The 8th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
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慢 (Skt, Pali mana; Jpn man )
In Buddhism, a function of the Mind that obstructs Buddhist practice and the way to Enlightenment. Arrogance means to hold oneself to be higher than and to look down upon others, and therefore hinders correct judgment. Buddhism discerned the functions and pitfalls of an arrogant Mind, and various Buddhist writings define seven, eight, and nine types of arrogance. A number of figures representing arrogance appear throughout the Buddhist scriptures as well, such as the five thousand arrogant persons in the Lotus Sutra and the Great Arrogant Brahman in The Record of the Western Regions. Expressions such as "the banner of arrogance" and "the banner of pride" are also found in Buddhist writings.
See also five thousand arrogant persons; Great Arrogant Brahman; nine types of arrogance.
arrogance (慢). Arrogance has seven types:
(1) arrogance (慢) is vaunting one’s superiority over inferiors;
(2) over-arrogance (過慢) is asserting one’s superiority over equals;
(3) arrogant over-arrogance (慢過慢) is alleging one’s superiority over superiors;
(4) self-arrogance (我慢) is the root of all other arrogances, considering oneself by definition to be superior to others;
(5) exceeding arrogance (增上慢) is alleging realization of Truth one has not realized;
(6) humility-camouflaged arrogance (卑慢) is admitting slight inferiority to those who are much superior; and
(7) Evil arrogance (邪慢) is boasting of virtues one does not have.