Buddhist Rituals in Bhutan
Many Buddhist rituals are practiced by monastic communities and in homes throughout Bhutan. People burn incense daily to invoke local protective deities. Tormas (ritual cakes made from barley flour and hardened butter) may reference particular deities or may be used as ritual offerings to specific deities. The dzoe, or “spirit catcher,” is made from twigs, straw, colored threads, and feathers that are woven into a web to attract and entangle malevolent spirits, which can be discarded later.
Mandalas are used in rituals to aid visualization. They represent spiritual landscapes that are designed according to strict traditional precepts. They can be painted onto paper or walls, incorporated into building designs, or even made of sand.