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Blue Annals of Go Lotsawa Zonnu Pal

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The Blue Annals of Go Lotsawa Zonnu Pal (1392-1481) is an eclectic history of Tibetan Buddhism up to the late 15th century. It was translated into English and published by George Roerich in 1949.

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Contents:

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Part 4

Part 4 (Chapters 1 & 2 - Lamdre)

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PART 4 (NGA): New Traditions of Secret Mantra, including the Followers of the Path and the Fruit [3 CHAPTERS]

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From the Blue Annals, chapter on New Traditions of Secret Mantra, including the Followers of the Path and the Fruit.

deb ther sngon po las / gsang sngags gsar ma / lam ?bras rjes 'brang dang bcas pa'i skabs. 16 folios. Chandra 183 214; Chengdu 255 296; Roerich 204 240.

4.1 The beginning of the new translations (gsar ma'i 'gyur mgo'i skabs. Chandra 184; Chengdu 255; Roerich 204).

Notwithstanding the fact that some of the Tantric Precepts were to be found in dbus, gtsang and mnga' ris, Tantric practices became defiled. Meditation on the Ultimate Reality was abandoned, and many coarse practices made their appearance, such as sexual practices, ritual killing (sbyor sgrol), the gtad ser, and others. (This situation) was noticed by the kings of mnga' ris, and though they did not voice their objection openly, they sent invitations to numerous learned paṇḍitas (in India), who were able to remove these obstacles by placing living beings on the Path of Purity. Said Lord Atīśa: "The Initiation into the gsang dbang rite and the shes rab (Prajnā) was not to be taken up by one of chaste practice, since this was strictly prohibited in the great Tantra of the Ādi Buddha." (This passage) also prohibited indirectly the coarse practices of lay Tantrics.

Though it is generally said that Lord Smṛti had inaugurated the translation of the "New" Tantras, he did not translate them in dbus and gtsang. At a later date, he prepared in Khams numerous translations of the Manjuśrināma sangīti, according to the method of the Saint Līlāvajra (sgeg pa rdo rje), the Śrīcatuḥpīṭha-mahāyoginītantrarāja-nāma, the Cycle of the Guhyasamāja (gsang 'dus) and other texts. Thus it seems that these (translations) {R 205} were earlier than the translations of Tantric texts made by the great lo tsā ba rin chen zhang po, for it is said that when 'brom ston pa attended on jo bo se btsun, he learnt the work of a translator from Smṛti. Soon after that, when 'brom came to mnga' ris, the great lo tsā ba reached the age of 85. The great lo tsā ba had translated for the most part the "Father" Class (pha rgyud) of the Anuttara-yoga-tantra, including the Tattvasamgraha, the Guhyasamāja and other texts. The Tantras belonging to the Yoginī class such as the Saṃvara, Hevajra and others were translated by bla chen 'brog mi, when the great lo tsā ba was nearing his fiftieth year. Then also the Yoginī Tantras became widely propagated. The paragraph on the beginning of the translations of the "New" Tantras.

4.2 The spread of explanations of Yoginī Tantras, and the story of the increase of instructions on the Path and its Results during the life of the Sakyapa father and son (rnal 'byor ma'i rgyud kyi bshad pa'i dar so dang / lam 'bras bu dang bcas pa'i gdams pa sa skya pa yab sras kyi ring la 'ji ltar 'phel ba'i gtam gyi skabs. Chandra 184; Chengdu 256; Roerich 205).

Thus during the spread of the Doctrine by lo ston rdorje dbang phyug, who was the, first (of the period) of the later spread of the Doctrine, the three brothers dpal lde, 'od lde and skyid lde, sons of khri bkra shis brtsegs pa dpal, who ruled in the region of ru lag and was a son of king dpal 'khor btsan, requested lo ston to propagate the Doctrine (ordination) by sending an upādhyāya and ācārya to their place. (Accordingly) the upādhyāya Śākya (%) gzhon nu, and the ācārya se ye shes brtson 'grus were sent.

In the time of the establishment of monastic communities, when the lo tsā ba rin chen bzang po was nearing the age of fifty, these two, upādhyāya and ācārya, having discussed (the matter), presented a large quantity of gold to 'brog mi and stag lo gzhon nu brtson 'grus, and sent them to India. The two, while in Tibet, had studied a little the bi wa rta (vivarta) script (Vartula), and spent one year in Nepāl, and learnt well the (Sanskrit) language from the Nepālese paṇḍita Sāntibhadra, a disciple of Śānti-pa, as well as heard (from him) several Vajrayāna texts. Then following his advice they proceeded to interview Śānti-pa, one {R 206} of the six gate-keeper paṇḍitas (of Vikramaśila): at the eastern (gate) Śānti-pa; at the southern gate ngag gi dbang phyug grags pa (Vagīśvarakīrti); at the western gate shes rab 'byung gnas blo gros (Prajnākaramati); at the northern gate nā ro pang chen; in the centre rin chen rdo rje (Ratnavajra), and Jnanaśri. They also had the occasion of studying with the other (paṇḍitas).

When they were about to start for India, the upādhyāya and the ācārya instructed them: "Listen to the (exposition) of the Vinaya for, it is the Basis of the Doctrine. Listen to the Prajnāpāramitā, for it is the Essence of the Doctrine. Listen to the Vajrayāna, for it is the Spirit of the Doctrine." They followed these instructions.

'brog mi first heard the exposition of the, Vinaya from Śānti-pa. After that he heard the Prajnāpāramitā and many texts of the Vajrayāna, and became very learned. 'brog mi spent eight years at the residence of Śānti-pa, and after that journeyed to Eastern India, where he saw a monk being fed by a tree goddess with a spectre in hand. He was filled with wonder and paid great reverence to this monk, and begged him to accept him (as disciple). The monk's name was Prajnā-Indraruci, in Tibetan he was called shes rab kyi dbang po gsal ba. Further, Ḍombhi- Heruka, a disciple of Birwapa (Virūpa). His disciple Durjaya-candra (mi thub zla ba), whose disciple was Prajnā-Indraruci. He bestowed on 'brog mi the Initiation into the Vajrayāna, the exposition of the Tantra and Tantric precepts. He also bestowed on him the doctrine of the "Path and Fruit" (lam 'bras) without the basic text (rtsa ba med pa'i lam 'bras). In contrast to the Vajrayanā doctrine of Śānti-pa, he felt great certainty in this doctrine, and spent there three years.

Later, for 13 years he resided in India and Nepāl, and then returned to Tibet. The upādhyāya and the acārya, accompanied, by a crowd of monks, went out a long way to meet him. As stated above, 'brog mi had mastered many {R 207} doctrines and became learned, and this pleased the upādhyāya and ācārya. 'brog mi then translated three Tantras, including the brtag gnyis and many Vajrayānic texts. He also revised the translation of the Abhisamayālaṃkārakārikāvṛtti-śuddha-mati-nāma, chiefly propagated the Tantric doctrines and expounded numerous texts, residing at myu gu lung and lha rtse'i brag (the Rock of lha rtse). For a short while he was invited by the nomads of gnam thang dkar po (gtsang), and while staying there he received a letter from Gayadhara telling him of the coming of a paṇḍita and advising him to come to meet the latter.

He went to meet the paṇḍita at gung thang, (mang yul(%)), and joined his retinue. On his way there the paṇḍita preached the Doctrine to him. He invited Gayadhara to myu gu lung and they decided to stay there for five years, and Gayadhara to bestow (on him) the complete "Precious Word" (gsung ngag rin po che). The paṇḍita to receive also gifts amounting to 500 golden srangs. In three years the paṇḍita completed his teaching. When the paṇḍita said that he was going, he was requested to stay on, as agreed, and he stayed (there) for five years. When the 500 golden srangs were paid up, he became very pleased and undertook not to teach the "Word" (lam 'bras) to other Tibetans. Then the paṇḍita returned to India. At a later time, the paṇḍita was again invited by 'gos via gro mo. When the paṇḍita arrived, they met again. Then again he returned (to India). At last gyi jo invited the paṇḍita to mnga' ris. Then, when he was proceeding to gtsang, 'brog mi having passed away, the paṇḍita did not meet him. The paṇḍita (Gayadhara) proceeded to kha rag into the presence of two ascetics se and rog. There he passed away.

'brog mi bestowed many Tantras and {R 208} precepts including those of bsam mi khyab and others, exposing the lam 'bras doctrine. He bestowed the complete "Word" (gsung ngag) on lha btsun ka li, 'brom do pa ston chung and se ston kun rig. They are not to be found with other (teachers). lha btsun did not keep disciples. do pa ston chung proceeded from myu gu lung to la stod, and soon afterwards died there, and thus did not propagate his teaching. Though 'brog mi did not teach the complete "Word" he preached some parts of it to the three "Males" (pha): 'dgyer sgom se po, gshen sgom ros po and dbus pa grong po che, and to four female followers: stod mo rdo rje 'tsho, bzang mo dkon ne, shab mo lcam cig and 'chad mo nam mkha'. These seven attained spiritual realization. The five who had completed the teaching of the basic texts: gyi ljang, the "White Headed" (dbu dkar ba) of lha rtse, shab kyi brag rtse so nag pa, dbang ston dkon mchog rgyal po of 'phran 'og, 'khon dkon mchog rgyal po of sa skya, and gsal ba'i snying po of mnga' ris. This is the number of 'brog mi's disciples.

He also preached the Doctrine to numerous pravrajikas and laymen. 'gos lo tsā ba and mar pa lo tsā ba have also been his disciples. mar pa used to say at the shri myu gu lung monastery: "I had learnt the alphabet and pronunciation (of Sanskrit) from the Translator ('brog mi). I think his grace was not small, but great!" But mar pa found 'brog mi insisting on a great many presents, even for short preceptsd so a desire to visit India was born in mar pa, and he proceeded there. 'gos thinking also that the Teacher was too strict in matters of religion, thought of going himself to interview paṇḍitas, and so journeyed (to India) from the monastic college (myu gu lung). In this manner 'brog mi obtained the faculty of hearing numerous secret precepts and (developed) steadfastness in both the utpannakrama (%) and sampānnakrama (%) degrees.

Though he had striven to obtain Enlightenment before giving up his physical body, he assumed a cross-legged {R 209} position in the Sky by the force of his prāngāyāma (%) and plunged into death as his Path of Salvation. When his sons were performing the funeral rite (and burnt his body), the auspicious signs (of his having attained Enlightenment in his physical body) did not manifest themselves. He attained the true realization of the Mahāmudrā (which he did not attain at the time of his death, as hoped for by him) in the "Intermediate" State (antarabhava bar do) (%).

In short, according to the above given account, the great translator rin chen bzang po had made numerous translations, including those of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajnāpāramitā (brgyad stong pa), the nyi khri' snang ba, the Abhisamayālaṃkāra ālokā, and other texts, and taught them. The spread of the profound Prajnapāramitā (doctrine) is also due to him. In the domain of the Tantra piṭaka of the Vajrayāna, he possessed both the knowledge, and the great method of spiritual attainment through (yogic) practice. He also established numerous recommendations on the preaching of the Tantras of both the "Father" and "Mother" classes.

He especially spread the Doctrine by propagating the great commentaries, rites and practices of the Yoga Tantra. As stated above the great Teacher (bla chen) 'brog mi propagated the doctrine of study and meditation, and chiefly that of the "Mother" class of the Tantras. Lord 'gos preached chiefly the Samāja according to the method of Nāgārjuna. Following his teaching, his numerous learned disciples increased in numbers (and followed after him) in an uninterrupted succession.

mar pa held in high esteem the Tantric precepts of Nāropā and those of Maitrī. He also taught the (Guhya) samāja, the Śrī Buddhakapāla nāma Yoginītantrarāja, the Hevajra Tantrarāja, the ārya-Dākiṇīvajrapanjara-mahātantrarājakalpa nāma, the Śrī Mahāmāyā tantrarāja nāma {R 210} and the Śrīcatuḥpīṭha-mahayoginītantrarāja-nāma. Because of this, his disciples became learned men, attained spiritual realization and the mountain country of Tibet became filled with (his) disciples, and in this manner he became the Master of the Tantric Doctrine.

The great teacher 'brog mi bestowed the complete "Word" (i.e. the lam 'bras doctrine) on se, and intimated that his precepts would spread through za ma, brother and sister. In due course both brother and sister obtained from se the "Word" (lam 'bras) practised it and were of great benefit to others. Their story will be told later.

Though the great teacher (bla chen, i.e. 'brog mi) had many disciples, the teachers of the Holy sa skya are the great masters of both the basic texts and secret precepts. Their Lineage: From whom and whence they originated: In those times when gods and demons were numerous in Tibet, gya' spang skyes gcig of yar klungs shar and si li ma having married, a bloodless demon had intercourse with her. While the two were quarrelling, a divine son was born to her, who became known as jobo 'khon par skyes (the "Lord born amidst quarrels") (%). From ma sangs downwards the Lineage of those who had originated from 'khon followed in regular succession. 'khon dpal po che who was appointed confidential minister (nang blon) to king khri srong lde btsan, had four sons: khri mdzes lha legs, tshe la dbang phyug, 'khon klu'i dbang po bsrung ba and tshe 'dzin. The third is the sixth of the "Seven Tested Men" (sad mi).

The descendants of rdo rje rin po che, the fourth son, are as follows: shes rab yon tan, yon tan 'byung gnas, tshul khrims rgyal po, rdo rje gtsug tor, dge skyabs, dge mthong, bal po and sākya blo gros. They all were familiar with the Old" Tantra texts.

He had two sons: the eldest shes rab tshul khrims became a monk; the youngest dkon mchog rgyal po, who was born in the year Wood-Male-Dog (shing pho khyi 1034 A.D.), founded at the age of 40 in the year Water-Female-Ox (chu mo glang 1073 A.D.) the monastery of sa skya {R 211}. At the age of 69 in the year Water-Male-Horse (chu pho rta?1102 A.D.) he passed away. His son sa chen kun dga' snying po was born in the year (%) Water-Male-Ape (chu pho spre'u 1092 A.D.), when his father was 59. His father died when he was eleven. In that year ba ri lo tsā ba, aged 63, was appointed to the chair (at sa skya). He occupied the chair from the age of 20 to 67, (%) for 48 years, and died in the year Earth-Male-Tiger (sa pho stag 1158 A.D.).

sa chen had four sons: kun dga' 'bar went to India, was a learned man, and died in India at the age of 22. (His) second (son) the ācārya bsod nams rtse mo was born in the year Water- Male-Dog (chu pho khyi 142 A.D.), when his father was 51. He died at the age of 41 in the year Water-Male-Tiger (chu pho stag 1182 A.D.). The third (son) the Venerable grags pa rgyal mtshan was born in the year Fire-Female-Hare (me mo yos 1147 A.D.), when his father was 56. In his 26th year, he occupied the chair, beginning from the Water-Dragon year (chu 'brug 1172 A.D.). He died at the age of 70 in the year Fire-Male-Mouse (me mo byi ba 1216 A.D.).

The fourth (son) dpal chen 'od po was born in the year Iron-Male-Horse (lcags pho rta 1150 A.D.), when his father was 59. He died at the age of 54 in the year Water-Female-Hog (chu mo phag 1203 A.D.).

This latter had two sons: the eldest was sa skya pang chen (kun dga' rgyal mtshan) who was born in the year Water-Male-Tiger (chu pho stag 1182 A.D.), when his father was 33. At the age of 63 in the year Wood-Male-Dragon (shing pho 'brug 1244 A.D.) he visited the Emperor (i.e. Godan in kan su(%)). He died at the age of 70 in the year Iron-Female-Hog (lchags mo phag 1251 A.D.).

(His) youngest son was zangs tsha bsod nams rgyal mtshan who was born in the year Wood-Male-Dragon ('sin pho 'brug 1184 A.D.), when his father was 35. He died at the age of 56 in the year Earth-Female-Hog(sa mo phag 1239 A.D.). His son the bla ma 'phags pa was born in the year Wood-Female-Sheep (sin mo lug 1235 A.D.), when his father was 52. {R 212}

At the age of ten, he proceeded to the North in the retinue of chos rje ba (sa skya paṇḍita). En route, at zul phu he took up the noviciate in the presence of na bza' 'phren gsol. At the age of 18, in the year Water-Female-Ox (chu mo glah 1253 A.D.) he became the Court Chaplain (bla mchod) of Prince se chen (Secen, Qubilai (%)). At the age of 21, in the year Wood-Female-Hare year (śin mo yos 1255 A.D.) he took up the final monastic ordination. At the age of 26 in the year Iron-Male-Ape (lcags pho spre'u 1260 A.D.), when se chen had ascended the imperial throne, be became Imperial Preceptor. At the age of 31, in the year Wood-Female-Ox (shing mo glang 1265 A.D.) he returned to Tibet. Then again, in the year Earth-Female-Serpent (sa mo sbrul 1268 A.D.) he proceeded to the Imperial Court, and spent there seven years. Then again, at the age of 42, in the year Fire-Male-Mouse (me mo byi ba 1276 A.D.), he returned to his monastery (sa skya). In the year Fire-Female-Ox (me mo glang 1277 A.D.) he held a religious assembly at chu mig. At the age of 49, in the year Iron-Male-Dragon (lcags pho 'brug 1280 A.D.) he passed away.

His younger brother pḥyag na was born in the year Earth-Female-Hog (sa mo phag1239 A.D.) when his father was 56. At the age of six, he proceeded to the North in the retinue of cho rje ba (sa skya paṇḍita). At the age of 29, in the year Fire-Female-Hare (me mo yos 1267 A.D.) he died. Again, the ācārya rin chen rgyal mtshan was born in the year Earth-Male-Dog (sa pho khyi 1238 A.D.) when his father zangs tsha was 55.

At the age of 42 in the year Earth-Female-Hare (sa tno yos1279 A.D.) he died. Further, the ācārya ye shes 'byung gnas and the ācārya rin chen rgyal mtshan were of one age. He (ye shes 'byung gnas) died at the age of 37 in the year Wood-Male-Dog (shing pho kyi 1274 A.D.) at ljang yul.

The son of Phyag-na-Dharmapālarakṣita (%) was born in the year Earth-Male-Dragon (sa pho 'brug 1268 A.D.) ten months after Phyag-na's death. At the age of 20, in the year Fire-Female-Hog (me mo phag 1287 A.D.) {R 213} he died. He occupied the chair (of sa skya) for seven years, from the year Iron-Serpent (lcags sbrul 1281 A.D.) till the year Fire-Female-Hog (me mo phag 1287 A.D.).

The son of the bla ma ye shes 'byung gnas, the Mahātman bzang po dpal was born in the year Water-Male-Dog (chu pho khyi 1262 A.D.), when his father was 25. At 45, he occupied the chair for 19 years, beginning with the year Fire-Male-Horse (me pho rta 1306 A.D.). He died at the age of 61 in the year Water-Male-Dog (chu pho khyi 1322 A.D.).

This bla ma had 12 sons.

The first, the ācārya bsod nams bzang po was born at the Imperial Court (in Peking). He died in amdo (mdo khams) en route to Tibet.

The second (son) the bla ma kun dga' blo gros was born in the year Earth-Female-Hog (sa mo phag 1299 A.D.) when his father was 38. At the age of 29, in the year Fire-Female-Hare (me mo yos 1327 A.D.) he died.

The third (son) the great Venerable scholar (mkhas btsun chen po) nam mkha' legs pa'i blo gros rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po (%) was born in the year Wood-Female-Serpent (shin mo sbrul 1305 A.D.) when his father was 44. At 21 in the year Wood-Female-Ox (shing mo glanh 1325 A.D.) he occupied the chair (of sa skya) for 19 years, till the year Water-Female-Sheep (chu mo lug 1343 A.D.). He passed away in the same Water-Female-Sheep year, aged 39.

He had two younger brothers: The first died in childhood. The second, ācārya nam mkha rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po was born in the year Wood-Male-Mouse (shing pho byi ba 1324 A.D.) after the death of his father. At the age of 20, he proceeded to the Imperial Court. The bla ma kun dga' legs pa'i 'byung nas also proceeded to the Imperial Court.

His younger brother ti shri kun dga' rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po was born in the year Iron-Male-Dog (Icags pho khyi 1310 A.D.). He died at the age of 49 in the year Earth-Male-Dog (sa pho khyi 1358 A.D.).

Three sons were born to the Venerable Lady (btsun mo) red mda' ma. The eldest died in childhood. The youngest kun dga' legs pa'i rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po {R 214} was born in the year Earth-Male-Ape (sa pho spre'u 1308 A.D.) when his father was 47. At 29 in the year Fire-Male-Mouse (me pho byi ba 1336 A.D.) he died at srad.

Of the three sons born to the Lady zha lu ma ma gcig gzhon nu 'bum, the eldest kun dga' nyi ma'i rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po received the title of ta'i dben gu shrī (

The second son?the bla ma don yod rgyal mtshan was born in the year Iron-Male-Dog (lcags pho khyi 1310 A.D.), when his father was 49. He died at the age of 35 in the year Wood-Male-Ape (sin pho spre'u 1344 A.D).

The yougest son the bla ma dam pa bdod nams rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po was, born in the year Water-Male-Mouse (chu pho byi ba 1312 A.D.) at zha lu khang gsar (%). He died at the age of 64 in the year Wood-Female-Hare (shing mo yos 1375 A.D.).

The son of dbang (ti shri (ti shih) kun dga' rgyal mtshan had two sons, before he took up ordination. The son of ma gcig byang pa mo ta'i dben (T'ai Yan) chos kyi rgyal mtshan was born in the year Water-Male-Ape (chu pho spre'u 1332 A.D.).

The son of the sister of the bla ma kun spangs pa, Ta'i dben (T'ai Yan) blo gros rgyal mtshan was also born in the year Water-Male-Ape (chu pho spre'u 1332 A.D.).

The eldest son of the four sons and daughters of dbang kun dga' legs pa, ti shri' (ti shih) bsob nams blo gros was (also) born in the year Water-Male-Ape (chu pho spre'u 1332 A.D.). He visited the Imperial Court, and died at me tog ra ba in the year Water-Tiger (chu stag 1362 A.D.). His youngest brother died in childhood.

The younger brother dbang grags pa rgyal mtshan was born in the year Fire-Male-Mouse (me pho byi ba 1336 A.D.). At the age of 44 (41?) he died at stag tshan in the year Fire-Dragon (me 'brug 1376 A.D.).

bla ma kun rin, {R 215} son of the bla ma mkhas btsun pa and chos rje kun bkras pa, son of the bla ma chos kyi rgyal mtshan, were born in the year Earth-Female-Ox (sa mo glang 1349 A.D.). At 64, in the year Water-Male-Dragon (chu pho 'brug 1412 A. D.) he proceeded to the Imperial Court, and remained there for two years. The Ta'i Ming Emperor bestowed on him the title of theg chen chos kyi rgyal po (this is a translation of the Chinese Ta-ch'ng Fa-wang).

khon dkon mchog rgyal po, who belonged to this Line, held in high esteem the "New" Tantras. From bla chen ('brog mi) he acquired chiefly an understanding of the teaching of gur (%) and brtag (%). bla then also bestowed the complete precepts (of the "Path and Fruit Doctrine/lam 'bras/) on se ston kun rig. se ston obtained the exposition of the Tantras from gsal ba'i snying po of mnga' ris a direct disciple of bla chen. He also studied under khon dkon mchog rgyal po. He attained supreme meditation, and lived till the age of 88 (%). According to a prophecy by his teacher, he bestowed most of his secret precepts on zha ma and (her) brother.

At the age of 87, he met sa chen (kun dga' snying po), who was 25, and was very pleased. He (se ston) said to sa chen: "Come here! I shall bestow the secret precepts on you!". Some obstacles in his way prevented him from listening to the exposition of secret precepts. se also died soon.

When later sa chen, mentally craving for secret preceptsd as to who possessed secret preceptse was told that "dgon pa and his brother held the precepts of se ston, but that the younger brother had died". He therefore, went to interview the elder brother. Though omens were contradictory, zhang dgon pa was glad to bestow on him the complete precepts of the doctrine of the "Path and Fruit" (lam 'bras). From then on, the spiritual descendants of sa skya became the masters of both the basic text and secret precepts (of this doctrine).

From the birth of khon dkon mchog rgyal po in the year Wood-Male-Dog (shing pho khyi 1034 A.D.) {R 216} to the death of the sa skya pang chen in the year Iron-Female-Hog (lcags mo phag 1251 A.D.) 218 years have passed. During that period the shower of both Tantras and Sūtras having fallen, the land of Tibet was well nourished by it. After the grant by the Emperor se chen (Secen) of the three provinces of Tibet as reward for the Initiation to the dbon po 'phags pa rin po che, the bla ma became the spiritual head (of the country), whereas officials (dpon chen) appointed in turn, conducted the secular affairs (of the country).

The first among the Regents (dpon chen la snga ba) shā kya (%) bzang po was given a seal of office to rule over dbus and gtsang by command of se chen. He built the great khang gsar (at sa skya) and also erected the outer and inner walls of the Great Temple (lha khan zhen mo) at sa skya. Having collected timber (required for the building), he passed away before completing the roof (of the temple). Then kun dga' bzang po, who had acted as confidential agent (nang gnyer), took over the Regency. He built the palace (bla brang) of rin chen sgang, and also erected a temple, and a wall. kun dga' bzang po having retired from the Regency, the Regents zang btsun, phyug po sgang dkar ba and byang rin were appointed in turn under advice from the bla ma. The bla ma disliked kun dga' bzang po, and in the year following the death of the bla ma he was killed by Mongol troops under orders of se chen (Secen).

During the time of byang rin, se chen (Secen) showed interest (in the administration of Tibet) and bestowed on him a crystal seal (shel dam) and the title of magistrate (mi dpon) of zo 'on si.

The Regent kun gzhon.

The Regent gzhon dbang, in whose time the great reorganization took place, and the laws of dbus and gtsang were codified.

Then the Regent byang rdor.

The Regent ag len. The latter erected the outer wall of sa skya {R 217}, and the wall of dpon po ri. He also built khang ?gsar gling (%). During the time of these three (regents), war against the 'bri khung pas was waged. In the time of ag len, the Great Revolt known, as 'bri khung gling log took place, which was known as the "Rebellion of 'bri khung". This revolt took place in the year Iron-Male-Tiger (lcags pho stag 1290 A.D.), the year of bu ston rin po che's birth. Again gzhon dbang was appointed (%). Then legs pa dpal, seng ge dpal 'ad zer seng ge who held the seal of zwan ching dben, the Regent kun dga' rin chen don yod dpal, yong btsun, again 'od zet seng ge, the Regent rgyal ba bzang po, dbang brtson, nam mkha', brtan pa, grags pa rgyal mtshan, dpal 'bum, blo chen, and grags dbang.

The Great Regent dban brtson led on several occasions the troops of the thirteen districts against yar klungs, but failed to defeat ta'i si tu byang chub rgyal' mtshan, who had occupied most of the province of dbus.

Afterwards in the year of the Horse (rta to 1354 A.D.) the Regent rgyal ba bzang po was thrown into prison by lha khang bla brang pa, but si tu byang chub rgyal mtshan intintidated the latter with a large force, and liberated the Regent from prison. He then became toaster of most of the territory of gtsang also. After this, the governors of dbus and gtsang handed over the administration of the districts of dbus, and gtsang to si tu byang chub rgyal mtshan, and affixed their respective seals. On his death, they transferred the seal to gu shri chen mo and authorized him to govern. In all, the sa skya pas have been "Masters of the World" for 75 years. In particular: by (%) bzhi thog twenty five years; by (%) shar ba?25 by (%) khang gsar chen mo ba?25.

After 75 years {R 218} si tu byang chub rgyal mtshan from the year Earth-Female-Ox (sa mo glang?1349 A.D.) acted as "Lord of the Earth" (sa'i dbag po or "Lord of Sa /Skya/"). In the 25th year, a Water-Female-Ox year (chu mo glan 1393 A.D.), gu shrī ba (%) assembled the religious council of yar klungs. si tu having died in this very year, it is said that even phag mo gru pa succumbed to an accident in his 25th year.

During the life time of the former hierarchs of sa skya many paṇḍitas arrived (in Tibet), such as the paṇḍita of u rgyan shes rab gsang ba (Praj?āgupta) and later the paṇḍita Jayasena, and others. Later during the life time of 'phags pa rin po che there appeared many very learned translators, including shong ston, his brother, and others. The exposition of the Pramāṇavārtika spread throughout all the monastic establishments of dbus and gtsang. It was due to the bla ma cho rje ba (sa skya pang chen).

'phags pa rin po che being broad minded, a Mongol Imperial Edict was promulgated which allowed Tibetan believers to follow their own respective religious doctrines. Most of the Tripiṭakadharas appear to have been satisfied with earthly goods.

The chapter on the spread of the teaching of the Tantras belonging to the "Mother" (ma) class of the Anuttara-yoga Tantra, and on the spread of the doctrine of the "Path and Fruit" (lam 'bras) in the life time of the sa skya pas (father and sons).

Part 4 (Chapter 3 - Zhama)

4.3 Defense of the Teaching by Ma Lotsawa, Zhama, and her brother (rma lo tsa?a ba dang zha ma lcam sring gis bstan pa ji ltar bskyangs pa?i skabs. Chandra 195; Chengdu 271. Roerich 218).

Further, the manner of the spread of the secret precepts of the doctrine of the "Path and Fruit" handed down by zha ma, brother and sister: In general (it is said that), ārya-Avalokiteśvara had incarnated himself into the Dharmarāja srong btsan sgam po, and established the people of Tibet on the path of observing the Ten Virtues. The Venerable 'jam pa'i dbyangs had incarnated himself in the person of [7a] Thon-mi Sambhoṭa (%). After studying with the Indian paṇḍita Devavitsiṃha (lha'i rig pa seng ge), he became learned in the Indian script. From the fifty letters of the Indian {R 219} alphabet, he fashioned the thirty letters of the Tibetan alphabet, and composed several works on grammar. He then first taught the (new) script to the king. After that he taught it to some of the (king's) subjects known for their intelligence, and the (script) spread over the greater part of Tibet, and all were fortunate to perceive the Teaching of the Blessed One. Bhagavatī ārya Tārā (incarnated) in the princess (kong jo) srul glen, daughter of T'ai tsung (%) of the T'ang dynasty, who had invited the sixteen sthaviras (to China), and the princess was called in Tibetan "Water-Lotus" (chu'i nang gi pad ma, W?n ch'?ng). She brought with herself the Lord (jo bo) of sphrul snang, and became the queen of srong btsan. She herself built the vihāra of ra mo che, and suggested herself the places where the sphrul snang vihāra and other vihāras were to be built. She established, well the custom of worshipping the Jewel (Ratna).

After the lapse of some time srong btsan was reborn as kha che dgon pa ba, a disciple of Kālacakrapāda (dus zhabs pa), the Junior, also known as kha che pang chen, his real name being Jayananda.

thon mi was reborn as rma lo tsā ba chos 'bar in Southern la stod. The princess (kong jo) was reborn as ma gcig zha ma in South pha drug. rma lo tsā ba met many learned men in India and Nepāl (lho bal). He has been the disciple of the Indian Vajrapāṇi (phyag na). In India he heard (the Doctrine) from kha che dgon pa ba, Abhayākaragupta and others. During his stay there, he was told: "Trans?lator! You should go to Tibet! There dwells a manifesta?tion of the Ārya Tārā. Take her as your female assistant and practise according to the Guhyābhiṣeka and the Praj?ā-?j?ana abhiṣeka." Abhaya also expressed himself similarly.

On returning to Tibet, he took as his female assistant (mudrā) ma gcig. In the country of pha drug there lived a father named byi ba hab sha whose real name was zha ma rdo rje rgyal mtshan. He was said to have been a manifestation of Gaṇapati Ha-lu-manta (%), {R 220} and his wife (the manifestation) of the Indian Devī (lha mo), was said to have been an incarnation of the Nepālese Princess khri btsun. The eldest of the six sons and daughters born to them, was known as zha ma rgyal le. He took up ordination before the kalyāṇa-mitra snye ma pa (%), and received the name of rin chen 'od zer. He was learned in the Guhyasamāja according to the method of Nāgārjuna, the Yoga Tantra and the Kālacakra ('phags yog dus gsum). His younger brother rgyal chung followed after the Teacher yang khyed and became learned in the mdo sgyu 'phrul (Māyā) and the "Mental" class (sems phyogs).

His youngest brother seng ge rgyal po (zha ma seng ge or seng ge rgyal mtshan) studied the work of a translator (lo tsā) under rma lo tsā ba, pu hrangs pa, ga rong lo tsā ba and rngog, and became a learned translator. He translated the Pramāṇasamuccaya together with the auto commentary. Up to the present time logicians follow this tanslation.

He also translated in verse (ślokas) the Dharma-dharmatā-vibhaṇga and mastered the bka' bzhi. In dbus he supported (numerous) monks, equal in numbers to mustard seeds (contained) in 2 1/2 measures (bre). Later he journeyed to ri bo rtse Inga (Wu- t'ai shah in Shan-hsi Province), and did not return. On his going there, he informed. dam pa (%) sangs rgyas, who said to him: "zha ma! pha drug is not an eternal home! Go to ri bo rtse lnga, and labour for the welfare of the World! We, father and son, shall fix later the date of our (next) meeting in Tuṣita".

After him ma gcig.

The Life of ma gcig zha ma (Roerich 220)

Now rma lo tsā ba: He was born in the year Wood-?Male-Ape (shing pho spre'u?1044 A.D.), when Atīśa came to Tibet after having resided in mnga' ris. When he was 59, ma gcig was born in the year Water-Male-Tiger (chu pho? stag?1062 A.D.).

On her body she had signs of belonging {R 221} to the Padminī class. In particular on her navel there was an image of a red lotus with three roots; between her breasts an image of rosaries of precious stones, reaching down to the navel, and on each of her shoulders images of the svastika. At the back of her ears she had coils similar to those of a conch or lotus. Under her tongue [8a] there was an image of a sword of the colour of the utpala flower marked with the letter tāṃ (syllable symbolizing the first syllable of the name Tārā). Between her eyebrows she had the image of a banner with the Sun and Moon represented on it, and the image of a wheel with spikes.

After her, chos rgyal ?khon phu ba was born in the year Earth-Female-Bird (sa mo bya?1069 A.D.).

After him, his younger brother mkhar tsha rgyal, who had taken up ordination in the presence of the kalyāṇa-mitra rgya (%) rin po che and received the name of bsod nams rgyal po. He was the greatest disciple of pu hrangs lo tsā ba, known as the kalyāṇa-mitra btsun chung.

When ma gcig had reached the age of 14, she was given in marriage to a man of the locality named a ba lha rgyal. She felt disgusted with family life and said to (her husband): "Husband! You should practise religion, and I shall also take it up!" As he was unwilling to listen (to her words), she simulated insanity and they separated.

From the age of 17 to 22, she acted as the Tantric assistant (mudrā) of the bla ma rma. rma taught her many Tantras and Sadhanas.

One night, when the 'bla ma rma was being initiated by his tutelary deity (yi dam, iṣṭa-devatā), she saw the faces of the sixteen Vīras (dpa' bo) of Mahāsukha (bde chen) (%) and the sixteen Kṣetrapālī-ḍākiṇīs (zhing skyong gi mkha' 'gro ma). She felt she was transformed into the eight Vidyās (rig ma). She also saw the Teacher and herself in the form of Heruka and his śakti. Their mystic contemplation, during which the seminal fluid was transmuted into higher (psychic) energy, lasted for sixteen months. Henceforth, she said, she never {R 222} saw the Teacher and herself in an ordinary (human) form. The Teacher then advised her to go into seclusion for four years, and she did so. In a dream she had the vision of numerous Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. Then the Teacher told her to discontinue her retirement, and visit solitary places. She did accordingly.

She removed (from her Path) all hindrances created by demons. In particular, after she had stayed four months at both Upper and Lower rdzong, she became able to crush the Sun and Moon under herself, mastered the transformation of her physical body at will, understood the language of all living beings and was able to draw in the living breath (prāṇā) through whatever organ she wished, and in this manner she obtained the four miraculous powers (siddhi).

Then rma lo tsā ba took up ordination in the presence of khyung po, and then taking with himself as attendant ?khon phu ba, he journeyed to shab. [8b] When he was 46, some other persons administered poison to him, and he passed out.

At that time ma gcig had reached the age of 28. Having come to shab, she performed the funeral rites for rma, such as cremation, etc. Then during the next three years, from her 31st year, there took place seven events which had the nature of a calamity.

She became afflicted by a daily discharge of sperm of the size of a pea (1),

and her body became covered with abcesses and pustules (2).

Her former state of well being vanished (3),

and even wild animals and birds refused to eat (her) offerings (which she cast to them) (4).

The fire of the ritual offering (homa) did not kindle (5),

and she felt herself overcome by vulgar passions (6),

and dakin?s refused to admit her (into their company) (7).

Though she tried out various cures, nothing helped her. Accompanied by ?khon phu ba, she went to see dam pa at ding ri. dam pa addressed her with the words: "O yoginī! During three years seven misfortunes {R 223} befell you!"

She replied "I have come to ask (you) about this very matter!"

dam pa said: "You have transgressed your vow in respect of your principal teacher (rtsa ba'i bla ma, mūla guru)".

ma gcig replied: "My teacher was rma, but I do not recall any trasgression of vows!"

dam pa again said:

"Without the teacher's permission, you have acted as a Tantric assistant (mudrā) of other (adepts) (1).

You have partaken of food in the company of persons who who had defiled their vows (2).

You were filled with envy of the other Tantric assistants (mudrā) of the Teacher (3),

and you have broken your undertaking (4).

You sat on the Teacher's mat (5).

You did not offer your Teacher the renumeration for the Initiation (6),

and you did not partake of the sacrifical foods (dam rdzas)" (7).

ma gcig then asked "What would cure me?"

"There is a way out!" said Dam pa.

"Bring here an egg (laid) by a black hen (1),

the right front leg of a sheep (2),

one skull cup filled with wine (3),

seven young girls who have attained puberty (4),

a relic of the Tathagata (5),

a King's mat (6)

and the foot?print of your principal Teacher (mūla-guru) (on a piece of cloth) (7)".

The Venerable ?khon phu ba having quickly obtained the required things, returned to dam pa, who ordered:

"Now present me with the King's mat (1),

and [9a] act, as Tantric assistant (mudrā) equal in position to the Teacher (2).

Then circumambulate the relic (of the Tatha?gata) (3),

and wash yourself (4).

Offer the seven girls to the foot print of the Teacher (5).

Introduce the egg of the black hen into the Padma (6),

and worship with mutton and wine (7). The partaking of sacrificial food should not be discontinued"!

It was said that the (leg of the sheep) yielded enough meat to feed ten teachers and their retinues, and that there was enough wine in the skull cup to be served round. Then dam pa said: "Do you recollect the building by yourself of the vihāra in lha sa?"

ma gcig answered: "I do not know! I do not see it! I do not remember it!" {R 224}

"Ah this yoginī!" exclaimed dam pa, "she told me a lie!" and gave her a slap on the face, with the words "You shouldn't act so towards me!" It is said that ma gcig fell senseless, and when she recovered, she was able to recollect clearly (her Past). dam pa said, "Is it true?"

She replied: ?Verily, it is so! It was so, why did I not remember it myself?"

dam pa replied: "When you made your request to your Teacher about Initiation, you did not offer him a renumeration."

ma gcig replied; "I offered him (my) body and wealth!"?

"As price for yourself, your father and brother have accepted from the Teacher a coat of mail, sewn by silk threads, and a black horse, but you forgot it!" said dam pa.

ma gcig again said: "lt was done with the (Teacher's) permission."

dam pa said: "For you it might have been a permission, but your brother had accepted it as a price for yourself!"

ma gcig asked: "What should be done now?"

dam pa said: "Look after the descendants of your Teacher! Make offerings to the remains of rma. Plaster the caitya containing his remains and offer lamps. Take out the egg and give it to me."

When the egg was taken out, it was found to have turned black. dam pa then returned the egg to ma gcig, and told her to break it. When it was broken, blackish liquid began to drip from inside (the egg), and dam pa said: "Three years and three months ago, at dusk of a full moon day, this sperm of yours was cashed away by a black magician who was worshipping [9b] snod gsum we swa ta as his religious protector. Now this rite of mime has benefitted you! Go, and come again to see me!"

Because dam pa had told her to accumulate merit for the benefit of the Lineage of her Teacher, she made seven kinds of offerings,

which included a yak, to rma chung dge ?bshes, who was the son of a paternal cousin of the Teacher, named jo sras dkar yu,

placed offering lamps in front of her Teacher's remains,

plastered lime on the caitya ('bum pa) of shab,

and placed a priest in charge of the caitya.

Her health then improved, and she thought that this was due to dam? pa's {R 225} grace. She then sent through a female attendant

her niece btsun chung ma,

three golden zhos,

one excellent gaṇacakra (%)

and a mat made of the skin of an argali.

At that time dam pa was residing at the zur khang of ding ri. dam? pa said: "Fetch here my gold! Prepare food! Then haste will come to us two!" Then they hurriedly ate their food, and grasping btsun chung ma's hand, dam pa said: "We shall entrust (our property) to a bon po elder and his wife, O yoginī! We two let us go!" Having reached the cemetery of ra ma do li (near Kāthmāndu) in Nepāl, they met in various localities numerous yogins and siddhas. They made a rapid journey, and had visions of numerous deities. On their return to ding ri, (they found) that 19 days had passed.

Later when se mkhar chung ba came to (attend) an assemb?ly in ding ri, he met (dam pa), who told him that an accident (in the discharge) of sperm had occured to him. dam pa asked him: "Prior to this did this and that occur to you?" Because this had happened, faith was born in him. se asked dam pa: "The one called Buddha must be yourself?"

Said se: "zha chung ma (ma gcig lab sgron ma) possesses a mental concentaration, but has no secret, precepts. I, se rgod po, possess secret preceptst have no mental concentration. This beggar dpe dkar could not live without causing as accident!" After that, ?khon phu ba and (his) sister, having twice visited se, presented him with whatever they possessed, and the (Teacher) became pleased, [10a] and bestowed on them the complete preceptsh the excep?tion of one short initiation.

Later he (se) was invited to this country, and was requested to bestow numerous initiations. He was pleased with the great wealth amassed by him.

Then ma gcig herself attained spiritual realization, and visited the twenty four regions, the border country of mon and Tibet, as well as numerous sacred places, and practised meditation. She evoked numerous visions in front of others. I have related them in some detail.

Her teachers were: besides those mentioned above, she also had (as teachers): the paṇḍita {R 226} Vairocana, dpal chen rgwa lo, pu hrangs lo tsā ba and ye ran?g ba.

phag mo gru pa had been a disciple of ma gcig.

The siddha named 'dzeng Dharmabodhi (%) met ma gcig who had assumed the form of a dove.

When 'gos khug pa lhas btsas was presiding over a religious council of Tripiṭakadharas, numerous as the Ocean, her female attendant debated with them and was able to refute (their theories). The learned men failed to defeat her. There couldn't be any question about (the learning) of ma gcig herself, who manifested to all the perfection of her learning in all the basic texts and śāstras (bka' bstan bcos).

She laboured extensively for the benefit of living beings, and at the age of 88 pretended to pass out. After the cremation, no relics were left behind. In short (it must be said) that this ma gcig had been a divine manifestation. She has been the only eye of the followers of the Tantric Path of sexual practices.

The year of ma gcig's birth was the 23rd year of rje btsun mid la (1062), the 29th year of ?khon dkon mchog rgyal po, and the, 51st year of rje mar pa. The various dates should be understood (as above).

The Life story of 'khon phu ba (Roerich 226]

ma gcig's brother, known as the master ?khon phu ba, learnt at the age of seven or eight reading and the bi barta (Vartula) (%) script from his father and brothers. He took up his noviciate in the presence of gnya ma pa, and cherished the thought about study and practice (smon jug). He also heard numerous long and short treatises belonging to the domain of religious practice. gnya ma pa said to him: "You must study well the work of a translator! Go to India and invite a learned paṇḍita. You should translate the Doctrine, [10b] and be a matchless one".

At the age of 14, he went to rong zom chos bzang (the greatest scholar among the rning ma? pas). He studied the Āyudhopamanāma-vacanamukha and other texts. rma lo tsā ba, who had studied many sciences, also taught (them) to him.

In those days, the following were famous in India: Abhaya, Śrīgupta (dpal sbas), Ti-pu (ti phu) (%), Sunaya?-śrī {R 227} and Jina (rgyal ba can).

In Nepāl pham mthing pa, ye rang ba, Atulyavajra, and the Nepālese mo han rdo rje. ?khon phu ba desired to visit them, but rma said to him: "No one possesses greater preceptsn I! I have a karmic link (las 'brel) 'with you both, sister and brother. I shall bestow on you the complete precepts".

?khon phu ba then proceeded to sab to attend on rma. Having made his request to rma, for three years, till rma's illness, he listened to (the exposition) of all the doctrines which were previously taught by rma to many others. After the death of rma, he performed the funeral rites. At, the time of his death, rma gave him all his books and other property, with the words: "You will become a Bodhisattva in his last rebirth. Till then, listen to the Doctrine at the feet of Tibetan scho?lars. Later proceed to India where you will meet a follower of the Lineage of 'Maitrī-pa".

At u yug, ?khon phu ba studied with the kalyāṇa-mitra zhan the Guhyasamāja accord?ing to the method of Nāgārjuna, the Yoga (Tantra) and the Kālacakra (system). At rgyang rong he received from gangs pa sha'u (%) the exposition of the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha-nāma?mahāyānasūtra, the Vajraśekhara-mahāguhyayogatantra, and the Śrī Paramādya-nāma-mahāyānakalparāja. At la stod gcung pa mchog dkar he listened to the exposition of the grub snying {R 228} and of the bde mchog bshad rgyud by mar pa seng rdzi.

At the age of 26 he proceeded to Nepāl and heard the exposition of the doctrine of Maitrī-pa from ye rang ba, as well as the precepts of the Kālacakra and the gdan bzhi rgyud from pham mthing pa. He also heard the Yogaratnamālā-nāma-hevajra-pa?jikā, and the rin chen phreng ba from Atulyavajra. He heard the Sampuṭa, [11a] and the sgron ma gsal pa from ?khon sgye chu pa.

The brother and sister heard the exposition of the zhi byed system from dam pa sangs rgyas, who also delivered a prophecy (to them).

At rta nag he heard the Sarvatathāgatakāyavākcittakṛṣṇayamāri-nāma-tantra together with the Sādhana from rta? nag Dharmakīrti (%).

Then he obtained from rwa lo a detailed initiation into the Yamāntaka Cycle.

Further, when ni nyag lo tsā ba had invited to Tibet the Lord Sunayaśrī, he heard from him the Initiation into the rdo rje 'phren ba and (the exposition) of the principal texts of the Mādhyamika and Nyāya systems, and penetrated their meaning.

Again having gone to Nepāl, he met the Indian, teacher Atulyavajra mi mnyam (rdo rje). From him he heard the Initiation into the Saṃvara cycle together with the system of Nā-ro-pa (%), the lu nag dril gsum (%).

He went to India as attendant of Sunayaśrī. At Vajrāsana he met the great Teacher ka so ri pa, and heard from him the "Sadhana of the name of the Tārā", the bstod sgrub and Initiation, together with instructions. {R 229}

At Śrī Vikramaśīla he heard from the bla ma dā chen po the Cycle (chos skor) of the Great Merciful One together with the Dhāraṇī-sādhana (gzungs kyi sgrub pa). This dā? chen po was the Bodhisattva Dānaśri, who had also visited mnga' ris.

At Nālāndā, the nephew of the Brahmin Ratna-vajra (%) (rin chen rdo rje) requested him for the Sādhana of the Vajrayoginī-Tantra.

When he was 30, ?khon phu ba return?ed to Tibet.

Having performed the funeral ceremony for his father, he intended to practise austerities guided by the advice of lha rje ma (zha ma ma gcig). From the age of 31, he practised austerjties at brag dmar of ?khon phu rdzings. After two years, he, in company with his sister zha ma, proceeded to byang to listen to the exposition of the "Path & Fruit" Doctrine (lam 'bras).

Then he married two wives.

He again practised austerities at ?khon phu and fulfilled his vow.

At the age of 44, he resided at various localities in ?khon phu. He also stayed at 'bring snya nam, nga drug, and at Southern and Northern la stod. To numerous disciples he preached the exposition of the grub snying and other texts, also completed the exposition of the doctrine which had been [11b] left unfinished by the Kalyāṇa-mitra srad chen po, a disciple of the late se byang pa. Further, he preached the Doctrine in many hermitages of 'brin snya nam and ?khon phu, as well as in many localities of South and North la stod. He also carri?ed out energetically teaching and meditative practice.

During that time, zha ma and her brother became famous throughout all countries. In the life stories of the Teachers there are accounts about their meetings with zha ma and her brother described as a wonderful event. In this manner, the Venerable ?khon phu ba: his real name was chos kyi rgyal po, laboured extensively for the benefit of others, and died in his 76th year in the year Wood-Male-Mouse (śing pho byi ba?1144 A.D.).

The Life story of lha rje zla ba'i 'od zer (ba'I = ba at some points in the text) (Roerich 229]

This Venerable's son lha rje zla ba'i 'od zer was born in the year Water-Female-Hare (chu mo yos?1123 A.D.) when his father was 55. He was known as an incarnation of Dharma?pa. At the age of two, his mother died. lha rje ma (zha ma gcig) {R 230} caused a jet of milk to fall from the ring finger of (her) hand, and so nourished him for ten years.

At the age of 16, he studied extensively at the feet of zhang rgya ma pa of 'u yug, as did also his father, gangs pa she'u and rong zom chos kyi bzang po and others. Before this, when aged 14, he had intended to accompany as attendant pa tshab, who was proceeding to India. His father then said to him: "No one has greater precepts than me! Stay with me, and learn!" Later he obtained the complete secret precepts and initiation from (zha ma) and her brother. Morever he attended on many teachers in Nepāl, including Jayasena and others.

Following his father's method, with the help of preceptsn (abhiṣeka) and preaching of the Piṭaka (%), he establish?ed numerous disciples in different countries. Because of his fame as a learned man, stod lungs rgya dmar pa and others became his disciples.

He amassed a great fortune. At the [12a] deaths of (zha ma) and her brother, he presented donations and erected two large silver funeral urns. khang gsar pa took them to Nepāl and asked Jayasena to perform the consecra?tion rite. The latter performed the consecration rites which included the four complete initiations. The two stūpas were then taken back in great state to Tibet. In Nepāl he hoisted on many occasions the parasol over the Svayambhūnātha-caitya.

He gathered round himself many yoginīs and ascetic yogins, residents of that place and performed great ganacakras on many occasions.

He also had the vision of four wonderful spectacles.

The first: before the teacher Ratnaśrī had proceeded to u rgyan (Oḍḍiyāna) to perform Tantric rites, he was told to befriend thirty young girls, aged between 22 and 16, but was told that they weren't to be found. At the cemetery of he ma khang he gathered requisites (for a feast) as could be carried by four elephants. Then when 400 yogins and yoginīs had gathered and were {R 231} enjoying (the Tantric feast) there appeared several young girls attired as Brahmin girls, wearing upper garments and skirts made of red sindura cloth, adorned with six bone garlands, holding in their hands skull cups, mendicant staffs (khatvanga) and drums (ḍamaru). They all became possessed (by gods), threw upwards their drums which resounded by themselves, sang the vajra song, assumed a semi cross legged posture, and continuously drank seven measures of strong wine without becoming intoxicated. All the seven seemed to be of the same age, about thirty (not younger, and not older).

The second spectacle: When a Hevajra yogin was performing Tantric rites at ye rang (Kāthmāndu), he saw sixteen girls adorned with ornaments made of bones, riding on an elephant, and the yogin adorned with bone ornaments sitting on a mat made of the skin of a Kṛṣṇasāra antelope.

The third spectacle: When a king had mustered his army at ya 'gal, a yogin drew a line on the ground, and the troops were unable to cross it, and turned back. The yogin was then invited by the king, and while he was sitting on [12b] the throne, ?khon phu ba saw above the yogin a self revolving parasol.

The fourth spectacle: when he intended seeing Nā-ro-?pa's disciple Ma?ja-gliṅ-pa (%) and with that purpose, in view desired to proceed to India, Jayasena said to him: "Ma?ja-gliṅ-pa (%) is not staying in that country. Those who had opposed you are coming to invite you to return to Tibet. In this New Year, the priests of four kings will gather, and there will take place a great spectacle of contest in disputation, ability and the science of miraculous powers between Buddhists and non Buddhists. See it!"

As told by him, on the full moon of the New Year, 2000 heretical ascetics jaṭilas (ral pa can), 2000 Buddhist paṇḍitas and yogins, and 80,000 troops of the four kings assembled. At first the heretical paṇḍita named Kālarātrita and the Buddhist paṇḍita Jayasena khang gsar pa held a philosophical disputation and the Buddhist won, and became known by the {R 232} name of rgyal ba'i sde (Jayasena).

One non-Buddhist yogin, who had attained the realization of gu lang dbang phyug (Śīva) and who could with the help of mantras render all men insane, debated with the teacher Atulyavajra on the accom?plishments of a saint, and whatever poisonous spells he cast, all struck back at his own, retinue. The retinue then killed each other. Then the teacher Atulya took seven large lumps of melted bronze and tied them with the help of a hair from a horse's tail in heaven, and a thousand heretics tried in vain to bring them down, but failed. These were seen (hanging) for seven days in the sky.

After the lapse of several days, there came the Tibetan invitation. gnyan lo tsā ba and dngal chu pa presented to the teacher all those persons who had formerly opposed him, and subsequently they came to an agreement. Having performed such labours for the Doctrine, he passed away at the age of 60 in the year Water-Male-Tiger (chu pho stag?1182 A.D.).

In the same Water-Tiger year the Dharmasvāmin sa skya paṇḍita was born.

The life story of (?khon phu ba) was briefly told by me here as found by me in the Life story of lha rje zla ba 'od zer, composed by jo ston dbang phyug grags, famous as a very wise man among Tibetans, and a disciple of ka pa dar seng.

The Life story of mon ston byung gnas shes rab (Roerich 232]

The Lineage of rma lo tsā ba: The son of rma's [13a] sister?rma gza' rin chen 'bum, known as mtha' bzhi to tsā ?ba, who lived as an upāsaka, and belonged to the Spiritual Lineage of rma lo tsā ba, proceeded to India on three occasions in the retinue of rma. rma, mtha' bzhi and zangs dkar lo tsā ba received together the Saṃvara initiation from kha che dgon pa pa. Later mtha' bzhi practised austerities during a considerable time at mtsho lung, meng ge, 'phan yul stag mgo and dar yul. He died at the age of 65 at his residence in dar yul.

Now the son of mtha' bzhi's sister mthā bzhi gza' chos sgron?mon ston 'byung gnas shes rab became a learned man, and laboured greatly for the benefit of others. At the age of 12, he proceeded to stod snye nam 'dam phug in the retinue of his uncle. He conducted {R 233} extensive studies with rma (lo tsā ba), and thus spent six years. After that he again returned to phan yul.

In his 18th year, he took up the noviciate and the monastic vows before gnyen sa phug pa, dar yon tan grags pa and skyi rings yon tan seng ge, and heard the doctrine of Atīśa.

He also heard the exposition of the precepts of the bka' ?gdams pas from rnal 'byor chen po, dgon pa pa, chag khri mchog and the yogin shes rab rdo rje at rwa sgreng.

At la stod he heard from me lha khang pa the exposition of Logic, the grub snying (Cycle of Saraha's Dohakoṣa), the Vārahī, the Doha (koṣa) and other Cycles. With the kalyāṇa-mitra 'jang ba gzhon byang he studied the "Upper" and "Lower" Abhidharmas (the Abhidharma samuccaya and the Abhidharmakośa), and the Five Divisions of the Yogacaryā-bhūmi of Asaṅga (sa sde lṅa).

From rngog legs shes he obtained the Pa?caviṃśatisāhasrikāPraj?āpāramitā.

From zhan sna chung ston pa the Sūtrālaṃkāra, the Uttaratantra, the two Vibhaṅgas (the Madhyānta-vibhaṅga and the Dharma-dharmatā vibhaṅga), the Five Divisions of the Yogacaryā-bhūmi of Asaṅga, the Mahāyāna-saṃgraha and the Abhidharma-samuccaya.

With (his) uncle mtha' bzhi he studied the Guhyasamāja according to the system of J?āna?pada (ye shes zhabs), the Cycle of Bhairava according to the method of a ra ta, the Cycle of Saṃvara according to the {R 234} method of lu yi pa, the phyag rdor bha va ma and the yo ga rdo rje 'byung ba.

At lho la yag he studied with mar pa bay ze pa the Six Doctrines of Saṃvara, according to the method of nag po [13b] , the rim bzhi together with the lam Iongs.

At stod lungs 'phar tshar he obtained from so chung ba instructions in the Six Branches of the zgi byed system, both the large and lesser recensions (ma bu).

With skam sgom ye shes rgyal mtshan he studied the Four Truths (bden bzhi), the sing rta'i srol and the "System of removing ailments" .

At the age of 57, he occupied the chair of (his) uncle, and spent three years at mal gro gser thog.

He had a vision of Vaiśravaṇa, and became wealthy.

At 'phan yul he introduc?ed the law prohibiting the killing of wild game for a consider?able period of time, and on those who opposed this measure, he sent hail, etc., as punishment, and thus all had to accept it.

All exorcist bla mas, such as the kalyāṇa-mitra myang mi ?chen po, rgya ra ban smyon, glen mi mkho ba, spos wol pa ston chung, and stong na mo ba became his disciples.

He possessed a lofty understanding of the "Great Seal" (Mahāmu?dra), and great wisdom.

When he was 66, he entrusted bya dkar and gser thog to (his) nephew (dbon po) 'phags pa, practised austerities during thirteen years and had a vision of Śrī-Saṃvara. He passed away at the age 85 in the year of the Dragon ('brug to?1160 A.D.). After his cremation, many relics were left unburnt, such as his heart, tongue, eye and a conch coiled towards the right.

The Life Story of the ?ācārya 'phags pa. (Roerich 234]

Now the ?ācārya 'phags pa. He was the eldest of the six sons born to bsod nams 'bar, a sister of the kalyāṇa-mitra mon (%). At the age of 17, he took up ordination in the presence of pu to ba, and heard the bka 'gdams pa doctrine, and the Five Treatises of {R 235} Maitreya Asanga. With the kalyāṇa-mitra zhang 'dul he studied the Vinaya, the basic sutras together with the precepts. After the death of this teacher, he became a Vinayadhara, and gathered about 300 disciples.

He also studied under phu chung pa, spyan snga and glang ri thang pa.

At gra thang he heard the Mādhyamika (system) from the kalyāṇa-mitra rgya. He applied himself with great earnestness towards the purification of his Mind, but his meditation was handicapped. He asked about it pu to ba and other teachers, but derived no benefit. After zhang po mon had given him [14a] the initiation into the Saṃvara system according to the method of rma, and into that of the Venerable Lady Vajra?vārahī, this benefitted him greatly.

Again he proceeded into the presence of pu to ba and spent with him ten years. pu to ba having died, he followed for six years after glan ri than pa. Then for three years, he resided with mon.

The kalyāṇa-mitra mon having passed away, 'phags pa's health became afflicted. His disciple named brngog brtson seng was sent to la stod in search of the system of rma. He heard that one called the consort of rma, and one called his attendant, the two, were said to possess the precepts and the two were especially known to be learned in the Doctrine of the "Path & Fruit" (lam 'bras). At first he sent presents through brngog and asked to be received. Later 'phags pa himself went, there, and obtained the precepts from lha rje ma (ma gcig zha ma) and her brother.

Then he proceeded to dbus, and again went there to convey presents. Then again, he returned and for three years he meditated at mtsho lung of rong. He recited 13,000,000 mantras of Saṃvara. He also resided for two years at each yang dben (%) and 'gar brag (%), where he also recited mantras. He also met the teacher lo ro ras ?chung pa. The teacher told him: "You have as your father and uncle two Buddhas! You, yourself are a Bodhisattva!"

When he was 66 in the year Iron-Female-Sheep (lcags mo lug?1151 A.D.), he said that when he was 17, he took up ordination, and attended on 15 teachers, including the {R 236} three brothers (sku mched gsum) and others, and he added: "I did not transgress even a single word of their advises", saying so he passed away. After his funeral rites, many relics, rainbows and lights appeared.

The Life Story of the ācārya ston pa dbang phyul rgyal pa (Roerich 236]

Then his nephew the ācārya ston pa occupied the chair. His father was called ston pa dbang phyug rgyal pa. He was a Tantric and was learned in the "Old" and "New" Yamāntaka Tantras, as well as in medicine.

When he reached the age of 18, he took up ordination in the presence of gshen sa bug pa in his native place.

With glang thang pa and shar ba pa he studied the Five Treatises of Maitreya and the several treatises on the Mādhyamika system.

With pa tshab he studied the Six Treatises on the Mādhyamika. [14b]

With gtsang pa sar spos, gtsang ?nag pa and rma bya byang ye he studied the rtsod pa zlog pa and the Yukti?ṣaṣṭika.

With dar yon tan grags and zhang he studied on three occasions the tshig 'jug.

With stod lungs rgya dmar pa he studied the Pa?caviṃśatisāhasrikāPraj?āpāramitā and the commentary on the Aṣṭasāhasrikā.

At rma bya'i gnas (residence of rma bya) in Upper myang he studied the Hīnayānistic and Mahāyāna Abhidharma with zhang ston 'od 'bar.

From the kalyāṇa-mitra gangs snyan he heard on twenty occasions the (Pramāṇa)-viniścaya. Thus for forty years he continued (his) studies.

At the age of 41, he received from the ācārya 'phags pa the Initiation (abhiṣeka) into the Saṃvara Cycle according to the system of rma. He then proceeded to la stod as attendant of ācārya 'phags pa who was going to lha rje ma and her brother.

He listened on six and half occasions to the exposition of the "Path and Fruit" Doctrine (lam 'bras) {R 237} by ?khon phu ba, and spent (there) two years. He also heard the "Path and Fruit" Doctrine recited twice by lha rje ma herself and received on six occasions the initiation and blessing from both the sister and brother.

Then again having gone to dbus, after three years, 'phags ?pa, uncle and nephew, having taken with themselves numerous presents, proceeded, and met again the sister and her brother who were residing at mang dkar spang sgang. They (the brother and sister) bestowed on them many secret doctrines, and they remained there for one year. ?khon phu ba said: "Now I have completed the preaching, now you need not come here again". ?khon phu ba gave them a painted banner (thang ka) of Yamāntalta, and lha rje ma a tooth.

On his return to dbus, he spent six years immured in the cave of yang dben. About that time he had a premonition of the death of lha ?rje nma and her brother. After eight years, phags pa died.

After that, he taught the doctrine to many, and gave instruc?tions in meditation. He was able to ascertain where the entities of (deceased people) were to be reborn, for whom he had performed the seven days' rites. When he was 60, he said to his attendant jo btsun sgom nag and others: "I shall be going in the next New Year moon! Stay [15a] together till jo sras will grow up. You will act as assistant in his studies." He passed away in the New Year moon of the Tiger year (stag lo?1158 A.D).

The Life Story of the mahāsattva yang den pa ? the reincarnation of ston pa (Roerich 237]

The reincarnation, known as yang ?dben pa, was a mahāsattva who took rebirth (1060 A.D.) in order to look after the interest of others. His mother was smon lam rgyan, daughter of the eldest of the four principal disciples of zang dkar lo tsā ba ston pa Dharmarāja, and his father?the ācārya ston pa. She was a disciple of the ācārya ston pa and had studied with him many doctrines. He (yang dben pa) was born when his mother was 39. He master?ed reading after being shown merely the beginnings. From childhood he was able to understand the method of initiation of his father, and spent his time in the performance of deeds {R 238} in conformity with the Doctrine.

At the age of 14, he took up ordination in the presence of the upādhyāya se and the ācārya du pa ba. At the age of 15, he expounded the rgya ?cher 'grel pa and became very learned. All the great disciples, headed by the kalyāṇa-mitra glang, were pleased. When he was 17, his mother gave him plenty of provisions, and said: "I have finished my duty (towards you)! You seem to be the one indicated by lha rje? ma in her prophecy. Now go to lha rje zla ba 'od zer and request him to bestow on you the complete initiation, the secret precepts and the treatises". Accompanied by several attendants he proceeded to gtsang.

lha rje zla ba 'od zer had a premonition of his coming, and sent men to meet him (on the way). They met him at tshong 'dus mgur mo (the market place mgur mo). He met lha rje who was residing at mon 'gar rgyal bzangs. He offered presents, and made presents to others also. When he made his request saying that the "grandfather should protect the fatherless orphan", the monks shed tears. lha rje chen po held him dearer than his own son.

After completing his studies of the texts and precepts together with the initiations, on his return journey he earnestly studied at 'dzang the "Domain of Practice" and the Abhidharma with ston skyabs pa.

On the advice of the upādhyāya he took up ordination: The latter told him: [15b] "Great assiduity was shown by you to come into my presence", and was pleased.

He then arranged a funeral repast (in memory) of lha rje zla ?ba'i 'od zer, who had died at the age of 60, erected a funeral monument, and a caitya. He then spent six months in order to finish the preaching to disciples; left unfinished by his guru.

At the age of 23, he proceeded to dbus and was appointed to the (abbot's) chair. After that he journeyed to sog, and for about two or three years spent immured in meditation.

On his return, he spent three or four years immured in retirement at each lu ru'i grag, 'gar brag and at yang dben. While residing at byang klag brag of Upper lu ru {R 239}, he had a brilliant vision of 'ma gcig zha ma herself sitting on a throne supported by a lion and an elephant, and adorned with precious stones, and covered with a precious (costly) carpet. On her right was Lakṣmī (dpa' mo) (%), on her left??Tārā, sitting in reclining posture on lotus seats with the image of the Sun on them. She bestowed on him the com?plete four initiations and told him: "On the Path of the uniformity (mnyam nyid) of all the elements of existence, you should not be attached to the illusion (of differentiating) between the subjective and objective. Concentrate (your efforts) on the investigation with the help of discriminative knowledge cognizing all separate elements and objects." Whenever he used to feel lonely, the vision of zha ma appear?ed before him and preached to him the Doctrine. zha ma ma gcig also appeared to him in a dream, and told him: "Listen (to the exposition) of the sgrol ma rgya mtsho rgyud and many Tantras, which I know well".

In all his occupa?tions, big or small, he was perpetually befriended by ḍākiṇīs. He used to emit rays which were seen by others, and thus numerous foot prints (on stones) were left behind (by him). In general, he laboured solely in the interest of the Doctrine. In particular, he built the vihāra of mal gro rgyal bzangs sgang to commemorate his father and lha rje zla ba'i 'od zer, and subdued the fear caused by visions of deities. At rgyal ?bzangs he gathered about sixty monks. Once people asked him: "How many insects and flies had been killed, while constructing this vihāra"? He replied: "If I had not the power to transfer their (conscious principle), how could I undertake such a construction?"

Through such service (to the Doctrine) and preaching of texts and preceptse [16a] benefitted greatly. He died at the age of 58 at the end of the Ox year (glang lo?1217 A.D.), which was the year of the death of 'bri khung chos rje.

From the birth of rma to this year, 174 years have passed. In the presence of about 8000 monks a great funeral repast was held. After the cremation of his remains, numberless relics appeared, including seven images, and among them three images of his tutelary deity. Then a funeral monument was erected having 35 spans in height. Even (this monument) continued the work of the guru.

The above is an abridged account of the life story of the nirmāṇa?kāya yang dben pa, as told by dbang phyug gzhon nu.

The chapter on the propagation of the Doctrine by rma lo tsā ba, zha ma and, her brother. [16b]

Part 7: Tantric Systems

Part 7 (Chapter 1, Yoga Tantra)

Extracted from the Blue Annals (pages ) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of THDL.

PART 7 (JA): The origins of the exegetical traditions of the tantric systems [6 CHAPTERS]

A Section on the Development of Exegetical Traditions on the Tantric Corpus {20 folios. Chandra 311-349; Chengdu 429-482; Roerich 351-398}

7.1 Account of Yoga(tantras) (yo ga?i lo rgyus kyi skabs. Chandra 312; Chengdu 429; Roerich 351).

Now the manner in which the Tantras were preached is to be related. In regard to the Kriya-Tantra (bya ba'i rgyud) and the Caryā-Tantra (spyod pa' rgyud), the exposition of the ācārya Buddhaguhya (slob dpon sangs rgyas gsang ba) was pre-eminent throughout the Period of the Early Spread of the Doctrine. Translators, basing themselves on the expositions of other paṇḍitas, and having mastered the teaching of the ācārya Buddhaguhya, translated the Arya-Subāhuparipṛcchā?nāma-tantra, Sarvamaṇḍalasāmānyavidhīnām guhyatantra, the Dhyānottara-paṭalakrama and other texts, as well as a brief commentary on the Vairocanābhisaṃbodhi-Tantra of the ācārya Buddhaguhya which belongs to the Caryā-Tantra class. A commentary on the Ārya-Vajrapāṇyābhiṣeka?mahātantra had also been translated.

Though there appeared to exist formerly a continuity in the preaching and study (bshad pa and nyan pa) of these texts, since the Period of the Later Spread of the Doctrine, the continuity of preaching does not appear to have been great. During the Period of the Later Spread of the Doctrine there has been a great increase in the preaching of both the "Outer" Yoga-Tantra and "Inner" Yoga-Tantra. Namely, the puruṣottarna (skyes bu'i mchog) the great Translator known as rin chen bzang po [see image above], who had, in general, mastered and expounded all the basic texts of the Prajn͂͂āpāramitā and Tantra classes, has {R 352} especially expounded the Yoga-Tantras.

Its story: This Great-Translator on three occasions journeyed to Kāśmīra, and there attended on many teachers. He also invited many paṇḍitas to Tibet and properly established the custom of preaching (the Yoga Tantras). He translated the Tattvāloka, a commentary composed by the ācārya Ānandagarbha (kun snying) on the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha-nāma-mahāyānasūtra, an incom?plete commentary on the dpal mchog rgyud by the ācārya Ānandagarbha, the Rite and Ceremony of rdo rje 'byung ba, composed by Aanandagarbha, the Māyājāla-mahātantrarāja together with an exposition of the text by the ācārya Ānandagarbha the Sarvarahasya-?nāma-tantrarāja together with a commentary by the ācārya Śānti pa and numerous short texts connected with the above.

He (rin then bzan po) performed these (Tantric) rites and maintained (the Doctrine), and had many disciples from mnga' ris, dbus and gtsang. Among them the Junior Translator (lo chung) legs pa'i shes rab, gur shing brtson 'grus rgyal mtshan of mang nang, gzhon nu shes rab of gra and skyi ?nor Jn͂͂āna - these four were known as his "Four Spiritual Sons" (thugs sras).

Further, an ston grags rin of spu hrangs, rgya ye tshul, gung pa ye shes and dkon mchog brtsegs of mar yul, these four have been the disciples of both the Great Translator (lo chen, i.e. rin chen bzang po) and the Junior Translator (lo chus, i.e. legs pa'i shes rab).

Moreover, rkyang pa chos blo of rgyan ro spe'u dmar in Upper myang attended on the Great Translator. Soon after the arrival of the {R 353} Great Translator from Kāśmīra, he heard (from him) the rite of initiation into the rdo rje 'byung ba, according to the Śraddha Lineage and the ko sa la'i rgyan. He also listened in company with zab rtse rgya gar to the exposition of the Śrī-Paramādya?-nāma-mahāyānakalparāja, accompanied by an incomplete commentary and the initiation rite. He also listened attentively (to the exposition) of the Guhyasamāja according to the system of Jn͂͂ānapāda (the ācārya sangs rgyud ye shes, ye shes zhabs). He studied the ceremonies (lag len) under dol po sgom chen.

The exposition of the text he chiefly obtained from the Junior Translator (lo chung, i.e. rngog legs pa'i shes rab). After rin chen bzang po's return from his second journey to Kāśmīra, kyang pa chos blo obtained the Śrī-Paramādya-nāma-mahāyanakalpa-?rāja from him after the whole text had been translated, as well as all that had remained unfinished from his previous studies.

After that sum ston ye 'bar attended on the Great Translator (rin chen bzang po) for seven years and received from him a commentary on the first half of the Tattvāloka, a commentary on the first half of the Śrī-Paramādya-Tantra, an incomplete text of the Śrī-Paramādya-Tantra itself, the rdo rje 'byung ba, the Initiation rite according to the method of the two commentaries and the Initiation rites of dpal mchog rdor sems and deal mchog rigs bsdus. From the Great Translator he recived initiations only, and conducted most of his studies under the junior Translator (rngog legs pa'i shes rab).

Then lce zhar of Upper myang became a disciple of the Great Translator, but mostly studied under the Junior Translator for seven years, and mastered the Yoga-Tantras in general, and in particular the Śrī?-Paramādya-Tantra (dpal mchog).

{R 354} After that gzhon nu rgya mtsho, father of spang kha dar chung, brag stengs pa of las stod, dmar ston chos kyi rgyal mtshan of kul ?ching ru, kle ston of ldog, Śākya rdo rje of bal, kong kha pa, scholar of thang (thang ston) and ldog gong kha pa had a brief interview with the Great Translator, but studied chiefly under the Junior Ttanslator. rngog se ser, srad ye gzhon of zangs came to see the Great Translator, but did not see him, and instead attended on the Junior Translator. rngog ge ser ba mastered the great commentary on the Nāmacaṅgīti.

After the death of the Great Translator, pho brang zhi ba ?od who was learned in the work of a translator, made numerous translations, and having invited many translators and paṇḍitas, he filled in the incomplete portions of the Śrī-Paramādya-Tantra (dpal rnchog).

zangs dkar ?phags pa shes rab did not find the Great Translator alive, and instead studied under the Junior Translator and the latter's assistant preacher an ston grags rin, as well as attended classes on the Initiation rite and exposition of the Tattva-saṃgraha, the Śrī Paramādya-Tantra (dpal mchog) and the Larger and Lesser recensions of the sbyong rgyud.

Later when the paṇḍita Kumārakalaśa (gzhon nu bum pa) came by invitation to dbus, he expounded the Vajraśekharatantra to mar pa rdor yes of smon gro, khams pa rgwa ston and yam shud klu chung, using a translation made previously by the paṇḍita Karmavajra and zangs dkar gzhon nu tshul khrims at 'dam, and the original Sanskrit text used by Kumārakalaśa. zangs dkar lo tsa ba acted as translator. Then when they came to lha sa, an upāsaka named gnyal pa nyi ma shes rab heard on three occasions (the exposition) of the Vajraśekharatantra from the lo tsa ba and the paṇḍita, and took down many notes. zangs dkar (lo tsa ba) and ntyi ma shes rab {R 355} visited later Nepāl.

After that, the lo tsa ba and his disciple proceeded to mnga? ris, from where the lo tsa ba journeyed to Kāśmīra. gnyal preached on one occasion the Vajraśekhara-tantra. Later, when the Kashmirian Jn͂͂ānaśrī came to Tibet. He took up residence at chos 'khor ta bo (in Spiti). After a three years, stay, this paṇḍita learned to speak Tibetan, and gnyal studied undcr him for three years.

From mang nang pa he received (instruction) on the Tattva-saṃgraha accordmg to the method of Ānandagarbha (kun snying). From skyi nor Jn͂͂ana he received (the exposition) of the sbyong rgyud according to the method of the Master (Atīśa). Later zangs dkar (lo tsa ba) composed a commentary on the Vajraśekharatantra. The paṇḍita Mahākaruṇa (thugs rje chen po) and zangs dkar (lo tsa ba) also made a translation of three chapters of the second half of the Commentary at myang ro.

gnyal pa nyi ma shes rab, mar pa rdor yes, gngan ston tshul ?bar and spyang tshan pa seng ge rgyal mtshan, the four, were called the ?Four Sons of zangs dkar? (zans dkar bu bzhi). In general, zangs dkar (lo tsa ba) benefitted greatly the propagation of the Anuttara and Yoga Tantras and in particular that of the Yoga Tantra.

sum ston ye ?bar had the following disciples: gnyan ston tshul ?bar, rgya mon chos grags of myang stod gtsang po, spu ston ?bar thog of stag tshal gdong ston and kham pa shes rab rdo rje.

The kalyāNa-mitra gnyal pa?s disciple snur nyi ma ?od zer had four discipies: glan chos ?byung, rtsa skya dkon mchog grags, dmar chos rgyal and sgangs ston sher ?bum. His son rdo rje seng ge composed numerous texts on the Yoga (Tantra). snur chos ?phags, from whom the Dharmasvāmin rgyal sras rin po che heard the initiation into the Trailokyavijaya-mahākalparaja, also belongs to tlle Spiritual Lineage of the (zangs dkar lo tsa ba).

The son of snur ye shes rgyal mtshan chos rgyal {R 356} taught the system extensively to the All-knowing 'phags 'od. 'phags 'od taught it to bu rin po che (bu ston) and initiated him in the manner of pouring water from one vessel into another. bu rin ?po che composed (several) abridgements on the Yoga Tantra, an extensive exposition of the 'byung ba (rdo rje 'byung ba) and manuals on the different maṇḍala rites. He used to say that "his former karmic inclinations (vāsanā) towards the Yoga Tantra had awakened in him."

Most of the Lineages which handed down the Initiation rites of the Yoga Tantra are existing at present, but I failed to find (the Lineage) which handed down the exposition of the (Yoga) Tantra and that of its commentaries. rngog chos kyi rdo rje studied the Yoga Tantra first under skyi bye ma lung pa and then under khams pa shes rab rdo rje. This Spiritual Lineage continues to exist. The Lineage which handed down the (meditative) practice and the maṇḍala rites of the gsang ldan, and the exposition of the Nāmasanṅgīti exists to the present day among the followers of rngog.

The Chapter on the History of the Yoga (Tantra)

Part 7 (Chapter 2, Aryapada)

Extracted from the Blue Annals (pages ) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of THDL.

7.2 (Guhya)samāja(tantra) system of Noble (Nāgārjuna) ('dus pa 'phags lugs kyi skabs. Chandra 315; Chengdu 429; Roerich 356).

Now the origin of the exposition of the Śrī-Guhyasamājatantra which belongs to the "Inner" Class of the Yoga Tantra. The meaning of the Guhyasamājatantra is twofold: the Tantra of Meaning which is to be explained, and the Tantra of Words which explain it.

According to the first interpretation, the term Guhyasamāja means three aspects of the Body, Speech and Mind which are called guhya or "hidden", and their group is called {R 357} samāja or "assembly." This (group) symbolizes all the Buddhas. For this reason the transcendental Body, Speech and Mind of the Buddhas are called guhya or "hidden", because they were hidden from the Srāvakas and Pratyeka-Buddhas, and even from those of the followers of the Mahāyāna who were deprived of extreme felicity. The Body which manifests itself as a pair represents by its nature an assembly of all the Buddhas. This was called the "Great Vajradhara" or "All-Buddha". Here the word "Buddha" does not mean the Buddhas who dwell in a particular sphere and preach individually to a group of disciples. Since this represents a final stage, the Tantra of Words which helps to elucidate (its meaning) should also be regarded as the chief among Tantras.

Now the meaning of this (term) Vajradhara: according to the Pradīpodyotana-nāma-ṭīkā it is "the essence (ātman) of all the families (kula), without beginning and end, the Ādi-Buddha, the great Consciousness manifested in a living form, the Body or Wisdom (Jn͂͂āna-kāya), by nature endowed with a luminous character, by nature possessed of the three Worlds, by nature possessed of the Three Bodies (Trikāya), by nature possessed of the three Vehicles, by nature possessed of the Three Times, by nature possessed of the Three Vajras, by nature possessed of the Two Truths." Therefore, some of the followers of the Samāja who were inquiring about the colour and symbols of Vajradhara, and who used to say that he had a white body, was one-faced and two-armed, seem not to have understood the meaning of the above quoted passage of the Pradīpodyotana-nāma-ṭīkā. But those inquiring about the colour and symbols {R 358} (of Vajradhara), should refer to the colour and symbols, etc. of Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems pa), classified as the sixth Dhyāni-Buddha, as was done by them in the case of the passage "Rūpa-Vairocana . . .?

The ācārya Nāgārjuna and his disciples maintained that the (Guhya)samāja represented the essence of all the 84,000 doctrines (of the Buddha). In our time some admit that the (Guhya)samāja should be regarded as an independent work without any connection with any other Tantra. But (this last opinion) shows a tendency to accept the standpoint of the Hīnayāna. Thus, as it was said also in the Vimala-prabha: "In this manner the interrogator (about the Kālacakra), as related in the Śrī Samāja (dpal 'dus pa): Then Vajrapāṇi having been blessed by the Blessed Vajradhara, said: "May the Blessed One explain the meaning of all the Buddhas, the Guhyasamāja of all the Buddhas, the highest of all the Tantras, the great king of Tantras (mahā-Tantra-rāja), etc."% Such was the request of Vajrapāṇi. Because it had been said so, (the author of the Vimalaprabhā, i.e. Pauṇḍārika, pad ma dkar po) maintained also that the Kālacakra (Tantra) and its commentary could serve as an exposition of the Guhyasamāja.

In the Hevajra (Tantra) it is also said that "the Mind has the form of an aggregate". If so, the Hevajra-tantra must have been expounded as an introduction to the (Guhya)samāja. The ācārya Kṛṣṇa (nag po) has also composed a basic treatise called Guhyatattva?-prakāśa-nāma, and maintained that the essence of the {R 359} Guhyasamāja could be explained with the help of the bde 'mchog 'khor lo.

The (Guhyasamāja) has been translated during the Period of Early Propagation of the Doctrine by the translator (lo tsa ba) lce bkra shis. The teachers belonging to the rnying ma pa school declared the (Guhya)samāja to be the most important text among the eighteen classes of their Tantras. There exist also several commentaries on the Guhyasamāja written by ancient Tibetan teachers. In later times the Great Translator rin chen bzang po translated the Tantra, its commentary the Pradīpodyotana-nāma-ṭīkā, as well as other commentaries (on this Tantra), and many lesser texts on the utpattikrama and sampannakrama degrees, which appear also to have been expounded by him. Numerous later translators have gone to Āryavarta, and have studied there the (Guhya)samāja, and later have preached it in Tibet.

Among them, the Venerable 'gos (lhas btsas) and his followers became the holders (of the doctrine) of the (Guhya)samāja. The adepts of the (Guhya)samāja agree that the Guhyasamājatantra had been preached by the Munīndra himself, following a request of Indrabhūti, the great king of Oḍḍīyāna, at the time when the Buddha had manifested himself in Oḍḍīyāna and initiated (the king). Thereupon the king and his retinue practised the Tantra by means of the prapan͂͂ca-caryā (spros spyod) and became initiates, and the country of Oḍḍīyāna became deserted. After that a yoginī, who had descended from the realm of the Nāgas, heard it (i.e. the Tantra) from (king) Indrabhūti and taught it to king Viśukalpa of the Southern country.

The mahā-brāhmaṇa Saraha heard it from him and taught it to ācārya Nāgārjuna. The latter had many disciples, but the chief ones were the four: Śākyamitra (Śākya bses gnyen), {R 360} Āryadeva, Nāgabodhi (klu'i byang chub) and Candrakīrti. Candrakīrti taught it to Śiṣyavajra (slob pa'i rdo rje). The latter to Kṛṣṇācārya (nag po ba). The latter to Gomiśra (sa 'dres pa) and the latter to Abhijn͂͂a (mngon shes can). 'gos studied it under him and other teachers.

Now 'gos (lhas btsas): He was born at a place called khug pa of Upper rta nag from a mother said to have been a manifestation of Tārā. His name was lhas 'btsas, that is "Protected by gods." His family name was 'gos. Since both his father and mother belonged to the 'gos family, he was named 'gos khug pa. Since he was born inside a cattle enclosure, he was called born in a cattle enclosure," but this is only foolish talk. At first he went to study at the residence of zur pa. He was given only manual work to do and was not given instruction in the Doctrine. He went to see bla 'chen 'brog mi who gave him a short exposition of the Doctrine, but said: "If you desire to listen to instructions in the Tantras, then fetch gold!" and saying so he did not give him instruction in the Tantras. Then pride rose in him and he thought: "I must go myself to India and become one like him!" He proceeded to India.

While he was studying the Doctrine at the feet of panditas, he said to himself: "If I do not work diligently, I shall feel ashamed before that beggar 'brog mi !" Great diligence was then born in him and he continued his studies with great assiduity. He is known to have had in all seventy paṇḍita-teachers, as far as Nepāl, and two teachers among ḍākiṇīs, in all seventy-two (teachers). Among these, the chief masters, from whom he heard the exposition of the Samāja were: Abhijn͂͂a (mngon shes can) of Bhaṅgala, the scholar btsun 'mo can (Yoṣa) of za hor, the prince of kong ka na sprin 'gyi shugs can, Kṛṣṇasamayavajra (nag po dam tshig rdo rje) of Vajrāsana, the Venerable Master (Atīśa), Candrarāhula, a scholar of Kāśmīra, Śāntibhadra (zhi ba bzang po) of Rājagṛha, the {R 361} great upāsaka of ye rang, or the Nepālese Mahākaruna (thugs rje chen po), na ba ku ṭi pa of bal po rdzong and the Kashmirian Jn͂͂ānākara, a disciple of Na ro pa.

According to ngor rje kun dga' 'od, Nāgabodhi (klu'i byang chub) taught (the Samāja) to Tillipa; the latter to na ro pa; the latter to ku sha li, the Elder; the latter to ku sha li, the Junior ; the latter to gser gling pa; the latter is said to have expounded it to Piṇḍo pa bsod snyoms pa, Abhijn͂͂a (mngon shes can), Yoṣa (btsun mo can) and Jn͂͂ānākara.

Some (give the lineage as follows): Vajradhara; he to Vajradharma (rdo' rje thos); the latter to Indrabhūti; the latter to one called the "ḍākiṇī born of the Nāgas" (klu las gyur ba'i mkhas 'gro ma) and others.

The statement that Vajradharma (rdo rje chos) taught it to king Indrabhūti agrees with a prophecy mentioned in the de kho na nyid kyi sgron ma'i rgyud, where it is said: "And the Devī asked: 'Who will understand and explain this great hidden Tantra?' The Blessed One replied: 'In the northern quarter, in Śrī-Vajrasthāna Oḍḍīyāna, a king named Indrabhūti will understand it, will teach it and will expound it to living beings.' And again the Devi asked: '0 Blessed One! What stage of the path has king Indrabhūti reached? Pray state it!' And the Blessed One said: 'The Vajrapāṇi king mentioned by me in the Śrī-Jn͂͂ānatilakayoginītantrarāja is this Indrabhūti, an incarnation and master of the tenth stage (on the Path of the Bodhisattva), a jn͂͂āna-kāya, the master of the 14th stage (bhumi)'". Thus the Blessed One had prophesied that king Indrabhūti would appear in the future (and would be instructed by His disciple Vajradharma and not by Himself).

Further, according to the Sahajasiddhi: Śrīmatī Līlādevī (dpal ldan rol pa lha mo che), Vajraśrī (de bzhin dpa' bo rdo rje dpal), {R 362} Śrī Samayavajra (dam tshig rdo rje dpal), also Śrī Padmavajra (pad ma rdo rje dpal), Śrīmatī Sahajavajrā, Vajravatī brāhmaṇī (rdo rje dang ldan bram ze mo), likewise Śrī Siddhivajra (grub 'pa'i rdo rje dpal).

Those to whom the Venerable Yamāntaka-rāja expounded the Śrī Cakra have been: the teacher "Sleeping Bhikṣu", as well as other gods. In its commentary it is said: "In the country of Śrī Oḍḍīyāna, in a remote jungle called Ratna-alaṃkāra (rin po ches brgyan pa) the ṛṣi Jagadāśvāsa ('gro ba dbugs 'byin pa), a manifestation of Guhyapati (gsang ba'i bdag po) intended to expound the Sahajaratnopadeśatantra (lhan cig skyes pa'i rin 'po che'i man ngag gi rgyud) to some fortunate ones". The ṛṣi Jagadāśvasa ('gro ba dbugs 'byin pa) taught it to the Princess Mahālīlādevi (lha mozol pa chen mo) who taught it to the great king Vairavajra (dpa' bo rdo rje). The latter (taught) it to the farmer Padmavajra (pad ma'i rdo rje). The latter to the wine-merchant Sahajavajra (lhan cig skyes pa'i rdo rje). The latter to the weaver Nandavajra (dga' ba'i rdo rje). The latter to the brāhmanī Vajrā who taught it to the barber Siddhivajra (grub pa'i rdo rje). The latter (taught it) to Śrī-Sarvajagannātha (dpal ldan kun 'gro'i mgon po). The latter to Cittavajra (thugs kyi rdo rje). The latter to (his) sister Lakśmiṅkarā who taught it to king Indrabhūti or to la ba pa. This is the explanation of the above quoted prophecy.

I am of the opinion that, if one were to compare the story about the introduction of the Tantras in Āryavarta by la ba pa from Oḍḍīyāna, with the above quoted passage, one would find that the account about the Lineage of the teachers of the (Guhya)samāja was authentic. This also seems to agree with a prophecy about la ba pa quoted by Āryadeva in his Caryāmelayanapradīpa who also gives {R 363} an explanation of the prophecy.

Some who had expressed the view that king Indrabhūti and la ba pa had been different personalities would be unable to explain the passage in the Commentary on the Sahajasiddhi. This treatise on the Sahajasiddhi (skyes 'grub) is also based on the (Guhya)samājatantra, for in its commentary it is said: 'In the Sahajasiddhi it is stated' - 'From the vast Mahāyāna . . .?? the term 'Mahāyāna' here means the "Mahā-Yoga-tantra (i.e. the Guhyasamājatantra), which expounds the hidden (nature) of the Body, Speech and Mind of all the Buddhas." The Jn͂͂ānasiddhi composed by king Indrabhūti, is also clearly based on the (Guhya)samāja. The treatise known as Guhyasiddhi is also based on the (Guhya)samāja which is clear from the basic text itself. Ācārya Āryadeva quoted extensively from it in his Caryāmelayanapradīpa. Padmavajra (pad ma rdo rje), the author of the Guhyasiddhi, seems to have been the farmer Padmavajra.

Thus the (Guhya)samāja must have originated in several Lineages. The Venerable 'gos revised on two occasions the translations of the (Guhya)samājatantra, which had become the chief among Tantras, and its commentary the Pradīpodyotana-nāma-ṭīkā. Great was the benefit.

Further, he translated the following Tantras and their Commentaries: the Ārya-ḍakiṇīvajrapan͂͂jara-mahātantrarāja-kalpa-nāma, the Hevajratantrarāja-nāma, the {R 364} Sampuṭa-nāma-mahātantra, the Ratnamāla, a Commentary on the Hevajratantra, together with the Śrī-Vajraḍāka-nāma-mahātantrarāja, the Śrī Catuḥpīṭhamahāyoginītantrarāja, together with its exposition, the Mahā-māyātantrarāja and others. He also taught them. He also revised the translations of the branches of the (Guhya)samāja.

The chief disciples of this great scholar were: mang ra seng ge rgyal mtshan, rngog dbus pa ge ser, ngab mi byang chub rgyal mtshan, lho pa rdo rje snying po, gnyal pa 'gar chos kyi rdo rje and dbus pa rgwa sum, known as the "Six." From these six rong pa rgyal le and so ston rdo rje rgyal mtshan received (instruction in the Guhyasamāja). tre po mgon po studied it under rgya nam mkha', a disciple of ngab mi, and zhang rgyal ma spang sgang pa, a disciple of rong pa rgyal le. He preached extensively and had a great many disciples, as well as composed many books on the (Guhya)samāja. His disciples, including the ascetic chos la dga' ba and others, also expounded extensively the (Guhya)samāja. This tre po having greatly benef?tted the preaching of the (Guhya)samāja, I have heard that there have been about 500 copies of the Pradīpodyotana-nāma-ṭīkā (sgron ma' gsal ba) in his hermitage.

Further, 'tshur ston dbang nge studied the method of 'gos under mang ra seng ge rgyal mtshan, 'gar chos kyi shes rab, rngog ge ser and dbus pa rgwa sum, disciples of 'gos. 'khon gad pa Kīrti heard the method of 'gos from him. The kalyāṇa-mitra 'gar received it from him after offering him an Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajn͂͂āpāramitā (brgyad stong pa) written in gold and ten srangs as material presents (nor). gnyan ?ston ri rtse ba heard the (Guhya)samāja from him.

Further, the Venerable Master (Atīśa) taught it to nag 'tsho according to the system of Nāgārjuna ('phags lugs). {R 365} nag tsho taught it to rong pa phyag sor pa. The latter to zhus lan pa. The latter bestowed it on lha rje ri ston. From the latter it was obtained by ngor rje kun dga' 'od. This ngor rje has composed also many expositions of the (Guhya)samājatantra together with its branches. His followers spread extensively in gnyal and dags po.

Further, sho ston rdo rje rgyal mtshan and rong pa rgyal le taught it to shung ke lo tsa ba dar ma rdo rje. shung ke also obtained the initiation (into the Samāja) from ngab mi. It is said that spa tshab lo tsa ba had studied under this shung ke the method of 'gos. dol pa 'gar ston dbang phyug grub also studied under shung ke. He taught it to jo bde, son of the teacher gze ba. The latter taught it to jo bo 'tshar pa snu' pa. The latter to lhab mi. Further, mang ra seng ge rgyal mtshan taught it to rngog ye shes. The latter to rngog nyi ma seng ge. This nyi ma seng ge was very famous as a scholar. He gathered (round himself) a great many kalyāṇa-mitras and composed many treatises, including a commentary on the Mūla-Tantra (Guhyasamāja). Thus the Doctrine of the Samāja spread.

He taught it to glan rtsan tsha nyi ma lcam. nyi ma lcam appears to have also composed an extensive commentary on the Tantra. nyi ma lcam taught it to rngog Āryadeva. This latter also attended on the Venerable grags pa rgyal mtshan. Āryadeva taught it to rtag pa rin chen grags. The All-Knowing chos sku 'od zer studied under him. He (chos sku 'od zer) was known as an incarnation of the kha che paṇ chen (śākyaśrībhadra). By the mere glancing through the sastras, he was able to penetrate their meaning and therefore became known as the "All-Knowing." He preached, during a long time the Samāja and had numerous disciples. His disciple the bla ma 'phags 'od who was learned in the Guhyasamājatantra according to the Nāgārjuna method (gsang 'dus 'phags lugs), the Yoga-Tantra (yo ga'i rgyud) and the Kālacakra (dus 'khor. 'phags yog dus gsum), and, who had become a Treasure-house of preceptsd under him. 'phags 'od {R 366} proceeded to zha lu into the presence of the All-Knowing bu Rin po che (bu ston). He taught a great deal the system of the Guhyasamāja and the Yoga (Tantra).

bu rin po che also became very learned in the Samāja. At the request of 'phags pa, he composed an extensive commentary on the Pradīpodyotana-nāma-Ttīkā. Further, he composed many treatises on the Samāja. bu ston became known as the greatest scholar among the disciples who belonged to the Lineage of 'gos (lhas btsas). He taught the cycle of Samāja to khyung po lhas pa gzhon nu bsod nams. The Venerable tsong kha pa heard it from the latter. The Venerable tsong kha pa, the Great, in general, greatly benefitted the Doctrine, and, in particular, he was the man who encompassed the surface of the Earth with (the teaching) of the Samāja.

The above is but a brief account of the Spiritual Lineage of 'gos, for I was unable to give a detailed account.

When lha btsun sngon mo of bsam 'yas was holding a religious assembly, there came the scholar shung ke dar ma rdo rje, learned in the Guhyasamājatantra according to the method of Nāgārjuna (gsang 'dus 'phags skor), and spa tshab lo tsa ba, learned in the dbu ma 'phags skor. spa tshab felt attracted towards the Guhyasamāja and heard its exposition from shung ke, but did not like it in translation. He therefore made a translation of it and its branches with the assistance of Tilakalaśa who acted as paṇḍita, and later taught it as well.

I did not find this Lineage to exist in the present time. chag chos rje dpal also taught the Guhyasamāja according to the method of 'gos, first to jo btsun rtag pa, a disciple of rngog mun ne, and to his disciple jo bo lha mgon po dpal of gung thang. After that he studied extensively under the Nepālese paṇḍita nyi ma'i dbang po'i 'od zer and also revised the translations of the commentaries on the (Guhyasamāja) Tantra, the Piṇḍīkṛtasādhana {R 367} and the Pan͂͂cakrama, as well as others. He also, composed an abridgement and a commentary on the sgron gsal and thus benefitted numerous persons. It is said that the Kashmirian Somanātha (zla ba mgon po) had bestowed the secret exposition of the Pradīpodyotana-nāma-ṭīkā on sgom pa dkon mchog bsrungs. Now-a-days these books are not extant.

The chapter on the Guhyasamājatantra according to the method of Nāgārjuna.

Part 7 (Chapter 3, Jnanapada)

Extracted from the Blue Annals (pages ) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of THDL.

7.3 [Guhyasamājatantra] system of Jn͂͂ānapāda (ye shes zhabs lugs kyi skabs. Chandra 324; Chengdu 446; Roerich 367).

The Guhyasamāja known as the system of ye shes zhabs (Jn͂͂ānapāda) also penetrated into Tibet through many doors. Now the ācarya sangs rgyas ye shes who was a paṇḍita learned in all the branches of knowledge. One day he pleased in the city of Takṣaśila, in the country called kha bi, which formed part of Magadha, an ācārya known as Haribliadra (seng ge bzang po), who was a great scholar in the Prajn͂͂pārāmitā system and was known to have had a vision of Maitreya. From him he heard the Prajn͂͂āpāramitā and many other treatises. He examined them with the help of his wisdom. Again while in Nālandā he composed a commentary on the Prajn͂͂āpāramitā-san͂͂caya-gātha, and taught it to others. He visited the country of Oḍḍīyāna, which was situated 230 yojanas to the north of Magadha, and which was blessed by numerous ḍākiṇīs, and was reputed to be the source of Mantrayāna, in search of Mantrayāna. There in the presence of the ācārya Lalitavajra (sgeg pa rdo rje), who was born in nor bu gling, he heard many Kriyā and Yoga Tantras, and studied them thoroughly. Again, in a part of that country, he stayed in the presence of a yoginī named gu ne ru, who understood the Essence, and had obtained the precepts which could not (be encompassed by thought) and worshipped her. He heard from her many Anuttara-Tantras. He also received from her the initiation and the Tantric vows. He then practised meditation, and in his {R 368} dream he saw gods prophesy to him that: "there was a 16 years old daughter of a caṇḍālī named dza thig dza ?la, who was the guardian of the northern gate of OḍḍIīyāna. She is a Mahā-Lakṣmi and you must go there." He immediately went there. They lived together and during eight months he worshipped her. She understood that the ācārya was desirous of practising the Mahāmudrā. To enable him to collect victuals, she bestowed on him magic arts and thus he obtained the magic power (siddhi) of gnod gnas.

Later he went to Jālandhara. In a quarter of the town of Kanauj, there lived a man named "Young Child" who was very learned in the Prajn͂͂ā-Tantra (Yoginī Tantra). From him he heard many instructions and practised meditation. At a distance of about 300 yojanas south of Magadha, there was a thick forest in the region known as kaṃ ko na. In a part of this forest resided the ācārya bsrung 'ba'i zhabs, a disciple of the ācārya Nāgārjuna, who was very learned in the Upāyatantra (Yoga-Tantra) and was surrounded by disciples proficient in magic powers. He visited him. This teacher had the following disciples possessed of supernatural powers: bram ze tsa tra ra, the brāhmaṇa Guhyaparta, Man͂͂juśrī of the Kṣatriya caste, Pūrṇabhadra of the Vaiśya caste, Dīpaṅkara of the Śūdra caste, Karṇaputra of the Śūdra caste, the harlot Ālokī and the harlot Duḥśīlā. In support of' them all, the goddess nor rgyan ma used to provide daily ten masas of gold, half a do shal (necklace) of pearls and 300 kārṣāpaṇas.

He followed him for nine years. He was an Eka-jāti-?pratibaddha, that means unhindered by one rebirth only in respect of the utpannakrama degree, and practised to perfection the third yoga. During 18 months he stayed at that place and worshipped in company of yoginīs, and though he showed great diligence in the performance of {R 369} these practices, he did not perceive the Ultimate Essence. He related his case to the teacher bsrung ba'i zhabs, who told him: "I also did not perceive it!" He felt somewhat disappointed. Then he transformed his Tantric assistant (phyag rgya ma) into a book, and having tied the book (to his waist) proceeded to the forest called Kupaja situated north of Bodhgayā. This forest was a very dangerous place, full of tigers, hyenas (dred) and animals. He used to say: "In general, the forest of Saṃsāra situated behind the Bodhimaṇḍa is filled by carni?vorous animals of defilement. I also live in this place in order to be emancipated from it." He propitiated the deities, and spent six months in that place, and then perceived for the first time the Essence of the Elements of Existence.

How did he understand it? Once the ācārya Man͂͂juśrīmitra (?jam dpal bshes gnyen) transformed himself into an immoral monk, opened his petticoat, tied his (garb) as a turban, and began to plough a field in company with his wife of evil character and a white bitch with a spot. The ācārya Budhaśrījn͂͂āna (sangs rgyas ye? shes) saw it, and thinking "What sort of people are they?" doubt was born in him. The ācārya Man͂͂juśrīmitra under? stood Buddhaśrījn͂͂āna to be of excellent practice in mantras. In order to help him, he transformed himself into a maṇḍala of Man͂͂jughoṣa. This happened at dawn after the transit of the stars Mṛgaśiras (mgo) and Ārdha (lag) on the 8th day of the last half of the first autumn month. (His teacher) asked him: "Do you have faith in the teacher or the maṇḍala?" and he replied: "I have faith in the maṇḍala." (The maṇḍala then vanished), and he found himself and the teacher staying inside a small house.

Then Buddhaśrījn͂͂āna in order to grasp the meaning of the Ultimate Essence, (made a request to his teacher), and pronounced the following verses: "Thou art the father and mother of all beings! Thou shalt protect me and others from great dangers. Thou, the Lord of living beings, shalt remove {R 370} suffering. Thou, the great deliverer of the Three Worlds, protect living beings, etc." Then the Lord of the Maṇḍala ('jam dpal dbyangs) bestowed on him his oral instructions. The ācārya then understood the Ultimate Essence and he became a yoginr possessed of pure wisdom.

Man͂͂jughoSa in order to benefit future living beings, permitted the ācārya to compose the bskyed pa'i rim pa'i sgrub thabs kun tu bzang po, the kun tu bzang mo, kun tu bzang po'i don bsdus pa, the sbyin bsreg gnyis kyi cho ga, the gtor ma mi nub pa'i sgron ma, the tshogs kyi 'khor lo'i cho ga, the rin po che 'bar pa, Śrī-Guhyasamājatantrarājaṭīkā?candraprabhā-nāma, the dkyil 'khor gyi cho ga shlo ka bzhi brgya lnga bcu pa, the rtsa ba'i ye shes chen po, the tshigs su bcad pa'i mdzod, the Muktitilakanāma, the Ātmasādhana-avatāra? nāma, the byang chub sems kyi thig le, the dpal bkra shis kyi rnam par bshad pa chen po, the bzhi pa la 'jug pa thabs dang bcas pa, the chu sbyin dbang po?i sgrub pa'i thabs gsum. He obtained permission to compose the above fourteen treatises in agreement with the Scriptures. The three 'kun? tu bzang po should be regarded as one (treatise). The three chu dbang gi sgrub thabs should also be regarded as one (treatise). The rgyud kyi rnam bshad {R 371} appears not to have been his work. The remaining works, seem to me, to have been called the "Fourteen Treatises" (chos bcu bzhi). Since the dkyil 'khor gyi cho ga had been taken to Kāśmīra, it was not found in Magadha.

It is said that the ācārya Buddhaśrījn͂͂ana was able to realize the mani?festation of the Ultimate Essence on the Higher Stage (lam mthon po), but could not transform his physical body into that of Vajrakāya.

This ācārya used to reside at a place 50 leagues distant from Vajrāsana, in a cave on Mount Mahendragiri. Besides the rgyud kyi rnam bshad, he com?posed (other) treatises and taught them to his disciples.

He had 18 excellent disciples. Among them Dīpaṇkara-?bhadra (mar me mdzad bzang po), Praśāntamitra (rab tu zhi ba'i bshes gnyen), Rāhulabhadra (sgra gcan zin bzang po) and Mahāsukhatāvajra (rdo rje bde ba chen po). These four attained the degree of Great Vajradharas in this very life.

The names of the remaining fourteen disciples cannot be ascertained with certitude. The ācārya Vitapāda (sman zhabs) had also been a direct disciple of the ācārya. Vitapāda composed many treatises (śāstras), including a commentary on the zhal lung and other texts. Moreover scholars belonging to the Spiritual Lineage of his disciples, have composed commentaries on the Tantra (i.e. Guhyasamāja) and many treatises on the 'Two Stages' (rim pa gnyis, i.e. bskyed rim and rdzogs rim), many of which had been translated into Tibetan. In later times the ācārya Abhaya composed the Vajrāvali. Since he mainly followed on the dkyil 'khor gyi cho ga bzhi brgya lnga bcu pa, {R372} his work belongs to the system of ye shes zhabs (Jn͂͂ānapāda).

The ācārya Buddhajn͂͂āna later settled in Vajrāsana and its neighbourhood, and is known to have built a new temple there and to have made large offerings (to it). In Tibet the system of ye shes zhabs (Jn͂͂ānapāda) was first introduced by the Great Translator rin chen bzang po. The latter preached it to his disciples and it was handed down through their Lineage. The paṇḍita Smṛti also taught extensively the system of Buddhajn͂͂āna in Khams. The ancient ācāryas Buddhaguhya (sangs rgyas gsang ba) and Buddhaśānta (sangs? rgyas zhi ba) had been also direct disciples of Buddhajn͂͂āna. Books composed and translated by them also belong to the system of Jn͂͂ānapāda (Buddhajn͂͂āna).

In the meantime, the paṇḍita Śūnyaśrī and gngan lo tsa ba also taught much the system of Buddhajn͂͂anā in Tibet. snang kha'u ba, a disciple of gnyan, also spread its teaching. Again, the lo tsa ba gnyos 'byung po proceeded to India, and studied well the method of Buddhajn͂͂āna under Balin ācārya, a contemporary of Śrī na ro pa, who was also known as Kṛṣṇapāda, the Junior (nag po zhabs chun?g ba).

His (Balin ācārya's) previous Lineage: 'jam pa'i rdo? rje, the ācārya Buddhajn͂͂ānapāda, mar me mdzad bzang po, Man͂͂juśīkīrtimitra, 'jam dpal grags pa'i bshes gnyen, the keeper of horses dpal bde ba chen po, also known by the name of Kamalakulīśa and Anaṅgavajra (yan ?lag 'med pa'i rdo rje), and the ācārya yi ge pa. He was a clerk of the king Śrī Dharmapāla. Besides receiving the blessing of shar ba pa, he also attained excellent realiza?tion (Buddhahood). He was the spiritual teacher of the former king.

The ācārya Karṇa pa: On ordination, he received the name of Candaniprabhava. His mystic initia?tion name was Ratnavajra. He also attained realization. Jn͂͂ānaśrīmitra was the middle pillar of Vikramaśīla. It is {R 373} said that he taught (the system) to Balin ācārya. gnyos 'byung po (taught it) to his own son rdo rje bla ma, The latter to his own son gnyos dpal le; the latter to his own son gnyos grags pa dpal; the latter to his own son rdo rje gzi brjid, known as sangs rgyas ras chen rgyal ba lha nang pa; the latter composed also a commentary on the Guhyasamāja and taught much at lho brag, skyi shod (lha sa), lha nang and other places. Especially he instructed lha rin chen rgyal po and gtsang dge brag pa tshul khrims gzhon nu.

The scholar byang chub dar studied under these two. He taught it to gzi brjid rgyal po; the latter to bla ma mgon po rin chen; the latter to snyan ston kun dga' dar; the latter to bla ma ri pa Śākya bzang po and he in turn taught it to gnyos rdo rje bla ma, born in the family of gnyos lo tsa ba. He received ordination in his childhood and possessed an excellent moral conduct. He studied well in both dbus and gtsang and became learned in the method of Buddhajn͂͂āna (ye shes zhabs). From him he obtained the initiation into the method of Jn͂͂ānapāda, the 'jam rdor, the 'jig rten dbang ?phyug, the rgyud kyi bshad pa, and the zhal lung, and most of the secret precepts (upadeśas).

The other Lineage of this initiation is as follows: Man͂͂juśrī, Jn͂͂ānapāda, Dīpaṅkarabhadra, Ānandagarblia (kun dga' snying po), tha ga na, Śānti pa, Śraddhākara, Padmākara. From these two - the Great Translator rin chen bzang po, rkyang po chos blo, the kalyāṇa-mitra skyabs se, rdo rje sra brtan, dkon mchog ?bar, the kalyāṇa-mitra dbang rin, khams pa sa phug pa {R 374} Śākya rdo rje, rong pa chos mgon, lo tsa ba mchog ldan, dpal ldan seng ge, bu ston rin po che, further sangs rgyas ras chen, ston ma lung pa, ye shes mkhar, bla ma chu? sku 'od zer, kun mkhyen 'phags 'od, chos rje bu ston, rin rnam pa (sgra tshad pa), kun mkhyen shes rab' dpal ?bzangs, from the latter I obtained the initiation into the system of Jn͂͂ānapāda.

Again, the Spiritual Lineage of the initiation into the Guhyasamājalokeśvara: The Venerable Master (Atīśa), lha ?btsun pa byang chub 'od, 'ol pa byang chub rdo rje, rgya? lcags ri gong kha pa, rdzing bu kha pa, thang stong pa chos? kyi 'od, zhang yes, gze ba don grub mgon, bar thang pa, father and son, dar ma Śākya, bsod nams dbang phyug, the lo tsa ba mchog ldan, bla ma dpal ldan seng ge, bu ston kha che, byang chen 'jam rings pa, kun mkhyen shes? rab dpal bzangs, the latter bestowed (the teaching) on me.

The chapter on the system of Jn͂͂ānapāda.

Part 7 (Chapter 4, Yamari)

Extracted from the Blue Annals (pages ) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of THDL.

7.4 Yamari Cycle (gshin rje gshed kyi skor gyi skabs. Chandra 331; Chengdu 454; Roerich 374).

The Cycle of Yamari (gshin rje gshed) was preached by the Venerable Master (Atīśa) to nag tsho lo tsa ba. They also translated the Tantra itself, its commentary the Sahajāloka and other texts. nag tsho also studied under Kṛṣṇasamayavajra (nag po dam tshig rdo rje). Later Samayavajra came to dbus and gtsang, and taught the Yamari Cycle, which became known far and wide. nag tsho taught the Yamāntaka Cycle to rong pa phyag sor pa and this system also spread. 'gos also com?posed several expositions of the Yamāntaka-Tantra. He also performed the ceremony of Yamāntaka called 'char ka according to the rnying ma rite . Though other lo tsa bas also possessed the text of the Tantra, it was rwa lo tsa ba rdo rje grags who mainly taught the Yamāntaka Cycle. Its preaching lasted for a very considerable time.

Now rwa lo tsa ba rdo rje grags: he was born at snye nam snang yul. In his child?hood, {R 375} he was placed in her sleeve by the goddess re ma ti who took him round the country for two months. After that the goddess entrusted him to his mother. Later he took up ordination and then the final monastic vows. He attended in Nepāl mostly on the Nepālese Mahākaruna (thugs rje chen po). na ro pa taught (the Tantra) to Prajn͂͂ārakṣita and the latter to the Nepālese Mahākaruna. rwa lo studied extensively under him and became very learned. For example: he mastered the bde mchog rtsa ?ba'i rgyud, the Sampuṭa, the rdo rje mkha 'gro, the rgyud bla ma mngon brjod bla ma, the Heruka-abhyudaya, the kun spyod, the phag mo mngon 'byung, the nag po'i chos drug, the system of lu yi pa, the Cycle of rdo rje 'jigs byed, the Cycle of gshin rje gshed nag? po, the Cycle of gdon drug, the Nāmasaṅgīti (mtshan brjod), the Cycle of zhal gnyis ma and instructions in meditation (according to the Cycle of Yamāntaka), such as the par pu (sa skya chos skyong), mgon chung, etc. He mastered the precepts of srog ser.

{R 376} These were genuine systems of (Indian) paṇḍitas and were not mixed with Tibetan doctrines. Therefore 'bre shes rab 'bar said: "Among the Tibetan translations there are no translated texts more satisfactory, than those by the kalyāṇa?-mitra rwa lo tsa ba, for he had understood the thought of learned paṇḍitas and did not confuse it with Tibetan doctrines."

Through his excellent labours, he had gathered round himself many great followers including lha btsun sngon mo and others, and many kalyāṇa-mitras, such as 'gar ?ston btsan nam mkha', zhan tshes chung ba, so tshab 'dul? 'dzin, gnyegs ri pa, 'bre shes rab 'bar, 'ban dkon mchog rdo? rje, rog mngon pa ba, zhu bka' gdams pa, mtha' bzhī pa so thang pa, stag pa kha che, dpyal lo tsa ba kun dga' rdo ?rje, zhang sag pa, zhang gtsang 'od, sgang Indra, snur nyi ma, ba reg thos pa dga', lha rje dba, gran bu ba rin chen grags, klun rgyam legs, klun se bo Śākya rgyal, klun tsandra (candra), klun rdor po, rgya long chos grags, mar pa bsod? rin, a me mi nyag, rgya dar seng, byang ran stan pa, myang, rog byugs se, khyung po dar ma 'bar, khyung po thu re, spo lo tsa ba, 'tshe mi bsod nams 'bar, 'tshe mi chul po, pur tsandra (candra), zhang, rwa sgom rdo rje rgyal po, rong pa rgya le, bla ma brang pa, tsangs yang dag 'bar, bla ma mtha', dpon rkun po, btsang tsha lcam me, rngog mdo sde, khu lo tsa ba mdo sde 'bar, grags, ne tso, mdo sde grags, so rdo rje rgyal mtshan, so dge 'dun, 'dzar dge po, 'gar a tsa, snyi ba, lang tsha ston nag, grol grub pa, 'bre kha skyog ?pa, kyu ra a skyabs, rab dbya jo sras, tre bo mchog bla, do khro yon tshul, dbang, se rigs, zur hur po, spang gyang bla ma, ma thog byang 'bar and especially tre bo mgon po, who was famous in Tibet as scholar, and others.

(Regarding the number of his pupils,) when the religious council of sambho ra was held at gnyal {R 377} it was attended by 1200 priests who possessed copies of the text of nag po'i rgyud, 800 Tantrics possessing copies of the same book, in all 2000 disciples. rwa lo tsa ba fixed (the remuneration to be paid for instruction) one golden srang for the Vajrabhairava?tantra and one golden zho each for the Kṛṣṇayamāritantra, the gdong drug gi rgyud, the eight Tantras of Saṃvara, the Six Books of nag po, the lu yi pa, the 'jam dpal and the zhal gnyis ma. He thus made the above known as the "golden books." He also received numberless offerings which were not fixed.

Of the wealth (phyag ?bzhes), thus received by him, he sent one hundred golden srangs to Vikramaśīla in India, to pay for the cost of reciting the Pan͂͂caviṃśatisāhasrikā-Prajn͂͂āpāramita written in gold, so long as the Doctrine will be in exis?tence, two golden copies of the Aṣṭasāhaśrīkā-Prajn͂͂ā?pāramitā and one hundred golden srangs as remuneration for the recitation by eighty-four paṇḍitas of the four schools of eighty-four copies of the Ārya-Prajn͂͂āpāramitāsan͂͂cayagāthā, so long as the Doctrine exists. He also offered one hundred srangs to the bla ma bha ro phyag rdum. He also offered 108 gaṇacakras having gathered ahout 200 ha mus, {R 378} each costing about 3 or 4 golden srangs. He invited the Nepālese Mahākaruṇa to Tibet. On his return he sent him one thousand golden srangs. Till his death, he sent on thirty-?seven occasions offerings to him.

The circular terrace of bsam yas was burnt in the year Fire-Male-Dog (me pho khyi - ?986 A.D.) due to jealousy between klu mes and sba reg, so that even the brick wall crumbled down. He (with the help of his miraculous powers) carried Juniper timber up the stream, and five hundred workmen, including brick-layers (gyang btang), carpenters, goldsmiths, blacksmiths and image?makers (painters), worked on it for three years. The scholar rin chen rdo rje supervised the work. In general, about 100,000 loads of building materials were used. With the remaining supply of colours he restored the court-yard of the main temple and the dbu rtse lha khang. The work took two years to complete. The lo tsa ba rwa chos rab acted as superintendent. The building materials comprised 10,000 loads.

The manner in which he (rwa) supported monasteries: he made many offerings to the monastery of ngur smrig (gtsang), including six copies of the Śatasāhaśrīkā-Prajn͂͂āpāramitā. Then he also offered 30,000 loads of even weight towards the cost of feeding visitors, so long as the Doctrine was in existence. To the bye mda' pas he presented a hundred volumes, beginning with sūtras, and 30,000 loads of provisions for distribution among visitors. He presented to the dkyus thang pas fifty volumes, beginning with two Śatasāhaśrīkā-Prajn͂͂āpāramitā, and 10,000 loads of provisions (to feed) visitors for one month every year. Similar quantities were presented by him to the nyan tsho bas and lcang ra bas. To the sho skyam pas he presented a hundred volumes, beginning with sūtras, and 10,000 loads of provisions to feed visitors. A similar quantity was presented to the Re dul bas. He prepared 10,000,000 votive offerings, and for each 100,000 he assigned 40 loads of provisions for the men who were engaged in the work of preparing them. Seven (Indian) a tsa ras were {R 379} permanently supported by him, six a tsa ra priests to recite the Viṃśatisāhaśrīkā (nyi khri) and the Aṣṭasāhaśrīkā-?Prajn͂͂āpāramitā in Sanskrit, and one a tsa ra who was to meditate according to the lu yi pa system.

Further, he organized the recital of sacred scriptures a 100,000 times. He made offerings to rngog lo tsa ba, including a copy of the Satasāhaśrīkā-Prajn͂͂āpāramitā. He held a religious council during which he distributed food to 10,000 persons. He made similar presents to glang ri thang pas. He made similar presents to btsan kha bo che. To rgya 'dul he made presents, including a Satasāhaśrīkā, and held a religious council during which he distributed alms to one hundred persons. He made similar presents to to btsun khyung, 'bre, 'ban, rog mngon pa ba and to stag pa kha che.

The above facts were abridged from his Life story (rnam thar) written by the bla ma ye shes seng ge. In general, he preached the Doctrine extensively, and, in particular, the Cycle of Yamān?taka to more than 2000 disciples. The Lineages through which the Cycle was handed down were numberless.

The continuity of his preaching: rwa lo tsa ba, chos rab, rwa ye shes seng ge, rwa 'bum seng, rje btsun rgwa lo, bla ma shes rab seng ge, uncle, nephew and brothers. I am unable to relate the spread of the Lineages founded by each of the above (teachers). The gshin rhe gshed dmar po'i rgyud in 19 chapters had been translated by the lo tsa ba grags pa rgyal ?mtshan and shong blo brtan. I did not hear about the existence of the exposition of this Tantra. There were many who worshipped the Red Yamāntaka as their tutelary deity, including dpyal chos bzangs, chag lo tsa ba and bu rin po?che (bu ston).

Further, glo po lo tsa ba shes rab zin chen, a disciple of the siddha dar pan and Revenda, spread in Central Tibet (dbu gtsang) the texts of the precepts of the Red Yamari according to the teaching transmitted through the Lineage of Virū pa. I did not hear of the existence of the exposition {R 380} of this Tāntra according to the teaching of the Lineage of dar pan.

The chapter on the Cycle of Yamāri.

Part 7 (Chapter 5, Chakrasamvara)

Extracted from the Blue Annals (pages ) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of THDL.

7.5 (Cakra)saṃvara (bde mchog gi skabs. Chandra 335; Chengdu 460; Roerich 380).

The widely propagated teaching and manuals of meditation (sgrub yig) according to the initiation and Tantra of Śrī?Saṃvara, originated first in the Spiritual Lineage of the disciples of the Great- Translator (rin chen bzang po). In later times mar pa do pa, spu hrangs lo chung, mal gyo and others taught extensively this Tantra.

The Lineage is as follows: Vajradhara, Vajrapāṇi, Saraha, sha ba ra dbang phyug and his disciple lu yi pa whom some call lu i pa and some lu hi pa. My teacher the great paṇḍita used to say: "There exists a book on the Sampannakrama degree composed by him, and in the Sanskrit text of the eighteenth śloka, (his name) is written as lu yi, so this (form) must be correct." lu yi pa taught the Tantra to king da ri ka pa and his minister ḍanṅgi pa. The latter taught it to rdo rje dril bu pa; the latter to ru sbal zhabs can; the latter to Jayandhara; the latter to Kṛṣṇācārya (nag po spyod pa ba); the latter to Vijayapāda (rnam rgyal zhabs); the latter to Tilli pa and he in turn taught it to na ro pa. The biographies of teachers who preceded the last named are numerous, and since it is easy to consult them, I did not write them down.

Na ro pa: he was the guardian of the northern gate of Vikramaśīla. The ācārya Śānti pa and the Venerable Maitrī pa heard the Tantra from him. The Venerable Master (Atīśa) heard it from Śānti pa. Atīśa in his turn taught it in mnga' ris to the Great Translator (rin ?chen bzang po) and his disciples. He also taught it to 'gar dge ba of gtsang rong. It is said that he expounded the text with the help of the commentary of Devarakṣita.

Further, the Master taught the precepts (of this Tantra) in dbus to nag tsho lo tsa ba and to an aged khams? pa. Further, a Nepālese known as pham mthing pa or a nges pa chen po had four brothers: the elder Dharmamati, and two {R 381}younger ones dus 'khor pa and thang churng pa. Dharmamati spent 12 years with na ro pa. pham mthing pa went to invite him. The elder said: "You, yourself stay here! Having received a prophecy from (my) teacher, I shall proceed to wu t'ai shan". He went away without anyone knowing where he was going.

Pham mthing pa attended on na ro pa for nine years and heard from him (the exposition) of many doctrines, including that of Saṃvara and the Hevajra. He obtained the lower and intermediate siddhis with the help of the Cycle of Saṃvara. His younger brother dus 'khor ba attended on na ro pa for five years, and also heard many doctrines, such as the Saṃvara Cycle and others. The youngest thang khun pa came to invite dus 'khor ba, and also obtained initiation and some instructions in the Tantra from na ro pa. The elder brother said to thang ?chun pa: You should meditate on Vāgiśvara". He follow?ed the advice and meditated. He threw a flower into a stream (in order to test his attainments) and three times the flower floated up-stream. The first two times they did not notice it, but on the last occasion when the flower floated up?stream, he picked it up, and thus he did not obtain the higher and middle powers of Vāgiśvara, but he obtained the lesser powers by which he was able to compose ślokas and learn texts by heart.

When the flower was carried down?stream, a servant named Bhadanta drank of this water and obtained very great wisdom. pham mthing pa then said to thang chung pa: "You go to Tibet and look for gold, here (meaning the residence of na ro pa) you should keep the {R 382} eternal lamp (burning)". thang chung pa then took with him Bhadanta as servant and proceeded as far as gnyal. The servant Bhadanta while looking after horses at ngur smrig, learnt Tibetan. From brang ti he heard (the exposition) of the Abhidharmasamuccaya and mastered it. When he discussed it with the ācārya, he won the debate. Bhadanta then said to brang ti: "When I shall come again here as paṇḍita, you, Teacher, should receive me!" They, the master and servant, collected 500 golden srangs, and eternal lamps and gaṇacakras were kept up without interruption (at Pulahari in the vicinity of Nālandā).

The lo tsa ba klog? skya shes rab rtsegs heard the Tantras of the Saṃvara Cycle from pham mthing pa. When the latter came to Tibet, the mal gyo lo tsa ba blo gros grags obtained the Saṃvara initiation and method of concentration from him. Later mal gyo himself went to Nepāl and thoroughly heard the Cycle of Saṃvara from pham mthing pa and (his) brother Bodhibhadra (byang chub bzang po), a disciple of na ro pa, and the Nepālese Mahākaruṇa, a disciple of the Nepālese Kanakaśrī. The bla ma sa chen (kun dga' snying po) heard it from him. When the latter was expounding the Tantra, sun lung pa bsod nams rdo rje wrote down notes, which became known as the "Commentary composed by sa chen". sa chen taught it to his own son rtse mo (rje ?btsun bsod nams rtse mo) and brother. This Venerable One taught it to Śa skya pang chen. dmar chos kyi rgyal po heard the Saṃvara Tantra from the Venerable One (bsod nams rtse mo). The pang chen taught him the three Tantras together with precepts.

This dmar chos kyi rgyal po belongs to the line of the nephew of dmar chos kyi rgyal mtshan, a disciple of spu hrangs lo chen. He had three nephews: dmarshes rab rdo rje, thub pa shes rab and brtson 'grus rdo rje. He studied under his own uncle brtson 'grus rdo rje the Saṃvara-Tantra, according to the teaching of the Lineage of his own teacher, the Yoga {R 383} Tantra, the "Six Doctrines" of lo tsa (lo tsa chos drug i.e. rin chen bzang po'i chos drug) and other texts. There must have existed many lineages of disciples, holders of the doctrine of Saṃvara, originated from sa skya pa, father and sons, but I did not hear of anyone else, except dmar chos rgyal, and therefore I am unable to write about it.

Mar pa do pa was born in the family of yar 'brog bla do, in which many kalyāṇa-mitras had been born. His father was named kalyāṇa-mitra chos rgyal. His own name was chos kyi dbang phyug. At first he studied Sanskrit with a paṇḍita and met rong zom chos kyi bzang po. Later he studied also with go rub lo tsa ba tshul khrims rgyal ba. Then he proceeded to Nepāl and it is said that he met there mar pa lho brag pa who was returning from India.

According to this (story) and the account of his meeting with cog ro chos rgyal, this lo tsa ba seems to have been born, when the Venerable mar pa was about 31. He lived to the age of 95. He presented to mar pa lho brag pa one golden zho when he met mar pa. mar pa said to him: "You may be in need of even one golden se be. You take it yourself. I am going to Tibet to sweep gold. na ro pa is not there, as he has gone for Secret (Tantric) practice. You should listen to the Doctrine from the four disciples of na ro pa." Then when mar ?pa do pa arrived in ti ra hu ti, a large crowd had gathered, and he inquired: "What was there?" They said to him: "We are looking at the coming of na ro pa." He mingled with the crowd, and having approached na ro ?pa, offered him one golden zho. na ro pa after holding it in his hand, threw it on the ground and gazed at him with wide-open eyes. Though he did not say anything, mar pa do pa understood that he had been blessed (by na ro pa). After that (mar pa do pa) proceeded to Magadha.

Following the advice received from mar pa lho brag pa, he obtained the initiation into the Cycle of Saṃvara, the Tantra and its precepts according to the system of na ro pa, from na ro pa's {R 384} disciples Manakaśrī, Prajn͂͂ārakṣita, kha che byan?g chub bzang po and Pramudavajra. He also heard many instructions from many paṇḍitas.

After returning again to Nepāl, he heard the exposition of the na ro pa's system from pham mthing pa, from the latter's younger brother Vāgiśvara (ngag gi dbang ?phyug) and the Nepālese Kanakaśrī. He also received many instructions from the siddha phyag na, a direct disciple of Maitrī pa, who was residing in Nepāl. He also studied under the brāhmaṇa Kṛṣṇapāda, a disciple of the Nepālese dza hūṃ. He translated many texts belonging to the Cycle of Saṃvara with the assistance of Sumatikīrti.

On reaching Tibet, this lo tsa ba (mar pa do pa) gathered numerous disciples who heard from him the Cycle of Saṃvara, and gtsang mi mkhas pa rgya nam, do'i gze ba blo ldan and cog ro chos rgyal of khams continued successfully his Spiritual Lineage. A disciple of the Lord sgam po pa, possessed of excellent knowledge, and known as la yag pa byang chub dngos grub, also obtained from gze ba the Cycle of Saṃvara, according to the system of mar pa do pa (mar do) at bla do. He composed an extensive commentary, basing himself on the instructions received by him from sgam po pa, on the (Saṃvara) mūla?-tantra and the kun spyod. He also composed a commentary on the commentary of the Pan͂͂cakrama by dril bu pa and an exposition of the Utpannakrama (bskyed rim). mar pa do pa himself composed an extensive commentary and a sum?mary on both the Mūlatantra and the Yoginī-san͂͂caryā.

When the son of mar do, named nam? mkha' 'od was born, he obtained the complete precepts of his father's teachings. He went to skyi sod (lha sa) and other places. He taught to others short preceptsd died at one and the same time with his father, so {R 385} that his Lineage did not continue. gze ba taught (the system) extensively to his own son bde mchog rdo rje. From the latter the lineage received a great spread. mkhyen? rab dbang phyug heard the exposition of the Cycle of Saṃvara from yan rtse ba rin chen seng ge. He also heard it from khang gsar pa bsod nams mgon, but he used to say that he had not found the preceding Lineage. It must have been the school of mar do (mar pa do pa).

Its Lineage of initiation: the Buddha (Cakrasaṃvara), Vajravārahī (ye? shes , mkha' 'gro ma), lu yi pa, ḍeṅgi pa, la ba pa, Indra-?bodhi (Indrabhūti), ka tsa pa, Vajraghaṇṭa (dril bu pa), Jālandhara pa, Kṛṣṇācārya (nag po pa), ku sha la na, Tilli pa, na ro pa, Manakaśrījn͂͂ana, the Nepālese Bhadanta, mar ?pa do pa, gze ba blo ldan, gze ba jo bde, the ācārya khu? lhas pa, the ācārya lho tshang pa, the lo tsa ba mchog ldan, the bla ma dpal ldan seng ge, and bu ston.

In general, bu ston rin po che was the holder of seven different Lineages of initiations into the Cycle of Saṃvara. bu ston rin po che (bu ?ston) composed an exposition of the system of lu yi pa, and its maṇḍala rite. He also composed a commentary called 'khrul spong on the Śrī-Cakrasaṃvara-sādhana-nāma and a commentary on both the bde mchog rtsa ba'i rgyud and the Yoginī-san͂͂caryā. {R 386} He also wrote on the maṇḍala rite of Saṃvara. From among the many manuals on maṇḍala rites composed (by bu ston), in this manual he discussed in details the fourth initiation.

cog ro chos kyi rgyal mtshan, was born in the year Earth Male Mouse (sa pho byi ba - 1108 A.D.) in Lower khams. At the age of 19, he came to the school of rgya dmar (stod lung). This Earth Mouse year is the Mouse year which preceded the Iron Tiger year (lcags stag - 1110 A.D.) in which dpal phag mo gru pa was born. He studied the Pramāṇaviniścaya (tshad ma rnam nges) and the teachings of the school known as Mādhyamaka-Svātantrika (dbu ma rang rgyud), and became a learned man. At the age of 24, he taught the Pramāṇaviniścaya.

His fellow students at the school were: the Lord phag mo gru pa, mkhan po ka ba and 'bal tshad ma pa. do pa's son jo? sras nam mkha' also came to that school. cog ro also obtained from him the lesser precepts and studied extensively under ar and the khams pa a seng. At gzhung he studied with rngog mdo sde the Cycle of Hevajra and the Māyā, as well as composed a text-book called rin chen ljong shing. After that, on three occasions he visited the bla ma (mar pa) do pa, and pleased the Teacher with offerings. He studied the Saṃvara-Tantra together with its branches, and mastered it thoroughly. jo sras reveal?ed to him the hidden precepts (possessed by his father).

The bla ma lo tsa ba (i.e. mar pa do pa) passed away at the age of 95. About the same time jo sras also passed away. After that, he (cog ro) studied the Vajravārahī Cycle with a direct disciple of ha mu dkar po called dpyal lo kun dga' rdo rje. Then he taught for a while the exposition of the (Pramāṇa)viniścaya, and meditated for six years at gnam ?tsho. After that he founded the me dge lha ?tsho, and established there a college (brad grwa) and a meditative {R 387} school (sgom grwa). (He) had hunters as disciples who proceeded to Heaven without leaving their physical bodies behind. He (cog ro) composed a commentary on the (bde mchog) rtsa rgyud and taught it extensively. He lived to the age of 69 and died on the second day of the month of Kārtika of the year Fire Ape (me spre 1176 A.D.). His method of explaining basic texts was continued by the kalyāṇa?-mitra gu Śrī'brom pa , rong po dge rings and others.

The great ācārya of 'bri khung (continued) to bestow initiations (according to his method). zhang maintained the abbot's chair. zhang was named tshul khrims shes rab. He, having met 'bri khun pa, attained the understanding of the Mahāmudrā (Buddhahood), His dis?ciple was kun tu 'od. rom po ba was a disciple of these two. I doubt that these facts were obtained from the scholar gyor ston, who based himself on a statement by the ācārya Dharmaketu.

kun tu 'od: (This) was his title (che ming), his real name being dbang phyug seng ge. He was also called rno ra ba. His disciple was zhang btsun smon lam dbang phyug, who lived till the age of 85, from the year Fire? Ape (me spre 1176 A.D.) to the year Iron Ape (lcags ?spre 1260 A.D.). He was also a disciple of khro lo (khro phu lo tsa ba), and was a famous and great magician. His disciple was rdzong pa, who was born in the year Water Tiger (chu stag 1182 A.D.). At 20, in the year Iron Hen (lcags bya 1201 A.D.), he was appointed to the abbot's chair. He died at the age of 69 in the Iron Dog (lcags khyi 1250 A.D.).

His disciple known as the bla ma dam pa rin po che was born in the year Wood Female Sheep (shing mo lug 1235 A.D.). At the age of 16, in the year Iron Dog (lcags khyi 1250 A.D.) he was appointed to the chair. He died at the age of 39 in the year Water Hen (chu bya 1273 A.D.). He seems to have been called gnyan thog jo 'bum. The teaching of the {R 388} Saṃvara-Tantra has thus lasted for a long time. tre bo mgon po studied well the four ākhyā tantras (bshad pa'i rgyud) of the Samvara Cycle according to the method of mar do (mar pa do pa) with the great scholar rgya nam mkha'. idum ra sgang pa gnyan rdo rje seng ge heard (the Tantra) from him. He was pleased to bestow the teaching on snye mdo, the All-Knowing.

The assistant translator of mar pa do pa grags pa shes rab studied in India and Nepāl under the teachers (at whose feet) mar do (mar pa do pa) had heard the Tantra. Later he studied extensively with the rājaputra Bhīmadeva. People used to say that the Junior Translator possessed more doctrines than the great lo tsa ba himself (i.e. mar pa do pa) and had numerous disciples. After having preached for a consider?able time the Cycle of Saṃvara, he practised meditation at the cave of Śrī in Southern las stod. Soon after that he proceeded to Heaven.

I did not hear about the continuation of the exposition (of the Saṃvara Cycle by) his other disciples, except for the Lineage of dmar chos kyi rgyal mtshan, and for this reason am unable to give an account of it here. Further, the sum pa lo tsa ba of rong, Dharma yon tan proceeded to Nepāl, and requested a paṇḍita known by the name of Jayasena, who was also known as dam pa khang gsar pa and who later came to Tibet, and was attended on by the Venerable grags pa rgyal mtshan, to translate the Śrī-ḍakarṇava-mahāyoginītantrarāja its commentary composed by the siddha Saroruha (mtsho skyes), as well as its initiation rite and sādhana composed by Jayasena.

{R 389} He revised the translation of the Tantra and its commen?tary at the request of his uncle dpal mchog dad pa'i rdo rye. This Tantra spread throughout Tibet from many quarters. The Dharmasvāmin rang byung rdo rje composed also many text-books on it. Saroruha, the author of the commentary, seems to have been Padmavajra (pad? ma rdo rje) who belonged to this Lineage.

Ratnarakṣita composed a commentary on the sdom pa 'byung ba. I am of the opinion that since chag lo tsa ba had been his direct disciple, he must have possessed the method of exposition of (this Tantra). In later times, the Venerable tsong kha pa also followed the Lineage of bu ston rin po che and wrote a commentary on the bde mchog rtsa rgyud, having compared the text with its ākhyā-tantra and the great commentaries on it; he also composed a mngon rtogs, a dkyil cho, a mngon dkyil (mngon rtogs dkyil 'khor), according to the system of Ghaṇṭa (dril bu pa), an Analysis of the Five Stages according to the system of Ghaṇṭa (dril? bu rim lnga'i rnam par bshad pa) called rim lnga gsal don and the ?Practice of the great yoga of the Sampannakrama degree according to the method of lu yi pa" (lu yi? pai lugs rdzogs pa'i rim pa rnal 'byor chen po nyams su len lugs) and the ?Exposi?tion of the method of lu yi pa" (lu yi pa'i mngon rtogs kyi bshad pa) called 'dod 'jo. In this manner he revived the practice of the Cakrasaṃvara ('khor lo sdom pa) which had deteriorated (in Tibet).

The chapter on the Saṃvara (bde?m chog) Tantra.

Part 7 (Chapter 6, Varahi)

Extracted from the Blue Annals (pages ) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of THDL.

7.6 Six texts of (Adamantine Sow] (Skt. (Vajra)vārahī) (phag mo gzhung drug gi skabs. Chandra 343; Chengdu 471; Roerich 389).

There had existed a rite of initiation of a disciple into the Maṇḍala of the female deities only, named phag mo lha so? bdun ma [Thirty-seven Deity Varahi], which was based on the ākhyā-Tantra of the Saṃvara cycle. There {R 390} also had existed several rites of worshiping and meditation on this maṇḍala.

The majority of the Tantric yogins in this Land of Snows (Tibet) were especially initiated and followed the exposition and meditative practice of the system known as phag mo gzhung drug and based themselves on the sdom pa rgya mtsho. This method was also bestowed by king Indrabhūti's sister Lakṣmīṅkara (lha mo dpal mo) on the Venerable Virū pa, who in his turn bestowed it on one known as the great Avadhūtipa or Paiṇḍapātika, the Great (bsod nyoms pa). He was a native of Eastern Bengal and a kṣatriya by caste. He was ordained in the Mahāsaṅghika sect and practised meditation on Guhyasamāja-Man͂͂juvajra. After he had seen a distressing dream that he had swallowed the Sun and Moon, he went to see Virūpa (bir wa pa), and obtained from him the initiation into the Cycle of the Yoginī and at the same time saw a vision of the goddess. He listened to the exposition of the Tantra and its mystic preceptsd practised them. Then Virūpa introduced him to the practice.

When he began the mystic practice on the banks of the Ganges, there was a trident which could not be moved by men, and on which heretics used to jump, believing that death would give them emancipation. He seized it and threw it into the Ganges. The heretics begged him to restore the trident, and having taken it out (from the river), he handed it to them, saying: "On this Path there is no emancipation!?

The man who had obtained such supernatural powers (siddhi) became the Teacher of ldong ?ngar ba. He belonged to a low caste of Magadha. A strong desire was born in him to enter religion. Having heard that one called Avadhūti pa was residing in Bengal, {R 391} and had attained Enlightenment, he disguised himself as a monk, and having taken with him several kārṣāpaṇas, he went to see Avadhūtipa. (On reaching there), he saw an elderly monk ploughing the field with a pair of oxen, while his wife was engaged in collecting insects. At first he felt somewhat disturbed and thought to himself: ?Must I make my request to this one?? Having presented the coins, he made the request to be admitted as follower. "But you do not trust me!" said Avadhūti pa. "It is true!" said he, and having entreated him fervently, he followed on Avadhūti pa for three years. Then Avadhūti pa initiated him for the first time and he had a clear vision of Vajravārahī. He obtained a special supernatural power (siddhi).

Then he left him, and while residing at Jālandhara, he heard about a heretic who was engaged in a contest with the monks of Vikramaśīla, in both philosophy and supernatural powers. The latter had difficulties in finding (a scholar) who would be able to defeat the heretic. On learning this ldong ngar ba proceeded there. When they had installed the king to act as arbiter and were about to begin the debate, the heretic said: "Shall we contest in philosophical knowledge, or supernatural powers?" "As you like !" replied 1dong ngar ba. "Well then, I shall send a snake towards you!" and the heretic sent towards 1dong ngar ba a poisonous and glittering snake to destroy him. The ācārya then revealed his hog head (he was a devotee of Vajravārahī) and with the sound 'thik' he swallowed the snake, and thus defeated the heretic, who was converted to the Doctrine of the Buddha. The heretic said: "A hog-faced god belongs to the heretics and does not exist among Buddhists!" That is why ldong ngar ba composed a sādhana of Vajravārahī, and bestowed on the Junior Paiṇḍapātika (bsod nyoms pa), named Jinadatta, the system (of Vārahī).

A king of Southern be ta la was childless. The king once held a great feast and a son was born to him, whom he called Bhojadeva. Later, when the boy became king, he proceeded to a forest accompanied by his {R 392} retinue. There 1dong ngar ba assumed the form of a beggar yogin and gazed for a long time at the king. The king became angry and ordered his retinue to kill the yogin. ldong ngar pa pronounced several discourses (on Truth), and the king having abandoned his kingdom, took up meditative practice. In the country of the South he became known as the "alms-gatherer" (bsod nyoms pa) Jinadatta (rgyal bas byin) and attained supernatural faculties.

This "alms-gatherer" took with himself as attendant tsha'o Buddhadatta (sangs rgyas byin) and proceeded to Nepāl. He begged for alms at the door of one named ma he bha ro. bha ro sent a maid-servant with some food and wine, and when she was pouring wine into his skull-cup, the wine began to boil. Greatly amazed the maid-servant, reported the matter to bha ro. bha ro was filled with faith and went out himself to give alms.

While Jinadatta was staying there partaking of food offered by bha ro and others, he met Devākaracandra, whose secret name was Śūnyatā?samādhivajra (stong nyid ting 'dzin rdo rje). This ācārya belonged to the nobility of the great city of ya 'gal and was the only son. When he was eight, his father married him and ordered him to lead the life of a householder, but the boy said: I shall enter religion," and did not listen to his father's words. "Where will you enter?" inquired the father. "I know one from whom I shall inquire," answered the son, and for seven days he circumambulated the Ārya?-Jamali (in skyi rong). On the last day, he said to (his father): ?Send me to the country of India!" and thus proceeded to India. He requested to be ordained at Vikrama?śīla, but was told that the number of the congregation was not sufficient {R 393} to hold an ordination ceremony and was not permitted to take up ordination.

He then studied (Sanskrit) grammar and logic and became very learned. He met the Nepālese Ratnaśrī and studied under him the Sampuṭa and the Hevajra (Tantra), and thus became a great scholar. When he was 20, he returned to his own home and amassed much property. When he heard that bha ra had a house hold priest named bsod nyoms pa (Paiṇḍapātika), he felt faith born within him and proceeded to meet him, having taken three ngas pa co ra.

He requested to be given initiation and the ācārya replied: ?You are a paṇḍita! Why do you make your request to an ignorant man?" But he again and again begged to be given preceptsd finally the ācārya said: "Well now, the initiation must be given! Fetch here provisions!" ma he bha ro and Devākaracandra obtained initiations at the same time. At the time (of the initiation), the teacher blessed a skullcup full of wine and though they partook of the wine, the cup remained full. tsha? bo sangs rgyas byin also blessed (the skull-cup full of wine) and the same thing happened. The teacher then imparted the Doctrine to them and bestowed on them secret precepts.

Devākaracandra requested the teacher to write down the zhal gnyis ma che ba, the don grub ma che ba and the sbyin bsreg but the teacher did not agree to it. Then the sbyin bsreg was written down by Buddhadatta who had obtained permission from the teacher. Again the teacher was invited by ha mu dkar po and bestowed on him the complete initiation and secret precepts.

During {R 394} the initiation rite, five girls were compelled to attend the rite with the help of mantras and they were made invisible (in order that) the wife of ha mu might not see them. The wife saw only cups of wine suspended in the air and did not see the girls (who were holding the cups). She asked the teacher: "How could this be?" "I have blessed them!" replied the teacher.

At that time, in the country of Nepāl, five had gathered, four disciples stong nyid ting ?dzin, ma? he bha ro, ha mu dkar po and Buddhadatta, and the teacher. ha mu presented five golden srangs. Then the teacher said that he was going to India and the three disciples accompanied him as far as Bodhgayā (rdo rje gdan). When they met robbers on the way, they asked what they were to do and the teacher said: "I have a way!" He then blessed the robbers and these began to dance, and while they were engaged in dancing, they all escaped. The three disciples returned from Bodhgayā but the teacher proceeded to South be ta la.

stong nyid ting 'dzin practised meditation during six years and obtained special faculties. But, because he had written down the zhal gnyis ma che ba and the don gsal ma che ba, and thus had somewhat acted against the teacher's will, his worldly possessions decreased and he used to say: "This must be a handicap caused by loka-ḍākiṇīs."

There were many other books written by him (Devākara-?candra): the shes rab ye shs gsal ba, the bdag med ma'i mngon par rtogs pa, the spyan ma?i ngan song yongs su sbyong ba and the kye'i rdo rje dkyil 'khor gyi cho ga. These had been translated into Tibetan.

Now ha mu dkar po: his real name was bsod? nams 'byung gnas bzang po. His title as scholar (yon tan gyi ming) was Varendraruci which means mchog tu dbang po gsal ba. He studied extensively the Vārahī Cycle with stong nyid ting ?'dzin. dpyal kun dga' rdo rje also studied with the latter. {R 395}

The story of this dpyal family was as follows: A minister of the Dharmarāja khri srong lde btsan had three sons. The king used to call them: the 'White', the 'Black' and the 'Piebold', and thus their descendants began to be known as the: "White, Black and Piebold dpyal". Most of the early descendants had been excellent kalyāṇa-mitras belonging to the "Old Believers" (rnying ma pa). Of these, dpyal 'byung gnas rgyal mtshan having collected much gold, presented the gold to the owners, and bought Smṛti out who had become a shepherd. After that Smṛti amassed a large fortune. When the paṇḍita preached at bres, a shower of gold and turquoise fell. Though he was requested to stay on, he did not listen and proceeded to khams.

The nephew of dpyal 'byung gnas rgyal mtshan - se tsha bsod nams rgyal? mtshan proceeded to Nepāl, and there met pham mthing ba. He heard (from him) the exposition of the Cycle of Hevajra and other Cycles, according to the system of na ro pa. He also composed a commentary on the Hevajra (Tantra) and thus the study (of this Tantra) continued for a long time among the members of the dpyal lineage. He also made numerous translations of the commentary of Bhava-?bhadra and of other texts. His nephew kun dga' rdo rje became very learned in the books of the "Old Believers" (rnying ma pas) according to the zur system in Tibet. He also obtained the Tantras of the "New" class which were handed down among his ancestors and the precepts of the nam mkha' skor gsum from the Nepālese Kāyaśrī. He presented Kayaśrī with about 50 golden srangs and thus pleased him.

Later, he proceeded to Nepāl and received from ha mu dkar po the six texts (chos drug phag mo chos drug) together with their initiations. But ha mu did not give him the special precepts. Further, he again made offerings to ha mu and his consort, and pleased them both, and finally was given the 13 special precepts. At that time, the Indian Vajrapāṇi (phyag na) was also residing in Nepāl. He accepted him and stong nyid ting 'dzin {R 396} as teachers. He thought that since Vajrapāṇi was a wealthy man, he could not invite him, and therefore invited Devākara, but did not succeed in collecting funds.

Further, snubs ston obtained this class of Vajravārahī Cycle from the Nepālese ha mu and handed them (to others). khu ne tso obtained (them) in Nepāl from ha mu dkar po himself, as well as heard the system from snubs ston, and made several translations of it. The system was spread by him also. rwa lo tsa ba heard the Vajravārahī Cycle, (phag mo'i skor) from the Indian paṇḍita Abhiyukta. rngog mdo sde, who appears to have composed several text?books, heard it from him. The lo tsa ba blo ldan shes rab also came to Nepāl and studied under ha mu dkar po. He also made an excellent translation of the two treatises composed by stong nyid ting 'dzin.

In short, most of the Tibetan kalyāṇa-mitras appear to have possessed the precepts of the Vajravārahī Cycle. I shall now relate briefly the Lineage which began with them: From dpyal kun dga' rdo rje (the system) was obtained by stod stag ris pa the ācārya ston yes. From him it was obtained by the bla ma lha bzo. Also from dpyal la zar ston it was obtained by jo sras yang dag and zheng 'od. Again from dpyal it was obtained by his own son and the bla ma skyi ston. From the latter the rin po che rgyal tsha, khro phu lo ?tsa ba bla chen bsod dbang, rin po che bsod nams seng ge, yang rtse ba rin chen seng ge, bu ston rin po che, brag nag? pa gzhon nu bsod nams, the mahā-upādhyāya of chos lung ?tshogs - rin rgyal ba. Again dpyal taught it to zar ston lo ?tsa ba, snar ston zhig po, grags pa tshul khrims, grub thob dkon mchog grags, 'phags pa yon tan rgya mtsho, bla ma 'jam rgyal, mkhan po klu sgrub, bka' bzhi ba dkon mchog gzhon nu, then yang rtse ba rin chen seng ge. Also from dpyal it was heard by dben pa bsod ?seng, the son dpyal kun dga' grags and lha lung pa.

Now: dpyal chos bzangs, rong pa rgwa lo, rong pa ser seng, bag ?ston gzhon tshul, stag ston gzhon nu dpal, bla ma Amogha?vajra, {R 397} the mahā-upādhyāya ring rgyal ba. Again from dpyal kun rdor - gtsang pa yang dag rdo rje, dbus pa shes rab rdo rje, lce mdo sde seng ge, gru Śākya 'bum, lce blo ?ldan seng ge, lce rje btsun bsod nams dpal, lce dbang phyug rdo rje, the mahā-upādhyāya rin rgyal ba. Again mnga'? ris kyi ston, thur ba pa, tshul khrims skyabs, thang pa ?pa 'phags pa skyabs, gser sdings pa gzhon nu 'od, kun mkhyen chos sku 'od zer, lce blo ldan seng ge. In all five Lineages.

The chapter on the Six Treatises of the (Vajra)vārahī Cycle.

(The writer is dol pa nyi shar).

Part 9

Part 9 (Chapter 1, Kodrakpa)

Extracted from the Blue Annals (pages ) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of THDL.

9.1.1 Biography of Kodrakpa

{R726} The most famous kobrag pa bsodnams rgyal mtshan: his native place was Dinri. He belonged to the ldon clan, and was born in the year Water Male Tiger (chu pho stag 182 A.D.), as son of father gtsobo rgyal gyun and mother stod rjema. (This Water Tiger year) is the year of the birth of the Dharmasvāmin Sakya Paṇḍita. He mastered reading and writing without effort. He took the upāsaka vows from se migpa, and heard the blo byon and other texts from panchen Śakyaśri. He heard the exposition of the rig 'dzin bcu and the explanation (dmar khrid) of the sampaṇakrama degree (rdzogs rim) from the bla ma rdorje dpal of gyam. He also heard the doctrine of the Great Achievement and other texts from rgya phug jo sras. He stayed in seclusion at gyang rim and kong mo'i ri, and the understanding of the Great Seal (Mahāmudra) was born in him. He heard the initiation into the Cycle of Saṃvara from the mahāpaṇḍita Ratnarakshita. After that he stayed at la phyi and other places. At the age of 29, he received the final monastic ordination, after having requested the Dharmasvāmin skos to act as upādhyāya, phya ru 'dul 'dzin as ācārya, and the ācārya lo as Secret Preceptor. He received the name of bsod nams rgyal mtshan. He journeyed to ti se (Kailasa) and spent five years there. He obtained the realization of the Noumenal Aspect (ji lta ba) and that of the Phenomenal Aspect (ji snyedpa). In particular, he obtained a true understanding of the nature (gnas lugs) of the Vajrakāya. The nāga of ma pham offered him divine water.

Later, when he {R727} founded the monastery of ko brag in Upper myang, he miraculously discovered a spring in barren soil, and became known as ko bragpa. He then became the, disciple of all the best adepts and scholars, and there did not exist a doctrine which he did not know. He invited Vibhūticandra from Nepal to din ri, and heard from him the precepts of the Sadaṇga yoga (sbyor ba yan lag drug), which had been bestowed on Vibhūticandra by sabari (Savari) dban phyug, The paṇḍita also heard some doctrines from him. He labored extensively and without interruption for the welfare of living beings, and passed away at the age of 80, in the year Iron Female Hen (lcags mo bya 1261 A.D.). I wrote about him separately because I do not know whether this great man belonged to any particular lineage.

9.1.2 Disciples of Kodrakpa

His chief disciples: dpal yang dgon pa, his elder brother rin po che rgyal mtshan pa, rin po che lha pa, rin po che rgyal po, rin po che bar 'brog pa, rin po che chos sling pa, dran ston sher seng, rin po che dga' ldan pa, rin po che gtsang so pa, rin po che ston grub pa, rtogs ldan dkon seng, and many others. jo bo lha, mchims nam mkha' grags, mkhan chen de rus pa, khu lung pa, lo zhing pa, grags byang pa, 'ol rgod pa, phu ri pa ston lo che, glang ri ba, and many other Masters of the Doctrine (bstan pa'i bdag po). dpyal pa lo tsa, khro phu lo tsa, chag lo tsa, nam mkha'i dpal lo tsa, ras pa lo tsa, and many other translators (lo tsa ba). The kalyāṇamitra gtsang pa, the kalyāṇamitra nyi ma, jam dbyangs gsar ma, rgyang ro gzhon rin, mnga' ris dgra bcom, nyi ma spral nag, gtsang pa drug po, mkhas btsun byang chub, and many other scholars. gsal pa, lho brag lung pa, rgal gyam pa, rnel gyam pa, snyo mnga' ba, rgyal mtshan grags, ser ma pa, phu gu ra pa, srang skya pa, myang 'tshal pa, lha rje skyob 'pa, pho rog pa, lcab pe ba, dbrang ston phul dmar pa, kon g ston pa, so zur pa, bla ma ba ri ba and brother. seng ge rdzong pa, gyam shing, rong thong pa, gnyos ston zhig po, sham 'bum, dngos chos shes, rdza ri ba, myang ro pa, .gu rgyal ba, {R728} chu mig pa, yar 'brog dkar po, se zhig, 'ong pho of khams, bra' o' pa, dom thod can, dar seng, and many other heads of monasteries and kalyāṇamitras. 'phan yul mdo thod lo pa, za lung pa, lho brag pa, stod lungs pa, yar klungs pa, and many other kalyāṇamitras of dbus.

Further, numerous female kalyāṇamitras and female siḍhās, heads of monasteries, bla mas, zhig po % and others. In short, all bowed before his feet masters of the Old and New Tantras, kings, Mongol nobles of the Imperial family, officials, {(2a)} land owners, and others.

Among these, one named pho rog mdo sde mgon or bya skyungs pa was born in the year Wood Female Hare (sin mo yos 1195 A.D.), and died at the age of 63 in the year Fire Serpent (me sbrul 1257 A.D.).

The Chapter on Kodrakpa and his disciples.

Part 9 (Chapter 2, Niguma)

9.2 Niguma (ni gu'i skabs). {Chandra 638; Chengdu 854; Roerich 728}. Having thus related the succession of the Lineage of the upāyamārga of the Six Doctrines (chos drug) bestowed on the Master Marpa by Śri Naropa, I shall now tell the story of the Lineage of the Six Doctrines founded by Niguma, sister of Naropa.

Siddha Kyungpo Naljor

9.2.1 {Siddha khyung po rnal 'byor's biography (Roerich 728)} Its Lineages of Guidance and Initiation: the introducer of the Doctrine (to Tibet) was the siddha khyung po rnal 'byor. He belonged to the khyungpo clan, and was born at snye mo ra mangs% in the Tiger year (stag lo 1086 A.D.) as son of father stag skye and mother bkra shis skyid. Soon after his birth, the Indian siddha Amogha came there, and uttered an auspicious prophecy about him. At the age of ten, he mastered reading, and the Indian and Tibetan alphabets. He became proficient in the Kalacakra. At the age of 13, he studied with the ācārya gyun drub rgyal ba the Bon doctrine, and preached it to others, and about 700 scholars (possessing manuscripts of the text) attended his class. He then studied extensively the Cycle of the rdzogs chen sems sde with the bla ma 'byung gnas seng ge, and then preached it. During that time also he gathered about 700 disciples. After this he made a study of the complete doctrine of {R 729} skor nirupa at stod lungs shomara. Having taken with him a considerable quantity of gold, he journeyed to Nepal, and studied there the work of a translator with the paṇḍita Vasumati. He obtained from him the initiation into the Kriya and Yoga Tantras, as well as about fifty Tantric sadhanas. He was well received by Atulyavajra and met rdo rje gdan pa. He became a novice and heard many doctrines. He then heard many Tantric doctrines from Srī Bhadrasajāna, Vairocana. kha ched dgon pa ba, zhing gi rdo rje, mi mnyam rdo rje, rin chen rdo rje, the three disciples of Maitripa, Debikotti ḍīkima Kanaśri, and the brāhmaṇa Ratnapāla. After his return to Tibet, he was {(2b)} attacked twice by robbers, but was able to defeat them with the help of his miraculous power. In his native place he gave a talisman to his aunt to ensure a male progeny. She bore three sons. A white goddess told bla ma shangs pa a prophecy that these three sons would offer him a thousand measures of barley every year, and would act as his chief supporters. After the former disciples had offered him much property, he secured more than a thousand golden srangs when the goldmine of gu lang was discovered. After that he journeyed again to Nepal and obtained from pham thing pa the Saṃvaramūlatantra and the gdan bzi. After that he proceeded to India, and offered to rdo rje gdan pa a hundred golden srangs. He heard many doctrines at Nālanda from mda chen po, a disciple of Naropa, Sumatikīrti, Rāmapāla, Natekara, the Venerable {R730} rin chen lha mo of Kaṃkata, and from the siddha Sūryagarbha, a disciple of Kukuripa.

He met also Maitrīpa, and obtained from him many Tantras, and offered him seven srangs of gold. Tibetans being poor, he begged him to bestow on him an effective sadhana which would enable him to gather wealth, and Maitrīpa bestowed on him the yid bzin gyi mgon po phyag drug pa . He then took with him 500 gold srangs and asked: Is there any one who had met Vajradhāra? They replied: There is one named Niguma, the sister of Naropa. She has attained the Holy Stage, and transformed her body into that of rainbow, and made herself invisible by ordinary people. However she used to preside over Tantric feasts held by dakinis at the cemetery ground of the So sa island. Those who possess a pure mind might see her there.

He went to the island of Sosa, and prayed Namo Buḍhaya. Then he saw in the sky at the height of seven tālas a ḍākinī of a dark brown complexion, adorned with ornaments made of bones, holding a mendicant staff and a kāpala in her hands, manifesting her various aspects and performing a dance. He recognized that she was Niguma, and saluted her requesting her to bestow on him the holy precepts. But she replied: I am a flesh eating dakini! Again he entreated, and she said: If you {(3a)} want to obtain Mantrayana preceptsd is needed! He then offered her 500 srangs which she accepted and threw them into the forest. He began to doubt that she was a ḍākinī of the flesh eating class, and while he was thinking so, she gazed skywards, and then numerous ḍākinīs gathered, and she created a maṇḍala, and bestowed on him the initiation of the illusory body and the practice of dreams.

After that the dakini transported him to a distance of about three yojanas, and deposited him on the summit of a mountain of {R731} gold. There in a dream, rdo rje btsun mo bestowed on him the Six Doctrines, and then again personally on three occasions the rdorje tshig rkan and the sgyu ma lam rim. Further, she expounded to him numerous Tantras and sādhanas. Niguma said to him: Except myself and Kambalapada no one else knows the precepts of the Six Doctrines. Till the seventh teacher of the Spiritual Lineage, this teaching should be transmitted down a single line (of teachers). These will be blessed by me, and I shall give them a prophecy. After that he obtained from a secret yogin the bde mchog lha Ina, the mkha' spyod dkar dmar, the rim sna stan thog gcig ma, the Sadanga yoga, and many other texts. He also heard many doctrines from Rolpa'i rdorje, Āryadeva and ḍakisumati, as prophesied by them.

He also met the ḍakini Sukhasiḍhi, a disciple of Sri Virūpa. He presented her some gold and received from her initiation. She said to him: I shall manifest (myself) to your Spiritual Lineage and bless them. She also bestowed hidden precepts on him. Further, he offered gold to the dakinīs Gangadhara and Samantabhadri, and obtained from them precepts. He also, obtained the Yamari Cycle from the paṇḍita bde ba'i rdorje, and the Cycle of the Devi from rolpa'i rdorje. Further, he heard many precepts from the bla ma Advayavajra and others. He then returned to Tibet and proceeded as far as snye mo, and as numerous gold mines had been discovered, he was able to secure much gold. After that he again returned to India and prepared offerings spending 80 gold srangs to Vajrāsana. The Teacher and all people were filled with surprise. At that time, though Niguma, Sukhasiḍi, dor rje gdan pa, the three Tantric brothers and Maitripa were not present, he presented gold to 50 teachers, including Maitripa's wife (jo mo) Gangadhara {R732} and others. They (in return) bestowed on him many hidden precepts.

Again, when he proceeded towards mnga 'ris, he met Dipankara who bestowed on him many doctrines, including the Guhyasamāja and others. Some of his own Indian (Sanskrit) manuscripts being slightly damaged, he restored them after collating them with the manuscripts in Atiśa's possession. They were translated by rin chen bzang po and dharma blo gros. He took up final monastic ordination in the presence of glang ri thang pa. He founded at jog po of 'phang yul the 'chad dkar dgon pa. (The monastery) was visited by Rahulaguptavajra, a yogin of the valley of Kālakuta, who bestowed on him numerous doctrines, including the initiation into the Five Sections of the Tantra class %, the Cycle of Mahākala, and others.

Later he proceeded to tsha lung % of 'jam in the year Wood Female Sheep ('sin mo lug 1055 A.D.). In the year Fire Male Ape (me pho spre'u 1056 A.D.) he went to sag rtsa of phagri In the year Iron Female Ox (Icags mo glan 1061 A.D.) he went to gre in Upper gro mo. Having received an invitation from jog po, he journeyed to shangs. During three years he founded 108 monasteries including zhong zhong and other monasteries. He preached extensively the Doctrine. The monks concentrated too much on the study (of books), and became slothful in their meditations. At times he manifested to them the images of goddesses, at times he showed the fearful forms of the retinue of Yama. In this manner he again introduced them to meditation. Some other monks, feeling envy, called in troops. With the help of phantom troops he caused them to retreat, and they showed devotion, and became his disciples. He used to subdue with the help of his mind concentration gods and demons by day and night who were causing hindrances, such as the thang lha gods, the 'bara nagpo of shab, and other {R733} deities. Having conjured their lives, he bound them by vows. He also performed numerous miracles, such as magic performances and the manifestation of himself in the form of a deity. At the end of his long life he uttered the words: Today it is my last preaching of the Doctrine, and passed away. (Before passing away) he said: If they would place my body without cremating it inside a receptacle of gold and silver, the zhong zhong monastery would equal Vajrāsana. But Khams pa monks did not wish to listen to these words, and cremated his remains, and images of the tantric gods of the five classes were recovered (from the ashes).

Siddha Kyungpo Naljor's Disciples

9.2.2 {Siddha khyun po rnal 'byor's disciples (Roerich 733)}

In all there have been 80,000 monks (his disciples). The chief disciples were: rme'u ston pa, gyorpo rgya mo che, rnul ston rin dbang, la stod dkon mchog mkhar, rmo gcog pa and zhang sgom chos seng. His statement that he had lived for 150 years, recalls that of dampa sans 'rgyas who, when asked on his coming to dingri by the Lord khri pa: How old are you? replied: My age is 99990! Such symbolical utterances made by saintly men should not be considered as lies. Later, many siddhas appeared among his spiritual descendants, and because of this, we should consider him as a true saint, as one would infer the presence of fire from the (presence) of smoke.

Mogchogpa Rinchen Tsondru

9.2.2.1 {rmog cog pa rin chen brtson 'grus (R 733)}. His fourth descendant was rmog cog pa rin chen brtson 'grus. According to his statement: my native place was lha phu span rtsa. He belonged to the zhi she clan, and was born as son of father she rgan sman chung and mother 'be mo padma sgron. At the age of 17, he entered the gates of religion at zhong zhong. The bla ma shangs pa bestowed on him the Hevajra initiation, and said to him: Novice, you should study in your youth! If you begin to meditate early, then demons might carry you away! I shall give you provisions and books. At the monastery of the Dharmasvāmin there was one called 'brom ston who used to speak about his being disappointed with (his) studies, and he once said to him {R734} Novice! It is better for you to meditate! Again he asked his Teacher for instructions, and the Teacher again repeated to him the same advice. After that he heard several precepts from la chins pa, a disciple of the Teacher, and meditated on them, but did not achieve good results. Again he visited his Teacher, who bestowed on him the Cycle of Mahākalā and the nyi khros. g.yor po rgya mo che having come there to make offerings', the Teacher gave him six gold zhos, six silk scarfs and the Sūtrālaṃkāra, and told him that he should follow after rgya mo che. {(4b)}

Then at the age of 21, he followed after g.yor po rgya mo che, who proceeded to stod lungs, and said to him: You should go to skyi shod (lha sa). On the way there he met a kalyāṇamitra carrying with him many books and beating his chest with his hand, and expressing disappointment with his studies, and he felt sad. Having heard about a Khams pa named aseng, a disciple of dpal chen pa, who had studied much and meditated, and possessed preceptse proceeded towards gnam rdzing kha, where the latter was residing. He met him, while the latter was engaged in bestowing initiations. He begged: Pray initiate me also. dpal chen pa inquired: Whose disciple are you? I am the disciple of shangs pa, replied he. Well, having dismounted from a horse, would you ride a donkey? He again entreated dpal chenpa, and the latter said: It will do! aseng said: There were about sixty scholars including the great kalyāṇamitra phya pa, myan bran pa chos yes, skyi po tshul 'phags, .gyor gnyan, bla ma zhang, khams pa lo tsa ba ston 'bum, and others, who maintained the view that the Ultimate Reality was real by nature. At first I felt some uneasiness in accepting this theory, but now I have faith in it.

During the night of the chief initiation a notion developed in him that his Teacher was a true Buddha. After that he was initiated {R735} into the mandala drawn with powdered stones, and into the corresponding (methods of) meditation, such as the Lu yi pa and the Sahaja; as the sampaṇakrama degree he was given the Sadanga yoga, both the basic text and its commentary, the sbyor phreng, both the basic text and commentary, the snying po gsum, both the basic text and the commentary. He then practiced the breath control meditation in the presence of the Teacher. His teacher being fond of frequently leading a solitary life, (he left the Teacher), and visited bur sgom in the autumn. He offered him some brown sugar, and told him: I am a disciple of shangs pa! And again bur sgom told him the proverb about the horse and the donkey. He then bestowed on him the initiation and the hidden precepts according to the method of ras chung. Once bur sgom's cattle was caṛied away by %shunpas, and bur sgom told him: O rinchen brtson 'grus, you should send {(5a)} hail! He, produced hail, each hailstone having three feet in diameter. Some of the shunpas were killed, and the others sent offerings to his Teacher, and submitted. He cried in the presence of the Teacher, saying he had done a sin, but the Teacher comforted him, saying: You have siṇed for the sake of the Doctrine and your Teacher! This will help you to reach many stages on the Path (sa lam). Should you feel uneasy, I possess precepts which can produce Enlightenment in those who committed the five principal sins, and he bestowed them on him.

He saw the face of the Venerable One and was able to understand dreams as dreams for, as said by Naropa: One with perfect faculties, can understand (his) dreams after one year's {R736} practice. He was pleased (with his results), and the Teacher said to him: Now you should offer me the initiation of the Protector and the nyi khros. He bestowed them on the Teacher. He then obtained from the kalyāṇamitra dkon mkhar of nag mo pa the paṅcacakshubhāvanākrāma degree of meditation, and the rite of consecration, as well as many precepts and initiations from the kalyāṇamitra rdza ra ba. He spent five years with ācārya g.yor po, and obtained from him the Prajnapāramitā and the Catyāmelāpakapradīpa From myang sgom he obtained the Three Classes of Kharag After that he proceeded to his native place, and sold his fields. His father having died, he performed the funeral rite. He then obtained from rgya grags bsod, the Sadaṅga yoga, the rdorje tshig rkang, and other precepts. From the kalyāṇamitra zhu he obtained many precepts. From the ācārya zhang the 'dul ba 'od ldan, etc. From 'bal sgom phyag na the Zhi byed and many other doctrines. He thought of going again to g.yor po, and to visit his Teacher. He told him about his vision of the Yogini (Vajravārahī), and that he was able to recognize his dreams as dreams. The Teacher rebuked him and said: You do not know the Prajapāramita which ought to be known! But you know how to tell lies (which ought not to be known). Don't remain (here) with me! During the same night he called him again, and bestowed on him all the Doctrines, initiations and precepts. He was appointed as his domestic attendant. He bestowed on him hidden doctrines, for five years in the past, and again this time for one year and seven months, and said to him: Being my spiritual descendant, practice constant meditation, saying so, the Teacher passed away.

Having completed the funeral rites during the winter, he spent two years in seclusion at sdings ma, practiced meditation and obtained good results. Since shangs spa {(5b)} was dead, there was no one to ask, and he thought of going to consult Lord sgam popa. On the way he met Śri phagmo grupa. They bestowed precepts on each other. After that he proceeded into the presence of the Precious blama at sgam po, and obtained from him the Six Doctrines. He also obtained a proper understanding of the system of the Great Seal (Mahamudra). When he was about to leave, sgam popa escorted him, and on the way performed many miraculous deeds subduing evil influences. After that he took up residence at rmog cog.

For 12 years he lived on turnip leaves, and practiced meditation only. Because of his fame, many disciples gathered from all quarters. Since monks could not be accoṃodated (in the monastery), he founded lkung lungs. There is no need to tell about the results of those on whom he bestowed precepts directly. Those who had faith in him also gained understanding. He uttered the prophecy that his spiritual lineage would be continued by dbon ston skyer sgangpa, that the latter's lineage would be continued by sansg rgyas snyan ston, the latter's Lineage by one named sangs rgyas stonpa, and that his disciples would spread the Doctrine. He received a messenger with an invitation to visit Sukhavati, but he replied that This time I shall not go, and lived for three years more. Then he said to his disciples: I am going to the Abhirati Paradise (mnon 'dga'). You should address your prayers to that, quarter, and saying so, he passed away.

Siddha Kyergangpa Dharma Sengge

9.2.2.2 {siddha skyer sgangpa dharma seng ge (Reorich 737)}. His fifth successor the siddha skyer sgangpa dharma seng ge, was a spiritual descendant of rin po che rmog cogpa. His native place was stod lungs gnam. He belonged to the 'Bal clan. From the age of 12, he completed the recitation of the mantra of Yamantaka. At the age of 17, he received ordination in the presence of his uncle 'Bal, the All Knowing {R738}, and heard many doctrines. He went in the retinue of his uncle to a religious assembly in Lhasa, and a monk gave him as his share: three (silk) scarves, a tea bowl filled with barley flour and some butter. He took these with him and proceeded to a maṛiage ceremony held on the plain of brag Iba klu phug. On a mountain, he saw a grey hut and inquired: Who is staying there? The people {(6a)} replied: A devotee of Avalokiteśvara, named 'phags pa lces gom was staying there. Faith having been born in him, he offered the provisions, he had brought, to him, and inquired: Did you, Teacher, behold the face of Avalokiteśvara? The devotee replied: I do not know whether it was Avalokiteśvara, or not, but frequently I used to see a grey form on the mountain of grib. Then skyer sgangpa requested: Pray bestow on me the initiation of Avalokiteśvara. At first the Teacher bestowed on him the Rig stad initiation. He used two measures of butter, which he had brought with him, to prepare offering lamps, two measures (of butter) for the festival of cā ru %, and on three occasions lie obtained (from him) the sādhana of Avalokiteśvara. He then asked: After how many years of practice did you see the vision of Avalokiteśvara? The teacher replied: During autumns I used to beg for food. The rest of the time I spent in seclusion, and having thus spent eight years, I saw a vision of Avalokiteśvara suṛounded by his two retinues. After that time, I saw Him constantly. dbon ston then stayed in seclusion at skyer sgang, practiced meditation, and after 3 1/2 years saw the face of Ārya Avalokiteśvara.

He also saw, without any effort on his part, a vision of Yamari, whose mantra he used to recite formerly. After that he was told by his Teacher to proceed to the residence of (his) uncle. He went, and the uncle told him: You have seen the faces of both Avalokiteśvara and Hayagriva. There is no need of listening to me, {739} the khams pa great benefit lies in meditation only. Take it with you, and proceed to la stod (gtsang) where there is one named tsa ris gom pa, a disciple of ras chung pa, and saying so, he gave him one gold zo and six scarves. Having taken them with him, lie journeyed to la stod. On a certain mountain pass a violent hailstorm overtook him while the sun remained shining, and following on this an understanding of the Natural State or Śūnyatā was produced in him.

When he came to Tsa ri sgom po an attendant came out to meet him, and prostrated himself in front of him. Why do you prostrate yourself in front of me? he inquired. By order of the Teacher, who had indicated that to day a saint (siddha) was coming who was to be received. This must be you! and saying so, he {(6b)} led him inside and he met the Teacher. Having prostrated himself before the Teacher, and having offered him a scarf, he requested that as he had not sufficient provisions, he should be given instructions without delay. The Teacher said When you will spend your golden io and the (six) scarfs, I shall finish the exposition of the Doctrine. This was the only lie he told to the Teacher. After two years the Teacher bestowed on him the complete initiation according to the method of Ras thus pa, and its precepts.

After this he attended for five years on one named bla ma spen phug at 'U yug, who possessed the complete precepts of the Tantras of Lord Atiśa, and obtained from him the complete precepts. There he heard of the fame of rmog cog pa, and while sleeping at the foot of the mountain pass, of shangs, he saw a dark man wearing a lion cloth made of cotton, who said to him: Tomoṛow a companion will join you on the pass. I shall act as your servant. Don't deliver me to men indiscriminately, saying so, he disappeared. Next day he went up the pass in the company of several companions. At lkungs lungs % he met the Teacher, who said: Last night a dark man was sent by me. {740} Did he meet you? Yes, he did, he replied, He was the protector (Nātha, Mahāl)! From now on he will act as your attendant. Then he bestowed on him in a gradual way the complete hiḍen preceptsd he obtained excellent results. He met numberless gods and yogins, who had attained realization (siḍhi).

On the occasion the bla ma told him Open the gate of religion to others! He then performed several initiation rites, but his own results grew less. He then stayed in seclusion, meditated with diligence, and again obtained good results. When he thought that it was better for him to practice constant meditation, they told him that he had to occupy the chair of the deceased 'bal tshad ma ba. About 300 horsemen came to invite him. He told them: I practice constant meditation. I shall not go. However, on receiving orders from his Teacher, he proceeded to skyer 'sgan, acted as abbot, and erected a caitya. Desiring to build a wall in the monastery, he collected earth and stones, but others prevented him from doing the work. He said: I have not enough power even to build a wall, though it had {7a} been said that a Religious Protector was to act as my attendant! The very same night several families, who had damaged the (old) wall, died, and the people came to confeṣs He felt grief, and performed the rite of the seven days.

After that, except for a memorial service for 'Bal, he spent his time in retirement, concentrated his mind, and his power of labouring for the welfare of others increased. He received large offerings from the king of 'Ga' and the Emperor of China. When he intended send?ing a large offering to the monastery of his Teacher, the monks said to him: It is improper to send offerings from the monastery of 'Bal, the All Knowing, to another place. They decided that not a single man should go to convey the offerings. Then the Religious Protector assuming the form of a trader from 'Phan yul, conveyed the offerings to (his) Teacher, to a spot from which lkungs lungs could be seen, saying: Now, we should go to the feast of dha na saṃskṛta {741} at the cemetery of mun pa mi bzad pa, saying so he disappeared. Thus with the help of his prescience, he was able, while giving initiations to others etc. to perceive the state of minds of his disciples, and their thoughts. He laboured extensively for the welfare of others and passed away at the age of 73.

Sanggye Nyanton Chokyi Sherab

9.2.2.3 {sangs rgyas gnyan ston choskyi shes rab (Reorich 741)}. The sixth successor sangs rgyas gnyan ston choskyi shes rab: he was born as spiritual son of skyer sgang pa; His native place was Lower yol. He belonged to the gnyan clan; He felt grief for the entire Phenomenal World and an aversion towards material wealth. He thought: I must obtain emancipation in this present body. At the age of 11, he entered the gates of religion at gungbu mkhar in the presence of the ācārya ston yes. At the age of 17, he received the noviciate in the presence of the upādhyāya byang chub sems dpa'. At the age of 20, he received the final monastic ordination in the presence of the upādhyāya bzad pa. He heard from the upādhyāya and mkhan phyar the Vinaya and the Prajnāpāramitā class (sher phyogs). From the ācārya .gye he heard the Pramāṇaviniścaya (tshad ma rnam nyes) and other texts on Logic. In the domain of the Mādhyamaka he heard the Śikṣāsamuccaya (bslab btus) and the Bodhisattvācāryāvatāra (spyod jug). From the bla ma grags pa rayal mtshan he obtained Tantras with preceptse zhi byed, the phag mo chos drug, the kha rag skor gsum, the naro chos drug and the precepts of so chung ba.

A friend of his named la stod 'khyams po with whom he had studied much at gon bu mkhar said to him: Such is study! The end of knowledge can never be reached! It is similar to a mirage. Now it is necessary (for you) to practice meditation. I have visited dbus, gtsang and khams in search of many teachers, and have especially followed on the Dharmasvāmin 'bri khungpa, {R742} skyer sgang pa, mdo bopa and sa skya pa. But the greatest of them all in meditation was the bla ma named skyer sgang pa of 'tshur phu, a real Buḍha! Go there! I have also stayed there for some time, and my practice of the apparitional body had improved. After hearing the story of skyer sgang pa, he shed tears of faith like blood, and a great reverence was born in him. He expressed a strong desire to meet him without delay.

The spring of the year, in which he had heard the name of the Teacher, had not yet passed, when he met the Teacher. Immediately on meeting, the bla ma said: Last year in the autumn, in a house on the top of a hill, there was a man boiling tea at dusk who prayed fervently to me, with a wide open mouth. Was this you? I have often thought that you will be coming to moṛow or the day after. Why did you delay? He replied: I had some work to do. He then asked the Teacher to give the complete precepts. The Teacher said: In general, this Doctrine of the bla ma shangs pa is very strict, but I shall impart to you the precepts of the single line. Having bestowed on him the initiation and preceptse equaled his Teacher in the results of his meditation. His {(8a)} Teacher indicated to him the person who would help him to remove hindrances. On one occasion, when he was meditating following the instructions of his Teacher, he met Sukhasiḍhī who told him twice: Keep your mind without object. O Yogin! After that an excellent understanding of Ultimate Reality was born in him. On one occasion the Teacher prophesied to him about his future monastery, its name and his ten special disciples. Then the Teacher attested (this prophecy) with the words: Didn't I give you all the doctrines? And he added: When you will be preaching. the Doctrine to others, put on raṅed garments, and accept food without discriminating. During the exposition of the Doctrine, you should leave out even the cittotpada rite in the begiṇing, and the well wishing ceremony in the end. He also wrote down notes on the Doctrine, with coṛections (by the Teacher). He thought: There is no one greater than I in the possession of precepts ! He then spent thirteen summers and winters at skyer sgang. After that he journeyed to 'bri khung, and met the bla ma gtsang pa. He asked him for preceptst his handicaps were not removed. He then decided: I shall either attain Enlightenment at sug lung spang kha, or will be dead!

After spending three years in seclusion, a yogin came to him and told him: The bla ma dur khrod nag po has sent me to convey the doctrine to you! He then bestowed on him the 'chi med initiation and stayed with him for seven months. As soon as he gave him: the 'chi med initiation the handicap was removed. The yogin went to lha sa and on his return, he made numerous offerings to the yogin, including gold, silver, silk, etc. The yogin replied: I need no property! I have come to bring the Doctrine to your door, and then departed. He then founded the monastery of ri gong. He visited many paradises of Buḍhas, such as Alakāvatī and others, met ḍākinīs, such as Sukhasiḍhī and others, discussed with them, and met 80 siddhas. When lightning struck his body, no harm resulted. Without his special orders, the Religious Protector used to destroy his enemies. He preached extensively religion to his {(8b)} disciples, and also declared that a meeting with him was enough (to obtain emancipation). He also became the Master of Religion of his time.

Sanggye Tonpa

9.2.2.4 {sangs rgyas ston pa (Reorich 733)}. The seventh successor known as sangs rgyas ston pa, who became the vicar of sangs rgyas gnyan ston: He was born in the year of the Hare (yos lo) in the family of the bon po ya?ngal dkar po at sil ma. As soon as he began to act consciously, he showed devotion towards the Doctrine. At the age of eight, he mastered the alphabet. At the age of ten, he heard the unique tradition of gcod from ma gcig sprul sku at gan bzang. {744} Since his childhood, his mind filled with sadness, he used to perform meritorious deeds by day and by night, such as the circumambulating (of holy objects), etc. At the age, of 13, he was ordained in the presence of the bla ma tsa ri ras pa who told him: You will benefit living beings, and because you will show diligence towards the Doctrine, receive the name of brtson grus seng ge! The Teacher's death prevented him from attending on the Teacher for a considerable length of time.

He then heard many doctrines from the ācārya sregs. At the age of 17 he preached the Doctrine and manifested his ability in it. He then obtained an extensive exposition of the gcod system from sum ston ras pa, and pleased him with offerings. The latter gave him a prophecy: Thanks to you, this rite of gcod will spread widely. He also obtained the Cycle of Hevajra, etc. from the bla ma dbu ma pa. Having heard that bzang yul pa was a siddha, he obtained from him the initiation of Amitayus during seven days, and the Teacher told him: You were to die in the autumn, but by this initiation your life has been prolonged. When the autumn crop will become yellow, you will think that you are fortunate not to die at this time. My blessing and that of Amitayus have prolonged your life. Now till you are thirty do not preach this Doctrine to men! After that, the initiation of Amitayus will benefit living beings. At the age of 19, be sure to take up the final monastic vows! From the bla ma spang po ba he obtained the Cycle of the doctrines of zhan 'tshal pa, etc. At the age of 19, he received the final monastic ordination in the presence of the upādhyāya chos rgyal. He listened to the exposition of the Doctrine at the feet of the bla ma glang phug pa, the ācārya tshogs ston shak, the bla ma khro phu ba, the bla ma sa skya pa, the ācārya gtsang pa, the ācārya jo stan, the ācārya Siddha, mkhar rgyab pa, the ācārya jo rgyal, and khams ston. Then he decided that he should go in search of a siddha teacher and practice meditation.

There was, a great scholar named bla ma {745} rngog ston, who was said to be more learned and more virtuous than sa lo and gro lo He accordingly went to visit him. He spent the night with him. At night there resounded a loud outcry: May the Venerable Tārā relieve him of the dangers of Hell! He inquired What has happened? He (ngog ston) replied: (In my dream) I saw myself about to fall into three deep pits, filled with darkness. I asked: What was it? and the reply came that these pits represented three hells. Frightened, I cried out. Now it. is necessary for me to proceed to a teacher siddha. It is said that at yol phu there is one named ri gong pa who is an expert in the practice of the apparitional body (sgyu lus), and dreams, possesses prescience, and had vision of many tutelary deities. He is said to be a secret yogin, a mahasiḍa. He decided to visit him at any, rate, but was prevented from doing so for three years. During that time the ācārya rngog ston passed away. Then, when he was going to meet the siddha, the latter told his attendant named bla ma kong po ba at dawn Today an ascetic will be coming to see me from rab gron %. He will become the Master of my precepts. (Through him) my precepts will spread from u rgyan and Jalandhara to the shore of the Outer Ocean (in the East).

This morning dakinis and religious protectors went out to receive him. Now you should sweep the chapel, as he is fond of cleanliness. Then, when the attendant had finished sweeping the chapel, and had aṛanged the offerings, the bla ma told him: Now he is taking his food at the marsh of gser gcig ma. Go quickly to receive him! When the bla ma kong po ba reached the beginning of the marsh, he saw him. When they reached yang dgon, the bla ma said: You intended coming to moṛow or the day after, but instead you did not leave for three years! During that time two teachers, the ācārya rngog ston and gzhu pa nag po, who had prophesied our meeting, have passed away! He thought that the Teacher must possess an unimpeded {R746} faculty of prescience. Again the bla ma said: Why did you come here, having faith in me? He replied: I heard you were expert in the practice of the apparitional body (sgyu lus) and dreams, that you had realized the prabhasvara state, that you had visions of many tutelary deities and that you were attended by Religious Protectors. Having heard of this, I have come to see you. Pray bestow on me the precepts of the bla ma shangs pa!

The Teacher then gradually bestowed on him the initiation and preceptsr with their respective methods, and there exist numerous accounts about the excellence of his meditation, and about his labours for the welfare of men and amanuṣyas. In his later life he delivered numerous prophecies. He especially prophesied that there would appear a hundred and eight disciples who would surely go to Paradise. At the age of 72, he showed signs of passing away at ri gong. On his cremation, many relics were recovered (from the ashes), and were kept in a golden caitya and a relic holder (nang rten) which became objects of worship by all living beings. With him the succession of the single Lineage came to an end.

Miscellaneous Connections

9.2.2.4.1 {miscellaneous connections (R746; Chengdu 873)}. Those who attained emancipation by following after its branches and sections were numerous. It is difficult to establish clearly the dates, months and the age of these teachers. rmog cog pa was a contemporary of dpal phagmo gru pa, skyer sgang pa was a contemporary of Lord 'bri khung pa. sangs rgyas gnyan ston was a contemporary of Lord spyan snga. sangs rgyas ston pa was a contemporary of yang 'dgon pa. On the day which preceded the cremation rite and festival for sangs rgyas ston pa, ston pa himself appeared in the residence of the bla ma A, and prophesied: I myself have performed an auspicious ceremony. To moṛow the crowd will {(10a)} be quiet. This bla ma Aseng was a Tantric who belonged to the clan of gzhu, and was born at ru mtshams lug ra kha. He possessed the Tantras of the Old Mantrayana and a great excellence in practice. He obtained the precepts from sangs 'rgyas ston pa, and mastered the (practice) of the apparitional body and that of the prabhāsvara state.

Kedrub Shangton

9.2.2.4.2 {mkhas grub sans ston (Reorich 747; Chengdu 874)}

The disciple of sangs rgyas ston pa, known as mkhas grub sangs ston: His native place was khong rkyang yang khang, He was born in the year Wood Male Horse ('sin pho rta 1234 A.D.) as son of dbOn po dkon mchog bzang and mother jo?dge. From childhood he felt great coṃiseration towards the World, and mastered the alphabet at the age of 8 or 9. At the age of 13, he was ordained a novice, nyi thog pa acting as upādhyāya, and tshul shes as ācārya, and received the name of tshul khrims mgon po. He studied the Prajnyaparamita and the Bodhisattvācāryavatara with the ācārya (tshul shes) and the ācārya shakya 'bum. At the age of 18, he made a new exposition of it. The ācārya said to him: An understanding of Pramāṇa is coming to you! Study it by heart ! and handed over to him the basicf text of the viniścaya (rnam' nyes). When the ācārya explained to him the first line (of the text), he already knew the remaining portion of the first page. He became learned in Logic, and became known as a good scholar. Further, he heard (the exposition) of the Five Treatises of Maitreya, the five divisions of the Yoga-carabhumi of Asaṅga, the seven treatises on Logic, the Six Madhyamaka Treatises of Nagarjuna, the Śikṣāsamuccaya as well as many Tantric texts.

From the bla ma sa ston lharin he heard the exposition of many Tantras of the Mantrayana and sadhanas. He heard the bka' gdams pa doctrine from the preceptor of .gya' lung dgon gsar, and from mdo ba karmapa his hiḍen doctrines. His knowledge became excellent. Having no attachment to this world, he sold his entire country estate, and on eleven occasions distributed presents in memory of his parents. As soon as he heard about the fame of sangs rgyas ston pa, he felt reverence for him, {(10b)} proceeded to ri gong, and asked for precepts. The bla ma thought he was a suitable disciple, and bestowed on him the complete Cycle of Niguma. The bla ma was pleased with his results, and praised him, saying: Your progress is better than mine! When the bla ma dkon skyabs of gzhu brag dmar {R 748} came to ri gong, he heard from him the sring thig. After a glance at him, he obtained a clear vision of the first stage of the rainbow vision. After that he practiced meditation at tsa ri and felt a strong temptation. He heard (the exposition) of the Path and Result Doctrine (lam 'bras) from the bla ma khams pa of rgang mo lhas pa. He beṅed that his handicaps might be removed, and his handicaps dis?appeared. After that he took up residence at 'jag and laboured extensively for the welfare of others. He had many disciples possessing yogic insight. At the age of 76 on the I5th day of the fifth month of the year Earth Female Hen (sa mo bya? 309 A.D.) he drew into himself the vision of this life, and hastened after sangs rgyas ston pa.

Jagpa Gyaltsen Bum

9.2.2.4.2.1 {'jag pa rgyal mtshan 'bum (Reorich 748; Chengdu 875)} His disciple 'jag pa rgyal mtshan 'bum: he was born in the year Iron Female Hen (lcags mo bya 1261 A.D.) when shangs ston was 28. He died at the age of 74 in the year Wood Male Dog (sin pho khyi 1334 A.D.). He obtained precepts from shangs ston and developed a good mental concentration. He became very famous, and laboured for the welfare of living beings.

His nephew byams pa dpal he was born in the year Iron Male Dog (lcags pho khyi 131o A.D.) which was the fiftieth year of (his) uncle the Dharmasvamin rgyal mtshan 'bum pa. This year follows the death of shangs ston. He possessed a great faculty of concentration according to the method of Nigu(ma). Many great men became his disciples. He laboured for a considerable length of time for the welfare of others, and passed away at the age of 82 in the year Iron Female Sheep (rags mo lug 1391 A.D.). The year of his birth and that of his death coṛespond to those of the Dharmasvamin 'ba' ra ba.

'jag pa's disciple the siddha chos 'byung rin chen : he was born in the year Iron Female Hare (lcags mo yos 135i A.D) as son of father dpon yig gzon nu rin chen and mother bsod names dpal at shong yur, a place blessed by 'bre shes rab 'bar {R749}. In his childhood he had no difficulty in mastering the alphabet, both the cursive and printed scripts. At the age of 12, he was ordained by the upādhyāya rin chen bsam gtan dpal bzang {(11a)} and the ācārya shong ston rab brtan. He studied the Prajnaparamita, and for the first time preached an exposition of it at gnas rnying. He also preached the Doctrine. At the age of 32, he received the finale monastic ordination in the presence of the upādhyāya rin chen rgyal tshan dpal bzang po, the ācārya legs mchog pa and the Secret Preceptor, the bka' bzhi pa rin chen rdo rje. In general, while he was staying at his native place, he had visions of mgon po rgyan chan. An understanding of the Natural State was produced in him. After reading the Life of khyung po, in the same night he became able to realize the dream nature of his dreams without effort. At the age of 38, he sent first a letter to 'jag chen byams pa dpal, and then met him, and obtained the complete precepts.

He obtained from the ācārya dpal bzang pa the Āgamas which were the foundation of the precepts Later, he took up residence at gnas rnying and yol. Most of his time he spent in seclusion. He also possessed a faculty of prescience, and bestowed initiations on many others. At the age of 58, he showed signs of passing into Nirvana on the 14th day of the full Moon of the star bya spos of the year Earth Male Mouse (sa pho byi ba 1408 A.D.). On cremation, numberless relics were recovered (from the ashes). In short, this Holy Man was born in the year of the foundation of rtse thang. Since the birth of mkhas grub shangs ston to the present Fire Male Ape year (me pho spre 1476 A.D.) 243 years have passed.

Ketsun Zhonnu Drub

9.2.2.4.3 {mkhas btsun gzhoṇu grub (Reorich 749; Chengdu 877)} The disciple of sangs rgyas ston pa, named mkhas btsun gzhoṇu grub: he was born as son of father rgyal po tshe 'phel and mother rgya mo khye 'dren dpal at gchung pa yu ba gdong of Lower myang. At the age of 10, he was ordained in the presence of nam mkha' grags, the maha upādhyaya of snar thang. He studied the Pitakas with chu mig pa and {(11b); R750} others. At the age of 20, he received the final monastic ordination in the presence of the same mahāupādhyāya. When he was about 22, he visited the bla ma 'phags pa of sa skya and heard (from him) many expositions of the Tantras. He also 'heard the exposition of many Tantras from the great kalyāṇamitras, who resided at the monastery (of sa skya). He became learned. While he was training his disciples, the sa skya feud broke out, and he felt afflicted. He attended on eighty three teachers and practiced profound precepts. In particular, having heard the name of sangs rgyas ston pa, he felt a strong faith produced in him. He came to him, and heard the complete precepts of the shangs pa bka' brgyud sect, and many hiḍen doctrines in the possession of the Teacher.

The Teacher was very pleased at his results. He felt a great sadness in this life, but the Teacher on four occasions ordered him to labour for the welfare of others. He engaged in the performance of the gcod rite without caring for his body and life in many localities of dbus and gtsan, and laboured for the welfare, of many devas and demons. After that he founded bsams dins in Lower myang. He taught numerous disciples, chiefly the Mahamudrad Niguma's systems. His fame spread suḍenly and a large retinue gathered round him. His chief supporter was zalu sku zhangpa. In the end, he gave instructions about his own funeral rite, and died in the first month of the suṃer of the year earth female sheep (sa mo lug 13I9 A.D.). This earth female sheep year is the year of the composition of the commentary on the Prajnāpāramitā by bu ston rin po che.

Serlingpa Tashi Pal

9.2.2.4.4 {gser glingpa bkra shis dpal (R 750; Chengdu 878)}

mkhas grub chos rje's disciple gser gling pa bkra shis dpal: his native country was yol phu gser gling. He was born in the year Water Male Dragon (chu pho 'brug 1292 A.D.) as son of father named rje btsun and mother dkon mchog rgyan. He learnt the alphabet at the age of 6-7. He received the final monastic ordination in the presence of {R751} nelpa pan chen. He studied with nelpa, uncle and nephew, the Vinaya and the Abhidharmakośa, as well as numerous Pitakas including the Prajnapāramitā and Logic, etc., at gsang phu. He attended on many Holy Men, such as the {(12a)} Dharmasvāmin rang byung rdo rje, the rgya drag chos rje, the puruṣottama bsam gtan dpal, and others. In particular, he listened to numerous instructions in the doctrines of the Mantrayāna imparted by teachers who resided in the vicinity of his native place. He also obtained many precepts of shangs pa from rmog cog pa rin chen blo gros and others. He had many visions of many tutelary deities. In particular, Mahakāla having manifested himself, undertook to assist him in his undertakings. He attained excellent and definite results in his meditation. He obtained the precepts from mkhas btsun gzhon nu grub, the Master of the Doctrine of shangs pa. The Teacher also instructed him in the doctrine of gcod which had originated from sangs rgyas ston pa, and he taught it to his disciples. Masters of congregations of kalyāṇamitras, and important officials became his disciples. He performed countless deeds for the welfare of living beings. He passed away on the i9th day of the first month, of the year Wood Female Serpent (shin mo sbrul 1365, A.D.) at the age of 72.

His disciple bragpo thepa rdo rje dpal: he was born at bzang, and entered the gate of religion. He obtained precepts from many kalyāṇamitras. In particular, he obtained the doctrines of Shangs pa and the Cycle of spyod yul from rin po che gser gling pa. He laboured extensively for the welfare of living beings and was constantly attended by Mahākala.

His disciple chos sgo ba chos dpal ses rab: his native place was gtsang. Having come to thar pa gling, he received ordination in the presence of the mahāupādhaya shes rab 'od zer pa, and then received the final monastic ordination. He obtained numerous instructions from numerous teachers, such as the mahāupādhyāya shes rab rdo rje and others. He {752} obtained the Hermit doctrines, the Mahamudrad other doctrines from the Dharmasvamin 'ba'ra ba, and a prabhasvara state, undefiled by sleep, was produced in him. He worshipped the two faced (Vajra)varahi, and (his) offering wine acquired a particular taste and flavour. He also recited, the number of mantras prescribed (for the propitiations) of tutelary deities, such as the gsed dmar and other deities. From brag po che ba rdo rje dpal he obtained the doctrine of shangs pa and the gcod rite, and practiced them. Later, while staying in the monastery of thel he initiated and directed numerous disciples. When he came to the vihara of nan rgyal and was revolving the Wheel of Law of these doctrines, one who was well known as rgod phrug ras pa, who had subdued the three Worlds by the power of his wisdom, who used to assemble all the Vajra dakinis by his blessing, and who was an object of worship of men and amanusyas %, obtained (the complete exposition of these doctrines), and personally practiced them. He preached them to his disciples also.

Conclusion

9.2.2.5 {Conclusion to chapter on 9 on Niguma (R752; Chengdu 880)} In this manner I wrote an abridged account of all facts found by me in the Life stories of the descendants of the Lineage of mkhas 'grub khyun po rnal 'byor. They are known to have spread throughout the entire Jambudvipa, and who could collect them? With these words, I complete the story of the maṇer in which the nectar of khyung po rnal 'byor was handed down.

The Chapter on Niguma.

Part 10 (Kalachakra)

BOOK X. THE KĀLACAKRA.

I shall (now) relate the story of the origin of the Śrī Kālacakra-Tantra (dpal dus

kyi 'khor lo'i rgyud) and its pre?cepts.

SECRET MANTRA IN JAMBUDVĪPA

Now the general account of the propagation of the Mahāyāna Guhyamantra (theg pa chen po gsang sngags) in Jambudvīpa: In the beginning, in the East, king Pradyota? candra (rab gsal zla ba) and others obtained the Yoga-Tantras, such as the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha and others, and preached them.

Then the ācārya Nāgārjuna and his disciples obtained the Yoga-Tantras, including the Guhyasamāja and others, and preached them. They spread from the South. After that from the West Śrī Kam?bala (dpal la ba pa) and others discovered the Yoginī-Tantras (rnal 'byor ma'i rgyud) in the country of Oḍḍīyāna. They also spread towards Madhyadeśa. After that, there appeared from the realm of Śambhala commentaries (on the Kālacakra-Tantra) composed by Bodhisattvas, such as the Śrī Kālacakra (buddhist diety) and others. They spread towards Madhyadeśa.

DATE OF THE KĀLACAKRATANTRA

In the Vimalaprabhā it is said:

Here the fixing of chronological calculations (byed pa la nges pa): In 600 years from the time of the Tathāgata-the period of Ma?juśrī (?jam dpal); in 800 years from that time- the era of the Mlecchas; by lower?ing the era of the Mlecchas by 182 years, (one obtains) the {R 754} time of rigs ldan rgyal dka', during which Kulika Durjaya introduced the "lesser" chronology (mentioned in the Kālacakra).

This date should be regarded as a correct calculation based on the era of the Mlecchas.

"The past Prabhāva year, etc. " mean the cycles of sixty years of which the first was the Prabhāva (rab byung) year (me yos, Fire-Hare year, 1027 A.D.) and which (are designated) as ?Prabhāva and others."

Each period of sixty years, which preceded the present years (were called) the "past Prabhāva." Basing themselves on the above quotation, most of the later scholars maintained that the time of the appearance of the Kālacakra in Madhyadeśa corresponded to the beginning of the first cycle (rab byung) of the "past" years ('das lo). But it seems to me that the Kālacakra had appeared in Āryadeśa long before that time, for in the Sahajasaṃvara?sādhana composed by the mahāsiddha (Vajra)ghaṇṭapāda is found the second śloka of the introductory (1a) verse of the Vimalaprabhā: "(He) was impressed by the Bhagavatī Praj?ā, which though formless, yet has a form." (rnam par bcas kyang rnam med bcom ldan 'das shes ?rab ma ste de yis 'khyud).

Also because after Ghaṇṭapāda (came) rus sbal zhabs. He (transmitted it) to dza lan dha ri pa; the latter to Kṛṣṇapāda (nag po pa); the latter to Bhadrapāda (bzang po zhabs); the latter to Vijayapāda (rNam rgyal iabs); the latter to Tilli-pa; the latter to Nā-ro-pa. Thus from Ghaṇṭa(pāda) till Nā-ro-pa there have been eight teachers in the Line. Also {R 755} because Nā-ro-pa and Kālacakrapāda, father and son, were contemporaries. Further, because it is said in the gshin rje gshed kyi 'khor lo'i gsal byed, composed by Śrī Virūpa, that he had writ?ten the text basing himself on the Kālacakra.

Also because, when relating the story of tsi lu pa's search for the Kālacakra, it was said that the ācārya had read (it) in the vihāra of Ratnagiri (rin chen ri bo) which had been left un?damaged by the Turuṣkas, and was of the opinion that, in general, for the (attainment) of Enlightenment the Mahāyāna Guhyamantra (gsang sngags) was necessary, and that the text had to be studied with the help of the commentary by the Bodhisattvas. Accordingly he proceeded in search of the Kālacakra. Thus it has to be admitted that the system of Kālacakra seems to have reached Āryadeśa at an early date, and that (the system) became known to many people in the time of Kālacakrapāda, father and son.

The statement by glan bang so ba and others that the first translation (of the Kālacakra) into Tibetan was that of gyi jo, seems too be correct, because the coming of the paṇḍita Somanātha (zla ba mgon po) took place in the later life of gra pa mngon shes, who said that in his youth he had heard the Kālacakra from (his) uncle.

TRANMISSION IN TIBET 
rwa lo and ?bro?s transmissions

bu (ston) and dol (pa pa) were the two great ex?pounders of the Kālacakra in the Land of Snows. These two first obtained it from the spiritual descendants of rwa lo (tsā ba), but later they studied it according to the tradition of 'bro lo tsā ba. Thus rwa and 'bro have been the chief (expounders of the Kālacakra in Tibet). In connection with this, the followers of the tradi?tion of 'bro used to say that:

Kālacakrapāda, the Eldest (dus zhabs chen po) obtained it from Kulika (rigs Idan).

Then Kālacakrapāda, the Junior (dus zhabs pa chung ngu), Somanātha (zla ba mgon po), sgom pa dkon mchog bsrungs, sgro ston gnam la brtsegs, yu mo, his son Dharmeśvara, the scholar nam mkha' 'od, se chen nam mkha' rgyal mtshan, the Dharmasvāmin 'jam dbyangs gsar ma, kun? mkhyen chos sku 'od zer, kun spangs thugs rje brtson 'grus, byang sems rgyal ba ye shes, kun mkhyen yon tan rgya mtsho, and the harmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po. The followers of the rwa lo tradition state as follows: Kulika (rigs Idan), tsi lu pa (Celuka), Piṇḍopa, Kālacakrapāda, the Eldest (dus ?zhabs che ba), Kālacakrapāda, the Junior (chung ba), Ma?jukīrti, the Nepālese Samantaśrī, rwa chos rab, rwa ye shes seng ge, rwa 'bum seng, the Venerable rje btsun rgwa lo, rong pa shes ?rab seng ge, and the bla ma rdo rje rgyal mtshan.

The latter taught (the system) to bu ston rin po che. Further, skyi ston 'jam dbyangs obtained it from rong pa shes rab seng ge, kun mkh?yen chen po obtained it from him. bu (ston) and dol pa pa, the two, obtained the system according to the tradition of rwa lo tsā ba. Later they, obtained many precepts according to the tradition of 'bro lo tsā ba and others. The accounts about the teacher in whose time the Kālacakra had been obtained from Kulika (rigs ldan) in Āryadeśa, and the (first) disciples on whom it was bestowed, are at variance. According to the rgyud la 'jug pa'i man ngag rin po che za ma tog kha 'byed pa by glan bang so ba chos kyi dbang phyug, a disciple of tre po mgon po: By the words handed down from the siddha and his followers it is meant that it had continued in a regular succession.

(THE FIRST) KĀLACAKRA LINEAGE

Now the Lineage: king pad ma dkar po, a manifestation of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, who was indicated in the last śloka of the prophecy (given by Buddha about the kings of Śambhala), taught (the system) to the ācārya Kālacakrapāda.

This ācārya belonged to the kṣatriya caste of Madhyadeśa in (2b) India, and was born after his royal parents had performed the rite ensuring the birth of a noble son (kulaputra). He was learned in the five branches of knowledge, and was known to be a manifestation of Ārya Ma?juśrī. He was blessed by the Venerable Tārā, whose face he saw clearly. After he had acquired all the "lower perfections," the Venerable One once told him: In the Northern Śambhala there exist many Tantras and commentaries taught and prophesied by the Buddha. Go in search of them and listen to them! He then thought of going there.

In the opinion of some scholars he had joined a caravan of merchants, and proceeded there. Some said that he was guided there by a phantom monk. Again some said that the Venerable Tārā herself helped him. Again some said that when he decided to proceed to Śambhala, and was preparing (for the journey), he visited Śambhala in his vision, and obtained the doctrines from Ārya Avalokiteśvara himself (rigs ldan pad ma dkar po). This last statement should be accepted.

When he was residing in Madhyadeśa, tsi lu pa preached the system to five paṇḍitas: Piṇḍo ācārya, 'dul ba 'byung gnas blo gros, thar pa 'byung gnas? sbas pa, seng ge rgyal mtshan, and mtha' yas rnam par rgyal ba. When they had mastered it, he journeyed to Puṣpahari, and stayed there preaching the system to na ro pan? chen and others.

PIṆḌO

Though all of his disciples were endowed with excellent qualities, one named Piṇḍo ācārya especially distinguished himself. This was due to the fact that in a former existence he had been a shortwitted monk, and had performed a sādhana in order to improve his intellect. After receiving a prophecy by a deva in his dream, he made out of coral an image of Kurukullā and inserted it into the mouth of a dead woman. He sat cross-legged on the corpse and meditated for seven days. Then (the dead woman) looked up at him and uttered: What do you want? At that time if he would have said that he wished to get by heart whatever had been seen by him, he would have obtained it. But being disappointed with his intelligence, he asked: I wish to be able to commit to memory all that which has been written by me. And so ?t happened, and he became known as paṇḍita Piṇḍo ācārya. He became known in Madhyadeśa as Vāgiśvarakīrti, and was attended by twelve junior paṇḍitas. He heard the Doctrine from the ācārya Kālacakrapāda (dus zhabs pa), and was able to memorize the whole text after listening to it once.

KĀLACAKRAPĀDA SENIOR AND JUNIOR

The holder of his Spiritul Lineage (was) one named dge bsnyen byang chub. His son was a very great paṇḍita who studied under his father's brother dgon pa ba. He obtained (the system) together with Nā-ro-pa from Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, and became known as Kālacakrapāda, the Junior. Moreover differences in the views impressed by the "father" and "son". These "father" and ?son" having once said while residing in Madhyadeśa that One who does not know the Kālacakra, would not know the Vajrayāna, caused dis?pleasure among paṇḍitas, who having gathered in Madhyadeśa, prepared seats at Vikramaśīla and held a debate. jo bo chen po could not be defeated. Then all rose from their seats, and he placed his foot on their heads. Except Dā-bodhisattva, all obtained instruction in the Kālacakra from him. He became also known as dus? 'khor ba and propagated widely the system.

SOMANĀTHA

At that time there was in the country of Kāśmīra an excellent brāhmaṇa scholar named bzang po of Sūryaketu, when he was teaching the Doctrine to Paṇḍita Sonasati, Lakṣmīkara, Dānaśrī, Candrarāhula, Somanātha, and others, the Paṇḍita Vinayākaramati ('dul ba 'byung gnas blo gros) sent the Sekoddeśa and the Sekaprakriyā, and he having given them to read to the paṇḍitas, all were filled with wonder.

In particular, the Teacher Somanātha of Kāśmīra was filled with great faith, and having discontinued his studies there, proceeded in search of that system. In Madhyadeśa he met dus 'khor ba and asked him for instruction in the Kālacakra. The latter having given him instruction, he became an accomplished scholar in the complete commentary of the Tantra, in the Tantra itself, the preceptsd in the initiation rite.

This Teacher belonged to a Brahmin family and till the age of ten he studied his father's doctrine, and was able to memorize sixteen ślokas after reading them once. After that his mother introduced him to Buddhism. He having mastered the science of the Kāśmīrī nyi ma rgyal mtshan and Kālacakrapāda, the Junior, became a paṇḍita. He, intending to spread the system in Tibet, proceeded there, and asked gnyos 'byung po: Are you able to translate this book? The latter replied : I am unable to translate it, but there is a way out of it. I shall send a message to the son of the kalyāṇa-mitra Ice pa of bzang yul in g.yor po who will be able to assist you with money. He sent a messenger, after which Ice, father and son, invited him. They requested him, and a proper translation (of the text) was made by him.

The great achievement of these 'father' and `son' was that, in general, they were endowed with a proper reverence, and attended on all translators and paṇḍitas, and, in particular, they possessed a great knowledge of the Mahāyāna Guhya?mantra.

They used to spend all their wealth for the sake of religion. When they first met the great Kāśmīrī teacher (Somanātha), they presented him with three golden srangs, a complete set of garments, including a mantle, and begged him to stay. After that they saw him off as far as chu śul and furnished him with thirty loads of wine. a zha rgya ?gar rtsegs also acted as translator, and for a whole year he fed thirty men and horses. (When they had finished the translation of the text), he presented him as remuneration thirty golden srangs, as well as another thirty srangs on various occasions. In all he presented him sixty golden srangs, and pleased him. After that the lo tsā ba and the paṇḍita were invited by 'gar ston of the Northern Upland, the kalyāṇa?-mitra gra pa, and the scholar rdo rje rgyan of skar chung to their residences. While they were receiving instruction in the Tantra itself and its commentary, the kalyāṇa-mitra lce, father and son, also listened to it.

After that the Kāśmīrī Somanātha proceeded to India to present offerings to (his) 96 (% why is this here?- ZMR) Teacher and the Vajrāsana. When he had offered a great quantity of gold, he removed his doubts concerning (the Kālacakra) assisted by his former brother in initiation (snga? ma'i mched po) 'dul da'i 'byung gnas blo gros and Siṃhadhvaja (seng ge rgyal mtshan). When he (Somanātha) again returned to Tibet, lce, father and son, obtained once more the Kālacakra from him. There appears to have existed a later translation (of the text) by ?bro lo tsā ba. lce, father and son, taught it to the bla ma 'go chen po of dol, named nyi ma. The latter preached it to the great scholar klubs Saṇghakīrti. The latter to his son. The latter to glan, the Great (glan chen po).

SECOND LINEAGE

Again, according to the second Lineage: When the Great Kāśmīrī Teacher (Somanātha) arrived in Tibet for the second time, he was pleased by the reverence and service, paid to him by the kalyāṇa-mitra dkon mchog bsrung of 'phan? yul and his disciple, who attended on him for a considerable time. He therefore bestowed on them the explanation of the Tantra itself, its commentary (Vimalaprabhā), together with the preceptsh he had not given to other Tibetan scholars. They (dkon mchog bsrung dpon slob gnyis) bestowed them on the Venerable (rje btsun) yu mo, the Great. From him the great scholar tre bo mgon po, the Great, and the Master of the Doctrine se received them. The great scholar (mkhas pa'i skye bo tre bo mgon po) taught (the system) to glan. He taught it also to klubs jo sras. The latter to glan chos kyi dbang phyug.

THIRD LINEAGE

Again, according to the third Lineage: dus kyi' khor? lo ba, the Last, and Śrī Nā-ro-pa (transmitted it) to Ma?jukīrti (4b) and Abhayākara. These two taught the Tantra and commentary (Vimalaprabh?) to the bla ma gnyan lo tsā ba and rgwa lo tsā ba, who expressed the desire to study the Tantra only. The Venerable 'gos also studied under these two teachers, and thus till the Master (mnga' bdag, se chos kyi mnga? bdag).

FOURTH LINEAGE

Again, according to the fourth Lineage: Abhaya and his brother taught it to the paṇḍita Samantaśrī, the lo tsā ba and paṇḍita. The latter to klubs. Further, Anupamarakṣita, Sādhuputra, Dharmākaraśānti, and Vikśāntadeva. The latter to the great Kāśmīrī paṇḍita Śākyaśrībhadra, matchless on the surface of the Earth. He to glan, 'father' and 'son' --so it is said. According to the dus kyi 'khor lo'i bsdus don, com?posed by the bla ma bsod nams od zer ba:

Thus in the Realm of Śambhala exists the Kālacakra-Tantra together with its commentary and preceptst in the Āryadeśa of India, (the Kālacakra) was first obtained in Śambhala from a mani?festation of a Bodhisattva by an Indian named the monk bsod snyoms pa, the Great (Piṇḍo-pa). It is not known what Bodhisattva manifested himself in him. The latter (taught it) to the Southern brāhmaṇa Dārikapā(da). The latter to tsi lu pa. The latter to Kālacakrapāda. The latter to dus 'khor ba, the Great. The latter to two of his disciples ?Bodhibhadra and Sādhuputra. Bodhibhadra had three disci?ples: the guru Abhaya, tsa mi ba, the Great (tsa mi sangs ?rgyas grags pa), and Abhiyukta. Sādhuputra had two disciples: Dharmākara and Bhāskara. The ācārya se lo tsā ba said that he had listened (to the exposition of the Kālacakra) once by the guru Abhaya, twice by tsa ?mi, then (to the exposition of) the first part (of the text) by Abhiyukta, and once by Bhāskara. From him gnyos 'od ma obtained it, who said that he had studied it for three years. Then the teacher se lo tsā ba proceeded to dbus. In his absence he (gnyos 'od ma) marked with white the passages in the text that were not understood by him. On his (se lo's) way from dbus to India, gnyos 'od ma asked about these passages, and when se lo was coming to India all his doubts were removed. He then obtained the exposition of all the texts, together with their initiation rites and preceptsd all his doubts were removed.

bkra shis rin chen and gnyos sgom obtained it from 'od ma. The latter meditated on the precepts and obtained the signs of spiritual realization. He also obtained the permission (lung) to preach the text, but he did not Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. well. bkra shis rin chen listened to it for 12 years, and knew it, as well as 'od ma himself, and thus be?came like a well-filled vase. He also. obtained the teachings of rwa, ?bro, gyi jo, and others, and used to say that 'there was no one better than himself'. The ācārya dus 'khor ba ob?tained it from him on thirty-two occasions, and mastered it in the manner of a vase filled to the brim. The scholar (mkhas grub) famous by the name of Bhikṣu Ratnaśrī and u rgyan pa obtained it from him. I obtained the system from the latter.

ANOTHER LINEAGE

Again, according (to another) Lineage: the ācārya Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, was the son of a yoginī who took him with her to Śambhala. (There) a monk of an extremely beautiful appearance, blessed him, and he developed the ability of committing to memory a thousand ślokas every day. After that the boy heard the Mūla-Tantra, the Sa?caya-Tantra and the commentary recited by the monk who was a manifestation of Avalokiteśvara. He committed these texts to memory and then proceeded to Madhyadeśa. This boy on being ordained, became known as tsi lu pa; he was also known by the name of tshim ?bu ba.

When the ācārya tsi lu pa was residing (at the court) of the king of ka ta ka, he had three disciples, who made the request that the Tantra and the commentary might be wr?tten down in the form of a book. So he wrote it down, and the books were entrusted to the three disciples. One (of them) became a paṇḍita, another became an adept, but the third was unable to pro?gress beyond the stage of an ordinary human being. Then the troops of a foreign king invaded the country. They (the disciples) hid the Tantra and its commentaries in a pit, and fled away. After the war was over, they returned, and searched for the (hidden books). (They discovered) that the last paragraphs of the two lesser commentaries were missing. The disciples again requested him to write down (the missing portions), but he declined, saying : the dākinīs have hidden them, and therefore it is improper to write them now. After tsi lu pa proceeded towards the East to Kusum?pura (me tog khyim). Upāsakabodhi obtained the system from him. This disciple Bodhi used to say that If he does not understand the Kālacakra, the Doctrine, and especially the Guhyamantra (gSang sngags) cannot be understood by him. All the paṇḍitas having assembled, said:

This is incorrect! Let us debate it! They conducted a debate at Vikramaśīla.

The Master (Bodhi) asked them about the contradictions in the upper and lower sections of the different Tantras from the stand-point of the Kālacakra, but they did not dare (to debate on the subject). They all begged his forbearance, and asked the Master to instruct them in the Kālacakra, and in this manner the doctrine spread. The Master's name became dus kyi 'khor lo ba. khams pa zhu lo obtained the system from his disciples Ma?jukīrti and Abhayākara. gnyan lo also obtained it. The bla ma 'gos obtained it from these two.

DISAGREEMENTS IN LINEAGE ACCOUNTS

There exists a slight disagreement as to the origins of the Lineages of rwa and ?bro between the accounts given by bu rin po che in his gces pa'i lde mig, by glan chos dbang, by the scholar bsod nams 'od zer? ba, and in the account of the Lineage of gnyan lo tsā ba. In particular, the one who was called Piṇḍo-ācārya was stated by some to have been the Teacher of Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, and again by others to have been the disciple of Kālacakra?pāda. Some maintain that he (Piṇḍo) was identical with ngag gi dbang phyug grags pa. They seem to imply that he was ngag gi dbang phyug, one of the four gate-keepers (of Vikra?maśīla), but this does not seem to be possible. Because in the treatise yan lag bdun ldan, composed by him, he expressed many different views on the fourth initiation, but never mentioned the system of Kālacakra. On the other hand it can be said about the Kālacakra-sādha?nagarbhālaṃkara, composed by the ācārya bsod snyoms? pa (Piṇḍo) that the very name of the śāstra shows that it (6a) deals with the Kālacakra. Even if one were to accept as true the statement of the rwa pas (followers of rwa) that prior to Kālacakrapāda, the Great, there had existed two teachers of the Kālacakra, it would not be a contradiction to say that Kālacakrapāda had received a blessing from Kulika (%ZMR buddhist diety?) himself, who taught him the Tantra. Because, as stated by nyi ma dpal, Vajradhara himself, assuming the form of Ava?dhūti-pa (%), had bestowed the precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga (yan ?lag drug) on the ācārya Anupamarakṣita (dpe med 'tsho), and because others also maintained that Tilli-pa, a disciple of Vijayapāda (rnam rgyal zhabs), who was the last of a numer?ous Lineage of teachers of the Cakrasaṃvara Cycle, was a direct disciple of Vajradhara. The ācārya Anupamarakṣita could not be later than the ācārya Nā-ro-pa, since Nā-ro-pa in his Sekoddeśa-ṭikā quoted his teaching.

In general, even some of the accounts by Indian teachers, can be unreliable, for instance in the commentary on Śūnyaśrī's Sadaṅ?ga-yoga translated by dpang (blo gros brtan pa), Śūryaśrī (nyi ?ma dpal) is stated to have been a disciple of chos 'byung zhi ba, but, according to a statement of the Pre?cious mahā-paṇḍita (Śākyasr?bhadra), Śūryaśrī (ni ma dpal) had been the teacher of Dharmākaraśānti (chos 'byung zhi ba). The Commentary on the Sadaṅga-yoga though stated to have been the work of Śūryaśrī, seems to have contained, as indi?cated by the title, notes written down by one of his disciples. In two Indian books, consulted by me, the very same state?ment is made. The statement that the concluding para?graphs of the Hevajra-Tantra (brtag gnyis) and of the Saṃvara?ṭikā had been hidden away by ḍākinīs, is unreliable, because it is certain that the sizes of these books translated into Tibetan were the same as those of the original books composed by the Bodhisattva, for in the Vajragarbhatika the above commentary on the Saṃvara-Tantra is described as a conmmen?tary on the twelve and half ślokas (of the Mūla-Tantra), and the entire commentary on these ślokas is extant in Tibetan, and because in the Saṃvara commentary itself it instated that the Mūla-Tantra and the "topics of the Six Extremities", as expounded in the ṭippaṇī, composed by the Bodhisattva, should be studied by one proceeding to a country, situated South and North (since they have been lost in Madhyadeśa), and further, because in the Vajragarbhaṭīkā it is stated; (6b) by this the last chapters, such as the chapter on conduct, are meant.

Though there exist various accounts which agree and disagree, they all agree (in stating) that Abhaya, who belonged to the line of gnyan and se lo tsā ba, Ma?jukīrti, who belonged to the line of rwa lo, and Somanātha, who belonged to the line of ?bro pa, have been direct disciples of Kālacakrapāda, the Junior. They also agree in that Kālaca?krapāda, the Junior, was a direct disciple of Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, and therefore one is not to be troubled by it. It is somewhat difficult to accept the statement that the first of the "past" years ('das lo) of the period of 403 years (me? kha rgya mtsho) corresponds to the year of the introduction of the Kālacakra in Madhyadeśa, for Abhaya had composed the Introduction to the Kālacakra which says that about 60 years must have elapsed since the appearance of the Kālacakra (when he was composing the book). In the account of chag lo tsā ba it is stated that Ratnarakṣita had said that not sixty years had passed, but 45 years. If we were to synchronize this date with the dates given by Tibetan teachers, (we would see) that it corresponds to the sixteenth year of mar pa and gra pa mngon shes, and that at that time the Kālacakra had already appeared in Tibet.

It seems to me that Śrī Bhadrabodhi, the father of Kālacakra?pāda, the Junior, was the person who had translated the Kāla?cakra with gyi jo. It is also stated that one Nālandā-pa, a disciple of Kālacakrapāda, the Junior (dus zhabs pa chung ba), had on one occasion visited Tibet, etc.

KALĀCAKRA IN TIBET

The Kāśmīrī Somanātha was able to commit to memory 16 ślokas after reading them once, and was endowed with a pure perfection of con?trolling the acyuta-bodhicitta (byang sems 'dzag med). Besides the Kālacakra, he preached in Tibet the secret meaning of the sgron gsal, as well as taught the rtsa ba shes rab. I had seen the text which was transmitted in his Lineage. Having mastered the Tibetan language, he made an excellent translation of the don dam bsnyen pa. Later he journeyed to mnga' ris, and it was said that lie had also translated the Great Commentary on the Kālacakra.

Ice, father and son, obtained the Kālacakra from Somanātha. From them 'gro nyi ma obtained the system. Again it is known that they (lce, father and son) had also obtained it from glan lo tsā ba and other teachers. yu mo was also a disciple of his, but the stream of his teaching (of the Kālacakra) seems to have been interrupted. sgom pa dkon ?mchog bsrungs having disposed of his entire property, realized six golden srangs for it, and having tied a silk scarf to his neck placed it in the hand of the paṇḍita, and thus offered him his own body, speech and mind. The Teacher bestowed on him the exposition of the commentary on the Tantra together with its complete precepts. Having heard it (recited) in the translation of ?bro, he had to accept ?bro as his Teacher. Thus when enumerating the Lineage, he used to say Somanātha, ?bro lo tsā ba, and sgom pa dkon mchog bsrungs. sgro ston gnam rla brtsegs was a scholar who in his early life had studied the Piṭakas, and when he grew older came to Somanātha, who said to him: If you take my belongings to man yul, on my return to Tibet I shall bestow on you the system. Some of his other friends told him:

one cannot buy the system from the paṇḍita, you had better ask our sgom pa for it. Following this advice, he requested sgom pa dkon mchog bsrungs to bestow on him the commentary on the Tantra together with the precepts. The Teacher bestowed the complete system on him, and he practised it, and achieved excellent results.

Later, when the paṇḍita (Somanātha) came again to Tibet, he went to meet the paṇḍita, who said to him: I shall now give you the system. snam la brtsegs replied: When I was young, you did not wish to bestow it on me. But now, when I am old, I shall not ask for it.

The paṇḍita said you are satisfied with the precepts of dkon mchog bsrungs. If not from me, from whom else did they originate? and saying so, he thrashed him.

snam la brtsegs replied: Yes, yes, it is due to the grace of the great Teacher!

Then the paṇḍita asked him: What did he give you? He replied: This and that.

The paṇḍita said: I do not possess more than this! Now take an'oath that you will not preach it to others, saying so, the paṇḍita placed his rosary on his neck.

gnam la brtsegs replied: This was not preached by you, Teacher! (why then should I take an oath?) --O wicked one! exclaimed the paṇḍita, and threw a handful of sand at his head.

After that the paṇḍita said: Well, now you may preach it to others, but you should preach the complete text, from end to end (mgo lus). In this manner he obtained (7b) the permission. In the same manner, when yu mo made a similar request to the paṇḍita, the latter said, pointing at his luggage Carry this to Nepāl! I shall give it later. After asking the advice of his friends, he asked sgro ston for it. The latter bestowed on him the commentary on the Tantra together with the preceptss well as the Pradīpodyotana (sgron gsal) with its precepts. After that he 97 (%) went to 'u yug, and practised meditation, and obtained realization (siddhi). He had excellent disciples, and passed away at the age of 82. His disciples known as wa brag dkar ba and one known as gnyal pa gro spent a considerable time immured ('dag 'byar) practising the bka' gdams doctrine. Later they came to yu mo and practised the preceptsd on the very first day they obtained all the (ten) signs (of meditation). They realized that the Kālacakra was the best pith and meditated (according to the system). They were endowed with a great faculty of prescience.

gnyos sgyi khung pa: when he had reached the age of 70, he met bla ma chen pa (yu mo). He preached to ngor rje. The latter taught (the Kālacakra) to dol pa 'gas ston dbang phyug grub. The siddha Dharmabodhi has been a discip?e of yu mo tre po mgon po having obtained all the precepts and the basic text, taught them extensively. His Lineage had many branches.

The scholar Dharmeśvara was the son of the Great Teacher (yu mo), and was born in the latter's 56th year. He taught the Sekoddeśa when he was twelve. At the age of 16, he taught the Great Commentary on the Tantra. He debated (on the Doctrine) with numerous scholars, such as rgya gling pa and others, and defeated them. His disciple khang gsar pa nam mkha' 'od was learned in the Piṭakas, such as the rigs tshogs drug, and other texts. He taught the Great Commentary On the Tantra (the Vimala?prabhā) and was endowed with an excellent mystic trance.

Dharmeśvara's daughter jo 'bum : in her childhood she was influenced by her mother, practised magic, and caused the death of many enemies. After that she practised medita?tion (according to the method) of the Sadaṅga-yoga (yan lag drug gi rnal 'byor) and in this actual life she became an ārya, (8a) equal to a natural yoginī.

Her brother se mo che ba nam mkha' rgyal mtshan: in his childhood he suffered from a deficient hearing and speech, and therefore there was not much hope (for him). Later he attended on khang gsar pa nam mkha' 'od and mastered the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā). He prac?tised the Sadaṅga and the "Six doctrines" of Nā-ro, and obtained a perfect mystic trance. He was able to recollect clearly (his) numberless former existences. Because he resided at se mo che, he became known as the siddha se mo ?che ba.

His disciple 'jam sar shes rab 'od zer: his native place was Upper myang. He attended on gnyal zhig and others, and became very learned in numerous Piṭakas. For many years he purified his body performing austerities. For a consider?able time he propitiated Vajrapāṇi and felt confident, think?ing none among gods and demons are able to transgress my command. When he was going to preach at rkyang 'dur, and was fording the gtsang po river, on the road leading towards the residence of se mo che ba, at the hermitage of grong chung, some asuras caused a shower of stones to fall, but he burst into a song saying that he having become indiffer?ent towards the eight mundane dharmas, did not know fear.

At the feet of se mo che ba he mastered the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) together with its branches, and the initiation rite (of the Kālacakra). He practised medita?tion of the sampannakrama degree and within one day obtained the (ten) signs (of meditation), and thus became a Master of Yoga (rnaI 'byor gyi dbang phyug).

He had great faith in preceptsd used to say : If these precepts would have been accompanied by diligence towards meditation possessed by the great ascetics of the dwags po bka' brgyud sect, then this country (Tibet) would have been filled with siddhas. Later he had a vision of the face of Munīndra and his retinue, and offered the Sapta-aṅga. The rite was first described in the Āryabhadracaryāpraṇidhāna?rāja. Having removed all his doubts in regard to the Cause, Path and Effect of Enlight?enment before the Buddha, I did not request him to expound the Doctrine, said he. When preaching the Piṭakas, he used to teach it abiding in a state of perpetual trance (mnam par bzhag bzhin). In his dreams he visited nume?rous paradises, such as Sukhāvatī and others. He established meditative schools in hermitages and maintained them with (8b) the help of his precepts. He thus obtained the power of preaching and meditating. His disciple the bla ma chos sku 'od zer: he was a natural son of gser sdings pa gzhon nu 'od and was born in the year Wood-Male-Dog ('shing pho kyi ?1214 A.D.), which follows on the year Water-Female-Hen (chu mo bya 1213 A.D.), during which the kha che pan ?chen returned to Kāśmīra. chos sku 'od zer's story (rnam thar) was briefly told in the Chapter on the school of the Guhyasamāja-Tantra. (Here I shall tell) in detail about his meeting with the Dharmasvāmin 'jam gsar.

He was told by gser sdings pa to go there, because he had a karmic connection (las 'brel) with ?jam gsar ba. So he visited him, and while he was listening to the initiation rite of Yamāntaka, he was the Teacher as Yamāntaka. He also listened to the exposition of all the scrip?tures, philosophy and precepts. When he was listening to the initiation rite of the Kālacakra, he saw the Teacher as rdo rje ?shugs, and reported the matter to the Teacher, who replied: I also feel proud thinking ?Am I not rdo rje shugs?? We, Teacher and disciple, should not be handicapped by hindrances.

When he entered the maṇḍala (during his initiation), he saw a clear vision of the j?ana-maṇḍala. At the time of obtaining the fourth (initiation), as soon as the Teacher had said: Now you should assume a posture like me, and keep your Mind free from thoughts (mi rtog pa), the fluctuations ('gyu ba) of his Mind, big or small, came to an end, and he was able to transform them into the mystic trance of the Great Bliss (bde stong chen? po). Later while practising meditations in his meditative cell (sgom khang), he suddenly achieved success, and the Dharmasvāmin told him that he had reached the final stage of 'clearness' (gsal ba).

He taught at this monastic college the Doctrine, such as the Pramanāviniścaya and other subjects. The Dharmasvāmin praised him highly. When he came to se mo che ba to get from him an Introduction to the Doctrine (chos 'brel), the latter said: You two ('jam gsar ba and chos? sku 'od zer) through many existences have been Teacher and disciple. From him chos sku 'od zer heard the complete Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) with its branches. He benefited others by bestowing initiations, preaching the Tantra and precepts.

(KUN SPANG AND THE FOUNDING OF MONASTERY AT JO NANG)

His disciple kun spangs (the ascetic) thugs rje brtson? 'grus : he was born at dab phyar spang sgang in Northern la stod, in the year Water-Female-Hare (chu mo yos 1243 A.D.). (9a) In his youth he mastered the Piṭakas. He also looked after numerous monks at the monastic college of rkyang 'dur, and was famous as a proficient debater. On one occasion during his studies, he listened to the complete exposition of the Kālacakra by the All-Knowing (kun mkhyen) chos sku 'od zer. He obtained preceptsd while he practised meditations, he opened many samādhi-dvāras (gates of trance).

Once, when an accident endangered his life, kun mkhyen pa (chos sku 'od zer) perceived it, and came by himself (without being called). kun mkhyen pa said: If you would have died this time, you would have obtained the four "bodies, and saying so, he removed the dangers threatening his life. After that he left his work as a student and preacher, and concentrated exclusively on medita?tion, and became, known as kun spangs pa.

He heard the different exposition of the Sadaṅga-yoga (of the Kālacakra), whatever were found in Tibet. He transferred his residence to the mountains of the North, and while meditating, he subdued by the power of his concentrated Mind many demons. He was invited to jo nang by jo mo nags rgyal, and he promised the goddess to come there after three years. When the time came, he journeyed there, founded a monastery, and looked after nu?merous disciples to whom he imparted both teachings and hidden precepts.

Among them: byang sems rgyal ba ye shes, la stod pa dbang rgyal, mun me brag kha ba, and son pa kun rgyal are known as the "Four Sons of kun spangs pa".

byang sems rgyal ba ye shes: he was born in the year Fire-Female-Serpent (me mo sbrul 1257 A.D.). In his child?hood, kar ma pa pa shi pa accepted him (as disciple) against his father's will, taught him the kar ma pa doctrines, and looked after him (by supplying him) with (his) worldly needs. Later he proceeded to bo mo nan and listened to (the exposition) of all the basic texts of kun spangs pa, the latter's hidden preceptsd practised (meditation) according to them.

la stod pa dbang rgyal: he practised meditation and attained remarkable results. During the same time he also composed a guide-book on the teachings of (his) Teacher, beginning with the "bar du dge ba", or second section. He improved the meditations of many (disciples) and removed their handicaps.

mun me brag kha ba grags pa seng ge: he was born in the year Wood-Female-Hare (shing mo yos 1255 A.D.) at rgyal te thang kar in Northern gyas ru. He belonged to the glan clan. In his youth he was ordained by the phro phu rin po che bsod nams seng ge, and received the name of grags? pa seng ge. Later he received the final monastic ordination in the presence of the same upādhyāya dbu ma pa ser 'bum acting as ācārya, and bu stong seng ge 'od acting as Secret Preceptor. From phya ru ba seng ge dpal of sa skya he heard the rnam 'grel, the Treatises of Maitreya, the "Six Treatises al Nāgārjuna ' and the Tantra class were perfectly mastered by him. However he was of the opinion that meditation represented the Essence of the Doctrine, and therefore he asked kun spangs pa and byang sems rgyal ye at jo mo nang for guidance in the Sadaṇga-yoga (sbyor ba yan lag drug), and asked. them to expound the Tantra.

They said to him: Go to Rong! He then heard the Commentary on the Tantra together with its precepts from Akara?siddhi, the youngest son of rgwa lo tsā ba. He, held in high esteem meditation at the hermitage of gya' lung. Subsequent?ly he helped many disciples by preaching (to them) the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) and by giving them guidance. Later in the year of the Tiger (stag lo 1338 A.D.), when a great snow-fall happened in the kingdom, lo ?be ba kun bzang acted as (his). supporter, and settled him at brag kha. He stayed there in seclusion and recited the mantra of the Kālacakra

10,000,000 times, made 1,000,000 ablutions, and many wonderful signs took place, as for example flames assuming the form of precious stones, etc. Every day he practised meditation on the utpannakrama and sampannakrama degrees, besides the six āsanas (lus sbyong drug) of the body.

He named as his four chief guide-books: the sbyor? drug (Sadaṇga), the dmar khrid, the gcod, and the gzer lnga, and mainly followed their prescriptions. During the summer seclusion, he spent most of his time in the continuous practice of gcod (rgyun gcod).

He used to send all the property which came into his, hands to the monastery of his Teacher. He was endowed with the faculty of prescience, and all his prophecies concerning the future events at sa skya came true. He passed away at the age of 89 in the year Water?-Female-Sheep (chu mo lug 1343 A.D.) amidst wonderful (10a) signs. After the cremation (of his remains), his body was transformed into a heap of relics.

His disciples were the Dharmasvāmin bla mo dam pa and the dka' bcu pa gzhon nu seng ge blo gros, wang mo zhu ba gzhon nu dpal, and many others. From sron pa chos dpal, a disciple of sron pa kun? rgyal, brag nag pa chos skyong dpal obtained the system of sron. The bka' bcu pa gzhon nu seng ge obtained it from him. sron pa kun dga' rgyal has been the zu gur che of the Mongol Emperor, and was ordained by bla ?ma 'phags pa, who introduced him to the study of the Piṭaka. Later he obtained guidance from kun spangs pa, and obtained perfect results (in his meditation). He met Avalokiteśvara and sha ba ri dbang phyug. His precepts which were known as the "Method of sron" (sron lugs), slightly differed from others, and through them he benefitted others. dpal ldan bla ma obtained the "Method of sron" (sron lugs) from the following three: sron pa kun dga' rgyal, his disciple chos dpal, and the mahā-upādhyāya bsod nams grags pa.

In this manner kun? spangs pa laboured for a long time for the welfare of others, and then entrusted the abbotship to byang sems rgyal ye. He passed away at the age of 71, in the year Water-Female Ox (chu mo glang 1313 A.D.).

JO NANG AFTER KUN SPANGS PA

byang sems rgyal ba ye shes, aged 57, occupied the abbot's chair of jo nang in the year Water-Female-Ox (chu mo glang 1313 A.D.). Many kalyāṇa-?mitras, such as the bla ma kun bsod pa and others, and many great men, such as the great official byang rdor and the great official yon btsun, and others, became his disciples. He used to, say: Most of those who had received my guidance, have obtained perfect results. At least there had been none who did not complete the (ten) signs (of medita?tion). He occupied the chair for eight years, and then passed away at the age of 64 in the year Iron-Male-Ape (lcags pho spre'u 1320 A.D.). He being an extraordinary man, the story of his life was written by the Dharmasvāmin rang byung rdo rje.

mkhas btsun yon tan rgya mtsho, a disciple of byan?g sems pa: he was born in the year Iron-Ape (lcags spre (10b) 1260 A.D.). At the age of 61, he occupied the abbot's chair. He handed over the chair in the year Fire-Male?Tiger (me pho stag 1326 A.D.), and died at the age of 68 in the year Fire-Female-Hare (me mo yos 1327 A.D.). His native place was speng pa of mdog. In his childhood he followed on numerous scholars at sa skya, such as 'jam? dbyangs pa and others, and studied well the Piṭaka. He journeyed to the Imperial Palace in the retinue of 'jam dbyangs ?pa. With 'jam dbyangs pa's, permission, he soon returned to dbus and gtsang. Having come to jo mo nang, he thoroughly absorbed the initiation rite (of the Kālacakra system), and the Tantra from both kun spangs pa and byang sems pa, and received their guidance. His Mind concentration acquired a lofty character, and he became the object of worship of all living beings.

SHES RAB RGYAL MTSHAN

kun mkhyen shes rab rgyal mtshan, who had become his disciple: he was born in the family known as ban tshang of dol pa. In his youth he became a disciple of skyi ston 'jam dbyangs pa, uncle and nephew. He studied the Piṭakas, such as the bka' chen bzhi and others, also the Tantras, such as the initiation of Vajramālā (rdo rje phreng ba) and others. He especially studied the exposition of the Kālacakra after the method of rwa by both the uncle and nephew ('jam dbyangs pa). He preached the bka' bzhi at sa skya from his youth. Inspite of the fact that others did not like him doing so, he also added the Bodhicar?yāvatāra, and preached it.

He visited the monastic colleges of dbus and gtsang, took part in debates and became known as a good scholar. He studied extensively with many teachers. At jo mo nang he obtained the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) together with its hidden precepts from mkhas btsun yon tan rgya mtsho. After having practi?sed the preceptse experienced an incomparable result.

At the age of 35 he occupied the chair. Till his death he used to preach and meditate (bshad sgrub). He erected the sku? 'bum mthong grol chen mo. Following his orders, two of his disciples ma ti pan chen and the lo tsā ba blo gros dpal revised (11a) in the year Wood-Male-Dog (shing pho khyi 1334 A.D.) the translation of the Kālacakra. The Great All-Knowing (kun mkhyen chen po, shes rab rgyal mtshan) having taken as basis this translation, composed an abridgement (bsdus don? piṇḍārtha) on the Great Commentary on the Tantra (rgyud? 'grel chen mo) and notes.

Further, he composed numerous short treatises (śāstras) on initiations and meditation, on astrology, etc. After the erection of the sku? 'bum chen mo, a new kind of meditation was produced in him. He said: It seems to me, that having created Mount Meru, the Ocean gushed forth.

He composed learned treatises on the doctrine of gzhan stong, such as the nges don rgya? mtsho, the bsdus don (its Summary), and sa bcad (its analy?sis), a commentary on the Uttaratantra (rgyud bla ma), the Abhisamayālaṃkāra, a Commentary on the General Doctrine (bstan pa spyi 'grel), the bka' bsdu bzhi pa, and others, which filled dbus and gtsang.

When many scholars, disagreeing, with his theory (grub mtha'), came to discuss the matter with him, their refutations were melted similar to snow when reaching the ocean.

Having installed the lo tsā ba on the abbot's chair, he proceeded to dbus, took up residence in lha sa and taught the guide-book on the Sadaṅga-yoga. The territory of lha sa became filled with (monks) practising ritualistic dances (nyams ?skyong ba'i gar).

Later he proceeded to dpal jo mo nang, and at the age of 70 in the year Iron-Female-Ox (rags mo glang ?1361 A.D.) proceeded to Sukhāvatī. His disciples kun spangs chos grags dpal bzang po, phyogs las rnam rgyal, nya dbon kun dga' dpal, and many others were learned men, who practised the Sadaṅga-yoga. They filled all the mountain valleys and lands of dbus and gtsang with adepts (sādhaka) practising the Sadaṅga-yoga. This Meditative Lineage spread greatly in khams also. Even nowadays there appear to exist numerous adepts (sādhakas) observing the rule of the periods of three half-months and three years on the banks of the rma chu.

(PHYOGS LAS RNAM RGYAL)

Now the Dharmasvāmin phyogs las rnam rgyal (bo dong phyogs las rnam rgyal): He was a native of mnga' ris and was born in the year Fire-Male-Horse (me pho rta 1306 A.D.). In his youth he proceeded to dbus and studied at chos? 'khor gling the Sūtra piṭaka, such as the Praj?apāramitā, the Nyāya, and other branches of knowledge. He became a great scholar. He also took part in debates in both dbus and gtsang. Once when he was taking part in a debate, he met the Dharmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po shes rab rgyal mtshan, and was filled with faith. He took up residence at jo nang proper, and obtained from kun mkhyen chen po the exposition of the Tantra and the initiation rite of the Kālacakra, together with the hidden preceptss well as many other doctrines. He practised the preceptsd an excellent mystic trance was produced in him. He regarded kun mkhyen chen po as the chief among his teachers. kun mkhyen chen po's disciple byang? pa ta'i dban pa after consulting kun mkhyen chen po, and his disciple, founded the monastery (chos sde) of ngam rings. kun mkhyen chen po spent some time there. Then he entrusted (the monastery) to phyogs las rnam rgyal, and himself proceeded to jo mo nang proper.

phyogs las rnam rgyal taught the Piṭakas for a considerable time, in particular the Praj?apāramitā class and Logic. He gathered round himself many clever disciples. Later he handed over the chair to bstan pa'i rgyal mtshan, and at the age of 49 became abbot of jo mo? nang. After five years he handed over this monastery also, and proceeded to dbus. At 'tshal dbus gling (%) he preached to a large congregation of disciples the initiation rite of the Kālacakra-Tantra and the hidden precepts. After that he journeyed towards yar klungs. When he was residing at rngor, the lo tsā ba byang chub rtse mo heard from him the higher initiation (mchog dbang) of the Kālacakra. Having come to yar klungs, he stayed at khra 'brug (%) and other places, and established numerous disciples on the virtuous path. After that he pro?ceeded to gtsang and took up residence at se mkhar chung.

His life: he was born in the year Fire-Male-Horse (me pho? rta 1306 A.D.) and lived to the age of 81, in the year Fire-Male-Tiger (me pho stag 1386 A.D.).

(?GOS GZHON NU DPAL?S? TEACHER, SANGS RGYAS RIN CHEN PA)

My Teacher sangs rgyas rin chen pa obtained (the Doctrine) from him. He was born in the year Earth-Female-Hare (sa mo yos 1336 A. D.) at sne'u mkhar as son of mkhas grub chos dpal pa, holder of the Lineage of scholars and meditation. Possessed of the spiritual heritage (gotra) of the Mahāyāna, in his child?hood he never quarrelled with his playmates. From his youth, he listened to the exposition of numerous secret doctrines (gter? chos) of his ancestors, such as the exposition of the Hevajra?-Tantra (brtag gnyis) according to the method of rngog, the (Vajra)kīla (phur bu), and Hayagriva Cycles of the "Old" believers (rnying ma), the bla ma gsang 'dus, and other texts.

After that he journeyed to rtses thang and attended on chos seng pa, the Great, and the ācārya 'od zer ?dpal pa, studied the Praj?apāramitā, and took part in philoso?phical debates. After that he took up the study of the Pramānavārtika. While he was memorizing the Commentary, he felt a desire to hear the (exposition) of the Kālacakra. He then obtained from the lo chen byang chub rtse mo on one occasion the complete text of the Great Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā), and on another occasion half of the text. He obtained the complete text on two occasions from the lo tsā ba nam mkha' bzang po.

From the Dharmasvāmin phyogs pa the complete initiation of the Kālacakra, and twice the exposition of the Great Commentary of the Tantra, as hidden precepts the Sadaṅga-yoga, and the Sevasādhana (u? rgyan bsnyen sgrub). From the Dharmasvāmin phyogs pa's disciple rtogs ldan sngo nal ma ye shes rgyal mtshan he obtained the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) together with notes by phyogs las rnam rgyal. From the ācārya 'jam sgeg he obtained the Śrī Paramārthasevā and the lta 'dod mdor bstan. From yar? 'brog kha ba lung pa zhang ston bsod nams grags pa he obtained the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) together with notes by kun mkhyen chen po. From ri ston blo chen 'od {R 780} he obtained the translation of the Commentary on the Tantra by lo brags pa, which was handed down from man lungs pa and the lo tsā ba grags pa rgyal mtshan, and the Sekoddeśa?ṭikā of Nā-ro-pa.

When kun mkhyen then po came to lha ?sa, he took up the final monastic ordination in his presence, and obtained from him several of the lesser doctrines. Among these he held in high esteem the method of phyog las rnam? rgyal. After that he consecrated himself to meditation.

During his practice of the Sadaṅga-yoga, he suffered during nine years from a disease and felt the upper and lower parts of his body burning as if scorched by glowing charcoal. However he did not interrupt his meditation. Having been relieved of his affliction, his meditation greatly improved. He preached the exposition of the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā). He constantly gave guidance to numerous disciples in the practice of the Sadaṅga-yoga, who included priests and laymen, males and females. During a considerable time he laboured for the welfare of others. He passed away at the age of 86 in the year Wood-Male-Dragon (shing pho? 'brug 1424 A.D.). He attended on the Blessed Maitreya in the Abode of Tuṣita, which had been the abode of his former incarnations. I obtained from him the complete initia?tion rite of the Kālacakra, as given in the book on the maṇḍala (12b) rites composed by kun mkhyen chen po (shes rab rgyal mtshan). I also obtained the text of the Great Commentary on the Tan?tra (Vimalaprabhā), the guide-book on the Sadaṅga-yoga, the Sekoddeśa with the commentary by Nā ro pa, as well as other commentaries (on the Kālacakra) by Bodhisattvas.

The rin po che bsod bzang ba also studied thoroughly the Kālacakra with its branches and secret precepts under the Dharmasvāmin phyog las rnam? rgyal and the scholar nya dbon. During a considerable time he looked after disciples by bestowing on them guidance, expositions and initiations. He also composed a text-book on initiation rites (dbang sgrub). and became the Teacher of all great men. The Dharmasvāmin de bzhin gshegs pa and mthong ba don ldan also became his disciples. This yogeśvara who had attained the stage of a scholar and a siddha, passed away at the age of 93 in the year Water-Female-Ox (chu mo glang 1433 A.D.). His disciple the dka' bcu pa pad ma bzang po ba expounded on many occasions the commen?tary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā), as well as composed a large commentary on the Vimalaprabhā. Further, the Dharmasvāmin chos bzang nyi ma, a disciple of rin po che bsod? nams bzang po, founded the hermitage of g.ya' snang, and upheld the Doctrine by preaching the Kālacakra, as well as by meditation. There appeared many adepts (sādhakas) who concentrated solely on the practice of the Sadaṅga-yoga.

Again, 'jam dbyangs chos kyi mgon po ba, a disciple of kun? mkhyen chen po, took over the chair of g.yag sde pan chen,(%) and for a long time preached the Kālacakra. He had many learned disciples, including ?jam dbyangs rin rgyal ba and others. Having come to the monastic college of rtses thang, he preached the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) to many piṭakadharas, of whom the best student (gsan pa po) was the mahā-upādhyāya rin po che rgyal? mtshan bzang po.

(RGYAL MTSHAN BZANG PO)

He was born in the year Iron-Male-Tiger (lcags pho stag 1350 A.D.), when bu ston rin po che was 61, He studied all the Piṭakas, and especially the "Four Books" (bka' bzhi), at gsang phu and rtses thang. He was greatly attached to the' practice of the Pratimokṣa, and possessed an excellent bodhicitta. He studied under 'jam dbyangs chos ?mgon po, and having become learned in the Kālacakra, he used to say (jokingly) that all the passages (in the Vimalaprabhā) uttered by Avalokiteśvara, which said (that the rest of the text) was easily understood, represented a prophecy indi?cating him (for he had understood them without difficulty).

He benefitted a multitude of people by preaching to them. He composed in verses a ritual book on the utpannakrama degree of the Kālacakra, and made the Kālacakra the object of his constant meditation. He heard the hidden precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga from sangs rgyas blo gros pa, the mahā-?upādhyāya of the tshogs chen mo bas (%). He was of benefit to others by preaching to them, and passed away at the age of 76 in the year Wood-Female-Serpent (shing mo sbrul 1425 A.D.).

(STUDENTS FOLLOWING SHES RAB RGYAL MTSHAN)

My Teacher Sakyaśrī was a disciple of 'jam dbyangs chos mgon po, and had studied extensively the Kālacakra. He also listened to its exposition by the mahā-?upādhyāya rin po che rgyal bzang ba and the rin po che bsod bzang ba. He also listened to the exposition of most of the Kālacakra works of bu ston by a bla ma known as dbang rin pa, who resided at rgyal lha khang, ('phan po), a direct disciple of bu ston rin po che.

The mahā-?upādhyāya las kyi rdo rle revealed to him that he had been in a previous life a kalyāṇa-?mitra of snar thang (%) learned in the Kālacakra. In a dream he saw himself climbing a long stairway, and when he had reached the bum pa (the spherical part) of a caitya, he saw in the corner of a shining maṇḍala of Kālacakra the Dharmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po. Since he saw himself being blessed by dol po pa, he used to say that he had understood many doctrines. He proceeded to Sukhāvatī at the age of 80 in the year Earth-Male-Dragon (sa pho 'brug 1448 A.D.).

Further, the ?upādhyāya of je rdzin tshogs pa, named rin? chen tshul khrims, obtained the Kālacakra system together (13b) with its hidden precepts from the Dharmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po. He practised meditation and attained great wisdom.

His disciple zho lung mtsho chen po benefitted numerous living beings with the help of precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga. The disciple of rin chen tshul khrims pa, the Dharmasvāmin bsod nams rgyal mtshan possessed a perfect knowledge of the Sadaṅga-yoga and guided numerous disciples. Again, the disciple of kun mkhyen chen po, 'jam dbyangs blo gros rgyal mtshan, known as sman ?chu kha pa, looked after many disciples with the help of initiations, by preaching to them the Tantra, by expositions, and hidden precepts.

Part 11 (Mahamudra)

PART 11 (DA): Great Seal (Skt. Mahāmudrā) [NO SEPARATE CHAPTERS] ?From the Blue Annals, chapter on the Great Seal (Skt. Mahāmudrā).? deb ther sngon po las / phyag rgya chen po?i skabs. 13 folios. Chandra 743 767; Chengdu 983 1014; Roerich 839 866.THDL.

Again on one occasion, ka ro pa said to him: "If you go to Tibet, you will benefit living beings". ni rū pa then said to him: "Would it be possible for me to do something of benefit to living beings?" Again on one occasion the Teacher said to him: "One day you will benefit living beings in Tibet. Go in any case to Tibet!" He inquired: "How shall I go there?" The Teacher said: "From here you should go to the island of rdo chu. You won't be harmed by the dangers of the frozen river. There exists an island of dākinīs, and the dākinīs will assist you and bless you".

Then ni rū pa following his instructions, proceeded as far as the rdo chu. This rdo chu whenever it touches (the body) of a living being, causes his death and transforms him into a stone. However it did not harm him. Then the dākinīs came out to meet him and honored him. He presided over a Tantric feast (gana?cakra) which was held on three occasions. Then the dākinīs delivered a prophecy which said: "You, go to Nepal! There you will meet a young Tibetan, possessed of (auspicious) marks, who was ordained in his youth, and is endowed with wisdom. His time (i.e. death) having come, you must perform the cons?ciousness transference (gron ?jug) rite, and then go to Tibet. We shall protect you from accidents, and shall assist you." Then the Venerable ni rū pa proceeded to Nepal, and there met skor, the Junior (skor chun ba), at the residence of the alms giver bha ha. Then ni rū pa entered the body of the deceased, skor hun ba. His former body was cremated, and he then proceeded to Tibet (in his new body). At first he went round as a beggar. The Venerable ka ro pa and his wife having come to lhasa, met him. From beyond a sand place the Venerable ku mu da ra (kumudarā) addressed him, saying: "praj?ākīrti!" He asked her: "How did you get here?" The woman said: "The Venerable ka ro pa is also staying here. We came here because an accident is due to happen to you". He 'saluted (them), circumambulated {R 855} round them, and placed their feet on his head. The Teacher (ka ro pa) blessed him. He used to say: "Because the Teacher had blessed me, when gye ru śe'u chun pa had decided to kill me, the accident did not take place". While in lha sa on one occasion he listened to the exposition of the dbań rnam nes (abhisekanirukti). Then he saw his Venerable Teacher and his wife off to gun?than in man yul. Having returned, he put on the dress of a pandita of ?ans glin, and proceeded (on his journey), and thus became known as the "Indian of Zans glut who had come to Tibet". Then he put on a Tibetan dress, and preached the Tantric doctrine for twenty-one years to disciples, including thirteen monks and others, bestowed initiations, and prepared his own translations (without the help of lo tsā bas) of numerous Tantric texts. He also preached numerous works belonging to the Tantric class and many texts (belonging) to the class of hidden preceptsd thus helped to spread the profound Tantras of the Holy Doctrine, as well as the essential teachings. In general, from the age of five till the age of twenty-one, he continued his studies. At the age of twenty, he proceeded to Tibet. From the age of twenty-one, he expounded the essential meaning (of the doctrine) and passed into Nirvana in the year Water Male Horse (chu pho rta? ? 1102 A.D.), aged forty-one. He taught the Doctrine to chań ra śes rab sen ge. The latter to (his) son ye śes see ge. The latter to glan ston of khams. The latter to the bla ma brag pa chen po. The latter to the bla ma myan? chen po. The latter to sans rgyas ?jo sras. The latter to the ācārya sak śe. The latter preached it to the bhiksu Ratnesvara. Though this skor had been a great siddha and had spent a considerable time in Tibet, the present day kalyāna mitras do not attach great importance to him. Therefore I have written (his) life story at some length. Again, when the Indian vajrapāni (phyag ua) went for 'Tantric practice, and was begging in Nepāl, he was wonder?ing {R 856} whether he would be able to spread the Doctrine in Nepāl.

He thought that he would be able (to do so). Later when he reached the age of fifty, he came to ye rań and settled there. He was met by Tibetan scholars, such as 'brog ?jo sras and others who asked him to preach the Doctrine to them. He bestowed on them the following doctrines: the basic text of the grub s?in (Cycle of Dohā) to?gether with addenda, the nine "bits" (brul tsho) which follow?ed on the Sūtras, the nine "bits" of, precepts which followed on the Tantra of the "Father" class (pha rgyud), the nine "bits" which followed on the Tantras of the "Mother" class (ma rgyud), in all twenty-seven, and bound them with the four mudrās i.e. the karma mudrā (las kyi phyag rgya), the dharmamudrā (chos kyi phyag rgya), the mahāmudrā (The Great Seal), and the samaya mudrā (dam tshig gi phyag rgya).

He also preached them the six "links" the theory accompanying tradition and reasoning, meditation accompanied by experience, prac?tice suitable for the present time, results producing benefit to others, the Path accompanied by the signs of the Inner Heat, and Initiation accompanied by precepts. Among the chief texts were: the "Seven Classes of Realization" (grub pa sde bdun), the gsań ba grub pa of mtsho skyes (saroruha, padmavajra), the rgyud ma lus pa'i don ńes par skul bar byed pa (sakalatantrasambhavasa?codanī śrīguhyasiddhi nāma,), the thabs dan śes rab grub pa of yan lag med pa'i rdo r?je (anańgava?jra; praj?opāyavintścaya?siddhi), the ye śes grub pa of Indrabhūti (j?ānasiddhi nama sadhana), the g?is med grub pa of laksmīkara (advayasiddhi?sādhana nāma), the lhan chig skyes grub of dombhī heruka (śrī sahajasiddhi nāma), the gsan ba chen po'i de kho na ?id grub?pa of dā ri ka pa (Dārika), and the dńos po gsal ba'i r?jes su gro ba'I de kho na ?id {R 857} grub pa composed by the yoginī tsi to (cinta). The Essential: the three dohās: the "King" dohā, the "Queen" dohā, and the "Subjects" (dmańs) dohā. Further, the dbań ńes?bstan (sekanirdeśa nāma,) composed by Maitrī pa.

Lesser texts, such as the bdag med ma gsal?ba and others (nairātmya prakasa), the de kho na ?id bchu pa'i 'grel pa composed by sahajavajra (lhan chig skyes pa'i rdo r)e, Tattvadasatika), the gNas pa bsdus pa (sthitisamuccaya), the rdo r?je'i tshig 'byed (vajrapāda nāma) composed by phyag na (vajrapani), the bla ma brgyad pa'i rim pa (guruparamparakramopadeśa nāma), the śes rab ye śes gsal ba (praj?āj?a?naprakāśa) composed by devākara?candra, the dbań ńes bstan gyi 'grel pa (sekanirdeśapa?jikā) composed by rāmapāla, the phyag?rgya b?i r?jes su bstan pa (caturmudtāniścaya) composed by the ācārya nāgārjuna. The above were known as the "Cycle of Lesser Texts." After that 'brog ?jo sras having invited the bla ma vajrapāni (phyag na) to Tibet, the latter while residing at chu sgo, of gtsan, preached extensively the mahāmudrā doctrine to Tibetan scholars. Among his disciples were: śe sńon byan 'bar, zan sna riń mo, khams pa rgwa ston, spu hrańs nag po śer dań, 'brog lo sras rdo r?je 'bar, 'or brgyad stun chun, kluń śod pa khyuń khri, khyi'u brtson 'grus, ba reg thos pa dga', brań ti blo gros dbań, bra'o 'bum la?bar, brag pa dkon grags, se ston sgra gc?n zin, mtshur ?'dbyig gi rgyal mtshan, the four disciples lo tsā bas ? nag tsho tshul khrims rgyal ba, rma ban chos 'bar, gnan dharma?grags, and mchun ye śes 'byun gnas. One could increase the number of the above disciples by saying the "Thirty Tibetan scholars." When 'brog ?jo sras invited vajrapāni (phyag na), he promised him eighty golden srańs. During the performance of the funeral rite for his father, he presented {R 858} him with fifty golden srańs packed together as eighty srańs , bla ma phyag na's attendants having weighed the package, discovered that there were only fifty (srańs ). The bLa ma became displeased and said: "It is improper for 'Brag 1o sras to tell me lies! If so, his father also could not be a genuine (teacher), for it is said: ?The father's behavior will be manifested by the son?.? Saying so, he suddenly slashed his belly with a razor. His attendants were frightened, and began to weep, but he said to them: "If you don't like it, nothing will happen," and passing his hand over the wound, he caused it to disappear without leaving even a scar. He then continued his journey towards India and Nepal (lho bal).

The eight signs of his miraculous power (grub rtags brgyad): (1) when a venomous snake attacked him, he drove it away with the help of the yamāntaka?yoga spell (gśin r?je gśed kyi rnal 'byor), (2) when he came across a mad elephant, a 4ikini assisted him in driving the animal way. This dākinī then uttered a prophecy, and he acting accordingly proceeded to a town, where lived an old brāhmana with a dākinī as wife. The two kings of oddiyāna were waging war against each other. The king, a bhram who was a "seven born" was killed by the other king's minister moń rtse moń ga. He hit him with a diamond pointed arrow between the eye brows. The corpse of the king was then torn to pieces by dākinī s. The wife of the old brāhmana secured the head (of the dead king), and brought it to her house. The brāhmana rebuked her. She 'told him: ?Because of a karmic bond (las 'brel), I attended on you. Now, if you don't need me, I can go," and saying so, she presented the head (of the dead {R 858} king) to vajrapāni, and herself passed out. vajrapāni hid the skull underground. Then a sound resounded in the sky and he understood that (the skull) possessed miraculous powers (3). He again took it out from underground. He kept it carefully and obtained miraculous powers. He used to pour a little wine into it, and kept it inside a vase, which became filled with wine. While walking along the bank of the Ganges, two d?kinis presented him with a meditative string (sgom thag) made of stones without joints (4). He manifes?ted the face of vajra yoginī to his disciples performing the "homa" offering of Vārahī "with three vases" (phag mo bum gsum pa ? some mandalas of vajravārahī have triangles, in each of which is represented a vase or skull cup) (5). He gathered the dung of a red cow before it had fallen on the ground, placed it in a pot made of precious substances, then placed fruit on it, and having blessed it, produced fruit without end (6). On the bank of the river Ganges even kings used to be attacked by robbers, but he was able to render the robbers, bodies rigid, with the help of the yamāntaka samādhi(7). When ?jo sras rdo r?je 'bar offered him gold, he cut his stomach with a razor and this was said to have been his eighth' accomplishment (miracle). Also there existed a story that when zla ba 'od zer (gyi ?jo lo tsā ba), son of 'khon phu ba, came to Nepāl, he perceived many wonderful signs of siddhi performed by vajrapāni. The disciple of vajrapāni the kKashmirian Dharmaśri, called the "One-eyed", accompanied the Teacher (on his journey to Tibet). He preached extensively the Cycle of Mahamudrā. Having consulted his Tibetan disciples, he composed a Commentary on the śatasāhasrikā praj?āparamitā and the "Key to Sancaya" (sdud pa'i Ide mig, praj?āparamitākośatāla nama). Again among the disciples of vajrapāni (phyag na) we find: la stod gtsań śod pa, śer sgom dar? seń, ?jo btsun me 'bar, ?an ded po luń pa, go luń pa grub? {R 860} thob btsun pa, mna' ris chań chuń pa, la stod na zlum pa, mkhan po sńin po rgyal mtshan, mkhan po rgyal mtshan?'od, the upādhyāya Kam mkha' rgyal mtshan, '?jam dbyańs rin chen bzan po, and mi ?ag śes rab bzań po. From the Venerable ri mi 'babs pa, I obtained the guide book composed by mi ?ag pa. Thus the Doctrine which had originated from vajrapāni and his disciples became known as the ' Upper" school (stod lugs) of mahamudrā.

a su: His grandfather was a pandita, who had come from India, and was the house priest of the bha ros in Nepāl. His son, who was uneducated, became the servant of bha ro. a su was the latter's son. From his childhood he possessed a very sharp mind, and was distinguished by wisdom. He used to carry goods as far as the frontier of India (rgya) and presented them to his master bha ro who was pleased, and told him: "Now I shall give you a house". A su told him: "I don't want a house! I prefer religion. Please permit me to enter religion". bha ro gave him his permission. At first he obtained many initiation rites and Tantric commentaries, as well as hidden preceptsm a Nepalese pandita named dze hūm, or śāntibhadra. After that he obtained secret precepts from vajrapāni, realized the Truth, and became a saint (yań dag pa'i skyes bu). He had the intention of going to China and spent some time at sum 'phreń of 'phan yul. While he was preaching to many disciples, he married the lady of 'brom ('brom mo gza'), and a son' named grags pa sen ge was born to him. On seeing his son's face he gave up the idea of going to China, and spent a long time at rluń śod (near nag chu ka). rma sgom chos kyi śes rab met a su at rlun 'sod.

Later (a su) was invited by the alms?giver klu phyug and stayed at Upper 'brom. Here he preached his own doctrine, such as the Cycle of vajravārahī, the Dohā, and the Mahāmudrā, to an assembly of 10,000 monks. At that time the dharmasvāmin ras chuń pa also {R 861} met him and made the request that he might be instructed in the Doctrine. a su told him: "I have to support my wife and children. Go and beg, and present me with some barley!" ras chuń pa having collected much barley offered a su twenty donkey loads of grain. a su had four sons grags pa sen ge, chos kyi brags pa, Indu, and dbań he. (His) daughters were named: lha mo, 'dre mo, and mi mo. Altogether he had seven children. The Venerable grags pa sen ge mastered the theories of his father,' and an understan?ding of the mahāmudrā, lofty as sky, was born in his Mind. He perceived all worldly objects as a dream and illusion. He was a yogin who had obtained the two kinds of siddhis.

chos kyi grags pa: In general, he was learned in the characteristics common to all things (sāmānya laksana), and in the particular essence of the elements of existence (sva laksana). In particular, he became very efficient in the (practice) of the doctrine of the mahamudrā. lndu and dbań ńe were not able to continue the Spiritual Lineage (of their father). grags?pa seń ge's son was the siddha mgon po, his younger brother .was Sans rgyas sgom pa. Then seń ge grags. The youngest was the ācārya bal po '?jig rten. Now the siddha mgon po: He studied the doctrine of the mahāmudrā and meditated on it. He became a great scholar, and propitiated the tute?lary deity (yi dam) vajravārahī, and had a vision of the goddess. As his servants he employed loka dākinīs. The dharmapāla nātha (Mahākāla) and the eight classes of gods and demons offered him their life mantra (srog s?in). He became a yogin possessed of two kinds of siddhis (mchog gi dńos grub and thun mońs dńos grub). sańs rgyas sgom pa: having no attachment towards the lofty seat of his forefathers, he cast (it) away as spittle. Having cut off his attachment towards food and drink, he practiced austerities, subsisting on water (only). The understanding of the mahāmudrā was produced in him. He was a man whose individual practice did not contradict his religious beliefs. The ācārya bal po '?jig rten: Because of {R 862} accumulated former good fortune, he was born as son of a nephew of benevolent forefathers. He gladdened his elder brothers and grasped the thoughts of former teachers. From the high seat of his forefathers, he taught the precepts of the mahāmudrā, similar to a shining sun, and removed the darkness of living beings. He had visions of tutelary deities, and employed dākinī s as servants. He used to hold discussions and give orders to the dharmapāla lcham dral (mahākāla and Ekajatī) 'and dam can pho mo (vajrasādhu and r?jo rje gyu sgron). Those who had been the spiritual disciples of the bla ma skye med: the "Four Pillars of Medi?tation" (sgom ka ba bit), the "Six Beans" (gdun drug), the "Three sons of gyor po ba," dmag pa sgan, and others. The "Four Pillars": sgom tsho of rgyal, sgom tsho of grab, sgom tsho of Upper bya ma luń, and sgom tsho of kLags. The "Six Beams" (gduń drug): rwa lo tsā ba, ba tshab lo ?tsā ba, dol po ye śes, the kalyāna mitra g?an, and others.

Among the three sons of gyor po: rog pa dmar ba rdor? sen, ?an bra 'o brag rtsa ba, rluń ston rdo r?je bla ma: more over mhla' ris par pu ba, sgan ston 'od 'bar, spań ston chhos? 'bar, and others. It was (incorrectly) stated that among them rog rdor set taught sańs rgyas brtsag son. The ācārya rlut ston pleased his teacher with the three kinds of joy, and an understanding of the mahāmudrā was born in him. 'He collected the essence of the Mind of bal po skye med. He excelled the other disciples, and acquired the faculty of preach?ing the dohā in detail. The siddha mgon po and sańs?rgyas sgom pa obtained the doctrine from him. Bal po '?jig?rten obtained the Doctrine from him, and his brother. dol?pa ?jo sras obtained it from the latter. Again, the one named the bla ma mńa' ris pa was ordained in his youth, and con?ducted extensive studies. He especially preached on about four?teen occasions the vinayamūlasūtra (Pratimoksa sūtra).

Having heard that the bla ma vajrapāni possessed a miraculous hidden precept of the Venerable dbu bead ma (vajravirāhi with several heads), he proceeded to ask for it. The bla ma {R 863} vajrapāni said to him: "Do you desire the sublime or the ordinary realization (mchhog gi gńos grub and thun mońs kyi dńos grub)?" mna' ris pa replied: "I desire the sublime realization." Then the Teacher said: 'Well! You have grown old. I possess hidden precepts which were not given ?by me to any one else previously. They are called The Cycle of phyag rgya chhen po rde'u'. In it the Method (thabs), and the Wisdom (ses rab) are combined, and are used as a Path of Spiritual Training. The number of stages between the cause and Effect of Phenomenal Existence (samsāra) and the sahaja j?āna was counted with the help of 175 pebbles. It represents a commentary on the three basic texts in which not a single word had been added or omitted from the time of the great brāhmana (bram ze chhen po ? saraha) over three to the present time. There was no contradiction in regard to the meaning, and it was not defiled by persons who had broken their vows, and it was not intermixed with any other kind of method of salvation (preached by other Teachers). I shall bestow it on you!" Then having obtained the understanding from the Teacher, he stilled his Mind. Afterwards he proceeded to dbu ru 'brom pa. Because Teacher bal p? had acquired great fame, (mna' ris pa) was of the opinion that he (bal po ?jig rten) possessed a mahāmudrā doctrine which did not require even meditation, and so heard (its exposition). He then found out that the bla ma Bal po was preaching the basic texts combined with the theory, but used to leave out the Method (upāya). mna' ris pa told him: ?bla ma vajrapāni formerly gave me the 'Cycle of the Pebbles' (rde? u skor) in such and such a manner. But why do you, great Teacher, preach in this manner?" Bal po replied: "Tibetans prefer this sort of exposition, shallow and detailed. For this reason I have abstained from preaching the rde'u skor. But I shall preach it to you!" He then prepared a Tantric feast (gana?cakra) {R864}, presented his request, and received the (teaching).

He then discovered that it was not different from the former which he had obtained from the bla ma vajrapāni. 'Later rlun rdo r?je bla ma went in search of these hidden precepts. He bestowed on him (the precept) that corresponded to about 150 pebbles, and which followed on former precepts. bla?ma mna' ris pa for eight years acted as household priest of. bal po ('?jig rten). His disciple was gru śul ba. mNa' ris pa went to gru śul, but the elder (sthavira) did not admit him. While he was staying inside an empty enclosure, gru śul invited him inside, but he declined. When snow started to fall, he was again asked to come in, and entered (gru śul?s house). On seeing the painting (thań ka) representing the Spiritual Lineage (of the mahāmudrā doctrine), he inquired: "Have you faith in it?" ?Yes, I have", gru śul ba replied. "Do you know their precepts?" ?I don't know", gru śul replied. "Well, I have them", and saying so mna' ris pa bestowed on him the complete precepts during eighteen days. gru śul ba presented to him five "?o" of gold "la thub" (a sort of gold), and mna ris pa said: ?I do not need it," and did not accept it. mna' ris pa said: ?Next year you should come to chu bo ri on a certain date". Then having fixed the date, mNa' ris pa departed. When the time came for him to return, Gru śul ba went to chu bo ri, and dis?covered that the Teacher had reached there five days earlier. He (gru śul ba) spent there one month and practiced secret observances (gsań spyod), and nobody knew where he went, and where he died. The scholar Par pu ba blo gros seń ge obtained from him the mahāmudrā of the Cycle of the dohā. He (par pu ba) also composed eight text books (yig sna), such as the ?Summary of the three sections of the dohā", its commentary and a running commentary ('brel '?jug), etc. These text books spread throughout all quarters. His dis?ciples were: sgyer sgom chen po, sańs rgyas dbon po, bla ma brag 'bur ba, śug gseb ri pa, the dharmasvāmin bla ma dam pa, mi ?ag śes rab bzań po, and the dharmasvāmin {R865} ?Who d?jid not descend from the mountain" (chos r?je ri mi? 'babs pa) bsod nams rin chen. The latter bestowed on me the dohā according to the system of par (par pu ba).

The Cycle of a su became known as the ?Lower" school (smad ?lugs) of the mahāmudrā. Again, the "Later" translation (phyi ?gyur): When vajrapāni became old, nag po ser dad mna' ris stayed with him in Eastern India, and obtained (from him) the Ten texts of the mahāmudrā, the ?large" and ?lesser' recensions of the dohā (dohākośagiti), the sku'i mdzod 'chi med rdo r?je (sku'i mdzod 'chi med rdo r?ji glu, kāyakosāmrtavajragīti), the gsun gi mdzod ?je?i dbyans rdo r?je (gsun gi mdzod ' ?jam dbyans rdo r?j'i glu, Vākkosarucirasvaravajragīti), the thugs kyi mdzod skye med rdo r?je (thugs kyi mdzod skye med rdo r?je?i glu, cittakosāja?vajragiti), the sku gsun thugs yid la mi byed pa'i mdzod (sku gsuń thugs yid la mi byed pa ?es?bya ba, kāyavākcittamanasakāra nāma), the sgom rim drug pa (bhāvanākramasatka nāma), the 'chi kha ma'i gdams nag ('phags pa 'da' ka ye ses les bya ba theg pa chen po'i mdo, ārya ataj?āna nāma maha?yānasatra), the r?og pa med pa'i rgyud (rgyud kyi rgyal po r?og pa med pa ?es bya ba, anā?vita Tantrarāja). He (nag po śer dad) was the disciple of 'gos lo tsā ba. Later he founded a monastery behind g?un gru sna, and became an official at lhan tsho. His death was caused by poison administered by the monks. bla ma so heard the hidden precepts from him, and skor churl ba. He especially spent six years in the presence of nag po (śer dad). When so became old, he gave (these precepts) to Alyah ston rtsags se. The latter gave them to the bla ma rog bde The Lineage of {R 866} Teaching (bka') of the grub s?iń, as well as that of the "Lesser? texts (twenty-six a ma na si), are not extant at present, but the Lineage of Authorization (lun) is as follows: sa ba ra, maitrīpa, rgya gar phyag na (vajrapāni), bran ti, gtsan yan dog 'bar, phyag zuns skyabs, rtsans 'byuń se, lche stop mdo sen, the bla ma ston sak, lce blo ldan sen ge, kun mkhyen 'phags 'od, bu ston rin po che, the lo tsā ba rin chen rnam ?rgyal, and thus to the Venerable grags pa rgyal mtshan. From him I obtained the "Seven Sections of grub pa" (grub pa sde?bdun) only, the mūla and the commentary of the de kho na nid bcu pa (Tattvada'saka nama).

From the birth of rgya g?r phyag.na to the year Fire Male Ape (me pho spre'u 1476 A.D.) 460 years have elapsed. The Book on the (doctrine) of the ?Great Seal'? (mahāmudrā), handed down by the jina maitri pa.

Part 13

Chapter 1, Female Cutting


PART 13 (PA): Cutting AND Karakpa [3 CHAPTERS]

?From the Blue Annals, chapter on Cutting and Kharakpa.?

deb ther sngon po las, gcod yul dang kha rag pa?i skabs.

12 folios. Chandra 869-892; Chengdu 1139-1172; Roerich 982-1005.

The (system) of gcod yul and kha rag pa.

Now I shall relate the (history) of the Lineage of the gcod yul of the Demons (bdud kyi gcod yul) of the Prajngāpāramitā (so called because the adepts of the gcod cayul adhered to the philosophic doctrine of the prajngāpāramitā). Lord Maitrīpāda (maitrī pa) had said that even in the Prajngāpāramitā mention was made of practices which imitated those of the Tantras. Because of this, the system was (originally) called spyod yul. How can it (i.e. gcod ) be similar to the Tantra? Because it agrees with the standpoint of the Hevajra Tantra, in a cemetery, in an empty cave (ma mo'i khyim), at night, in a solitary place, or in the neighborhood of a village (bas mtha).? Again it is said in the Hevajra Tantra: ?Having given up (his) physical body, he (the adept) should afterwards practice the rite.? And again it is: ?Verily, should an asura, even one equal to Indra, walk in front of you, you should not be afraid of it, and should walk on in the manner of a lion.? (The system) was also called the Prajngāpāramitā cutting (the influence) of demons.?

Again, because it is said in the prajngāpāramitāsangcayagāthā : ?A Bodhisattva endowed with the power of learning (mkhas? stobs ldan) cannot be overcome or shaken by four demons, because of four reasons: because he abides in the Void (stong par gnas pa), because be has not abandoned living beings, because he acts according to his word, and because he is endowed with the blessing of the shūnyatā.? The followers of the gcod system observe the above four religious injunctions, that is, they (accept) the theory of abiding in the Void, they (cultivate) compassion by not abandoning living beings, they (observe) the moral rule of the Bodhi?sattvas of acting according to one's word, and they strive for the blessing of the shūnyatā. These are the four (injunc?tions) which constitute the foundation of their spiritual training. The (injunction) of striving for the blessing of the shūnyatā (means) the taking of Refuge (skyabs su'gro ba), and the offering of prayers to the Teacher and the Spiritual Lineage. The acting according to one's own word, (means) to abstain from harsh actions (tho cao ma yin), and (to abstain) from breaking the vows, which were taken at the time of the manifestation of the Mental Creative Effort towards Enlightenment.

The non-abandoning ' of living beings, means a practice characterized by a great compassion and, abstention from doing harm to demons (mi ma yin) and others, by which one becomes free from any sort of ill-wish towards living beings, and makes them enter on the Path of Enlightenment. The theory of abiding in the Void, or shūnyatā, (means) firstly, the abandonment of the view which maintains the substantiality of the aggregate (of the elements), which constitute the individual stream (rang rgyud), and secondly, the non-acceptance of the notion of the reality and substantiality of other living beings. Now, on what ground is such a practice called gcod yul. In the {R 982}

Abhidharmakosha it said: ?Defilement (klesha), originates from attachments (phra rgyas ), the presence (nge bar gnas pa) of external objects, and a wrong conception of them.? That which is to be cut (is) Defile?ment (klesha, ngon moňs) (%). If these defilements have originated from attachments, external objects, and wrong conceptions of them, the yogin, as soon as he contacts an external object and rouses (in himself) past inclinations (bag cahags), should remove the Defilement, which was preceded by a wrong conception (of the external object). For this reason this system was called gcod yul.

The secret precepts of the system were handed down from dam pa. The (precepts) which were handed down by skyo bsod nams bla ma and ram par ser po of yar kluns, were called pho gcod , or ?Male gcod .? Those handed down by ma gcaig (labs sgron ma) were called mo gcod , or ?Female gcod .? dam pa sangs rgyas Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. say that lie had given three words of friendly advice (sňin gtam) to ma jo mchod gnas ma at the residence of rog pa of yar kluňs. Through them she attained emancipation.

She herself, used to say that she had obtained emancipation through them. She, a natural yogini, preached numerous secret precepts of her own. Now, why is it that one and the same thing was called by two different names: spyod, or ?practice?, and gcod, or ?cutting asunder.? Such is the case of other texts, also. For instance, the Lord of Wealth (nor gyi bdag po) was sometimes called vaishravana, which means ?Son of Learn?ing? (rnani thos kyi bu), and sometimes called vaishravana, which means ?Son of Rest? (ň al sos kyi bu). Also one and the same person, was sometimes called nāgabodhi, meaning ?The Enlightenment of a Naga? (klu'i byan chub), and {R983} sometimes called nāgabuddhi, which means ?Naga's wisdom? (kLu'i blo). In particular, in the shri shamputatantrarājatika?mnāyamangjarī nāma the word pilaba is explained by two words: ?thuň spyod, or ?drink and practice?, and ?thun gsod, or ?drink and cut?. One should understand (spyod and gcod ) in a similar manner.

13.1 Female Cutting (mo gcod kyi skabs. Chandra 870; Chengdu 1139; Roerich 980).

Labs sgron: her native place (was) khe'u gang. She was born to father cahos bla and mother kluňs tno 'bum Icam. It is said that she was the sister of the lo tsā ba khe'u gan 'khor lo grags. She received ordination in her childhood in the presence of gra pa mňon shes. She was an expert reader, and for a considerable time acted as reader of the prajnap?raimita for Gra pa. As a result of reading the prajnap?raimita a clear vision of the Void (shūnyatā) was produced in her.

About that tine she met dam pa. She being an expert reader, came once to 'dam bu to read (a sacred text). A native of gcaer groň named thod pa 'ba' re, who belonged to a family in which some twenty-three kalyāna mitras had appeared in succession, came there to perform a rite. She had intercourse with the man, and they became husband and wife, and the two went to kon po. People used to abuse her by calling her ?jo mo bk? logma (a ?nun who had violated her vows?). A daughter was born to them, who received the name of koň lcaam (?Lady of kon po?). En route to la?bar another daughter was born to them, who received the name of la lcaam (?Lady of the Pass?). When they came to gye, three sons were born (to them) at gaňs par spel cig ma: sňin po grub pa grub cahun and Yang grub. Later she again dressed as a nun, and shaved her head. She obtained the initia?tion {R 984} of the Cycle of māyā from skyo bsod nams bla ma, who was returning from a visit to khams. While she was sitting in the assembly during the initiation, a yogic insight was produced in her. She stopped listening to the remaining portion of the initiation rite, and went outside. Then others said: ?She didn't, complete her initiation.? But the Teacher said: ?She went away having obtained the initiation of the meaning, but you have obtained the initiation of the word only.? Later she received ordination, and stayed at various places according to her desire, preaching hidden precepts to her disciples. In particular, she made a long stay in the cave of zangs ri khan dmar attended by the Lady gyag mo. In this manner she filled the country of Tibet with the hidden precepts of gcod , and passed away at the age of ninety-five.

When dam pa (saňs rgyas ) visited Tibet, four black birds flew round dam pa. When they were seen coming, they transformed themselves into four dakinis: labs sgron of gye, ma ?jo byaň cahub of Upper gfial, zan mo rgyal ?mthin of gtsaň, and smyon ma (the ?Mad One?) of lha sa. ?jo mo byaň cahub of Upper gňal (possessed) a clear under?standing of the (Ultimate) State of Nature. With the help of her benevolent mind she greatly spread the Doctrine of the Buddha.

?aň mo rgyal mthin: She being afflicted by grief after her husband's death, dam pa bestowed (on her) the precepts which reach the absence of a link ('brel med) between mind and object (dňos), and she obtained emancipation.

lha sa ?i smyon ma: she used to settle disputes among the followers of the Doctrine, and is said to have been the person who had shown the King's Will (rgyal po'i bka' tahems) to Atisa {R 985}. The great ?Sons? on whom precepts were bestowed by Labs?sgron from Upper Yar (kluns) -- sň ags pa rgyal mtshan; from Lower Yar (kluns) -- an ston rin cahen 'bar; from Middle Yar (kluns) dre na ?jo sras and shud bu lo tsā ba -- the Four: rgyal ba grub be, rtogs ldan rdol po, saňs rgyas gňan cahun, and mno sgom cahen po -- the Four; bya ston klu sgrub, khu sgom cahos seň, snubs mo nam mkha' gsal, gra pa Hag ston, sha ston rdor 'dzin, spo ba sgom cahen, nag gi dbah phyug of dags po tshoň sde, rtsi rgyal ba of 'phanyul, and many others.

(Her) son grub cahe: In the beginning he was very mischievous, and became known as ?grub be, the Enemy of Goats?, (ra dgra grub ba). On one occasion he stole a goat belong?ing to the magician of steňs ka ba. After he had heard that the magician had performed a magic rite directed against him, and that many of his friends had died from it, he thought that his mother possessed the means to prevent the harm, and so went to his mother's residence. The mother said to him: ?You should be dead!? and saying so, she ran away. She then went to circumambulate the Mount tsha than. When she returned at dusk to her cave, grub be was looking for (his) mother. The mother and son met in the cave, and the mother said: ?You are not without luck!? She then imparted precepts to him, and said: ?Now you should lie down under the table with the offerings of the sorcerer. When he will place the offerings on the table, eat them!? He did so, and the magic power struck back at the sorcerer. At the age of forty-two, he entered the Gate of the Doctrine. After that he practiced meditation and penetrated the meaning of the Ultimate Essence (cahos ngid, the Absolute). He composed the following verse:

Mother, who first created my body and mind,

Mother, who provided me with victuals,

Who at last introduced my mind,

I salute and praise the gracious Mother!?

Later he stayed at the monastery of gye cahun glan lun, free from all hypocrisy, and became ?ig po, or ?mad ascetic?. He was able to subdue demons by his blessing. He was able to produce wisdom in all his disciples. He passed away at the age of eighty-nine. He had three sons: tshe dban, khu byug and rnal 'byor grags (born of his first wife).

kham bu yal le was born of another wife. Of tshe dban's three sons, rgyal ba ston gzuns lived in 'ri mo mdo of dags po, as foretold by his uncle. thod smyon bsam grub (sam po gans in yar kluns, sham po, n. of shiva) was known as the ?Snow?man (gans pa) residing on sham po gans? (sham po gans la b?ugs pa'i gans pa). skye med 'od gsal dwelt at a 'o mdo in Upper gnal. thod smyon bsam grub fought in his youth in gye and yar kluns, and could not be defeated by anyone. Having fallen ill with leprosy, he practiced meditation in the snows of ba yul. He was cured of leprosy, as a snake sheds its skin. He slept naked on the snow of sham po, and when the snow melted, his (body) sunk deep into it. People threw yak tails to him, and lie used them to make a garment and mat for himself. He also wore a tail as his hat. The fashion of the black hat of gans pas originated with him. He subsisted on water only. Later at cahu rgyud mkhar he partook of carrion.

At dran pa, having found scars on the nose of a leper, he sucked them, and his eyes filled with tears. Since that time his fortune increased. He presided over a Tantric feast held by dākinīs at ha'o gans and ?jo mo Kha?rag. He prohibited the killing of wild animals and fishing in the hills, from sil ma la kha as far as kon dan la. He built a hospice and provided food, protected the Doctrine, and became a matchless saint (siddha). He had twenty-one male and female disciples, and eighteen daughter siddhas among then. gans pa dmu yan was a matchless one. At the age of fourteen, when he wished to go to tsa ri, he was told by the ma mo {R 987} bde ldan: ?Stay on the snowpeak of sam bu, and imitate (your) father!? He remained. When he was going to khra ye gans, his garments were drenched by a poisonous shower. After fording a river, he felt a violent stomach?ache. He lay down, pressing his stomach against a cold stone, and fell asleep. At once he was cured of the illness. He acted as mediator between Tibet (Bod) and gser gyu. He accepted from nomads ewes only (in order to free them, a common practice among Tibetan lamas). It is said he had more than a thousand shepherds, wearing quivers. Thus he became the wealthiest man. He introduced the custom of the continuous recitation of the, bka 'gyur.

After his cremation, numerous relics were left behind. His son (was) gans pa lhun grub. He spent nine years at sam bu in meditation, unseen by men. He made a round of 108 dangerous places, and did away with the apprehension (of demons). It is to be noted that he wore white sleeves (not a religious vestment). At the time of his death many relics were recovered (from the ashes). His son saňs rgyas bstan?bsruns: When he was three, he accompanied his father. From the age of twelve, he was installed by gods, demons and men. He mastered the spyod yul and rdzogs cahen, such as the yan bdag (a rngin ma deity, one of the bKa' brgyad), the gab pa (gab pa mnon phyun, name of a ruin ma book), and the Cycle of avalokiteshvara, such as the thugs kyi ngin?khu, the gsan Idan ('jim dpal gsan ldan, ārya mangjushrīnāma sangītisādhana and other Cycles of Yoga.

He mastered the tshe bdag, and other texts, and obtained the fame of one able to conjure and create storms. He also established an uninterrupted preaching in the lower part of the Valley, a meditative school in the upper part of the Valley and a monastic college in the middle part of the Valley. He protected the doctrine of his father and grandfather, and became its master. After his death, numerous relics were recovered (from. the ashes).

saňs rgyas bston bsruns had {R 988} four excellent sons: rtogs ldan rin cahen sen ge, the siddha cahos sgro ras pa, 'khrul iig dge bses byar po, and rgyud?'dzin rdo r?je .

He later on reaching the age of three, developed the faculty of prescience. At the age of five, he mastered meditation, and was able to preach the Doctrine. At the age of fifteen, he performed a funeral rite, and took over the chair of his forefathers. At the age of sixteen, he held a religious assembly at lho rgyud, and became famous as a learned man. He preached the Doctrine extensively. At the age of seventeen, he practiced meditation on the snow peak of sham bu.

Among his numerous Lineage-?holders (rgyud 'dzin) was his son Cans khrod ras pa. His name was skal ldan rdo r?je . From the age of three, he mastered the religious practice (spyod lam). When he was seven, his father died, and he journeyed to gsal rle gaits in company of sprul sku skyid 'bum. At the age of eleven, he obtained many expositions of the (nature) of the Mind, headed by the a ro khrid mo cahe. He practiced asceticism and self-immurement. At the age of thirteen, he was nominated to the abbot's chair of his father. From the age of fifteen to twenty-six, he stayed at sham bu gans. From the age of twenty-six, for twelve years, he secured many Teachings, hidden doctrines and mastered them. He labored greatly for the welfare of others, and passed away in the year Water-Female-Ox (cahu mo glan) at the age of sevent-one.

Among thod smyon's sons and daughters: zlos nam?mkha' rgyan, gans pa mu yan, and ston 'tsher. skal? Idan pa became a disciple of the three, brothers and sister. 'ban po myan cahos kyi sen ge became his disciple. Then sa ston rdor 'dzin, saňs rgyas myan ston, and skal Idan pa; further dur khrod 'og pa rtogs ldan dol po, and gtsang pa man gro ba, who preached to gye ston san rgyas of lho brag sribs mo ser phug. The latter taught it to sgom pa g?u n?chun pa. Ma gcaig's disciple khu sgom ghos sen: he was a native of sre mo khu, and listened (to the exposition of the doctrine) of the ?Great Achievement? (rdzogs chen), and {R 989} practiced solely meditation. Later he obtained from ma gcaig the Cycle of Meditation of the d?kinis (mkha 'gro fiams kyi skor). When ma gcaig grew old, he used to massage her feet, and seeing that she was not to live long, he asked her to impart to him the complete doctrine (of gcod). Accordingly she imparted to him the precepts of the Meaning of the Lineage of the Teaching. She also foretold him that he would benefit others. ma gcaig said: ?You should give this to don?grub (Son of ma gcaig) also.? He thought that he had to preach them to the latter, but the latter did not wish to listen (to the precepts), and for this reason it is said that don grub did not possess the meaning of the ?Lineage of Teaching.? He fell ill with leprosy, and proceeded to perform the gcod rite at a spring called cahu mig nag po mthon ba dug zin. After three days, he saw a vision that his heart was taken out, and carried away. After six days he saw that it was given back (to him). On the seventh day the leprosy was completely cured. He passed away at the age of fifty.

His disciple dol pa zan thal: he was a native of ?tshur ?phu. His clan (was) dol. He was the youngest of four brothers. In his youth he studied under the kalyāna mitra khyun for eight years the ?Six Texts of the Mādhyamaka.? He was hoping that he would be given, a new exposition (of the doctrine), and when this did not happen, he felt dis?appointed. He then presented his Teacher with his books, and images, and put on the white dress (of a layman). He then thought that he should practice meditation in a hermi?tage. He met khu sgom, and obtained from him the precepts of gcod . He used to visit places infected with dangers, and his yogic insight became equal to the Sky. He was the victor in debates. People used to say about him: ?there was a man wearing the gray clothes (of a layman), possessing a penetrating mind?. He became known as ?dol?pa, the Penetrating One? (dol pa zan thal). In his later life he stayed in Lower Lugs, preached the Doctrine, and passed away at the age of 56.

His disciple rgya nag gcaer bu: he was a native of khra?sna. On the whole, he studied extensively the (exposition) of the Doctrine. During his exposition of the doctrine of gcod at the monastery of yar kluns skya'o, dol pa zan thal came there and listened (to his exposition), but only confusion arose. Later he discovered that dol pa zan thal was more learned (than himself), and said: ?I used to sell whey in the country of curds. Now, pray give me all of yours!? Then he obtained the complete Cycle of gcod of ma gcaig. He used to visit places infested with dangers and performed gcod rites at the spring (zhu mig) of sbal 'dra of Yar kluiis. Though struck thrice by lightning, it did not harm, and he was freed from his illness. He subdued with the help of the gcod rite the Black 'ba' ra (n. of a demon). In later life he labored for the welfare of others at cahu bo ri. At the age of seventy, he said: ?When one wishes to merge one's own mind into the Absolute, one should do it in this manner,? saying so, a light having emerged suddenly from the crown of his head, he passed out. His disciple was saňs rgyas rab ston, a native of bzan phu brag dmar. He possessed an extensive knowledge of all the Tantras of the ?New? and ?Old? classes. Later he obtained from rgya nag gcer bu the hidden precepts of ma gcaig. Having given up life in his thought, he used to visit hermitages only, and passed away at the age of eighty.

His disciple saňs rgyas dge slon: he was a native of rnog caan, and belonged to the ba shi clan. He was ordained in his youth, and through study, removed (his) doubts. From saňs rgyas rab ston lie obtained the Cycles of gcod . He wandered about hermitages and perceived clearly the Ultimate Essence (cahos ngid). He looked after numerous disciples, and passed away at the age of 55. His disciple (was) sum ston ras pa who was a native of gra phyi, of the village of bya rog tshan. His father (was) the priest (mcahod gnas) dkon?mcahog and his mother mon re. He was the elder of his {R 991} sister. His name (was) byams pa. At the age of six, he obtained the initiation into transit meditation from the bla?ma zan at gra than, who said about him: ?This one will be of benefit to living beings!? At the age of fifteen, his parents died. He was afflicted with grief and took up ordination at lcaags ri, and received the name of bsod nams ?ses rab. He was also called dharmavajra. He followed on more than forty teachers, who included the ācārya bka' gdams pa, mngan?'chad pa, ?an lo tsā ba, zans ri rgyā ras pa, the pan cahen sāk ?srī , kham bu yal le, bra'o lo Isā, rog shes rab?'od, father and son, and others. He studied much the Tantras and Sutras. Before he had completed the study of minor trades (rigs pa phran tshegs), he followed on 151 teachers, and mastered the trades, even that of a goldsmith. After that he followed on the bla ma do pa, and at gye re a deep yogic insight was produced in him, by which he overcame the differ?entiation between that which is to be avoided and that which avoids. He also studied all the secret precepts of the gcod system.

His disciple was saňs rgyas ston pa. The latter's disciple mkhas btsun gzon nu grub. The latter's disciple gser?glin pa bkra sis dpal. The latter's disciple brag po cahe pa rdo r?je deal. The latter's disciple -- cahos sgo ba chos kyi rgya mtsho. The latter's disciple -- rgod phrug ras p a. His life-story was given in the Book on ni gu. The dhar?masvāmin rgod phrug ras pa gave the instructions to me. Further, rtsi dar ma of 'phan yul taught (the gcod system) to mi bskyod rdo r?je. He also wrote treatises. The Doctrine was handed down by him. dpal mkha' spyod pa also wrote a treatise on the hidden precepts (of gcod) as well as preached them extensively to others. The dharmasvāmin ran byun ba bestowed them on a mes byan chub rdo re. The latter bestowed them on his son the dharmasvāmin ri?ma 'babs pa (?One who does not come down from the moun?tain?) bsod nams rin cahen. The latter bestowed them on me. The above is (just) one branch.

Again, one named Dam pa dbUs pa was learned in the {R 992} texts and precepts of both the ?Old? and ?New? Tantras. He also possessed the precepts of the ?i byed, the ?Great Achievements? (rdzogs cahen), and others. At first he obtained the hidden precepts of gcod from ma gcaig. After the death of the Mother (ma gcaig), he attended for eighteen years on (her) son rgyal ba don grub. He also composed a treatise on precepts and became a Master of the Doctrine. He bestowed the precepts (of gcod ) on the bla ma rdo r?je bd e ba. The latter was affected by a magic rite performed by the magician (snags pa) nan rgyas, as a result of which his body became emaciated. Having heard about the fame of dam pa dbus?pa, be obtained the precepts of gcod and practiced them. He resided in a rock cave haunted by demons. He saw in a dream that at first he was fighting a black man, and that he remembered shūnyatā, and was able to defeat him. After that a snake came out of his nose, and a severe bleed?ing followed. Immediately after that a yogic insight into (the Ultimate) Nature was produced in him. His body (acquired the power) of moving faster than a horse. He bestowed the precepts on sgom pa g ?on nu ye ?ses. The latter, though possessing many preceptss afflicted by ill?ness, and obtained the precepts of gcod from rdo r?je bde ba. He used to visit many localities infested with dangers and overcame his ailment. A yogic insight was born in him. He cured many of tuberculosis (gcon can). He imparted the precepts (of gcod) to the bla ma mi bskyod rdo r?je. The latter was born at snge mo mkha' ru. He was a Tantric. He was harmed by a rite over a dead corpse (bam sgrub) which did not succeed, and his body became afflicted with tuberculosis. He met the bla ma g?on nu ye ?ses, obtained the precepts of gcod , practiced them, and restored his health. He also cured many who were suffering from tuberculosis. He bestowed the precepts (of gcod ) on the bla ma saňs rgyas ston pa, who was a native of ko ru of sgon ma. He was {R 993} ordained at gro sa and became learned in the Prajngāpāramitā, the bden gňis and in the systems of rma, so, and skam.

From mi bskyod rdo r?je he obtained the precepts of gcod and heard the complete (teaching) of the Lineage of Meaning (don brgyud) of all these (systems). A yogic insight was produced in him. He bestowed (the precepts) on the bla? ma lun phran pa chen po. He was also learned in the kāla cakra and the Prajngāpāramitā. He heard the precepts (of gcod ) from mi bskyod rdo r?je , and practiced them in a thorough manner. He bestowed them on the bla ma stan gcig pa g?on nu tshul khrims, who was also called ?jo stan than pa. He first proceeded to than sag and received ordi?nation. He studied the Prasannapad? (dbu ma tshig gsal ), the mādhyamakāvatāra and the `Tantric Cycles by nāgārjuna under gri'i lum pa. From the bla ma thar pa ba and dpyal lo tsā ba he obtained the Abhi?dharmasamuccaya and the Abhidharmakosha (mnon pa gon? 'og), the Prajti?p?ramit? and Logic together with the bsdus gra, the Sādhana, commentary and precepts of the kālacakra, the ?Six Doctrines? of Vārahī (phag mo dpy?l gyi cahos drug) according to the system of dpyal. Also many Tantras and sādhanas, such as the gshed dmar. While staying at jo stan' tshogs pa 'he fell ill with tuberculosis. He obtained the pre?cepts of gcod from the bla ma lun phran pa and meditated in a cemetery. Formerly he used to fall ill, whenever he felt cold, or hot. There he pressed his stomach against a cold stone, drank ice-cold water, and slept naked. He gave up himself saying: ?Illness (is) joy. Death (is) pleasure?. He practiced (the precepts of gcod) ?and on the eleventh day a foul odor came out of his mouth. On the twelfth day, about midnight, he vomited out all his ailments. About midday he was completely cured. Within half a month he succeeded in completing the study,? overcame his disease, and {R 994} a mystic, trance was produced in him. Whenever he came across fever, plague, cancer (lhog), thogs bcas and thogs med?kyi bdud, he gave himself up with the words: ?Illness (is) joy. Death (is) pleasure !? He intentionally contacted these diseases (thog?'gel drag po yed pa) and practiced (gcod). All ailments and demons used to vanish by themselves. Great was the benefit to living beings. He resided at gserlun of skyam. He bestowed the precepts (of gcod) on the bla ma bsam gtan?dar, whose native place was upper zim shi of gye. He was born to father spo ra dbon sesi and mother lomo bsam me. From his childhood he was endowed with faith, commiseration and wisdom. He received ordination at the residence of the bla ma ?jo stan pa. He made a thorough study of the uhya?samāja according to the method of Nāgārjuna, the Great Com?mentary ('grel chen) by Nā ro pathe Prasannapadā, the Mādhya?makāvatāra, the Sūnyatāsaptatikārikā nāma (ston ?id bdun-bcu?pa), the three Cycles of the Doha, and the Bodhicaryāvatāra (spyod ' ?jug). He obtained the sadangga (yoga) according, to the method of thar lo, the pa?cakrama (rim lnga dmar khrid skor), the thugs r?je ca hen po'i dmar khrid, the phyag chen ganggā ma, the blo sbyon (Mind Purification), the gcod yul la'u lag, the gnang thems bka' rgya ma, and other Cycles of gcod. He practiced according to each of them. During his study of the Doctrine at gser lun, he suddenly fell seriously ill. He told (people) to carry him to a mountain valley, where he could perform the gcod rite. His friends carried him to a place infested with dangers. There he performed the gcod rite, and a trance was produced in him. When the khri dpon (commander of 10,000 men) of gyam bzangs came from the North, and sent him an invitation, he ?thought that he should go and meet him. On the way to shugs he had a stroke (gnam gdon) and was unable to proceed further.? His atten?dant {R 995} carried him to a hermitage by the roadside. He showed his pulse to a medical practitioner (lha r?je) who said that if he would persevere in the treatment, he would perhaps remain alive. But he answered: ?I don't want any treatment! I shall carry on religious work!? After that they carried him to a rock cave near Gri mdo. There also a doctor was invited, who said that he failed to make him take the medicine. ?Don't stay near me!? said he, and asked them to go away. Then he gave himself up (to the practice which was expressed by the words):

?Illness (is) joy! Death (is) pleasure!? (na?dga' shi skyid). From the next morning he began to feel himself slightly better. After the lapse of three or four days, khri cahun 'od of gyam bzangs came there having taken with him a doctor and three or four carcasses (of sheep). The doctor examined his pulse and declared: ?The disease has been cured! What a great wonder!? His health became even better than before his illness. From thar pa gling pa he obtained the sgrol ma dkar mo'i tshe sgrub (the longevity rite of the White Tārā) and the khrid chen brgyad (dkarcahag tshig gi me-tog). From the bla ma bLo gros?dpal he obtained many Tantras, such as the Guhyasamāja, the rRakra yamāri, the initiation of the rdo r?je 'phreng ba, the sbyong rgyud, and other texts. From the bla ma Rin chen seti ge he obtained the complete initiation into the kālacakra, the initiation of Hevajra and Nairātmā, the Path & Fruit doctrine (Lam 'bras), together with its branches. At the age of 31, he occupied the chair of the bla ma lo stan pa. For twenty years he preached without interruption, throughout the four seasons. He made a round of localities infested with dangers, such as the ?Black Lake?

(mtsho nag) of dmar ro, yar lha sham bu, etc., and practiced gcod . When an internecine war broke out between gya? (bzangs) and phag ?(mo gru), he felt slightly afflicted in his mind, and founded the (monastery) of ldan mkhar dga' Idan. He obtained from {R 996} the bla ma chos dpal mgon po the complete initiation into the kālacakra, the Sadangga yoga (sbyor drug) according to the method of ro nan pa, and the Sevasādhana of u rgyan pa. From drung chos r?je pa he obtained the Sadangga (yoga) of the mahā upādhyāya bu (stos), the system of sron, the initiation into the guhyasamāja, its exposition and precepts (bshad bka'), and the detailed (dmar khyid) expositions of the pa?icakrama. From the bla ma rtogs ldan pa he obtained the ri chos skor (belonging to the ?Hermit? doctrine of yang dgon pa , the sevasādhana, and the Cycle of the upāya mārga. When?ever he felt ill, he never performed rites or took treatment, but practiced solely gcod . He lived in a hermitage without coming down from the mountain. His fame encompassed the Ten Quarters. The dharmāsvimin mi ?ag pa rin chen rgyal mtshan obtained (the gcod doctrine) from him. smen? 'dor ba of thel chos sgo (also) obtained (it) from him.

The Chapter on the ?Female? gcod (mo gcod ).

Chapter 2, Male Cutting

13.2 Male cutting (pho gcod kyi skabs. Chandra 883; Chengdu 1158; Roerich 996).

The (Line) known as ?Male? gcod (pho gcod ): Though smar ra ser po of yar klu ngs had visited Eastern and Western India, he did not succeed in obtaining the doctrine as desired by him. He then befriended some traders, and on the way to Tibet, came across an a tsa ra. He did not know whether the man was a heretic, or a Buddhist. As his companion he had a kalyāna?mitra named dnos grub, who possessed a staff made of black wood (cahu 'sing) with numerous ornaments carved on the four sides. The Indian ascetic said to him: ?Let me have it!? and he gave it away. Then the ascetic said: ?This is a heretical weapon with which to perform miraculous deeds! Though I know (how to work it), it is useless?, and saying so, he broke the staff. sma ra ser po then asked the ascetic's companion: ?Who is it?? and the latter replied: ?It is Dam pa!? They (sma ra ser po and the kaly?na mitra) then felt faith in him, and asked for instruction in the Doctrine. To dNos grub, (Dam pa) imparted preceptsd among them the one entitled ?External vision should not be taken inside, {R 997} etc.? (meaning that the Mind should be kept away from out?side impressions). di ngos grub having been convinced, accepted (dam pa) as his mūla guru (rtsa ba'i bla ma).

Then sma ra ser?po requested instruction in the Doctrine, and dam pa told him: ?A Doctrine, desired by you, is coming to you in the future.? sma ra ser po followed after dam pa and reached Idog stag ris. Dam pa took up residence in a hospice, and many people came to ask for his blessing. In particular, many who were blind and deaf were cured on the spot. When skyo sākya ye ses came to a religious assembly, there happened to come also two sons of a rich man of Upper myang (myang stod) who were showing the first symptoms of leprosy. The two were entrusted to the care of skyo. But the latter was only seeking wealth, and the health of the children did not improve. skyo heard that Dam pa had the power of curing instantly diseases. So he asked dam pa: ?I have two boys, the debris of a demon?s feast (meaning that their elder brothers were killed by demons). Pray bless them!? dam? pa replied addressing himself to sma ra ser po: ?Now the Doctrine desired by you has come!? He then imparted to skyo, his two disciples and sma ra ser po, the four, the precepts of gcod . (These precepts) sma ra ser po committed to writing and called them ?khrul tsho drug pa?. He did not commit to writing the verbal precepts. The two boys also practiced them and were cured of their disease. Both became devotees. skyo did not preach the precepts to others, but practiced them himself. Then being afraid that the Lineage may come to an end, he bestowed them on dbon po bsod nams bla nia only. skyo having gone to khains, bestowed on his return Journey the four Sections of the ?khrul tsho? (groups) on labs sgron. sma ra ser?po also abstained from preaching them to others, and cons?tantly practiced the method of (Vajra) Vārahī of had bu, as well as that of gcod . In his old age, he bestowed them on his attendant smyon pa be re, with the words: ?Practice {R 998} them yourself, but don't bestow them on any one else.? At that time both Icae stop and phug stong happened to stay at the monastic college (gra sa) of sha ston rdor 'dzin in phu?thang Icae ston fell ill.

He knew that be re knew the gcod rite and told about it to sha ston, who said: ?Go and ask him for the precepts!?

Ri khrod phug ston inquired: ?How will you, Teacher, go, without completing your studies here? I have been a hermit, and he might impart them to me. I am going there to make the request.?

rdor 'dzin said, ?Well, you might ask my friend lcae ston to present the request. You can tell him that he possesses an incontro?vertible precept of the Prajngāpāramitā handed down from dam pa (saňs rgyas ), and ask for it.?

phug ston acted accordingly, and made his request. The bla ma be re smyon?pa said: ?No one knows that I possess this doctrine! Did a demon tell it to you?? Again he asked:

?Do you really intend practicing it?? ?Yes, I want to practice it!? Be re then imparted to him the g?u n brul tsho drug (The Six groups of Texts on gcod ) with the introduction and precepts. While he was practicing them at skyi tshang, the ācārya sha?ston sent a man, and phug ston came to phu than and preached three of the brul tsho.

He bestowed the brul tsho?drug on a khams pa scholar, whose copyist also wrote them down. Later when rog shes rab 'od came to the residence of ri khrod ?ig po, and was listening to the recitation of the Namasangiti and the (Vajra)vārahī system according to the method of dampa (sangs rgyas), he asked the yogin-copyist to be his host. From him he found out about the origin of this precept, and requested phug,ston, who said ?Connection with One (means) a connection with all. When revealed to one, it is revealed to all! Prepare the requisites (for initiation)!? He then bestowed on him the first ?brul tsho?, or group (of texts).

He then asked the Teacher: ?Does this doctrine include other sections as well??

?It does?, replied the Teacher, ?but I didn't disclose more than three to sha ston rdoy'dzin at phu thang. If I were to preach to you the complete {R 999} preceptse might become displeased.?

?But why did you not give him the complete precepts?? inquired rog shes rab?'od.

The latter replied: ?Because the precepts were too profound! There were many men at his residence and all could have copied them, therefore I didn't give them. Also they do not respect their Teacher and simply look after books. Therefore I did not give it to them!?

He (rog) asked that he might be given the complete precepts. The Teacher replied: Because, you will be of benefit to living beings, I shall impart them to you.? He then bestowed on him the ?Six Groups? (brut tsho Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.) together with the ?Oral Pre?cepts,? and said: ?Now, outside of these I haven?t even a single precept I do not commit the ?Oral Precepts' to writing,? saying so, he imparted them to him gladly.

The latter (rog shes rab 'od) bestowed them on sum ston ras pa. The latter on bla ma g?an ston. Again ri khrod phug?ston (bestowed) them on the daughter skal Idan. The latter on gtsang ston skyi tshang ba. The latter on gnan ston. The latter on dbon po cahos sdings pa dar ma shes rab. The latter on sgrig ston saňs rgyas . Again sum ston ras pa bes?towed them on saňs rgyas ston pa. The latter on mkhas btsun g?on nu grub. After this one, (the succession) continued as in the previous (lineage). In general the gcod system spread widely. As regards the Life stories (of its teachers), I have written only about those which had been seen by me.

The Chapter on the ?Male? gcod (pho gcod).

Chapter 3, Karakpa

13.3 Kharakpa (kha rag pa?i skabs. Chandra 886; Chengdu 1162; Roerich 999).

The natives of the Snow (Country) possess a crown ornament and two ear ornaments. The crown orna?ment (is) padmasambhava. The first ear ornament (is) kha?rag sgom cahun.

The second (ear ornament) is the Venerable mid la. kha rag sgom chun: He benefited of two streams of preceptsd was a yogin who practiced meditation only. Here one of the streams of these preceptsh originated from a ro ye shes 'byun gnas: a ro had been an incarnation. He assumed the appearance of a small boy concealed in the sand near the ring mo spring. A royal nun saw him there, {R 1000} having come there for a walk, she thought that ?people might start gossiping, if I were to take the child with me out of mercy?. She reported the matter to an official of the locality, who said to her: ?Well, poor thing! Take him!? She took the child. He lay down like a corpse, and emitted the sound of ?a-a?, because of this he was called ?a ro?. Later when the child learned to walk, he went inside an enclosure (kun dga 'ra ba) where monks were telling their prayers.

The monks asked him: ?A ro! What are you doing here??

The child replied: ?I shall also recite prayers.? ?Do you understand the Doctrine?? they inquired, and the child replied: ?I know well many doctrines!? ?Well then, do you know this also?? and they handed him a volume of the bodhicaryāvatāra, and he recited it in a pro?per manner. ?I also know some doctrines unknown to you!? said A ro, and recited several names of precepts belonging to the system of A ro.

All the monks became amazed, saying: ?A ro is A! He is the origin of knowledge!? Thus he became known as ye shes 'byung gnas. He had a long life, and guided disciples with the help of profound precepts. He also laboured for the welfare of living beings.

His disci?ples were: ya zi bon ston of khams, bru sha rgyal bu of kha rag, grunt shing shes rab smon lam of dbus, caog ro zans dkar mdzod khur of, gtsang . Of the above, ya zi bon ston proceeded to dbus and gtsang , and preached the Doctrine to gru gu klog 'byung of Upper gtsang rgyan. The latter taught it to glan sgom tshul khrims snin po of bras chu bar.

The latter used to say: If I were to preach the Doctrine into the ear of a corpse, the corpse would move. If I were to teach meditation to a bird of the Sky, it would succeed (in it).? He taught it to rba sgom bsod nams rgyal mtshan, who belonged to the clan of ' ?ju of sbas in 'phan yul. Having met Atīsha, he offered him his understanding (of the Doctrine), and the latter became pleased, and said: ?Now these (precepts) {R1001} of your should be supplemented by love and mercy. Then meditate!

Should you experience difficulties in your meditation, Maitreya and Avalokiteshvara will appear to remove them.?

Atīsha after seeing several Tibetan writings, was not too pleased (with them), but when he saw the Mahā?yāna Yoga (a ro'i theg cahen rnal ?byor) by a ro, he exclaim?ed:

?These words are full of poetry, and possess an excellent meaning,? and became pleased. rba sgom was the house?hold priest of the father of pu to ba. pu to ba before going to rwa sgreng asked him for precepts on meditation. He said: ?The meditation of those who didn't study even a little, is even shallower than an arm pit.?

Later when pu to?ba became a great kalyāna mitra, he thought: ?What sort of doctrine rba sgom possesses?? After that he had a remark?able dream, and said: ?This doctrine of rba sgom is a perfect one!? His (rba sgom) disciple was kha rag sgom zhun. In a place called dun zur in Upper gtsang there was a hermit named dkon mcahog rten. He had three sons: bal po dbang?rdor, after him swa dban rwa, after him the hermit dbang phyug blo gros. dBan phyug blo gros was full of faith since his childhood. He resolved to take up ordination. He obtained many precepts of the ?Great Achievement? (rdzogs cahen) from one named ye shes of be'u klu, a native of thod?phu. While he was practicing meditation in the meditative cell of ?phyil phu, bal po dbang rdor acted as his attendant. When rba sgom was residing at brag dkar rtsi zan people used to say: ?There is a good Master possessing secret precepts.? bal po dbang rdor went to see him, and when they met, they held a conversation on religion. He understood that the Teacher was endowed with secret preceptsd reverence was born in him. dbang rdor told this story to gtsang bu, and added: ?Let us go to his place!?

(The brother) replied: ?But we have no presents (to offer him)!? dban rdor replied: ?We have a piece of butter. We could offer it. So they went together. As soon as gtsang bu and rba sgom met, their minds became one.

gtsang bu asked for {R1003} preceptsd the Teacher said: ?You should take up ordina?tion!? He was then ordained in the presence of mar sgom at lab so. After that he obtained from rba sgom the ?Three Cycles of Precepts?. (gdams ngag skor gsum). There were others also, who had come to ask for instruction in religion. The Teacher dismissed others, and kept gtsang bu near himself. rba sgom went into seclusion for seven days, and had a vision of yamāntaka. During this time rba sgom wrote out precepts on a slate (gya' ma), and threw them out of his cell. gtsang bu read them. Then an alms giver offered him two loads of flour, and rba sgom said: ?The Evil One (Māra) has come!? and ran away. gtsang bu followed after him. The Teacher and (his) disciple reached rwa sgreng. (They found) that 'brom ston pa had died, and that rnal 'byor pa was preaching to a class. gtsang bu felt reverence towards the hermits of rwa sgreng. rba sgom said: ?They are like a sack of wool!. We, Teacher and disciple, stand higher than they in meditation.? They went back and journeyed via 'dal ma lung of yag 'brog. They proceeded to the land of the lho la yag pa nomads. When he was about to start for mkhar cahu, he received a message saying that his mother had fallen ill. He proceeded to his native place, and found that his mother had passed away. (The relatives) performed the funeral rite (gshid) and killed a cow. Filled with sadness, rba sgom went back. gtsang bu helped them in the performance of the funeral rite, and then followed after rba sgom. When he reached the monastery of u skyu 'gul of g?u , he noticed traces of a cre?mation. He asked: ?Whose are these??

They replied: ?The late rba sgom?s?. (gtsang bu) wept bitterly, and then proceeded towards rwa sgreng, and for seven years followed on dgon pa ba and rnal 'byor pa. dgon pa ba said to him: ?Your Teacher has entered seclusion for seven days, and had a vision of Yamāntaka.? He understood dgon pa ba to {R1003} possess the faculty of prescience.

Then for a long time he practiced meditation in the cave of g?u rmkhan brag (?Archer's rock?). Pu to ba, teacher and disciple, also Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. stay at the same time on the ?Archer's Rock? (g?u mkhan brag).

Pu to ba said: ?This young hermit gtsang bu is greatly addicted to meditation. Because of lack of study, can he enter the Path?? (gtsang bu) overheard him saying it, and went to see pu to ba. He related to him about (his) under?standing of the four blo ldog. A sthavira named rGyal se said: ?Now you, kalyāna mitra, ought to reply to him!? Pu to ba said ?I cannot reply to it now!? This gtsang bu became a skyes bu smra ba'i sen ge (?Lion of Speech among Men?). pu to ba used to send him the best portions of offerings received by himself. pu to ba praised him greatly, saying: ?This Doctrine (cahos) which he (gtsang bu) was able to practise during one day, we, Tea?cher and disciple, couldn't accomplish within one year.? On one occasion rnal byor pa be'u klu'i ye shes sent him a message: ?On account of my illness, come here in the name of our vows!? gtsang bu went to take leave of Pu to ba. Parting was difficult for both; and both shed tears. During his journey to rgyal in than yul, he received many requests for religious instruction and offerings. He visited the bla?ma bha rag, and for a short time attended on be'u klu'I ye shes. He practiced meditation at Kha rag phug pa nag po, (rib) and his fame encompassed all quarters. About a thousand students (tshogs pa) gathered round him. After a short while he felt this to be a hindrance, dismissed his students, and left only a small number of disciples. Thus lie lived for many years.

In the end he held a pompous feast and said: ?This will be (my) last food!? And added: ?After {R 1004} my death, convey this body to the summit of a mountain, and don't erect memorials after me!? saying so, he passed away. His remains were then carried to the summit of kha ?rag. A yogin having severed with a knife one of his hands, died on the spot. kha rag's two disciples: lho pa dharma?skyabs and rdul ston rdo r?je rin chen. lho pa was a native of la ya smon mda?. He obtained many doctrines from ron pa cahos bzang. He took up ordination in the presence of ba dkar 'brin ston, and obtained from him the bslab phyogs (Domain of the Vows), the Doctrine of Maitreya, and many others. Also he obtained from yol cahos dban many hidden precepts. Having visited kha rag pa, he offered him a bag of butter and asked for precepts. (kha rag) at once shut the door and said to him: ?There are many who possess hidden precepts! You can ask them!? After that lho pa spent three years at the resi?dence of bal po dbang rdor (kha rag pa's brother). gtsang bu said: ?Did lho pa go away?? (When told that he was still there) he said: ?Then, bring him here!? He imparted to him the complete precepts and associated with him for five years. He also became very famous and had numerous disciples who included such great scholars as yar sregs rgye dman and others, myang sgom rgod po, myang sgom? dkar po, and myang sGom ?ig po cahos se, known as the ?Three Brothers myang sgom? (myang sgom mched gsum). rdul ston, who knew numerous preceptst kha rag pa and overheard him saying: ?This scholar can enter into Religion.?

rdul ston then thought: ?What does he mean by this? For I have studied numerous doctrines?. Later, after he had obtained the precepts of the Three Cycles of kha?rag (kha rag skor gsum), and had practiced them, he realized that (kha rag pa's) first words were true. From Kha rag he proceeded towards Yar 'brog. Thus one of the streams of precepts was that which flowed from Rwa sgren and on?sisted of the precepts handed down from Atīsha. kha rag?pa combined the two (streams) and named them the Puri?fication {R 1005} of the Bodhicitta? (byan carub sbyong). They were also known by the name of the ?Three Cycles of kha rag? (kha rag skor gsum). They spread widely.

Now the Spiritual Lineage of a ro himself: rba sgom transmitted (the Doctrine) to dam pa 'dzi sgom of gtsang ron. The latter to ba ra sgom chen of yar 'brog. The latter to the lady myan mo of yul cahos. The latter to the doctor (lha r?je) lha khang pa of skyi mkhar. The latter to ston sāk of dbus. The latter to ?ig po bdud rtsi. In this manner the Lineage spread widely.

The Chapter on kha rag pa.

Part 14

Bhikshuni Shri Mahakarunika Tradition

Extracted from the Blue Annals (pages 634-645) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of THDL.

Book XIV PART 14 (PHA): Great Compassion Cycle, the Adamantine Garland and others [12 CHAPTERS] {25 folios. Chandra 893-943; Chengdu 1173 1236; Roerich 1006-1061}.

{14.1 The Lineage of the Shri System of Great Compassion (thugs rje chen po dpal mo lugs kyi brgyud pa'i skabs} i. Introduction {R1006} The Cycle of the Mahākarunnika (thugs rje chen po'i skor); and that of the Vajrāvali (rdo rje phren ba). Just as the Bodhisattva Manjuśrī took over China, in the same manner the Bodhisattva Mahāsattva Ārya Avalokiteśvara protected this country of Tibet. By his blessing the sound of the 'Manni' resounds in the mouths of men, women and monks, even children. One can obtain blessing by praying to a tutelary deity, therefore for us (Tibetans) the quickest way to obtain blessings is to follow after Avalokiteśvara himself.

The sacred images and monasteries (viharas) erected by Sron btsan sgam po, a manifestation of Avalokiteśvara in the form of a king, are the chief places of worship for the Tibetans. The mountain, on which has been built the Palace where the king resides, received also the name of Potala (the Abode of Avalokiteśvara). It is known that many had attained the realization of Yamāntaka and other deities adhering to the precepts of the mantra, enunciated by the king.

Though the Commentary by a teacher, who had followed on this Doctrine enunciated by the king, does not exist at present, there still exist parts of the book on propitiating rites. The saint dngos grub discovered the hidden book on the Sādhana of Avalokiteśvara. Rog shes rab 'od obtained (them) at the monastery of spa rnams. He gradually handed them down to his own son, and disciples. Further, the nirmanakaya myang ston obtained (them) from the saint dngos grub. He (myang ston) transmitted (the Doctrine) to the bla ma ras pa mi bkyod rdo rje, the bla ma sakya seng ge bzan po, the doctor (Iha rje) dge ba 'bum , the sister (lcam mo) ye shes mchog, byang sems chus gom, mtha' bzhi bya bral, bsod nams seng ge, bkra shis rgyal mtshan, {R1007} and the bla ma blo gros rgyal mtshan. From the (last) two the bla ma bsod nams bzang po. The latter to rgod phrug grags pa 'byung gnas.

ii. The Lineage of thug rje chen po {R1007} The Lineage of thugs rje chen po rgyal ba rgya mtsho : snang ba mtha' yas (Amitābha), thugs rje chen po (Mahākaruṇika), Padmasambhava (pad ma 'byun gnas), phag mo of bhangala, (up to) ti pu pa, ras chung pa, zangs ri ras pa, sangs rgyas ras then, spom brag pa' karma pa shi, the māhasiddha urgyan pa, rang byung rdo rje, khams chen rgan lhas pa, stag ston gzhon nu dar, bag ston gzhon tshul pa, the mahaupādhyāya shes rab rdo rje, chos sgo ba chos dpal shes rib, rgod phrug pa grags pa 'byung gnas, and many others. The rite and initiation of the Kulalokanātha sādhana originated with the yar kluns lo tsa ba grags pa rgyal mtshan. He bestowed its Tantra of 53 slokas together with its Commentary on lo tsa ba dus 'khor ba bsod she, from whom a numerous Lineage originated. The Cycle of Padmajāla which was expounded to bu ston by the Kashmirian paṇḍita Sumanahhśri, also belongs to the Cycle of the Mahākarunika

[The System of Shri Lakshmi):

iii. Transmission by the man of spiritual realization. {R1007}. The manner of transmitting the Doctrine preached by the Man who had attained spiritual realization (grub pa thob pa'i skyes bu), an emanation of Avalokiteśvara: There existed a method of taking a vow through the rite of the Mental Creative Effort towards Enlightenment, as well as the degree of transit meditation according to the: Madhyamaka system written by the Bodhisattva Candradhvaja, an indisputable manifestation of Avalokiteśvara. The Degree of propitiation Ārya Avalokiteśvara by performing the rite of fasting was preached by the nun Laksmi (dpal mo) personally blessed by Ārya Avalokiteśvara. {1008} She taught it to the paṇḍita ye shes bzang po blessed by her. He to bal po pe nya ba, blessed by him. They all were saints. The Bodhisattva Candradhvaja obtained (the Doctrine) from him (pe nya ba).

{Candradhvaja (R1008)}. The story of his recognition by other people as the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara himself: In the temple of Sa_vara (bde mchog lha khan) in Nepal many ddākiniis {(2a)} gathered. The temple keeper saw (them) and inquired: From where did you come? What are you doing here? The ddākiniis replied: we have come from Puṇḍravardhana. Avalokiteśvara Pundravardhana himself is residing here. We have come to make offerings to him. The keeper continued: Who is he? The ḍākinī s answered: He is the Bodhisattva Candradhvaja!

When the on po lo tsa ba was sleeping in the Temple of Ārya Wati, Wa ti himself foretold that Candradhvaja was Ārya (Avalokiteśvara) himself, and now many people accepted (him as Avalokiteśvara). Many legends exist, such as for example the following: When Candradhvaja was searching for something which could benefit the purification of sins of living beings, he discovered that by fasting once in the presence of Ārya Avalokiteśvara, one was able to remove a great sin, and obtain (rebirth) in a human form, and that in the end such a person was to go to Sukhāvati. But I did not cite them here. The bla ma sachen (kun dga' sning po) acted for a long time as attendant of Candradhvaja. This establishes the time of the appearance of (Candradhvaja). (Candradhvaja) was also the Teacher of 'gro ba'i mgon po dpal phag mo gru pa and of the siddha la gyag pa.

nying phug pa {R1008}. The siddha nying phug pa obtained from him (Candradhvaja) the sādhana of Avalokiteśvara. His parents were natives of Zhang Zhung. He was born in the year Wood Male Dog ('sing pho khyi 1094 A.D.) in the valleys of stag bde seng ge, after they had come to la stod {R1009} His parents fearing that he might lose his caste, took him in childhood to spu rangs. At the age of seven, he felt faith in karma and retribution. At the age of 14, he proceeded to dbus, and came to the residence of the zangs dkar lo tsa ba who was then building the bo dong monastery. He was ordained by khyung and received the name of chos kyi brags pa. For one month he studied the Doctrine with the Lord (rje) 'bum phrag gsum pa He stayed for six years in the presence of zansdkar (lo tsa ba), and obtained the Cycle of Sa_vara, etc. He was fed at chu mig ring mo, he received ordination from mnga' ris 'jam dbyangs, when the latter came to lho brag. He obtained the Prajnāpāramitā from 'bre shes rab 'bar. He preached it on 15 occasions. He studied the teachings of the kalyāṇamitra dkon mkhar with the latter's assistant preacher. From khyung he obtained the Mādhyamaka system and the Nyāya. Further, he obtained the Teaching of rgya dmar from the latter's assistant preacher. From the great nur smrig pa (he obtained) the Abhidharma. It is said that he obtained the Doctrine of Maitreya from mar pa lo tsa ba of stag tshal. This must have been (mar pa) do pa. From the kalyāṇamitra lcan ra ba he obtained the Doctrine of Maitreya according to the system of btsang. From spa tshab lo tsa (he obtained) the Six Treatises of Mādhyamaka (dbu ma rigs tshogs drug). From the kalyānanmitra gshen the Six Doctrines of tsa lo tsaba. From mnga' ris skyi ston the Cycle of Saṃvara according to spu hrangs lo chung. From rnog gzhun pa the Hevajra (Tantra). From dpyal kun dga' rdo rje and snubs phag mo lungpa the Hevajra (Tantra) and the Cycle of (Vajra) Varāhi. From mtha' bzhi the Tantra (snags) and the Vinaya. In the intervals, he attended on the Bodhisattva Candradhvaja, and obtained from him many doctrines. He also obtained many doctrines from rgya chu mig pa bla ma lho pa. From 'khon gad pa kiirti, he obtained the exposition of the Pāncakrama. From lha rje gtsang shod pa the Mahāmudra. From the {1010} Nepalese A su the Cycle of phyag chen snying po. Under sne'u zur pa (he studied) the bka' gdams pa doctrine. From dags po lha rje (he obtained) the Six Doctrines of Naro(pa). From phar sgom, an attendant of se mkhar chung ba, he obtained the Path and Fruit Doctrine (lam 'ras).

In general, he did not study texts of the rnying ma school, and used to say that there did not exist texts belonging to the New (Tantras) which he had not studied. He spend eight full years in the snows of rta sgo, then six years during which time he spent either the winter or the summer in meditation, in all he spent 14 years in meditation. He developed the faculty of prescience. The local divinity (lha btsan) of rta sgo asked him for religious instruction. He offered his life mantra (srog snying). During his residence there, jo pad attended on him. After that he journeyed to ldog. The ācārya ldog asked him: Do you possess the faculty of prescience? He, thinking that it was improper to tell a lie to his own Teacher, answered: Yes, I do. The Teacher asked him further: What are the villagers doing? And: What is in my hand? He gave correct replies, and the ācārya convinced said: You must recite the Prajnāpāramitā. When he read the sentence the nature of the sphere of Heaven is limitless, an extraordinary trance was produced in him.

After that he did not differentiate between the Intuitive Knowledge of a Saint and the Knowledge of the Saint acquired after the state of concentrated trance. After that he stayed at nying phug. {R1011} He constantly practiced fasting and recitation (of sacred texts). At that time he and others saw countless holy visions. He laboured extensively for the welfare of others, and passed away at the age of 93 in the year Fire Male Horse (me pho rta 1186 A.D.).

Srupa rdo rje rgyal po {R1011}. His disciple sru pa rdo rje rgyal po: he was a native of sru yul sgang. From the age of seven, he mastered writing and reading. Once an upāsaka who had gone for fasting to nying phug, gave him some food, which was left by the Teacher and some holy water for ablution. The boy was filled with a desire to go, and proceeded into the presence of nying phug pa. The later said about him: This child will become the successor of the son of the Jina. He then took the boy on his lap and seemed pleased. Then he ordained him, and bestowed on him the vows, from the upāsaka vows up to those of the final monastic ordination. He then mastered the Vinaya Sutra Afterwards he requested that he might be permitted to fast till his death. The Teacher became pleased, and presented him with an image of Avalokiteśvara made of crystal on which Candradhvaja used to meditate. He continued his fast and meditation for five full years, and had a vision of Ārya Avalokiteśvara. One night he saw in a dream himself alone surrounded by many Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, who included Amitābha.

Bhaissajyaguru and others, speaking among themselves: We shall adopt as son one who is the most pleasing among us. Among the retinue there was a young child of white complexion who said: During seventeen existences he had established a Karmic bond with me. He is my son! He then saw rays of light filling him, and woke up from his dream. When he was about to die, zhang stop dgra 'jigs took over the abbot's chair, and he passed away. After the cremation, many images of the Great Merciful One (Mahākaruṇika), and many other relics were recovered (from the ashes).

zhan ston {R1011}. His disciple was zhan ston. He was a native of srug gan pa. His birth was accompanied by a strong thunder, {(3b); R1012} lightning and earth tremours. They (the family) had an enemy who remarked: Such things were taking place that I became afraid! Because of this the child became known as Enemy's Terror (dgra 'jigs). At the age of seven, he learned writing. He was ordained by sru pa. He was a very strict (monk). At.the age of 23, after studying the Seven treatises on Logic at Sa skya, he went on a round of monastic colleges to conduct philosophical debates, and became famous as a learned man. After that he studied the Five Treatises of Maitreya (byams chos lna), the Five Stages, the Abhidharmakośa, and the Abhidharmasamuccaya (mnyon pa gong 'og). After that he proceeded to the residence of the kalyāṇamitra zhing mo che pa, who asked him to become an abbot, and to labour for the Doctrine. He then became abbot and great was the benefit for the Doctrine. He used to preach the Vinaya āgama by heart and gathered (round him) about 500 monks. He held the Bhaiśajyaguru and the Tārā as the chief objects of his mental concentration, but on advice of a Bodhisattva that this doctrine of Avalokiteśvara (the rite of fasting) was beneficial for this ?Dark Age? and that he should practise it, he practised it and had a vision of the Tārā. About midnight he saw a vision of bhaiśajyaguru, and at Dawn he had a vision of the one thousand armed and one thousand eyed Avalokiteśvara. They initiated him, and uttered prophecies. Then he requested Śru pa to allow him too go to a solitary place, but the latter told him: You should occupy the chair for three years more! and presented him with a crystal image of Avalokiteśvara.

Then after the {R1013} lapse of three years, he entrusted the chair to the kalyanamitra byang yes and proceeded to the upper part of the valley, towards a rocky mountain called rin chen spungs pa, and there practiced fasting for three months without being seen by any one. For seven months he performed nightly the rite of gcod. In the morning he used to fly over to the Western mountains, and there stay in the sru, in the evening he flew back to the slope of the rock of sru. He blocked the river of sru for half a day with his walking staff and performed (other) miracles, similar to those mentioned above. At the hour of death he said: My heart will remain unburnt. Send it to ga' rong. My tongue will (also) remain behind. Send it to don mo ri% . He died at the age of 61. After his cremation, a full measure (bre) or relics was recovered (from the ashes). He bestowed the Doctrine on the mahi upādhyāya rtsi 'dul ba thugs rje byangs chub.

rtsi 'dul ba thugs rje byangs chub (R1013}. The {(4a)} latter was ordained in his youth. He was learned in the Doctrine in general, and in particular (he was learned) in the Prajnāparamitā. Having become very famous through his learning, strictness, and goodness, he built vihiras and founded monastic communities. He supported monks and upheld the moral code, and gathered round himself over a thousand monks. Though in general he was learned in all the doctrines, he especially studied the Vinaya and possessed the perfect fragrance of morality.

He held as the chief objects of his meditation Bhaiśajyaguru and Tārā One night be saw in his dream a woman who told him: Son of good family! Avalokiteśvara being the essence of all the Buddhas of the Three Times, make a request to zhang stop dgra 'jigs at ldog long%, who was to preach next morning the rite of the Mental Creative Effort. Benefit for all living beings will arise! and saying so, the woman disappeared. He met zhagn ston and requested that he might be given the rite of the Mental Creative Effort towards Enlightenment.

The latter then bestowed on him the permission (lung) to read (the rite) of the {R1014} Eleven faced Avalokiteśvara together with its (meditative) practice, its sādhana and propitiation . He became very pleased and made the vow to fast on a thousand occasions. On his 300th fast, on the 16th day of the saga month, he saw a vision of the Great Merciful One (Mahākaruṇika), who spoke to him. After that he had again and again visions (of the Bodhisattva), and helped the emanicipation of living beings.

ldog long pa shakya byang chub {R1014}. After that he {rti 'dul ba thugs rje byangs byangs chub} bestowed (the Doctrine) on ldog long pa shakya byang chub whose native place was lower ldog. At the age of seven, he received ordination. At the age of 15, he mastered the Prajnāparamitā, the Vinaya, and preached them both. He was especially learned in the Vinaya. He made Bhaiśajyaguru and the Tārā the objects of his meditation. He had a vision of the seng ldang nags sgrol, who foretold the erection by him of the monastery of ldog ltod, and advised him to proceed to the residence of {(4b)} rtsi 'dul, and request the latter (to teach him) the sādhana of Ārya (Avalokiteśvara). Following this advice, he started at sunrise, met the Teacher, and obtained from him the permission (lung). The Teacher said to him: You should recite the required number of mantras for 21 times at my place. Accordingly, he took up residence there. After that his fortune increased, and he had yearly about 21 disciples who were able to teach the Praj?āparamitā and the Vinaya. He also made the vow of observing 5000 fasts.

On the occasion of his 300th fast, in the night of the main rite (dngos gzhi), a white beam of light appeared in front of him. He grasped it with his hand and was carried away, and reached Potala. Ārya Avalokiteśvara said to him: Son of good family! Your coming (here) is welcome! and a white beam of light penetrated (his) heart, and his body was filled with bliss. Again (Avalokiteśvara) said to him.: Till death, labour for the welfare of living beings! After your death, I shall send for you! and he woke up from his {R1015} dream. During the day he used to preach the Piṭaka and preach the Doctrine to individuals according to their desires. At night, he listened to the Doctrine at the feet of Ārya Avalokiteśvara. He practised numberless meditations. His disciple was the maha upādhyāya byan chub 'bar of chu bzangs.

byan chub 'bar of chu bzangs {R1015}. He was born at ngang dkar of mus. At the age of 11 he received the upāsaka vows from ldog long pa. After that he took up ordination, and studied the BodhicĀryavatara and the Madhyamaka system. At the age of 20, he took up the final monastic ordination. One night he saw in his dream a white man, who said to him: Because you and I have a Karmic bond (las 'brel), ask ldog long pa pa, who isn?t different from me, to bestow on you the permission (lung) to read a sacred text and the sādhana (of Ārya Avalokiteśvara), and saying so the man disappeared. Next day he went into the presence of ldog long pa and told him about the dream. Ldog long pa said: It is the Lord! I take Refuge in Him! I also had a dream, and saying so, he imparted to him the permission (lung), together with the sādhana and its rite. byang chub 'bar said to him: After completing a hundred fasts, I am going to bde ba can. The Teacher said: Wait once more for a vision of Avalokiteśvara! Again he said: Now along time has passed. I shall go. The Teacher said: You are different from other people! Quick, meditate! Thus on the occasion of his 300th fast, after midnight of the 15th day, his whole cell became filled with light, and he thought that it must be an eye deception. {(5a)} He then saw Avalokiteśvara surrounded by teachers of the bka' gdams pa Lineage. Next morning he prostrated himself before ldog long pa, who spoke to him: O son! Were you happy last night? He replied: My mind became free from thought constructions. Then the Teacher said to him: Now you may go to wherever you desire, and labour for the welfare of living beings.

After that he proceeded to mus, and his fortune increased. Each month he used to perform a great fasting rite and had {R1016} visions of many tutelary deities. He passed away at the age of 88. After his cremation, many images of gods and relics were recovered (from the ashes). He bestowed (the sādhana of avalokiteśvara) on snag phu pa bsod nams dbang phyug.

snag phu pa bsod nams dbang phyug {R1016}. The latter was born at mus dang ma gling skya. At the age of 5, he became an upāsaka and studied reading and writing. At the age of 11, he was ordained in the presence of the maha upādhyāya shakya mgon and the ācārya 'od zer rtse mo. At the age of 13, he studied the Vinaya sutra (of Gunnaprabha) at ldog long with the maha upādhyāya kun rgyal, and the assistant preacher zhang stop 'gyur med dpal. In the presence of mus chen pa he studied the Five Treatises of Maitreya. From the ācārya byang seng (he obtained) the (Pramānnavinisscaya). From the ācārya shes rab ral gri the Pramānnavartika and the Bodhisattva bhuumi (sa sde). He also made a round of monastic colleges for the purpose of conducting philosophical debates.

Once in a dream a woman told him: You will not live more than seven days! The maha upadhaya chu bzangs pa said to him: Fasting is the best of the life preserving ceremonies! Accordingly he fasted and his life was prolonged. He received final monastic ordination from the maha upādhyāya chu bzags pa and obtained many bka' gdams pa doctrines at mus gle lung. He occupied the abbot's chair of gro mo che for five years. From the Dharmasvamin nyan chen pa he obtained the Path and Fruit (lam 'bras) doctrine and the Cycle of the Doctrines of dam pa (sangs rgyas). From the ācārya grags tshul he obtained many sādhanas of the mandalas belonging to the Outer and Inner Tantras. For three years he observed a fast during the month of Vaisakha. After that his supporters built the monastery of snyag phu and presented it to him. He considered the following to be his root teachers : {R1017} nyang chen pa, chu bzangs pa, mus chen pa, and rgyal mtshan dpal. Further, he was the disciple of 42 teachers. Wishing to spread the deeds of Avalokiteśvara, he resolved to observe 10,000 fasts. After finishing the 2000th fast, (he found) that all his means had become exhausted. But then following an auspicious dream, his means again increased. He completed his fast within three years. He also spread the practice of fasting. Numerous other persons saw him as Avalokiteśvara in their visions. He passed away at the age of 68 in the Hog year (phag lo 1371 A.D.?).

His disciple was the Precious maha upādhyāya bsod nams bzang po. The facts about his parents, his ordination and final monastic ordination, their dates, his pecuniary situation in his youth, are to be known from other sources.

bsod nams bzang po {R1017}. After his ordination, he became, in general, the chief among the holders of the moral code till his death, and, in particular, he observed throughout his life the vow of staying on one mat (i.e. taking food without rising from one's seat), and abstaining from meat, without complaining of old age. As regards his knowledge, he attended on many scholars, such as nya dbOn po kun dga' pa and others. He became very learned in the Pitaka of the Suutras, headed by the Vinaya of the Holy Doctrine. In the Tantras, (he was especially) learned in the Śrī Kālacakra Tantra. The Master of philosophical debates and great scholar g.yag brugs sangs rgyas dpal, and others were unable to defeat him. He had vision of numerous tutelary deities and was endowed with a transic meditation of the Sampannakrama degree of the Sadaṅga yoga, and others. He was the chief disciple of the Dharmasvamin phyogs las rnam par rgyal ba (the bo don paṇ chen). At the age of 80, signs of death having manifested themselves, he practised pranayama for one month and succeeded in prolonging his {(6a); R1018} life. The year of his birth was the year, Iron Female Serpent (Rags mo sbrul 1341 A.D.). He passed away painlessly at the age of 93 in the year Water Female Ox (chu moglan 1433 A.D.).

His disciples included the Dharmasvamin de bzhin gshegs pa, mthong pa don ldan and others. Numerous scholars gathered round him, similar to bees around a flower. Among them smra ba'i seng ge rong ston and others. His (present) wealth: VaiŚravanna used to assist him at will. All great men, such as dbang grags pa rgyal mtshan, used to place his foot on their heads, Śri Vanaratna (nags kyi rin chen) siddheŚvara (grub pa'i dbang phyug) used to say He is the best yogin in Tibet! Such a great kalyanamitra bestowed the precepts of Ārya Avalokiteśvara on bsod nams dar the mahā Ārya sthavira. He also observed the pure vows of an ordained monk. A Mental Creative Effort towards Enlightenment was born in him. He was the chief among those who are satisfied with little and lived contentedly. He used to propitiate continuously Ārya Avalokiteśvara. There were many monks who followed after him. Nowadays they are divided into two groups known as the dbus 'phags and gtsang 'phags. Small groups consisting of ten or fifteen monks, the smallest consisting of five, were found in dags po and kong po, at dbus and g.yor, in south and north la stod. They benefited greatly the Doctrine. The Chapter on the Lineage of the system of dpal mo (Laksmi) of the Cycle of Avalokiteśvara.

Avalokiteshvara - Amoghapasha (Unfailing Lasso)

Amoghapasha Five Deity Mandala (Unfailing Lasso. Tibetan: don yod zhags pa lha lnga'i dkyil 'khor). (See the Amoghapasha Main Page and Outline Page).

Amoghapasha, which means unfailing lasso, refers to an unfailing compassion like a lasso which brings all sentient beings out of suffering and into a state of happiness leading to enlightenment. Amoghapasha is a complicated deity subject in Tantric Buddhist iconography. He is easily mistaken for Avalokiteshvara in most artistic depictions. The two deities are frequently conflated together by Western scholars. Sometimes Amoghapasha is described as a form, or emanation, of Avalokiteshvara and again at other times, such as with this mandala of Amoghapasha, a retinue figure while Avalokiteshvara is the central deity in the mandala. It begs the question, why is this mandala called the Five-deity Amoghapasha if the central deity is Avalokiteshvara? It all comes down to naming conventions in Buddhism. The very idea of a compassionate deity called Amoghapasha comes out of a number of Indian Sanskrit texts that all have Amoghapasha in the title. In these texts both Avalokiteshvara and Amoghapasha are described along with different appearances and functions for each. In consequence, the principal name for all of these forms of the two deities, regardless of which one of the two is at the center of the mandala, are called Amoghapasha - mandala, meditation, or ritual.

At the center of the mandala sits Avalokiteshvara, white in colour with one face and two hands. He holds the stems of two lotus blossoms in the hands while sitting with the right leg pendant. Below the central figure is the male attendant Rakta Amoghapasha, red in colour, peaceful in appearance and having four hands. At the left is Red Hayagriva, male, wrathful in appearance with four hands. At the top is Ekajati, female, wrathful in appearance, blue-black in colour with one face and eight hands. At the right side is the female attendant Bhrikuti, peaceful, white in colour, with four hands.

Around the outer circle of the mandala are the Eight Auspicious Emblems along with four deity figures seated on the edge of the circle. Beginning at the upper right is Medicine Buddha, lower right Green Tara, lower left yellow Vasudhara and upper left Shakyamuni Buddha.

In the top register starting on the left side is Avalokiteshvara, identical to the central figure of the mandala, followed by the Indian and Nepalese lineage teachers in the tradition of this Amoghapasha meditation system. In the bottom register beginning on the left side is the donor figure depicted as a monk seated in front of an array of shrine objects and musical instruments. Following that are the eight offering goddesses, the wealth deity Yellow Jambhala, the group known as the Three Deity Shadakshari Lokeshvara and finally the naked black form of Jambhala, a wrathful wealth deity.

There are a number of different Amoghapasha mandala configurations that still exist in the Newar and Tibetan Buddhist Traditions. There are also numerous solitary forms that do not have elaborate mandalas or retinue figures. The most common of these forms are typically depicted in Nepalese sculpture. They generally have one face and multiple arms, six, eight or ten, and are shown in a standing posture.

Jeff Watt 10-2008

Tibetan name: don yod zhags pa lha lnga'i dkyil 'khor.

Sanskrit source text: Arya Amoghapasa Kalparaja [Toh686].

Blue Annals Contents | Blue Annals Outline

Extracted from the Blue Annals (pages 645-651) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of THDL.

14.2 Amoghapaśa and the Instruction of Dawa Gyeltsen (don zhags dang dmar khrid zla rgyal lugs kyi skabs. {Chandra 904; Chengdu 1186; Roerich 1018}

Now the Lineage of the Sādhana (propitiation) of Ārya Amoghapaśa (?phags pa don yod zhags pa): a paṇḍita named E ra pa ti who was a native of Southern India, came to a vihara called Bhaktibala (dad pa'i stobs) in {(6b)} Southern India, and was ordained. He became a great paṇḍita who mastered all the branches of science.

On his return to his native country, he preached the Doctrine to his mother. Once when he was walking on the roof of a house, he caused a piece of brick to fall down on his mother?s {R1019} head, which caused her death. Such an action did not represent a true murder, for as the ācārya Āryadeva had said in his Cittāvarannaviśodha : A monk who had asked his aged father to go quickly, and pushing him on, caused the father's death, was not found guilty of a parajika sin. Since he did it amidst evil circumstances, he propitiated Amoghapaśa during six months in order to purify the sin, but no signs manifested themselves. He performed the propitiation rite for a second time, and again no signs were observed. Again he performed the rite for a third time, and again no signs were observed. While he was holding in his hand a sandal rosary and was repeating the mantra ?Hrii Trailokya...? he fell asleep and the rosary fell from his hand. When he awoke, he saw that all the place was filled with shades and lights, and that a shower of flowers and scented water was falling. He gazed in all directions but failed to see anything. He then looked up the tree, at the foot of which he was sitting, and saw the five deities of the parivāra of Amoghapaśa appearing clearly on the trunk. He said: O Ārya ! Why did you not manifest yourself? Are you small in commiseration, or am I great in defilement? The Ārya replied: I have never parted from you! and he imparted to him many doctrines. Since then he was able to listen to the Doctrine at will.

He then thought of going to another country and to spread there the Doctrine of Ārya (Avalokiteśvara). People, however, continued to call him {R1020} the Sinner who had killed his own mother (ma bsad pa'i sdig chan), and did not listen to his preaching. Many siddhas such as Śrii Virūpa and others gathered and listened to his preaching of the Doctrine. The king of that country said to the siddhas: Though you are siddhas, how can you listen to the preaching by such a sinner? The siddhas replied: He is the chief of all the siddhas! All his previous actions have been miracles performed by Ārya {(7a)}

(Avalokiteśvara). After that the king repented and all were filled with faith. He had a servant upāsaka. At the latter's request he composed the sādhana of Amoghapaśa. Elapatra (E ra pa ti) bestowed it on a yogin of low caste in the South. This yogin attained spiritual realization and when a boatman refused to ferry him across the Ganges, he struck the river with his mendicant staff, and the Ganges stopped flowing.

From him the Doctrine was obtained by the paṇḍita don yod rdo rje known as rdo rje gdan pa. Further, the pa__ita Dharmakapāla obtained it from Mahakarunnika . He expounded it to the great bsod snyoms pa the siddha of Sa_vara. The latter taught it to don yod rdo rje.

Don yod rdo rje was the name of rdo rje gdan pa, the Senior. He preached it to the teacher ba ri. Further, in the vihara of Khasarpanna, bo dge bnyen was worshipping Ārya Avalokiteśvara in order to invite the Ārya. After his death, there was another upāsaka of the Ārya to whom it was prophesied You should take up ordination! He then appointed another upāsaka to attend on the Ārya (Avalokiteśvara) and proceeded to VikramaŚiila; took up ordination, and then the final monastic ordination. His name was Śiilākara.

He preached the sādhana to the Vairocana. The latter taught it to bari. Then again a named chos ston worshipped Ārya Avalokiteśvara at Khasarpaṇa, and Avalokiteśvara used to preach him the Doctrine in his dreams. Later he instructed him personally. The latter preached it to the pa__ita donyod rdo rje. The latter taught it to bari. {R1021} 14.2.1 Bari {R1021}

Bari: he was a native of khams pa sdom tshang and was born in the year iron Male Dragon (lcags pho 'brug 1040 A.D.). The Venerable mid la was born in the same year. A pannddita from Kasmira having come to Khams, he heard from him the Abhidharma (mngon pa) and the Lesser recension of the zhal gnyis ma. He had the intention of going to India. Having obtained about seventy golden srangs, he took the gold with him and proceeded towards dbus.

At the age of {(7b)} 15, he met AtiŚa at snye thang and requested his blessing. (Atiśa) fortold him: Go to the residence of rdo rje gdan pa! Accidents will not befall you. Having gone to la stod dpal thang, he came across about a hundred sheep which were led away to be slaughtered. He felt pity towards them and bought them off paying for each one golden zho. He presented them to the monastery on the condition that they were to be kept alive.

Having come to Nepal, (he had to choose) between the two roads (leading to India), the short but dangerous road, and the long, but safe road. His tutelary deity indicated him to proceed by the short road, and that danger would not present itself. He had a vision of Avalokiteśvara in his dream in the night preceding the crossing of the Ganges. At

Kośalakrama he met tsa mi (sangs rgyas grags pa). He twice offered him a golden zho, Tsa mi showed him an image, which had been consecrated by the Buddha and fashioned by Viśvakarman. The image proved similar to the one he had seen in his dream. On seeing the image, an excellent transit meditation was produced in him. During his stay in India, Ārya Avalokiteśvara appeared constantly, and delivered to him many discourses. He also saw the vision of a yogini who advised him to return. He also saw Ārya Avalokiteśvara in tears and asked: What was the affliction? The Bodhisattva replied: Shin stang chan has captured sixty prisoners who are tormented in a prison pit by snakes and frogs, and are weeping from pain. In the morning he ascertained the fact, and having presented a golden srangs to the king, begged him to set the prisoners free. The {R1022} king said: Unless I get one golden srangs for each prisoner, I shall not release them! He freed the captives after paying the sixty golden srangs. He also called a medical practitioner to treat their wounds inflicted by snakes and torture. He paid him one golden srangs, and thus acquired the great fame of a Bodhisattva.

Again he saw Avalokiteśvara in tears, and {(8a)} when he asked: What was the affliction? the Bodhisattva replied: Bandits carried away the gold which belonged to rgyus lo tsa ba, and the latter is full of grief. Following this indication, he proceeded in the morning to the house of rgyus lo and inquired as to what had happened. The lo tsa ba said: Such is my sad fate! He gave him two golden chos and pleased him.

When he was preparing to go to Tibet, he saw in a dream numerous pretas who said to him O great lo tsa ba! On your way to Tibet, dangers will not befall you ! Present an offering to us, and then go! He then offered a gtor ma and rice comprising eleven men's loads. With the remaining gold he entertained numerous natives of mnga ris (who had come to India). They said (to him): The paṇḍita Parahita has come to mnga ris and is preaching the Five Treatises of Maitreya (byams chos sde lnga); and the Six Treatises of the Mādhyamaka system (dbu ma rigstshogs drug). He

journeyed to gung thang via Nepal. Then from Lower gro he proceeded to spu hrangs and obtained the Six Treatises of the Mādhyamaka system from the pannddita (Parahita).

After that he went to worship (the images) of Avalokiteśvara (Mahākarunnika), Manjuśrī and Tārā, which were formerly brought by the lo tsa ba rin chen bzang po. That night in a dream he was told that he should repair the big toe on the foot of the Tārā. He brought a (piece of) gor shi sha with gold, and repaired the damage. After that he again journeyed to India and obtained from rdo rje gdan pa (tsa mi) numerous doctrines, such as the Cycle of Avalokiteśvara and others.

Then he again returned to Tibet. He laboured for the welfare of living beings in many upper and {R1023} lower countries. He had numerous disciples to whom he imparted the Cycle of Avalokiteśvara. In particular he preached the Cycle of Avalokiteśvara to snubs phag mo lungpa, nye gnas lho pa and mkhang pa thang pa of gung than.

The siddha Zhang zhung obtained (it) from the above three. skyema grags tshul obtained it from him. The latter (preached it) to klu sgrub. The latter to the bla ma dka? bzhi pa. The latter to don zhags pa shes rab brtson 'grus. The latter to don zhags pa sangs rgyas rin chen. He became the upādhyāya of si tu dge blo ba at ?tshal. Because of this he became, known as the maha upādhyāya sang rin pa, He met rgyal tsha, the upādhyāya of spyan yas. At spyan yas he looked after disciples with the help of the Cycle of Ārya Avalokiteśvara.

{(8 b)} After that he travelled through the upper and lower regions. Later at the time of his passing into Nirvana, he said: Convey me to spyan yas, the strictest monastic college. On reaching spyan yas, he passed out. His remains are preserved until the present day inside a clay stupa.

The ācārya gzhon nu smon lam obtained from him the Cycle of Amoghapaśa. From him the maha upādhyāya sangs rgyas ?bum dpal obtained (it). His uninterrupted Lineage exists to the present day.

i. Lineage continued. Again, one named Da Bodhisattva, who was a nephew of AtiŚa, and was a Bodhisattva of this Bhadrakalpa, personally obtained (the Doctrine) from Ārya (Amoghapaśa).

There was a scholar named pannddita Śrīdhana, who used to worship the Mahabodhi (image) during the day, and at night used to meditate in a cemetery. When he received an invitation to Nepal, the lo tsa ba ?phags tshul of mnga? ris, and byang sems zla rgyal obtained from him the initiation and blessing, as well as the Cycle of Ārya (Avalokiteśvara).

He {who?} offered seven golden srangs, having borrowed them from other people. The pannddita said: This will do (for one journey). He then proceeded with the lo tsa ba to India. From the Bodhisattva he obtained the Doctrine of the siddha zhang zhung pa. From him skye ma grags tshul. From the latter the {R1024} blama ?jam dpal rgyal mtshan. From the latter zhig po kungrol. From the latter lo mo ba sangs rgyas ston pa. From the latter sangs rgyas dbon po. After him gzhon nu blo gros. Then grags pa rgyal mtshan. Then grags pa bzang po. Then the bla ma rdo rje rgyal mtshan. He called his chief doctrine AmoghapaŚa. He benefitted many laymen and monks, and became famous.

Again from byang sems zla rgyal ? nying phug pa, skye ma grags tshul, the siddha dkon mzhog grasg, sangs rgyas jam rgyal, thugs rje rgyal mtshan, chos kyi rgyal mtshan, skyes mchog klu sgrub, dka' bzhi pa dkon mchog glon nu, jam dbyangs thugs rje shes rab, kun mkhyen yon tan mgon po, the bla ma gzhon nu byang chub, and sangs pa kun mkhyen. Again, gran po lun pa, bla zhen pa, 'chims nam mkha' brags, bsod nams ye shes, the upādhyāya grags pa gzhon nu, the maha upādhyāya bsod nams grags, rgyal sras thogs med pa, the Dharmasvamin rgya ma ba, yon tan 'od, and kun mkhyen shangs pa. The latter bestowed it on me.

14.2.2 initiation ceremony of Amoghapaśa (rigs gtad). {R 1024} The Lineage of the rigs gtad of the five gods of the parivara of Amoghapaśa Avalokiteśvara, Śīlākara, Vairocana rakśita, ba ri lo tsa ba, skyema grags tshul, the ācārya don zhags pa of snar than, the mahāupādhyāya skyo, byang chen pa bsod ?phel, bag ston pa, the bLa ma tshul rgyal ba, and kun mkhyen shangs pa. The latter bestowed it on me. He bestowed on me the rigs stad and the initiation of the Eleven faced Avalokiteśvara transmitted through this Lineage.

i. Detailed exposition (dmar khrid) of the Cycle of the Great Merciful One (Mahākaruṇika) according to the system of byan sems zla rgyal {R1024}.

The detailed exposition (dmar khrid) of the Cycle of the Great Merciful One (Mahākaruṇika) according to the system of byan sems zla rgyal : skyi tsha 'od 'byung having heard of the fame of byang sems proceeded into the latter's presence, and perceived him as Avalokiteśvara. Again, on another occasion, he saw him as his teacher. Again, whenever a strong feeling of reverence filled him, he saw the Teacher as Avalokiteśvara. byang sems said (to him): Through your Doctrine benefit will arise for living beings, and imparted it to him. From him Zhang dbu dkar ba {R1025} heard it. The latter obtained the power of the Mani of the rite, and was able to command gods and demons. He obtained the power of the True Word With the help of this doctrine he caused great benefit to others.

He preached the doctrine to zhang lo tsa ba mya ngan med pa'i sa dpal. In his dreams he had repeated visions of the Mahākaruṇika and was able to listen to his preaching. He imparted it to the upādhyāya byan chub rin chen. The latter was well qualified for religious studies and great was the benefit for the living beings. Among his disciples there were many who had visions of Avalokiteśvara. He preached (the Cycle {(9b)} of Avalokiteśvara) to lche sgoms shes rab rdo rje. The latter preached it to the siddha Hūṃ 'bar. The latter had visions of tutelary deities, and amanusyas (demons) used to appear in person to accept (his) offerings. He preached (the Cycle) to the maha upādhyāya byan chub dpal, who had visions of Vajrapāṇi and Mahākāla (mgon po). He was endowed with a boundless faculty of prescience. He imparted (the Cycle) to dpal rgyal ba grub pa, who after reciting the number of mantras prescribed for the propitiation of the five deities (of the parivara of AmoghapaŚa) at the sacred place of thugs rje rdzong, acquired many merits, such as visions of the Eleven faced One (Avalokiteśvara), etc. He imparted (the Cycle) to the maha upādhyāya 'jims chen pa, who had visions of his tutelary deity and developed a yogic insight. He preached (the Cycle) to the ascetic (kun spangs) ri khrod pa, who had visions of many tutelary deities. Ri khrod pa bestowed it on the mahāpadhyāya gzhon nu 'bum. The latter bestowed it on the Dharmasvāmin chu tshan kha pa shes rab dpal. The latter bestowed it on skyes mchog nam mkha' bzang po. The Chapter on the Cycle of Amoghapaśa.

Indian Adept (siddha) - Mitra Yogin

Extracted from the Blue Annals (part 14, chapter 11, pages 665-666) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of THDL.

14.7 Dharma Cycles Originating from the Great Adept Mitra (grub chen mi tra las byung ba'i chos skor gyi skabs). {Chandra 924; Chengdu 1212; Roerich 1042}

Again, Mitra bestowed the precepts of the Six Doctrines (chos drug) on the pannddita Saripuṭa. The latter imparted them to mi nyag grags pa rin chen. His Lineage continues to exist to the present day, and its (teachings) are followed at smyug tshal of lho brag, There appear also to exist preachers (of this doctrine).

The Lineage of the Initiations known as Mitra brgyartsa: rdo rje chang (Vajradhara), Avalokiteśvara (spyan ras gzigs), the siddha Mitrayogin. The latter imparted it to the pannddita Amoghavajra (Don yod rdo rje). He came to bestow the initiation and its exposition on gchan 'd srungs mgon po of gsar mda' khra lung. At the time of his going to Lower khams (mdo khams) he appears to have bestowed once more all the initiations at ge kha brag. But in later times when the Lineage of Initiations appeared to have come to an end, several kalyānnamitras from Lower khams (mdo khams) passed through sgyi smad khra lung in search of the Lineage. People said: The lay brother (upāsaka) named mgo khom jo sras, a disciple of gchan 'od srungs mgon po who lives at 'phan yul rgyal, perhaps possesses the Lineage. The kalyānnamitras proceeded to 'phan yul in {R1043} search of him.

Byams pa seng ge, a kalyānna mitra of rgyal, came to gsang phu to hear the Doctrin