad pa tsam gis myin ces pa ni / bka’ thams cad nas kyang gsung te ’di yang gal che ’di bzhin du byas na / chos bzang rigs pas rnam dpyad bsam pa can / /rtag tu bdud kyis bar cad bya mi nus79 [16a4] ces pa’i tshul gyis gzhung lugs ngan pas slu mi mi thub pa yin / brtags na brtag thub pa yin ces pa’i don yin / [[[gser]] gling rgyal po gu ru pha la yis / dge slong de ba ma ti btang gyur nas / /de yi ngor byas bden gnyis la ’jug ’di / /ding sang mkhas pa rnams kyis brtags par rigs / /28 //]80

’gu ru pha la ni bla ma bzang po ces pa’i don to / brgwa ston bod kyi lta ba khyi ’phyan ’dra zer ba bzhin du dad pa tsam gyis ma yin gyi brtag pa yang gal che ste [16a5] brtags tsa na bag chags gang yod kho na’i steng du ’gro ba yin / gser gling ba dang shan ti ba lasogs pa dag kyang slob dpon yin te / lta ba mi mthun / bdag gis brjed byang ’di bris pas / /mtha’ yas sems can ma lus kun / /lta bas rmongs par ma gyur cing / /[16a6] spyod pa shin tu dag ’gyur te / /gol ba’i lam du mi ’gyur zhing / /’og myin gnas su ’gro bar shog / / / / / /

bdag kyang bla ma’i bka’ drin gyis / / sa rab dga’ ba thob bar du / /stong dang snying rje brtan pa dang / / bdag dang gzhan du brje bar shog / / / / bden chung gi ’bum / rdzogs s+ho / / / / rdzogs s+ho / /


78 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 27 (Ejima, verse 28, 1983:367; Lindtner 1981:193, vs. 27). 79 Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra 8.9ab: sudharmatāyuktivicāraṇāśayo viśeṣalābhaḥ parapakṣadūṣaṇam / punaḥ sadā māranirantarāyatā ahāryatāyāḥ paripākalakṣaṇam // 9 // chos bzangs rigs pas rnam dpyad bsam pa can // rtag tu bdud kyis bar chad byed pa med /khyad par rñed dang gzhan gyi phyogs sunbyin // mi ’phrogs yongs su smin pa’i mtshan nyid do // 80 Satyadvayāvatāra, vs. 28 (Ejima 1983:368, vs. 29; Lindtner 1981:193, vs. 28).


References


Indian Sources


Akṣayamatinirdeśanāmamahāyānasūtra (’Phags pa blo gros mi zad pas bstan pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo). Tôh. no. 175. Dergé Kanjur, vol. MA, folios 79a1–174b7. Jens Braarvig, Akṣayamatinirdeśasūtra. Solum Forlag (Oslo, 1993). Bhāvanākrama–1 (Bsgom pa’i rim pa) of Kamalaśīla. Tôh. no. 3915. Dergé Tanjur, vol. KI, folios 22a1–41b7. Giuseppe Tucci, Minor Buddhist Texts, Parts I and II. Motilal Banarsidass (reprint, Delhi, 1986), pp. 465–592. Bhāvanākrama–2 (Bsgom pa’i rim pa) of Kamalaśīla. Tôh. no. 3916 (also, no. 4567). Dergé Tanjur, vol. KI, folios 42a1–55b5. K. Goshima, The Tibetan Text of the Second Bhāvanākrama (Kyoto, 1983). Tenzin Gyatso, Stages of Meditation, root text by Kamalashila, translated by Ven. Geshe Lobsang Jordhen, Losang Choephel Ganchenpa and Jeremy Russell, Snow Lion (Ithaca, 2001). Bhāvanākrama–3 (Bsgom pa’i rim pa) of Kamalaśīla. Tôh. no. 3917. Dergé Tanjur, vol. KI, folios 55b6–68b7. Parmananda Sharma, trans., Bhāvanākrama of Kamalaśīla. Aditya Prakashan (New Delhi, 1997). Bodhicaryāvatāra or Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra (Byang chub sems dpa’i spyod pa la ’jug pa). Tôh. no. 3871. Dergé Tanjur, vol. LA, folios 1b1–40a7. P.L. Vaidya, ed., Bodhicaryāvatāra of Śāntideva with the Commentary Pañjikā of Prajñākaramati, Buddhist Sanskrit Texts series no. 12. The Mithila Institute (Darbhanga, 1960; reprint 1988). Prajñāpāramitāratnaguṇasañcayagāthā (’Phags pa shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa sdud pa tshigs su bcad pa). Tôh. no. 13. Dergé Kanjur, vol. KA, folios 1b1–19b7. E. Obermiller, Prajñāpāramitā–ratna–guṇa–saṃcaya–gāthā. Bibliotheca Buddhica no. 29 (1937). Reprinted with a Sanskrit–Tibetan–English index by Edward Conze, Indo–Iranian Reprints no. 5 (1960). Edited with an introduction, bibliographical notes, and a Tibetan version from Tunhuang by Akira Yuyama, Prajñā–pāramitā–ratna–guṇa–saṃcaya–gāthā. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1976).

Madhyamakāvatāra of Candrakīrti. Edited by La Vallée Poussin (1907-12). D. 3861 'a 201bl219a7,P. 5262 'a 245a2-264b8.

Madhyamakāvatārabhāṣya of Candrakīrti. Edited by La Vallée Poussin (1907-12).

Madhyamakahṛdayakārikā (Dbu ma’i snying po’i tshig le’ur byas pa). Tôh. no. 3855. Dergé Tanjur, vol. DZA, folios 40b7–329b4. Christian Lindtner, Madhyamakahṛdayam of Bhavya. Adyar Series no. 123. The Theosophical Society (Chennai, 2001).

Madhyamakahṛdayatarkajvālā (Dbu ma’i snying po’i ’grel pa rtog gebar ba). Tôh. no. 3856. Dergé Tanjur, vol. DZA, folios 40b7–329b4, P. 5256 dza 43b7-380a7. Edited by Iida (1980). Annette L. Heitmann, Nektar der Erkenntnis, Buddhistische Philosophie des 6. Jh.: Bhavyas Tarkajvālā I–III.26. Shaker Verlag (Aachen, 2004).


Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra–nāma–kārikā (Theg pa chen po mdo sde’i rgyan zhes bya ba’i tshig le’ur byas pa). Tôh. no. 4020. Dergé Tanjur, vol. PHI, folios 1b1–39a4. Sylvain Lévi, ed., Mahāyāna–Sūtrālaṅkāra, Exposé de la doctrine du Grand véhicule selon le système Yogācāra. Champion (Paris, 1907, 1911), reprinted in two volumes by Rinsen Book Company (Kyoto, 1983). Asaṅga., L Jamspal, Robert Clark, Joe Wilson, Leonard Zwilling, Michael J Sweet, Robert A. F Thurman, and Vasubandhu, The Universal Vehicle Discourse Literature: Mahāyānasūtrālaṁkāra. Center for Buddhist Studies, Columbia University and Tibet House US (New York, 2004).

Mūlamadhyamakakārikā (Dbu ma rtsa ba'i tshig le'ur byas pa shes rab) of Nāgārjuna. Tôh. no. 3824. Dergé Tanjur, vol. TSA, folios 1v.1-19r.6. Tr. by Jñānagarbha and Cog ro Klu'i rgyal mtshan. Revised by Hasumati and Pa tshab Nyi ma grags. Revised again by Kanaka and Pa tshab Nyi ma grags. For Sanskrit see La Vallée Poussin 1903-13.

Yuktiṣāṣṭikāvṛtti (Rigs pa drug cu pa’i ’grel pa). Tôh. no. 3864. Dergé Tanjur, vol. YA, folios 1v.1-30v.6. Tr. by Jinamitra, Dānaśīla, Śīlendrabodhi and Ye shes sde. See Scherrer-Schaub 1991.

Ratnāvalī (Rājaparikathāratnamālā, Rgyal po la gtam bya ba rin po che’i phreng ba). Tôh. no. 4158. Dergé Tanjur, vol. GE, folios 107a1–126a4. Michael Hahn, Nāgārjuna's Ratnāvalī, Vol. 1: The Basic Texts (Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese). Indica et Tibetica no. 1 (Bonn, 1982). John Dunne and Sarah McClintock, The Precious Garland: An Epistle to a King. Wisdom (Boston, 1997).

Vajracchedikā–nāma–prajñāpāramitāsūtra (’Phags pa shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa rdo rje gcod pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo). Tôh. no. 16. Dergé Kanjur, vol. KA, folios 121a1–132b7. Paul Harrison & Shogo Watanabe, “Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā,” in: Jens Braarvig, Paul Harrison, Jens–Uwe Hartmann, Kazunobu Matsuda & Lore Sander, eds., Buddhist Manuscripts in the Schøyen Collection. Hermes (Oslo, 2006), pp. 89–132. Paul Harrison, “Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā: A New English Translation of the Sanskrit Text Based on Two Manuscripts from Greater Gandhāra,” in: op. cit., 133–59. Vigrahavyāvartanīkārikā (Rtsod pa bzlog pa'i tshig le'ur byas pa) of Nāgārjuna. Tôh. no. 3828. Dergé Tanjur, vol. TSA, folios 27r.1-29r.7. Tr. by Jñānagarbha and Ska ba Dpal brtsegs. Revised by Jayānanda and Khu Mdo sde 'bar. Sanskrit edited by Yonezawa 2008. Satyadvayavibhaṅgakārikā of Jñānagarbha ed. by Eckel (1987). D. 3881 sa 1-3b3.

Satyadvayāvatāra (Bden pa gnyis la ’jug pa) of Atiśa Dīpamkaraśrījñāna. Tôh. no. 3902 (also, no. 4467). sDe dge bstan ’gyur, vol. A, folios 72a2–73a7. sNar thang bstan ’gyur, vol. Ha, 65b3-66a1. dPe bsdur ma bstan ’gyur, vol. 63, pp. 1050-1054. gSer bris ma bstan ’gyur, vol. Ha, 90a-92a. Yasunori Ejima, 1983. Christian Lindtner, trans., “Atiśa’s Introduction to the Two Truths, and Its Sources.” Journal of Indian Philosophy, vol. 9 (1981), pp. 161–214. See also Sherburne (2000): 352–59.

Śikṣāsamuccaya (Bslab pa kun las btus pa). Tôh. no. 3940. Dergé Tanjur, vol. KHI, folios 3a2– 194b5. Cecil Bendall, ed., Çikshāsamuccaya: A Compendium of Buddhistic Teaching. Bibliotheca Buddhica no. 1 (St. Petersburg 1897–1902), reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass (Delhi, 1971). C. Bendall and W.H.D. Rouse, Compendium of Buddhist Doctrine. J. Murray (London, 1922), reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass (Delhi, 1971).

Śūnyatāsaptatikārikā (Stong pa nyid bdun cu pa'i tshig le'ur byas pa) of Nāgārjuna. Tôh. no. 3827. Dergé Tanjur, vol. TSA, folios 24r.6-27r.1. Tr. by Gzhon nu mchog, Gnyan Dar ma grags and Khu. See Lindtner 1997.


Tibetan Sources


Jo bo rje dpal ldan a ti sha’i gsung ’bum. 2006. Works attributed to Atiśa and his early disciples. Compiled by dPal–brtsegs–bod–yig dpe–rnying–zhib–’jug–khang. bKa’ gdams dpe dkon gces btus. Zi–ling: Krung–go’i–bod–rig–pa–dpe–skrun–khang.

bstan ’gyur. snar thang. TBRC W22704. 225 vols. [[[narthang]]]: [s.n.], [1800?]. http://tbrc.org/link?RID=W22704

bstan ’gyur. dpe bsdur ma. TBRC W1PD95844. 120 vols. pe cin/: krung go'i bod rig pa'i dpe skrun khang /, 1994-2008. http://tbrc.org/link?RID=W1PD95844.

bstan ’gyur. gser bris ma. TBRC W23702. 225 vols. tibet: [[[snar thang]]], [17-?]. http://tbrc.org/link?RID=W23702

Dbu ma’i man ngag gi ’bum. 2003. Pages 371{1a}-401{16a} in Bka’ gdams gsung ’bum phyogs bsgrigs glegs bam bcu dgu pa zhugs. Compiled by dPal–brtsegs–bod–yig dpe–rnying–zhib– ’jug–khang. bKa’ gdams dpe dkon gces btus. Zi–ling: Krung–go’i–bod–rig–pa–dpe–skrun– khang. Dbu ma’i man ngag gi ’bum. 2006. Pages 642-668 in Jo bo rje dpal ldan a ti sha’i gsung ’bum. Works attributed to Atiśa and his early disciples. Compiled by dPal–brtsegs–bod–yig dpe– rnying–zhib–’jug–khang. bKa’ gdams dpe dkon gces btus. Zi–ling: Krung–go’i–bod–rig– pa–dpe–skrun–khang.

Tshul khrims rin chen. bstan ’gyur. sde dge. TBRC W23703. 213 vols. delhi: delhi karmapae choedhey, gyalwae sungrab partun khang, 1982-1985. http://tbrc.org/link?RID=W23703


Secondary Sources


Almogi, Orna. 2009. Rong–Zom–Pa's Discourses on Buddhology: A Study of Various Conceptions of Buddhahood in Indian Sources with Special Reference to the Controversy Surrounding the Existence of Gnosis (Jñāna : Ye Shes) As Presented by the Eleventh– Century Tibetan Scholar Rong–Zom Chos–Kyi–Bzang–Po. Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies of the International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies.


Apple, James B. 2008. Stairway to Nirvāṇa: A Study of the Twenty Saṃghas based on the Works of Tsong kha pa. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Apple, James B. 2010. “Atiśa’s Open Basket of Jewels: A Middle Way Vision in Late Phase Indian Vajrayāna.” The Indian International Journal of Buddhist Studies 11: 117-198.

Apple, James B. 2013. “An Early Tibetan Commentary on Atiśa’s Satyadvayāvatāra.” Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 41, No.3, p. 263-329.

De Jong, J.W. 1962. “La Madhyamakaśāstrastuti de Candrakīrti.” Oriens Extremus 9, pp. 47-56.

Eckel, Malcolm David. 1987. Jñānagarbha’s Commentary on the Distinction between the Two Truths. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.

Ejima, Yasunori 1983. “Atīsha no Ni-shinri-setsu” (Atīśa’s Theory of the Two Truths), Ryūjukyōgaku no kenkyū (Studies of Teaching of Nāgārjuna). (in Japanese).

Gold, Jonathan C. 2007. The Dharma's Gatekeepers: Sakya Pandita on Buddhist Scholarship in Tibet. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Hahn, Michael. 1990. Hundert strophen von der Lebensklugheit : Nāgārjunas Prajñāśataka. Indica et Tibetica 18. Bonn: Indica et Tibetica Verlag.

La Vallée Poussin, Louis de. 1903-13. Mūlamadhyamakakārikās (Mādhyamikasūtras) de Nāgārjuna avec la Prasannapadā Commentaire de Candrakīrti. Bibliotheca Buddhica 4, SI. Petersbourg.

La Vallée Poussin, Louis de. 1907-12. Madhyamakāvatāra par Candrakirti. Bibliotheca Buddhica 9, SI. Petersbourg.

Lindtner, Christian. 1981. “Atiśa’s Introduction to the Two Truths, and its Sources.” Journal of Indian Philosophy 9: 161-214.

Lindtner, Christian. 1982. “The Pratītyasamutpādahṛdayakārikā-a reply” in “Adversaria Buddhica,” Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens 26: 167-194.

Lindtner, Christian. 1997. Master of Wisdom. Oakland: Dharma Publishing.

Nanjio, Bunyiu. 1923. The Laṅkāvatāra sūtra. Kyoto: Otani University Press.

Ruegg, David Seyfort. 1969. La théorie du tathagatagarbha et du gotra; études sur la sotériologie et la gnoséologie du bouddhisme. Paris: École Française d’Extrême-Orient.


Ruegg, David Seyfort. 1989. Buddha-nature, mind and the problem of gradualism in a comparative perspective: on the transmission and reception of Buddhism in India and Tibet. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

Saito, Akira. 2000, A Study of the Dūn-huáng Recension of the ‘Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra’. University of Mie, Mie (Project Number 09610021. A report of Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C). Term of Project 1997.4-2000.3, University of Mie).

Scherrer-Schaub, Cristina. 1991. Yuktiṣāṣṭikāvṛtti: Commentaire à la soixantaine sur le raisonnement ou Du vrai enseignement de la causalité par le Maître indien Candrakīrti, Bruxelles.

Scherrer-Schaub, Cristina A. 2002. “Enacting Words. A Diplomatic Analysis of the Imperial Decrees (bkas bcad) and their Application in the sGra sbyor bam po gñis pa Tradition.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 25/1–2: 263–340.

Sherburne, Richard. 2000. The Complete Works of Atīśa Śrī Dīpaṁkara Jñāna. Jo–Bo–Rje: The Lamp for the Path and Commentary, Together with the Newly Translated Twenty–Five Key Texts (Tibetan and English Texts). New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.

Yonezawa, Yoshiasu. 2008. “Vigrahavyāvartanī: Sanskrit transliteration and Tibetan translation.” Journal of the Naritasan Institute of Buddhist Studies 31:209-333.



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