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Celestial Mysteries of the Borobodur Temple

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Celestial Mysteries of the Borobodur Temple

Dr. Uday Dokras


Iti’pi so bhagava araham, samm? sambuddho, vijj? caranasampanno, sugato, lokavidh?anuttaro puri sadammas? rathi satth? deva-manuss?nam, buddho, bhagav?’ti. Dhamm?d?sa

‘What, O ?nanda, is the Mirror of the Dhamma?

Here a noble disciple asks the Buddha.Buddha reflecting on His virtues says:

“Thus, indeed, is the Exalted One, a Worthy One, a fully Enlightened One,

Endowed with wisdom and conduct, an Accomplished One, Knower of the worlds, an Incomparable Charioteer for the training of individuals, the Teacher of gods and men, Omniscient, and Holy.”


Celestial Mysteries of the Bodobodur Temple

Dr. Uday Dokras B.Sc., B.A. (managerial economics) LL.B. Nagpur University, INDIA Graduate Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, CANADA MBA CALSATATE USA Graduate Diploma in Law, Stockholm University, SWEDEN Ph.D. Stockholm University, SWEDEN CONSULTANT Human Resource and Administration, FDCM ESSELWORLD GOREWADA ZOO Pvt. Ltd.. Indo Swedish Author’s Collective, Stockholm SWEDEN and Nagpur INDIA 6 Muchiland 7 Celestial Mysteries of the Borobodur Temple Indo Swedish Author’s Collective. STOCKHOLM.SWEDEN 8 Gautama Buddha-Hindu version rst Edition 2020 Copyright 2020 Uday Dokras. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by means of electronic, mechanical, photocopy, micro-film, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of the copyright holder.



The Buddha’s Daily Routine “The Lord is awakened. He teaches the Dhamma for awakening.” – Majjhima Nik?ya What now is Birth? The birth of beings belonging to this or that order of beings, their being born, their conception and springing into existence, the manipulation of the aggregates of existence, the arising of sense activity:-this is called birth. And what is Decay? The decay of beings belonging to this or that order of beings; the getting aged, and frail, grey and wrinkled; the failing of their vital force, the wearing out of the senses:-this is called decay. And what is Death? The parting and vanishing of beings out of this or that order of beings, their destruction, disappearance, death, the completion of their life-period, dissolution of the aggregates of existence the discarding of the body:-this is called death. -Gautama Buddha

One April day, on a morning just like every other morning, I had a sudden realization: I was in danger of wasting my life. As I stared out the rain-spattered window of a city bus, I saw that the years were slipping by. ‘What do I want from life, anyway?’ I asked myself. ‘Well … I want to be happy.’ But I had never thought about what made me happy or how I might be happier.” That was when I first became interested in developing my interests- in story telling. I have written 9 books and more than 60 papers. Each book is a collection of my papers forming 1 chapter for each.This is one of those stories. Here I solve the mysteries of the greatest and biggest Buddhist temple in the world.This book is a consolidation of several papers examining the mysteries of the Java temple.A reference to the literature in Indonesia or meeting knowledgable people there would have made for a better book. Be ai it may, the advantage of this book is a consolidation of all Borobodur material on the web and


classification of it in a systematic manner to explain some of the phenomenon associated with the temple and its origin,design,construction and “histology”. For more than 1500 years, from the Indian subcontinent to the islands of the Indonesian archipelago and Indonesiathe Hindu Mandir hereinafter known as temple to facilitate recognition of a common denominator has embodied and symbolized the Hindu worldview at its deepest level and inspired the greatest architectural and artistic achievements in Hindu Asia. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan-former President of India and a renowned Sanskrit scholar once said that,"Buddhism, in its origin at least, is an offshoot of Hinduism." Explaination for why Large Stupas or Temple complexes were built.Hinduism has a long history and continued development over the course of more than 3000 years. The term Hindu originally referred to those living on the other side of the Indus River, but by the eighteenth century it became exclusively related to an Indic religion generally.Though Hindus adhere to the principles of the Vedas, , unlike the Christian or Islamic traditions, they do not adhere to a single text. Hinduism’s emphasis on the universal spirit, or Brahman, allows for the existence of a pantheon of divinities while remaining devoted to a particular god.

For Hindu worshipers, the concept of bhakti is important. Bhakti is the devotion, honor and love one has for god. The physical actions, which one takes to express one’s bhakti can be done in a number of ways such as through darshan and puja. Darshan means auspicious sight. By making a pilgrimage to see a god at a temple or shrine, the practitioner is going there specifically to take darshan or glimpse of the idol lodged in a temple. Temples marked the transition of Hinduism from the Vedic religion of ritual sacrifices to a religion of Bhakti or love and devotion to a personal deity. Temple construction and mode of worship is governed by ancient Sanskrit scriptures called agamas, of which there are several, which deal with individual deities. Hindu Kings took god's name as it was auspicious and showed that his status was equal to that of god's and also through rituals it shows that one god (the king) worships the other god (heavenly god). Large temples were built by kings and the smaller ones were built by nobles or subordinate kings.From the 6 th and 7 th Century, the Hindus ,Jains and Buddhists began to use stone


as building material. Which makes me come back to the question_ Why did Buddhists build temples like Hindus? Sometime in 6th or 5th century B.C.E Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama. Prince and his biography has very much become a part of the foundation of the Buddhist teachings. It is said that he lived a cloistered life of ease and abundance. At the age of 29 years he came across a sick man, an old man, a dead man and an ascetic. Siddhartha had never seen these unpleasant aspects of life before, and was profoundly moved and confused. He could no longer ignore the existence of suffering in the world and live his life of privilege, knowing that old age and death are our inevitable fate. It was at this time that he choose to depart from his sheltered life to become an ascetic and find the truth to the universe.

Fasting Buddha Shakyamuni, 3rd-5th century Kushan period, Pakistan/ancient Gandhara (Metropolitan Museum of Art) He removed his jewels and rich robes forever, cut his hair and went into the forest and became an ascetic where he studied with a variety of sages and yogis, but he was unsatisfied with their teachings. He also practiced several types of self-mortification—most importantly starvation, because he wanted to concentrate exclusively on his spiritual advancements. These searches proved fruitless and he finally came to the realization that the Middle Path (avoiding extremes) was the path towards


enlightenment. The middle path teaches adherents to avoid extremes. For Siddhartha that meant neither a life of luxury as a prince nor starving himself. He traveled to a town in northern India called Bodh Gaya, where he sat under a type of tree called a bodhi tree and vowed to remain there until he reached enlightenment. After remaining in that spot in deep meditation for 49 days, he was tested one night by the demon god, Mara (a symbol of ignorance—he is not evil, just deluded). Mara tried to disrupt Siddhartha’s meditation and sent his beautiful daughters to tempt him. Siddhartha remained unmoved, kept his meditation and thus passed this final trial and gained enlightenment. At the moment of his enlightenment, he came to be known as Buddha, which translates from the Sanskrit as “enlightened one.” Akhand Bharat: The Indian cultural sphere or Indosphere is an area that is composed of the many countries and regions in South and Southeast Asia that were historically influenced by Indian culture and the Sanskrit language. The term Greater India is used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Sanskritisation and Indian cultural influence. These countries have been transformed to varying degrees by the acceptance and induction of cultural and institutional elements of India. Since around 500 BCE, Asia's expanding land and maritime trade had resulted in prolonged socio-economic and cultural stimulation and diffusion of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs into the region's cosmology, in particular in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka. In Central Asia, transmission of ideas were predominantly of a religious nature.

By the early centuries of the common era most of the principalities of Southeast Asia had effectively absorbed defining aspects of Hindu culture, religion and administration. The notion of divine godkingship was introduced by the concept of Harihara, Sanskrit and other Indian epigraphic systems were declared official, like those of the south Indian Pallava dynasty and Chalukya dynasty. These Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by George Coedès in his work Histoire ancienne des états hindouisés d'Extrême-Orient, were characterized by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability. To the north, Indian religious ideas were accepted into the cosmology of Himalayan peoples, most profoundly in Tibet and Bhutan. Buddhist monasticism extended into Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and other parts of Central Asia, and Buddhist texts and ideas were readily accepted in China and Japan in


the east. To the west, Indian culture converged with Greater Persia via the Hindukush and the Pamir Mountains. The same style of Hindu temple architecture was used in several ancient temples in South East Asia including Angkor Wat, which was dedicated to Hindu god Vishnu and is shown on the flag of Cambodia, also Prambanan in Central Java, the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia, is dedicated to TrimurtiShiva, Vishnu and Brahma.

Borobudur took shape of a giant stone mandala crowned with stupas and believed to be the combination of Indian-origin Buddhist ideas with the previous megalithic tradition of native Austronesian step pyramid. The Austronesian peoples are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan, Island Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar, that speak the Austronesian languages. The nations and territories predominantly populated by Austronesian-speaking peoples are sometimes known collectively as Austronesia. Based on the current scientific consensus, they originate from a prehistoric seaborne migration from Taiwan, at around 3000 to 1500 BCE, known as the Austronesian expansion (although there are competing hypotheses that place their origins within Island Southeast Asia itself). Austronesians were the first people to invent maritime sailing technology (most notably catamarans, outrigger boats, lashed-lug boat building, and the crab claw sail) which enabled their rapid dispersal into the islands of the Indo-Pacific. They assimilated (or were assimilated by) the earlier Paleolithic Australo- Melanesian Negrito, Orang Asli, and Papuan populations in the islands at varying levels of admixture. They reached as far as Rapa Nui, Madagascar, and New Zealand at their furthest extent, possibly also reaching the Americas. They were the most widespread group of peoples with shared linguistic ancestry prior to the colonial era.

By the beginning of the first millennium CE, most of the Austronesian inhabitants in Maritime Southeast Asia began trading with India and China. The adoption of Hindu statecraft model allowed the creation of Indianized kingdoms such as Tarumanagara, Champa, Butuan, Langkasuka, Melayu, Srivijaya, Medang Mataram, Majapahit, and Bali. Between the 5th to 15th century Hinduism and Buddhism were established as the main religion in the region.


The most ubiquitous common feature of Austronesian structures is the raised floor. The structures are raised on piles, usually with the space underneath also utilized for storage or domestic animals. The raised design had multiple advantages, they mitigate damage during flooding and (in very tall examples) can act as defensive structures during conflicts. The house posts are also distinctively capped with larger-diameter discs at the top, to prevent vermin and pests from entering the structures by climbing them. Austronesian houses and other structures are usually built in wetlands and alongside bodies of water, but can also be built in the highlands or even directly on shallow water. If Hindu dynasties began to build magnificent temples in their land, could theose kings who lived in the Indosphere be far behing? Parallel developments in Temple building followed in both “India” and Indosphere countries.But how the austere teachings of the Gautama Buddha were quickly forgotten in a Chase to do better than other Kinds in the temple building sphere points to the giant egoistic traditions of all kings in the “Greater India- colored ofcourse by what the Architect(meticulously collected by emissaries sent by the Kings to fetch them) and the gargantum size of the ego of the rulers.

Hence behold the temples in India- the Angkor Vat in Cambodia or the Borobodur in Indonesia.” I can do better and Bigger and Grander and Cleaverer than you” The earliest archaeological evidence for the presence of Buddhist stupas dates to the late 4th century BCE. In India, Sanchi, Sarnath, Amaravati and Bharhut are among the oldest known stupas. During Ashoka's reign in the 3rd century B.C.E., the Mahabodhi Temple (the Great Temple of Enlightenment where Buddha achieved his knowledge of the dharma—the Four Noble Truths) was built in Bodh Gaya, currently in the Indian state of Bihar in northern India though the Tawang Monastery, located in Tawang city of Tawang district in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, is the largest monastery in India and second largest in the world after the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet. The label is immaterial. Even the label ‘Buddhism’ which we give to the teachings of the Buddha is of little importance. The name one gives it is inessential. What is a name? That which we call rose by any other name would smell as sweet. (Walpola Rahula, p.5)


Like any other religious tradition, Buddhism has undergone a number of different transformations that have led to the emergence of many different Buddhist schools. 1000 armed Buddha from China How the different Buddhist schools developed over time after the death of the Buddha is a challenging topic obscured by the lack of sufficient sources but they do point to changes that are somehow artificial from the viewpoint of the early Buddhist communities. In reality it is a gradual shift rarely experienced, rarely lived through, by any one person. A series of gradual, almost imperceptible changes, from the perspective of those who read about many centuries in one glance,


could be actually a massive change which no monk or lay person ever actually experienced. This could account for the reason why specific first-hand records on this matter are virtually non-existent. There were disagreements among the Buddha disciples even during his lifetime. After the Buddha’s death, tradition says, a disciple named Subhadra rejoiced at the fact that the Buddha’s followers would now be free to do as they liked. There are also accounts of the first council held soon after the Buddha’s death, where a group of early Buddhists led by Purana rejected the consensual understanding of the teachings of the Master and insisted on transmitting the teachings as Purana himself had heard it. It is quite probable that these accounts are not literally true, but what seems to be clear is that the element of dissent was present in the Buddhist community from a very early stage. Centuries after the death of the Buddha, those who followed his teachings had formed settled communities in different locations. Their growth and geographical dispersion led complexity in their institutional organizations.Monks expanded and elaborated both doctrine and disciplinary codes, created new textual genres, developed new forms of disciplines, and eventually divided into a number of different schools. Geographical separation, language difference, doctrinal disagreements, selective patronage, the influence of non-Buddhist schools, loyalties to specific teachers, the absence of a recognized overall authority or unifying organizational structure and specialization by various monastic groups in different segments of Buddhist scriptures are just some examples of factors that contributed to sectarian fragmentation. The term Mahayana is a sanscrit word which literally means “Great Vehicle”. It is an umbrella term given to a group of Buddhist schools. Its origin can be found probably around 100 BCE in northern India and Kashmir, and then it spread east into Central Asia, East Asia and some areas of Southeast Asia. The term Mahayana was originally used by only a small movement (perhaps the least significant one at that time) in opposition to the formal, scholastic approach to Buddhist practice. Its formative period is not totally clear and equally unclear is when this Mahayana label was actually used outside of texts to designate this self-conscious, independent Buddhist movement. It can be said with certainty that the Buddhist schools embedded in China, Korea, Tibet and Japan belong to the Mahayana tradition.


It is challenging for scholars to present a general characterization of Mahayana Buddhism. In part this is because Mahayana Buddhism is not one thing, but rather, it seems to be a mixture of Buddhist visions, sometimes overlapping and contradictory. In part, too, scholars no longer accept the traditional account of Mahayana history. The Mahayana development used to be presented as a suspiciously simple straightforward chain of events. It was held that the Buddha’s teachings were originally organized, transmitted and more or less developed into what was referred to as early Buddhism. This Early Buddhism was referred to as Hinayana, Theravada or simply “monastic Buddhism”. Around the beginning of the common era, a Mahayana historical account said, this early form of Buddhism was followed by the Mahayana tradition, which was considered a major break in the development of Buddhism. This account left the impression that Mahayana replaced the earlier Buddhist traditions, which is clearly not true. The emergence of the Mahayana was a far more complex affair than this linear model suggests, and the so-called early Buddhism or Hinayana (which in strict terms should be referred to as mainstream Buddhism) not only persisted, but also flourished, long after the beginning of the common era.


The diversity that prevents scholars presenting a general characterization on Mahayana Buddhism as a whole, is not seen as a scandal by Mahayanists, but rather, as a strength to be proud of. Mahayanists see this as a sign of adaptation, as a virtue that is unique among religious traditions, which enables the teachings to be adapted to the needs of the hearers, and thereby, indicating the wisdom and compassion of the Buddha. Scholars, on the other hand, insist that this looseness and adaptability of its doctrinal base is a weakness in Buddhism, contributing to its eventual absorption by other traditions, as happened in India, where Buddhism was eventually absorbed by Hinduism. However, even the danger of being absorbed does not seem to bother Mahayanists.: Hinduism is about understanding Brahma, existence, from within the Atman, which roughly means "self" or "soul," whereas Buddhism is about finding the Anatman — "not soul" or "not self." In Hinduism, attaining the highest life is a process of removing the bodily distractions from life, allowing one to eventually understand the Brahma nature within. In Buddhism, one follows a disciplined life to move through and understand that nothing in oneself is "me," such that one dispels the very illusion of existence. In so doing, one realizes Nirvana. In this book we explain the cultural, religious, geographical and architectural significance of the temple of Borobodur and as the title suggests, demystify the mystique surrounding this monumental


shrine. The Borobudur Temple Compounds is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, and was built in the 8th and 9th centuries AD during the reign of the Syailendra Dynasty. The monument is located in the Kedu Valley, in the southern part of Central Java, at the centre of the island of Java, Indonesia. The main temple is a stupa built in three tiers around a hill which was a natural centre: a pyramidal base with five concentric square terraces, the trunk of a cone with three circular platforms and, at the top, a monumental stupa. The walls and balustrades are decorated with fine low reliefs, covering a total surface area of 2,520 m2. Around the circular platforms are 72 openwork stupas, each containing a statue of the Buddha. Buddhist Cosmology: The vertical division of Borobudur Temple into base, body, and superstructure perfectly accords with the conception of the Universe in Buddhist cosmology. It is believed that the universe is divided into three superimposing spheres, kamadhatu, rupadhatu, and arupadhatu, representing respectively the sphere of desires where we are bound to our desires, the sphere of forms where we abandon our desires but are still bound to name and form, and the sphere of formlessness where there is no longer either name or form. At Borobudur Temple, the kamadhatu is represented by the base, the rupadhatu by the five square terraces, and the arupadhatu by the three circular platforms as well as the big stupa. The whole structure shows a unique blending of the very central ideas of ancestor worship, related to the idea of a terraced mountain, combined with the Buddhist concept of attaining Nirvana.

Triad: The Temple should also be seen as an outstanding dynastic monument.The Borobudur Temple Compounds consists of three monuments: namely the Borobudur Temple and two smaller temples situatued to the east on a straight axis to Borobudur. The two temples are Mendut Temple, whose depiction of Buddha is represented by a formidable monolith accompanied by two Bodhisattvas, and Pawon Temple, a smaller temple whose inner space does not reveal which deity might have been the object of worship. Those three monuments represent phases in the attainment of Nirvana.


The temple was used as a Buddhist temple from its construction until sometime between the 10th and 15th centuries when it was abandoned. Since its re-discovery in the 19th century and restoration in the 20th century, it has been brought back into a Buddhist archaeological site. Criterion (i): Borobudur Temple Compounds with its stepped, unroofed pyramid consisting of ten superimposing terraces, crowned by a large bell-shaped dome is a harmonious marriage of stupas, temple and mountain that is a masterpiece of Buddhist architecture and monumental arts. Criterion (ii): Borobudur Temple Compounds is an outstanding example of Indonesia’s art and architecture from between the early 8th and late 9th centuries that exerted considerable influence on an architectural revival between the mid-13th and early 16th centuries. Criterion (vi): Laid out in the form of a lotus, the sacred flower of Buddha, Borobudur Temple Compounds is an exceptional reflection of a blending of the very central idea of indigenous ancestor worship and the Buddhist concept of attaining Nirvana. The ten mounting terraces of the entire structure correspond to the successive stages that the Bodhisattva has to achieve before attaining to Buddhahood.


Integrity


The boundaries contain the three temples that include the imaginary axis between them. Although the visual links are no longer open, the dynamic function between the three monuments, Borobudur Temple, Mendut Temple, and Pawon Temple is maintained. The main threat to the ensemble is from development that could compromise the extraordinary relationship between the main monument and its wider setting and could also affect the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. The approach to the property has to a degree already been compromised by weak developmental regulations. Tourism also exerts considerable pressure on the property and its hinterland. There is a growing rate of deterioration of the building stone, the cause of which needs further research. There is also a small degree of damage caused by unsupervised visitors. The eruption of Mount Merapi is also considered as one of the potential threats because of its deposit acidic ash as happened in 2010.


Authenticity


The original materials were used to reconstruct the temple in two phases in the 20th century: after the turn of the century and more recently (1973-1983). Mostly original materials were used with some

additions to consolidate the monument and ensure proper drainage which has not had any significant adverse impact on the value of the property. Though the present state of Borobudur Temple is the result of restorations, it retained more than enough original material when re-discovered to make a reconstruction possible. Nowadays the property could be used as a Buddhist pilgrimage site. Its overall atmosphere is, however, to a certain degree compromised by the lack of control of commercial activities and the pressure resulting from the lack of an adequate tourism management strategy. Protection and management requirements

The protection of the property is performed under Indonesian Law No. 11/2010 concerning Cultural Heritage and its surrounding cultural landscape. It is executed under a National Strategic Area and the Spatial Management Plan by the Ministry of Public Works in accordance with the Law concerning Spatial Management No. 26/2007 and Governmental Regulation No. 26/2008 concerning National Spatial Planning and will be enforced further by another presidential regulation regarding the Management for the Borobudur National Strategic Area that is still being drafted by the Ministry of Public Works.

The legal and institutional framework for the effective management of the property is regulated by a Presidential Decree Number 1 Year 1992. The established zones within the World Heritage property are respectively under the responsibility of the Borobudur Heritage Conservation Office under Ministry of Education and Culture, of state-owned institute PT. Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur under the Ministry of Enterprises, and of the local governments (Magelang Regency and Central Java Province). A study on the integrated management of Borobudur Temple Compounds has been conducted, including attention for the ecosystem, social and cultural aspects, ecotourism, public and private partnership and organisational feasibility study. This study is the basis of the still to be developed visitor management approach. In order to ensure consistency between the 1992 Presidential Decree and the 1972 JICA Master Plan zone-system indicated in the World Heritage nomination dossier and to strengthen the regulations regarding development, a New Presidential Regulation is still being formulated by a Coordinating Board (14 Ministries and local authorities as well as representatives of local communities) and by formalizing the role of the proposed Management Board into the wider zones. In addition, the


protection of the property has been ensured by the regular financial contribution by the national budget. Monitoring programs has been effectively executed to monitor the growing rate of deterioration of building stone and also damage by unsupervised visitors. A research is being conducted to determine the long- term impact of deposit acidic ash of eruption of Mount Merapi to set further protection and conservation management of the property. Furthermore, a risk preparedness plan will be formulated in 2012.

The Borobudur Heritage Conservation Office has conducted community development programs targeting especially at the youth to raise their awareness. In improving and empowering local community as specialist guide for Borobudur Temple Compounds, several training programs have been conducted. The community development related to economical sector (small enterprises that produce traditional handicrafts, culinaries, etc) have already being conducted by the municipalities of Magelang Regency and Central Java Province. The Borobudur Temple is considered by many to be a wonder of the ancient world. We all probably have heard raves of its majestic landscapes at the break of dawn, the timeless beauty of its reliefs, or the “spiritually enlighteningphysical challenge of reaching its top. No written Records: Even though Borobudur is the most important tourist site on Java, there is no written record of who built it or of its intended purpose. There are no inscriptions or dates on the monument—which was partially covered by a lava flow when it was rediscovered—and so historians must guess as to when it was probably built. Since it is a monument built on a grand scale, it would seem unusual that no ruler or dynasty takes credit for the structure. Borobudur is the world’s largest Buddhist temple and acknowledged as one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world. Yet, no one knows who built it.


Three-dimensional diagram of the universe and a visual representation of Buddhist teachings: This magnificent temple is a three-dimensional diagram of the universe and a visual representation of Buddhist teachings. From above, the design of Borobudur resembles a mandala (a Hindu pattern used in meditation), leading to speculation that the complex was built by Indian Buddhists who were influenced by Hindu beliefs.


Mandala: Viewed from the ground, the mandala comes together to form a mountain of stone. Pilgrims today and yesterday would climb Borobudur level by level, drawing closer and closer to complete infusion by divine wisdom. Essentially, the pilgrim can experience nirvana on earth. Borobudur has the mound shape of a stupa, the most typical Buddhist structure honouring Buddha. It is made of square and round terraces, topped by a dome-like structure. Standing 13 centuries old, the largest Buddhist monument in the world is bound to have mysteries. It is hard enough to fathom its 100-year construction in the 8th and 9th centuries, and such perfect structures produced with such simple technology. Nobody knows who ordered the construction of Borobudur, though tradition credits it to the Syailendra Dynasty, which probably meant two to three kings including Samaratungga. And apart from the temple’s obvious religious functions, researchers have long hypothesised surprising alternative functions.

Professor Agus Aris Munandar 1, a University of Indonesia archaeologist who has been studying Javanese temples for 30 years, confirms that there are many unsolved mysteries of Borobudur. Some of them indicate how mindbogglingly intelligent ancient Indonesians were. “There is so much finesse in Borobudur that early Dutch archeologists refused to believe that Javanese people made it. It must have been the Indians who came to Java to spread Hinduism and Buddhism,” said Prof Agus. “But Indian [polymath] Rabindranath Thakur visited Java in the early 20th century and said, “I see India everywhere in Java, but I do not know where,” meaning that as much as there are strong Indian influences in Javanese temples, they are also very different from Indian ones.

According to Prof Agus, one of the greatest mysteries of Borobudur is the hidden base, also known as the Mahakarmavibhanga. Hundreds of beautifully carved relief panels are completely covered a couple of metres underground, except for a section in the southeast, which the Japanese detonated in the 1940s out of curiosity. Previously, Dutch archaeologists had unearthed it for research and re-covered it. There are two theories for why the Mahakarmavibhanga is buried. “The first theory reckons that when the construction of Borobudur was completed, the foundation turned out unstable. So to prevent


collapse, the builders had to fasten the foundation from all directions,” said Prof Agus, adding that this is the theory he supports. The second theory speculates religious reasons. The Mahakarmavibhanga portrays despicable human acts such as torture, decapitation, robbery, and begging – thus deemed inappropriate for laymen’s eyes. But violence only makes up a small percentage of these reliefs. Borobudur can be divided into three levels from the bottom to the top: Kamadhatu (realm of desire-filled common people), Rupadhatu (life on earth in which the soul has been purged of all desires), and Arupadhatu (the soul’s departure from the body and uniting with the gods in Nirvana). Which leads to another marvel: the holy stupas on the Arupadhatu level and the superstition that touching the Buddha through the holes would make wishes come true. “Buddhist scholars philosophise the shadows of the form. Only Buddha’s shadows are visible, because Buddha exists in another realm, like a relic housed in a stupa,” said Prof Agus. “Likewise, nobody sees the sheltered Buddha relics on Borobudur, except its curious shadows under the sunlight or a full moon.”


Levels of Intimacy: Prof Agus is perhaps best known for researching the proxemics of Borobudur’s relief panels. In communication science, proxemics is the personal space between individuals, which indicate the level of intimacy. In Borobudur, proxemics refers to the most comfortable distance and angles to perceive each panel in its entirety and fully understand their message. The closer the distance required to achieve this, the higher the spiritual level (i.e. “closer ” to Buddha) of the audience for whom the panel is intended.“It took us 10 expeditions to fully decode Borobudur,” said Prof Agus. “Buddhist scriptures happen to refer to the 10 stages of Bodhisattva. I don’t think it’s a coincidence that Borobudur is designed as such that it would take 10 times to find its ‘path of Enlightenment.'”


While we’re on proxemics, note that the inter-stupa distances are unequal. However, on a top-view blueprint of Borobudur, the stupas look orderly positioned. Borobudur is meant to resemble a mandala – an elaborate meditation circle within a square, with symbols of the gods strategically coordinated to create harmonious patterns. This phenomenon has been researched by Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB)’s archaeoastronomy team. According to ITB astrophysicist Evan Irawan Akbar, the stupas’ unequal spaces were supposed


to mark the lengths of a gnomon’s shadows during different times of the year. In other words, Borobudur was a giant sundial. Except that if this hypothesis were true, the gnomon that casts the sundial’s shadow is missing, and its dimensions remain unknown. Prof Agus said that ancient Indian stupas often had chatras (umbrella-like structures) and yasthis (pillars on which the chatras are erected). A now missing yasthi could have functioned as a gnomon for this hypothetical Borobudur sundial, he said. In the 19th century, the Dutch set a gnomon on top of Borobudur, but removed it after being struck by lightning. The locals never liked it anyway, and its basis on an unproven hypothesis gave the Dutch no strong reason to keep it there. Astronomical Observatory: Nevertheless, Borobudur may have served as an ancient astronomical observatory. A 1930s study by Dutch ethnoarchaeologist J.L.A. Brandes found that the 8th century Javanese mastered astronomy, which dictated agricultural and maritime practices. ITB archaeoastronomers also found the importance of celestial orientation in the construction of Borobudur.


Due to the earth’s rotation and the bobbing on its axis, the stars visible from the skies of the North Pole changes every couple centuries. “When Borobudur was constructed, Polaris was visible from Java. Gunadharma (the architect traditionally credited for building Borobudur) would ascend on Mount Menoreh and instruct his builders to align the construction to the ‘true northstar that shifts neither east nor west,” said Evan. Nevertheless, today’s north on the magnetic compass would not match Borobudur’s north back then because it was affected by the earth’s rotation. Another astronomical curiosity of Borobudur is the ship reliefs on the East. They depict a sailed double outrigger canoe underneath celestial objects, presumably commemmorating a voyage to Africa. Back then, ancient Indonesians crossed an unmapped ocean without a compass, depending solely on the stars for navigation. In 2003-2004, a wooden replica of the Borobudur ship sailed the Cinnamon Route from Jakarta to Accra (Ghana) to demonstrate the trans-Indian Ocean trading links ancient Indonesians fostered with ancient Africans. Now housed in the Samudra Raksa Museum in the north side of the Borobudur Archaeological Park, the ship is a testament of millennia-old Indonesian maritime and astronomical genius.


Lotus: The puzzles of Borobudur are many still. Some are scientifically plausible, such as the temple’s resemblance to a lotus floating in a now dried ancient lake basin. Others are mythical, such as the urban legend that Gunadharma slept on Mount Menoreh and became the sleeping giantshaped mountain now visible from Borobudur. Scholars don’t have the answers. But perhaps it is those riddles that keep drawing people back to Borobudur with awe. They’re called mysteries for a reason.


The Mystery of the Borobudur Temple and the Numbers


The temple when observed mathematically there are interesting mystery that leads from number one, some of the numbers that were in the temple when in total the numbers will always produce the number one what's the story, before telling a mystery figure one needs to know about the level of Ranas Buddhist spiritual in Borobudur temple.

Depth of the first is Kamadhatu which says that the world is still controlled by kama or lust. The lower part is mostly covered by piles of stones were made to strengthen the construction of the temple the second level is rupadhatu that the world has been able to break free from lust but still tied to appearance and shape of the area the are four shoulder terraces formed korang kriling that of the walls were decorated gallery relief floor of the square at 4 corridor that 1,400 images reliefs long-reliefs whole second half kilometer with 1,212 decorative panels third level is Arupadatu is the highest level that symbolizes a lack of form perfect in this area of the floor plan is a circle which symbolizes that the man had been free from all desires of bond forms and shapes but have not reached nirvana. The first temple of Borobudur has 10 levels if in total the 1 plus 0 result 1 number one more appear in the area Arupadatu this area is an area 4 topmost level of the temple, on the first level there is one temple to the second level, there are 16 temples third level there are 24 temples level to 4 there are 32 temples number of temples that are in the area are 73 pieces arupadhatu if in total the 7 and 3 the result is 10 and if in totalizing again 1 to 0 the result is 1. the figure of one of the last to appear on the total number of the statue Borobudur temple there are 505 statues there when the numbers in total the results also number one.


Stones: Though built in 750 BC by the royal dynasty which at that time embraced Buddhist religion, the development was very mysterious because people in the 7th century have not met the calculation of architecture are high but Borobudur was built calculation sophisticated architecture, up to now none who can explain how the construction and history of this Borobudur temple. Already many scientists from all over the world who come but none of them managed to reveal the mystery of the construction of Borobudur. One of the questions that led researchers curious is from where the large stones in the temple of Borobudur and the like where arrange them with precision and architecture is very neat. There are estimates that the rock came from volcanoes but how to bring it out of the volcano to the location of the temple was given its location on the hill. Textbook of Buddhism: Some scholars think that this massive monument is a gigantic textbook of Buddhism to help people to achieve enlightenment. To read this Buddhist textbook in stone requires a walk of more than two miles. The walls of the galleries are adorned with impressive reliefs illustrating the life of Buddha Shakyamuni and the principles of his teaching. Representing the existence of the universe, Borobudur perfectly reflects the Buddhist cosmology, which divides the universe into three intermingled separate levels. The three levels are Kamadhatu (world of desire), Ruphadatu (world of forms), and Arupadhatu (world of formlessness).


Teaching Tool: Borobudur monument was an ancient teaching tool and a realization in stone of the search for wisdom, in the Mahayana Buddhist tradition. Cosmic Syatem:The terraces symbolise the three levels of the Buddhistscosmological system: the world of desire, the world of form without desire and the world of formlessness. These layers also depict the three steps of spiritual growth towards salvation. Borobudur at that time, speculated that Borobudur may have originally been a holy place of pilgrimage for believers of the Mahayana branch of Buddhism. Monks from the nearby monastery would have led pilgrims along the galleries, using the carved panels to illustrate the stories of their faith and the way of the Buddha as they circled their way to the top of the monument. Lacking further historical information, Raffles was unable to determine the exact date of Borobudur's construction. But he knew that in the 13th and 14th centuries, Islam had replaced Buddhism as the


island's religion, and he thought it unlikely that Borobudur would have been built since then. Also, ancient records showed that in the 10th century, the region around Borobudur had been mysteriously deserted, and all construction in central Java had stopped then. From the detailed carvings, Raffles concluded that Borobudur had been built sometime between the eighth and tenth centuries, during a period of relative peace in East Asia, after the nomadic and religious invasions had run out of steam. It was in 1835 that the site was cleared. Some efforts were made to restore and preserve the colossal monument since then. Unfortunately, in 1896 the Dutch colonial government gave away eight containers of Borobudur stones, including reliefs, statues, stairs and gates, as presents for the King of Siam who was visiting Indonesia. A restoration program undertaken between 1973 and 1984 returned much of the complex to its former glory, and the site has since become a destination of Buddhist pilgrimage. On January 21, 1985 the temple suffered minor damage due to a bomb attack. In 1991, Borobudur was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.


Hidden Base: In 1885 J.W. Ijzerman Chairman, an archaeologists of the Archeological Society in Yogyakarta discovered a ‘hidden base’ that was located behind the exterior wall of the lowest terrace, it has been built around the monument with 160 stone reliefs, 157 of which were covered and just 3 visible. In 1890-91, the complete ‘hidden base’ was exposed, photographed and encased again. Why the reliefs were ever covered up remains a mystery. There are various theories circulating, varying from structural explanations (the cover plates created a stronger base for the stupa) to iconographic ones (the sight and significance of the pictures was not supposed to be visible to everyone). Landfall:It is thought that during construction Borobudur experienced a landfall that threatened the entire building. To prevent the whole monument from collapsing, the Kamadhatu level was closed and made into a new base that holds Borobudur steady. This discovery brings about renewed efforts to safeguard Borobudur from vandalism and natural threats. The hidden base of Borobudur was originally the first level, which contains the gallery of Kamadhatu level.The content of these hidden reliefs is loosely based on a Sanskrit Buddhist text called the Mahakarmavibhangga ("Great Exposition of the Law of Karma"). Buddhism postulates that for every cause there is an effect. Those who undertake good actions generate good effects, while those who initiate wrongful actions generate bad effects. Although the person committing the act may not immediately realize the results generated


by his or her actions, the karmic effect will eventually play out, if not in this life then in a future existence or reincarnation. The Sanskrit-based Mahayana edition of the "Great Exposition of the Law of Karma" has never been fully translated into English.


Walking the Twisting Path


The temple is actually a stupa that one is supposed to walk in a certain pattern, in a mandala fashion, to the summit. It consists of nine stacked platforms—six square and three circular—and is topped by a central dome which is not to be climbed. The stupa has many staircases and walkways. The temple is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. The central dome is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues, each seated inside a perforated stupa that is a stone screen. They look very much like life-size Buddhas inside a small flying saucer! A few of the Buddha statues inside the perforated stupas have had the outer stone stupa removed so that the Buddha statue can be clearly seen and photographed. The stonework is exceptional. Hourglass-style keystone cuts can be seen on some of the walls where stones have been removed. It has been estimated that Borobudur was a building project on such a scale that it took many generations to complete the artificial stone mountain. Borobudur is built in the shape of a gigantic mandala-yantra that is meant to be walked by a pilgrim seeking enlightenment. Artificial Lake and the Lotus Sutra: One early suggestion by archaeologists when they began to study Borobudur was that the huge stupa-hill was surrounded by an artificial lake. In this vision, Borobudur was to have been the symbol of a lotus flower coming out of the lake. This would have meant that pilgrimages to Borobudur would have begun by boat. However, modern Indonesian historians largely reject the idea of a lake being created.


Currently, historians prefer to ascribe Borobudur to the Sailendra (also spelled Shailendra) dynasty that is said to have begun circa 760 AD, some decades after the origin of the Srivijayan Empire in Sumatra. However, the Sailendra dynasty itself is shrouded in mystery, and like those of Srivijaya, its origins seem unclear to modern historians, who are unsure where these master seafarers came from. Mysterious Sailendra Dynasty Current understanding has it that “the Shailendras are [a] thalassocracy and ruled maritime Southeast Asia, however they also relied on agriculture pursuits through intensive rice cultivation on the Kedu Plain of Central Java. The dynasty appeared to be the ruling family of both the Medang Kingdom of Central Java for some period and Srivijaya in Sumatra.” Suddenly, in 700 AD, Java has an organized thalassocracy that


now spans eastward to New Guinea? Where did this network of Hindu seaports, rivers and rice paddies come from? I think they are offshoots of the seafaring Cham or Champa. The Sailendra dynasty, like Srivijaya in nearby Sumatra, was the result of the Cham Empire breaking up into smaller states. Later, in the various naval wars that went on starting around 700 AD, these warring Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms would even attack the Champa heartland in southern Vietnam. These wars, which included Angkor Wat and the Cambodians, were ultimately civil wars carried on by the large fleets that were based on Sumatra and Java as well as up the Mekong River in Cambodia. Essentially, the larger Cham Empire came to an end with these breakaway Hindu states starting in 650 AD, but it would seem that Borobudur was already inexistence before this breakup. No one really seems to know the who and when of Borobudur—but they do know its purpose: it is a megalithic site for Buddhist pilgrimage


Researching Origins


According to sources: “Although the rise of the Shailendras occurred in Kedu Plain in the Javanese heartland, their origin has been the subject of discussion. Apart from Java itself, an earlier homeland in Sumatra, India or Cambodia has been suggested. The latest studies apparently favor a native origin of the dynasty. Despite their connections with Srivijaya in Sumatra and [the] Thai-Malay Peninsula, the Shailendras were more likely of Javanese origin.”


“According to Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, an Indian scholar, the Shailendra dynasty that established itself in the Indonesian archipelago originated from Kalinga in Eastern India. This opinion is also shared by Nilakanta Sastri and J. L. Moens. Moens further describes that the Shailendras originated in India and established themselves in Palembang before the arrival of Srivijaya’s Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa. In 683, the Shailendras moved to Java because of the pressure exerted by Dapunta Hyang and his troops.” “In 1934, the French scholar Coedes proposed a relation with the Funan kingdom in Cambodia. Coedes believed that the Funanese rulers used similar-sounding ‘mountain lord’ titles, but several Cambodia specialists have discounted this. They hold there is no historical evidence for such titles in the Funan period.” “Other scholars hold that the expansion of [the] Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya was involved in the rise of the dynasty in Java. Supporters of this connection emphasize the shared Mahayana patronage, the intermarriages, and the Ligor inscription. The fact that some of Shailendra’s inscriptions were written in old Malay, suggests Srivijaya or Sumatran connections. The name ‘Selendra’ was first mentioned in [the] Sojomerto inscription (725) as “Dapunta Selendra.” Dapunta Selendra is suggested as the ancestor of [the]


Shailendras. The title Dapunta is similar to those of Srivijayan King Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa, and the inscription—although discovered in Central Java (north coast)—was written in old Malay, which suggested the Sumatran origin or Srivijayan connection to this family” The Cham People In the book, The Lost World of the Cham , black, Hindu Cham people—known to have populated the coast of central Vietnam in the second century AD and later—probably also were a dominant force in the region in the centuries BCE. Ancient Chinese texts mention a land of Funan to the southwest, probably in what is today Cambodia, Indonesia, and the Malaysian peninsula. It is my opinion, based on the research presented in the book, that these lands were loosely ruled by the master seafaring civilization of the Cham. So, the various claims that the mysterious Sailendra dynasty came from India, Cambodia or Sumatra means to me that they are part of the Cham. It may well be that the Cham originated at Kalinga in eastern India.


Religious Blending


One of the questions that historians have in trying to figure out who built Borobudur and when, is why a gigantic Buddhist monument would be built by a largely Hindu dynasty? Did the Hindu and Buddhist rulers of Java circa 700 to 800 AD intermingle and allow a crossover of their faiths? Buddhism is merely a reform of Hinduism, largely doing away with the caste system and giving its faithful more freedom with less ritual. The same gods, such as Shiva and Brahma, plus historical characters such as Krishna and Rama from the Mahabharata and Ramayana are important to Hindus as well as Buddhists. With the Cham, Buddhism and Hinduism were melded together and Hindu temples were built at the same time as Buddhist ones. This was apparently going on in Java as well, and in fact, the Hindu Prambanan Temple is very near to Borobudur and is said to have been built in the ninth century. Prambanan has been called the most beautiful Hindu temple outside of India. The Sailendras may have built both Borobudur and Prambanan. Historians are confused as to whether the Sailendras were Hindus or Buddhists. “There is confusion between Hindu and Buddhist rulers in Java around that time. The Sailendras were known as ardent followers of Buddhism, though stone inscriptions found at Sojomerto suggest they may have been Hindus. It was during this time that many Hindu and Buddhist monuments were built on the plains and mountains around the Kedu Plain.”


The Records are Silent


Without any formal record of any kind of the building of Borobudur—an astounding feat for any architect and builder—historians theorize that construction began sometime around 760 AD (but it may be earlier) and that the site was abandoned around 928 AD when volcanic eruptions covered much of the site with volcanic ash. It is thought that the Buddhist kings of the Sailendra dynasty of central Java were the builders, however, they left no inscriptions. This dynasty may have been affiliated with the Buddhist Cham of central Vietnam as well as the Cham of Angkor Wat in today’s Cambodia. I must personally conclude that Borobudur was built by the Cham before the Sailendra dynasty, and was probably already in existence by 400 AD, if not earlier. It is not known when the active use of the monument and Buddhist pilgrimage to it ceased. During a period sometime between 928 and 1006 AD, King Mpu Sindok moved the capital of the Medang Kingdom (part of the Sailendra dynasty) to the region of East Java after a series of volcanic eruptions. Historians tend to think that this influenced the abandonment, as portions of Borobudur were covered by lava flow.Borobudur is likely to have been built during a time of regional peace, which was when the Cham ruled the entire area, prior to 650 AD. The enormous temple lay hidden for centuries under volcanic ash and thick vegetation, and the site became the subject of folklore associated with bad luck. The facts behind its abandonment remain a mystery, but perhaps further archeological work in these under-studied places will provide some answers.


Intricate and impressive carvings at Borobudur.


When we see the reality of Borobudur's dimensions, whether it is the size of the monument itself of reflect it has on us, it is not surprising that we tend to wonder why this temple was built. How was it possible to pile up thousands of stone blocks to create such a magnificent structure, while at that time people had no knowledge of sophisticated tool and equipment? How did they carve the thousands of reliefs to produce a work of art? Many attempts have been made to uncover the mystery surrounding the Borobudur temple since its rediscovery in 1814. As a result of the efforts to save it that have been carried on for a century as well as two restorations, the real Borobudur can now be seen. Yet the monument remains a mystery.


Stone Architecture


Carving stone and especially constructing a holy temple would require an extraordinary amount of enthusiasm, sincerely, perseverance, stick-to-it-eveness, firmness, and one's entire physical and

mental effort, challenging one's creative ability. And this was demonstrated to us by our forefathers twelve centuries ago. Observe, for instance, the walls of the galleries. These are not only blocks of stones piles up to form straight, high and long walls, uninteresting if we have to circle around them from level to level. They have been worked into beautifully carved walls, with finely cut corners with neat upper frames and rows of niches containing statues.


Observe also the gateway. They have been crafted into impressive posts and doorsteps, decorated with mythological scorpion to ward off disaster. And look at the gutters: even though the are only gutters to carry away rain water, they have been done with care, with an artistic touch. Study the relief, which are of two kinds, narrative and decorative. The decorative reliefs have added luster to the rows of reliefs in various ways, as the beginning or end of row of pictorial reliefs, as an intermezzo to the scene or as fill-ins of the remaining surfaces. What a splendid design! Scene after scene, with figure appearing on the walls or balustrades in accordance with the nature of the story, carefully carved to make the figures stand out.


Then miraculously, the figures come alive! The walls tell about the life of Buddha Gautama ( as told in the book of Lalitawistara), about the Bodhisattva (the Jataka and Awadana stories), and about the travels of Prince Sudhana - Kumara in his search for the highest knowledge of the absolute truth (the book of Gandawyuha). And theses wonderful stories cover a length of 3000 meters! Then observe the Stupas! It is amazing how the 72 stupas on the round terraces are arranged on circular rows. The large number of stupa on higher terrace, in the end there being only one left, the supreme stupa on the pinnacle. The walls of the many stupas which at first are perforated, have fewer and fewer openings until in the end they become solid, without openwork, there being only one left, the central stupa at the top. The Buddha statues, which at first can be seen through the openings in the walls sitting inside the stupas, gradually become visible, vanishing into the main stupa. Note the ground plan! The Borobudur Temple consists of five square and four circular terraces


arranged concentrically. The terraces whose shape is basically square have been developed into a remarkable multi-sided design, beautifully arranged and together with the circular terraces, forming a most harmonious concentric composition.Observer attentively from the top to bottom, the arrangement of the terraces presents a remarkable picture, of a one-sided figure (the round shape of the central stupa) slowly becoming larger as though it is transformed into an extraordinary square. Looking at it from the bottom up, you see the transfiguration of a multisided design developing into a circular one, changing gradually from level to level. Looking down from the top, it might appear as though the Buddha (formless) is descending from heaven to be present in this fleeting world, incarnating as a Bodhisattva in order to convey his Dharma (teachings) to mankind. Conservely, looking up from the bottom, it appears that the way to self liberation from Samsara is through continuous self-purification, from stage to stage, until Nirwana is attained.As stated previously, the buried foot of the temple can be regarded as a terrace or level; the foot is the lowest level, which means that Borobudur is actually a ten-story structure. The foot can not be seen by visitors, since it was covered by a foundation of stone that functioned as a platform for a procession. The way the foot is covered is unique, the stone having been laid with calculation and artistry. The board platform provides ample space for people preparing for a procession and also serves to enhance the beauty and harmony of the temple.


Art as expression


If art can be interpreted as an expression, the Borobudur is a convincing example. From the above description it can be felt that this monument is meant to express the philosophy of Buddhism, and at the same time serve as a symbol of ancestor worship. In the hands of the builders the design was executed with true devotion. It is quite impossible that such a beautiful creation as Borobudur was carried out by the builders without a feeling of love; scene after scene of the narrative reliefs, whose number exceeds a thousands, a great number, indeed, for that age, carved by hand, were executed with consistently great artistry, not to speak of the statues of the Dhyani Buddhas, which are able to express universal peace and all parts of which were executed with precision and grace. All of these reveal an artistic expression based on the awareness that construction of the temple was a sacred task, a deep

consciousness of the greatness of the religion, and extreme respect for the ancestors. Art Being a Means of Communication In order for art to be accepted by society and become part of it, it should be communicative, and in this case Borobudur is a prime temple. While present-day tourists come to visit because of a desire to see a temple on a hilltop, a storied structure full of reliefs and statues renown for their beauty and interest, it is very reasonable to assume that the visitors of olden times were motivated by the desire to gain a deeper knowledge of their religion, and live it through the carved scene that tell a story and can be seen and touched.


The series of panels, especially when the iconography is clear and precisely executed, can indeed become a reliable of communication, since they easily create a spiritual bond between the observer and the scenes observed. Through the level of temple that must be climbed and the sculpted scene displayed along the passages, pilgrims learn about the noble deed of the Buddha or Bodhisatwa. The form and content of the entire structure seem to lead the pilgrim to steep into the meaning of selfliberation from Samsara. Does the above description not cause you to feel that there is contact between the artistic and the mysterious?

A few short quotations from the Mahakarmavigghanga in English are available from various sources.In one, the Buddha tells the young Brahmin Shuka that there are a total of eighteen benefits to be derived from the building a Stupa. "What are these eighteen?




One will be born as the child of a great king One will have a noble body One will become beautiful and very attractive One will have sharp sense faculties One will be powerful and famous One will have a great entourage of servants One will become a leader of men One will be a support to all One will be renowned in the ten directions One will be able to express oneself in words and verses extensively One will receive offerings from men and gods One will possess many riches One will obtain the kingdom of a universal monarch One will have long life One's body will be like a collection of vajras One's body will be endowed with the major marks and the minor signs (of a Buddha) One will take rebirth in the three higher realms One will swiftly attain complete nirvana This book is my Stupa. To build this, I thank my friend Kerry Penny, contemporary British Landscape Artist whose work inspires me and she generously donates her paintings to ornate my books. The covers - both front and back and some pictures inside are her extraordinary work. R E F E R E N C E S 1. Munandar, A. A. (2016). BOROBUDUR TEMPLE: THE INTERCHANGE OF HUMANITY VALUES AND ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. International Review of Humanities Studies, 1(2). https://doi.org/10.7454/irhs.v1i2.8 39 PART I Architecture and Design Concepts of the Borobudur The Dhamma teaches: Be like a lion that trembles not at sounds. Be like the wind that does not cling to the meshes of a net. Be like a lotus that is not contaminated by the mud from which it springs up. Wander alone like a rhinoceros


The Buddha says:—“

They who speak much are blamed. They who speak a little are blamed. They who are silent are also blamed. In this world there is none who is not blamed.”

Based on inscriptions found on some of the stones of the monument, archaeologists agree that construction of Borobudur was probably begun around 760 AD and completed by about 830, the Golden Age of the Sailendra dynasty, under the reign of King Samaratunga. Sailendras were of foreign origin, either from South India or from Indo-China, and ruled Sumatra and Java from the 8th through the 13th centuries. Under their rule, the islands were major centers of Buddhist scholarship. The Javanese had been carving stone statues and inscriptions since about 400 AD, but between 700 and 900 AD, many of the Island's greatest shrines were erected.


Javanese society of that time must have been healthy and wealthy enough to support an endeavor such as the building of Borobudur. It would have required plentiful manpower to haul the stone – as much as 45,700 cubic yards taken from nearby streams and rivers, all fitted perfectly together without mortar. Skilled craftsmen would have been needed to carve the images, which were completed after the stones were in place, and abundant agricultural resources to provide food. By the middle of the 9th century, Borobudur was completed with a large monastery at the southwest foot of the hill. "Today it takes a trained eye to see Borobudur from a distance," says Asian art historian, Jan Fontein. "But we know that, in ancient times, this stone was covered with a kind of white plaster – called "plaster as hard as diamond" or "vajalaypa" – which may have been a base for colors and just as the pilgrim who went to Chartres saw the cathedral rise up from miles away, so the pilgrim who came to Borobudur may have seen the monument in ancient times, hours before he reached it." Records from the 9th and 10th centuries show that Borobudur was a center of pilgrimage for about 150 years during a short but intense period of Buddhism. Chinese coins and ceramics found at Borobudur from the 11th to the 15th centuries suggest that pilgrims continued to visit Borobudur during that time. nearby village of Bore; most candi are named after a nearby village. If it followed Javanese language, the monument should have been named “BudurBoro”. Raffles also suggested that Budur might correspond to the modern Javanese word Buda (“ancient”)—i.e., “ancient Boro”. However, another archaeologist suggests the second component of the name (Budur) comes from Javanese term bhudhara (“mountain”).


The construction and inauguration of a sacred Buddhist building—possibly a reference to Borobudur—was mentioned in two inscriptions, both discovered in Kedu, Temanggung Regency. The Karangtengah inscription, dated 824, mentioned a sacred building named Jinalaya (the realm of those who have conquered worldly desire and reached enlightenment), inaugurated by Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga. The Tri Tepusan inscription, dated 842, is mentioned in the sima, the (taxfree) lands awarded by Çr? Kahulunnan (Pramodhawardhani) to ensure the funding and maintenance of a Kam?l?n called Bh?misambh?ra. Kam?l?n is from the word mula, which means “the place of origin”, a sacred building to honor the ancestors, probably those of the Sailendras. Casparis suggested


that Bh?mi Sambh?ra Bhudh?ra, which in Sanskrit means “the mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of Boddhisattvahood”, was the original name of Borobudur. The emblem of Central Java province and Magelang Regency bears the image of Borobudur. It has become the symbol of Central Java, and also Indonesia on a wider scale Borobudur, or Barabudur (Indonesian: Candi Borobudur romanized: Candhi Barabudhur) is a 9thcentury Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan,


in Central Java, Indonesia. It is the world's largest Buddhist temple. The temple consists of nine stacked platforms, six square and three circular, topped by a central dome. It is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. The central dome is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues, each seated inside a perforated stupa.


Built in the 9th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty, the temple design follows Javanese Buddhist architecture, which blends the Indonesian indigenous cult of ancestor worship and the Buddhist concept of attaining Nirvana. The temple demonstrates the influences of Gupta art that reflects India's influence on the region, yet there are enough indigenous scenes and elements incorporated to make Borobudur uniquely Indonesian. The monument is a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage. The pilgrim journey begins at the base of the monument and follows a path around the monument, ascending to the top through three levels symbolic of Buddhist cosmology: K?madh?tu (the world of desire), R?padh?tu (the world of forms) and Ar?padh?tu (the world of formlessness). The monument guides pilgrims through an extensive system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels on the walls and the balustrades. Borobudur has one of the largest and most complete ensembles of Buddhist reliefs in the world. Evidence suggests that Borobudur was constructed in the 9th century and subsequently abandoned following the 14th-century decline of Hindu kingdoms in Java and the Javanese conversion to Islam.[7] Worldwide knowledge of its existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, then the British ruler of Java, who was advised of its location by native Indonesians.[8] Borobudur has since been preserved through several restorations. The largest restoration project was undertaken between 1975 and 1982 by the Indonesian government and UNESCO, followed by the monument's listing as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


Borobudur is the largest Buddhist temple in the world, and ranks with Bagan in Myanmar and Angkor Wat in Cambodia as one of the great archeological sites of Southeast Asia. Borobudur remains popular for pilgrimage, with Buddhists in Indonesia celebrating Vesak Day at the monument. Borobudur is Indonesia's single most visited tourist attraction. Like the rest of Southeast Asia, Indonesia seems to have been most strongly influenced by India from the 1st century CE. The islands of Sumatra and Java in western Indonesia were the seat of the empire of Sri Vijaya (8th-13th century), which came to dominate most of the area around the Southeast Asian peninsula through maritime power. The Sri Vijayan Empire had adopted Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism, under a line of rulers named the Sailendra. The Sailendras was the ardent temple builder and the devoted patron of Buddhism in Java. Sri Vijaya spread Mahayana Buddhist art during its expansion into the Southeast Asian peninsula. Numerous statues of Mahayana Bodhisattvas from this period are characterized by a very strong refinement and technical sophistication, and are found throughout the region. One of the earliest Buddhist inscription in Java, the Kalasan inscription dated 778, mentioned about the construction of a temple for the goddess Tara. The statue of Prajñ?p?ramit? from Singhasari, East Java, on a lotus throne. Extremely rich and refined architectural remains are found in Java and Sumatra. The most magnificent is the temple of Borobudur (the largest Buddhist structure in the world, built around 780- 850 AD), built by Sailendras. This temple is modelled after the Buddhist concept of universe, the Mandala which counts 505 images of the seated Buddha and unique bell-shaped stupa that contains the statue of Buddha. Borobudur is adorned with long series of bas-reliefs narrated the holy Buddhist scriptures. The oldest Buddhist structure in Indonesia probably is the Batujaya stupas at Karawang, West Java, dated from around the 4th century. This temple is some plastered brick stupas. Borobudur is located in an elevated area between two twin volcanoes, Sundoro- Sumbing and Merbabu-Merapi, and two rivers, the Progo and the Elo. According to local myth, the area known as Kedu Plain is a Javanese "sacred" place and has been dubbed "the garden of Java" due to its high agricultural fertility. During the restoration in the early 20th century, it was discovered that three Buddhist temples in the region, Borobudur, Pawon and Mendut, are positioned along a straight


line. A ritual relationship between the three temples must have existed, although the exact ritual process is unknown. However, Buddhist art in Indonesia reach the golden era during the Sailendra dynasty rule in Java. The bas-reliefs and statues of Boddhisatva, Tara, and Kinnara found in Kalasan, Sewu, Sari, and Plaosan temple is very graceful with serene expression, While Mendut temple near Borobudur, houses the giant statue of Vairocana, Avalokitesvara, and Vajrapani. aBuddhist religious architectuare developed in the Indian subcontinent. Three types of structures are associated with the religious architecture of early Buddhism: monasteries (viharas), places to venerate relics (stupas), and shrines or prayer halls (chaityas, also called chaitya grihas), which later came to be called temples in some places.


The initial function of a stupa was the veneration and safe-guarding of the relics of Gautama Buddha. The earliest surviving example of a stupa is in Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh). In accordance with changes in religious practice, stupas were gradually incorporated into chaityagrihas (prayer halls). These are exemplified by the complexes of the Ajanta Caves and the Ellora Caves (Maharashtra). The Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya in Bihar is another well-known example. The pagoda is an evolution of the Indian stupas. A characteristic new development at Buddhist religious sites was the stupa. Stupas were originally more sculpture than building, essentially markers of some holy site or commemorating a holy man who lived there. Later forms are more elaborate and also in many cases refer back to the Mount Meru model.


One of the earliest Buddhist sites still in existence is at Sanchi, India, and this is centred on a stupa said to have been built by King Ashoka (273–236 BCE). The original simple structure is encased in a later, more decorative one, and over two centuries the whole site was elaborated upon. The four cardinal points are marked by elaborate stone gateways. As with Buddhist art, architecture followed the spread of Buddhism throughout south and east Asia and it was the early Indian models that served as a first reference point, even though Buddhism virtually disappeared from India itself in the 10th century.


Decoration of Buddhist sites became steadily more elaborate through the last two centuries BCE, with the introduction of tablets and friezes, including human figures, particularly on stupas. However, the Buddha was not represented in human form until the 1st century CE. Instead, aniconic symbols were used. This is treated in more detail in Buddhist art, Aniconic phase. It influenced the development of temples, which eventually became a backdrop for Buddha images in most cases. As Buddhism spread, Buddhist architecture diverged in style, reflecting the similar trends in Buddhist art. Building form was also influenced to some extent by the different forms of Buddhism in the northern countries, practising Mahayana Buddhism in the main and in the south where Theravada Buddhism prevailed.


Ancient lake hypothesis


Speculation about a surrounding lake's existence was the subject of intense discussion among archaeologists in the 20th century. In 1931, a Dutch artist and scholar of Hindu and Buddhist architecture, W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp, developed a hypothesis that the Kedu Plain was once a lake and Borobudur initially represented a lotus flower floating on the lake.[15] It has been claimed that Borobudur was built on a bedrock hill, 265 m (869 ft) above sea level and 15 m (49 ft) above the floor of a dried-out paleolake.

Dumarçay together with Professor Thanikaimoni took soil samples in 1974 and again in 1977 from trial trenches that had been dug into the hill, as well as from the plain immediately to the south. These samples were later analysed by Thanikaimoni, who examined their pollen and spore content to identify the type of vegetation that had grown in the area around the time of Borobudur's construction. They were unable to discover any pollen or spore samples that were characteristic of any vegetation known to grow in an aquatic environment such as a lake, pond or marsh. The area surrounding Borobudur appears to have been surrounded by agricultural land and palm trees at the time of the monument's construction, as is still the case today. Caesar Voûte and the geomorphologist Dr J.J. Nossin in 1985–86 field studies re-examined the Borobudur lake hypothesis and confirmed the absence of a lake around Borobudur at the time of its construction and active use as a sanctuary. These findings A New Perspective on Some Old Questions Pertaining to Borobudur were published in the 2005 UNESCO publication titled "The Restoration of Borobudur". Architect: Built in the 9th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty, the temple was designed in Javanese Buddhist architecture, which blends the Indonesian indigenous cult of ancestor worship


and the Buddhist concept of attaining Nirvana.The temple also demonstrates the influences of Gupta art that reflects India’s influence on the region, yet there are enough indigenous scenes and elements incorporated to make Borobudur uniquely Indonesian. The architect Gunadharma, considered by many today to be a man of great vision and devotion. Gunadharma or Gunadarma is claimed as the name of the architect of Borobudur, the ninth-century Buddhist monument in Central Java, Indonesia. Many sources say that he came from Nepal , and was born in the province of Lalitpur, Patan of Nepal in the 16th century. His art style included Javanese Buddhism architecture. His most fmaous creation, Borobudur, is the largest Buddhist temple in the world The temple has been described in a number of ways. Its basic structure resembles that of a pyramid, yet it has been also referred to as a caitya (shrine), a stupa (reliquary), and a sacred mountain. In fact, the name ?ailendra literally means “Lord of the Mountain.” While the temple exhibits characteristics of all these architectural configurations, its overall plan is that of a three-dimensional mandala—a diagram of the cosmos used for meditation—and it is in that sense where the richest understanding of the monument occurs.


Aerial photo of Borobudur (Tropenmuseum Collection)


Construction: Construction


A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916—1919) reconstructing the scene of Borobudur during its heyday Borobudur was likely founded around 800 CE. But there is no written record of who built it or of its intended purpose. The construction time has been estimated by comparison between carved reliefs on the temple’s hidden foot and the inscriptions commonly used in royal charters during the 8th and 9th centuries. This corresponds to the period between 760 and 830 CE, the peak of the Sailendra dynasty in central Java, when it was under the influence of the Srivijayan Empire. The construction has been estimated to have taken 75 years and been completed during the reign of Samaratungga in 825.



There is confusion between Hindu and Buddhist rulers in Java around that time. The Sailendras were known as ardent followers of Buddhism, though stone inscriptions found at Sojomerto suggest they may have been Hindus. It was during this time that many Hindu and Buddhist monuments were built on the plains and mountains around the Kedu Plain. The Buddhist monuments, including Borobudur, were erected around the same time as the Hindu Shiva Prambanan temple compound. In 732 CE, the Shivaite King Sanjaya commissioned a Shivalinga sanctuary to be built on the Wukir hill, only 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Borobudur.


Construction of Buddhist temples, including Borobudur, at that time was possible because Sanjaya’s immediate successor, Rakai Panangkaran, granted his permission to the Buddhist followers to build such temples. In fact, to show his respect, Panangkaran gave the village of Kalasan to the Buddhist community, as is written in the Kalasan Charter dated 778 CE. This has led some archaeologists to believe that there was never serious conflict concerning religion in Java as it was possible for a Hindu king to patronize the establishment of a Buddhist monument; or for a Buddhist king to act likewise. However, it is likely that there were two rival royal dynasties in Java at the time—the Buddhist Sailendra and the Saivite Sanjaya—in which the latter triumphed over their rival in the 856 battle on the Ratubaka plateau. This confusion also exists regarding the Lara Jonggrang temple at the Prambanan complex, which was believed to have been erected by the victor Rakai Pikatan as the Sanjaya dynasty’s reply to Borobudur, but others suggest that there was a climate of peaceful coexistence where Sailendra involvement exists in Lara Jonggrang.


Some 1,200 years ago builders carted two million stones from local rivers and streams and fit them tightly together without the aid of mortar to create a 95-foot-high (29-meter-high) step pyramid. More than 500 Buddha statues are perched around the temple. Its lower terraces include a balustrade that blocks out views of the outside world and replaces them with nearly 3,000 bas-relief sculptures illustrating the life and teachings of the Buddha. Together they make up the greatest assemblage of such Buddhist sculpture in the world. Climbing Borobudur is a pilgrimage in itself, meant to be experienced physically and spiritually according to the tenets of Mahayana Buddhism. As the faithful climb upward from level to level, they are guided by the stories and wisdom of the bas-reliefs from one symbolic plane of 51 consciousness to the next, higher level on the journey to enlightenment. But Borobudur was mysteriously abandoned by the 1500s, when the center of Javan life shifted to the East and Islam arrived on the island in the 13th and 14th centuries. Eruptions deposited volcanic ash on the site and the lush vegetation of Java took root on the largely forgotten site. Architecture: From Darkness to Light: The idea of moving from the darkness into the light is the final element of the experience of Borobudur. The temple’s pathway takes one from the earthly realm of desire (kamadhatu), represented and documented on the hidden narratives of the structure’s earthbound base, through the world of forms (rupadhatu) as expounded on the narratives carved along the four galleries set at right angles, until one finally emerges into the realm of formlessness (arupadhatu) as symbolized and manifested in the open circular terraces crowned with 72 stupas.


However, the symbolization of enlightenment these stupas represent is not intended to be merely aesthetic. Buddhist stupas and mandalas are understood as “spiritual technologies” that harness spiritual “energies” in the creation of sacred space. The repetition of form and the circumabulatory progress of the pilgrim mimic, and thereby access, the cosmological as a microcosm. The clockwise movement around the cosmic center reproduces the macrocosmic path of the sun. Thus, when one emerges from the dark galleries representing the realms of desire and form into the light of the “formless” circular open air upper walkways, the material effect of light on one’s physical form merges concomitantly with the spiritual enlightenment generated by the metaphysical journey of the sacred path. Light, in all its paradoxes, is the ultimate goal. The crowning stupa of this sacred mountain is dedicated to the “Great Sun BuddhaVairocana. The temple sits in cosmic proximity to the nearby volcano Mt. Merapi. During certain times of the year the path of the rising sun in the East seems to emerge out of the mountain to strike the temple’s peak in radiant synergy. Light illuminates the stone in a way that is intended to be more than beautiful. The brilliance of the site can be found in how the Borobudur mandala blends the metaphysical and physical, the symbolic and the material, the cosmological and the earthly within the structure of its physical setting and the framework of spiritual paradox.


Borobudur and the concept of path in Buddhism


Paths have been pervasive in human civilization. We are all familiar with the streets, trails, and lanes along which we routinely travel. Ancient Roman roads are utilized in some places even today. In contemporary computer culture we follow “paths” on webpages as we find our way to the information or experience we are searching for or find unexpectedly. There are simulated paths in complex firstperson virtual reality video environments, where role-playing games formulate their content around the path to be conquered. The idea of path is an important concept in Buddhism, and is essential in understanding the meaning and purpose of one of the most remarkable and impressive monuments in the world: Borobudur.


Borobudur, Indonesia (photo: Claire André, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) Located on the island of Java in Indonesia, the rulers of the ?ailendra Dynasty built the Temple of Borobudur around 800 C.E. as a monument to the Buddha (exact dates vary among scholars). The temple (or candi in Javanese, pronounced “chandi”) fell into disuse roughly one hundred years after its completion when, for still unknown reasons, the rulers of Java relocated the governing center to another part of the island. The British Lieutenant Governor on Java, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, only rediscovered the site in 1814 upon hearing reports from islanders of an incredible sanctuary deep within the island’s interior.


photo: Wilson Loo Kok Wee (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) Set high upon a hill vertically enhanced by its builders to achieve a greater elevation, Borobudur consists of a series of open-air passageways that radiate around a central axis mundi (cosmic axis). Devotees circumambulate clockwise along walkways that gradually ascend to its uppermost level. At Borobudur, geometry, geomancy, and theology all instruct adherents toward the ultimate goal of enlightenment. Meticulously carved relief sculptures mediate a physical and spiritual journey that guides pilgrims progressively toward higher states of consciousness. The entire site contains 504 statues of the Buddha. 1460 stone reliefs on the walls and opposite balustrades decorate the first four galleries, with an additional 1212 decorative reliefs augmenting the path. The relief sculptures narrate the Buddha’s teachings (the Dharma), depict various events related to his past lives (Jataka tales), and illustrate didactic stories taken from important Buddhist scriptures (sutras). Interestingly, another 160 relief sculptures adorn the base of the monument, but are concealed behind stone buttresses that were added shortly after the building’s construction in order to further support the structure’s weight. The hidden narrative reliefs were photographed when they were discovered in the late 19th century before the stones were put back to help ensure the temple’s stability.


Borobudur, photo: Gildardo Sánchez (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) Moving past the base and through the four galleries, the devotee emerges onto the three upper terraces, encountering 72 stupas each containing a three-dimensional sculpture of a seated Buddha within a stone latticework. At the temple’s apex sits the large central stupa, a symbol of the enlightened mind. The archaeological excavation into Borobudur during reconstruction suggests that adherents of Hinduism or a pre-Indic faith had already begun to erect a large structure on Borobudur's hill before the site was appropriated by Buddhists. The foundations are unlike any Hindu or Buddhist shrine structures, and therefore, the initial structure is considered more indigenous Javanese than Hindu or Buddhist.


Design


Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala


The monument is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage.The journey for pilgrims begins at the base of the monument and follows a path around the monument and ascends to the top through three levels symbolic of Buddhist cosmology: K?madh?tu (the world of desire), Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the world of formlessness). Zone 1: Kamadhatu (The phenomenal world, the world inhabited by common people) Borobudur’s hidden Kamadhatu level consists of 160 reliefs depicting scenes of Karmawibhangga Sutra, the law of cause and effect. Illustrating the human behavior of desire, the reliefs depict robbing, killing, rape, torture and defamation. A corner of the covering base has been permanently removed to allow visitors to see the hidden foot, and some of the reliefs.


Zone 2: Rapudhatu (The transitional sphere, humans are released from worldly matters) The four square levels of Rapadhatu contain galleries of carved stone reliefs, as well as a chain of niches containing statues of Buddha. In total there are 328 Buddha on these balustrade levels which also have a great deal of purely ornate reliefs. The Sanskrit manuscripts that are depicted on this level over 1300 reliefs are Gandhawyuha, Lalitawistara, Jataka and Awadana. They stretch for 2.5km. In addition there are 1212 decorative panels.


Zone 3: Arupadhatu (The highest sphere, the abode of the gods) The three circular terraces leading to a central dome or stupa represent the rising above the world, and these terraces are a great deal less ornate, the purity of form is paramount. The terraces contain circles of perforated stupas, an inverted bell shape, containing sculptures of Buddha, who face outward from the temple. There are 72 of these stupas in total. The impressive central stupa is currently not as high as the original version, which rose 42m above ground level, the base is 9.9m in diameter. Unlike the stupas surrounding it, the central stupa is empty and conflicting reports suggest that the central void contained relics, and other reports suggest it has always been empty. The monument guides pilgrims through an extensive system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels on the walls and the balustrades. Borobudur has the largest and most complete ensemble of Buddhist reliefs in the world.


Borobudur is built as a single large stupa and, when viewed from above, takes the form of a giant tantric Buddhist mandala, simultaneously representing the Buddhist cosmology and the nature of mind. The original foundation is a square, approximately 118 metres (387 ft) on each side. It has nine platforms, of which the lower six are square and the upper three are circular. The upper platform features seventy-two small stupas surrounding one large central stupa. Each stupa is bell-shaped and pierced by numerous decorative openings. Statues of the Buddha sit inside the pierced enclosures.


The design of Borobudur took the form of a step pyramid. Previously, the prehistoric Austronesian megalithic culture in Indonesia had constructed several earth mounds and stone step pyramid structures called punden berundak as discovered in Pangguyangan site near Cisolokand in Cipari near Kuningan. The construction of stone pyramids is based on native beliefs that mountains and high places are the abode of ancestral spirits or hyangs. The punden berundak step pyramid is the basic design in Borobudur, believed to be the continuation of older megalithic tradition incorporated with Mahayana Buddhist ideas and symbolism.


As mentioned earlier the monument's three divisions symbolize the three "realms" of Buddhist cosmology, namely Kamadhatu (the world of desires), Rupadhatu (the world of forms), and finally Arupadhatu (the formless world). Ordinary sentient beings live out their lives on the lowest level, the realm of desire. Those who have burnt out all desire for continued existence leave the world of desire and live in the world on the level of form alone: they see forms but are not drawn to them. Finally, full Buddhas go beyond even form and experience reality at its purest, most fundamental level, the formless ocean of nirvana. The liberation from the cycle of Sa?s?ra where the enlightened soul had no longer attached to worldly form corresponds to the concept of ??nyat?, the complete voidness or the nonexistence of the self. K?madh?tu is represented by the base, Rupadhatu by the five square platforms (the body), and Arupadhatu by the three circular platforms and the large topmost stupa. The architectural features between the three stages have metaphorical differences. For instance,


square and detailed decorations in the Rupadhatu disappear into plain circular platforms in the Arupadhatu to represent how the world of forms—where men are still attached with forms and names—changes into the world of the formless. Congregational worship in Borobudur is performed in a walking pilgrimage. Pilgrims are guided by the system of staircases and corridors ascending to the top platform. Each platform represents one stage of enlightenment. The path that guides pilgrims was designed to symbolize Buddhist cosmology.


In 1885, a hidden structure under the base was accidentally discovered. The "hidden footing" contains reliefs, 160 of which are narratives describing the real K?madh?tu. The remaining reliefs are panels with short inscriptions that apparently provide instructions for the sculptors, illustrating the scenes to be carved. The real base is hidden by an encasement base, the purpose of which remains a mystery. It was first thought that the real base had to be covered to prevent a disastrous subsidence of the monument into the hill. There is another theory that the encasement base was added because the original hidden footing was incorrectly designed, according to Vastu Shastra, the Indian ancient book about architecture and town planning. Regardless of why it was commissioned, the encasement base was built with detailed and meticulous design and with aesthetic and religious consideration.


Building structure


Approximately 55,000 cubic metres (72,000 cu yd) of andesite stones were taken from neighbouring stone quarries to build the monument. The stone was cut to size, transported to the site and laid without mortar. Knobs, indentations and dovetails were used to form joints between stones. The roof of stupas, niches and arched gateways were constructed in corbelling method. Reliefs were created in situ after the building had been completed. The monument is equipped with a good drainage system to cater to the area's high stormwater run-off. To prevent flooding, 100 spouts are installed at each corner, each with a unique carved gargoyle in the shape of a giant or makara.


Hilly Construction: Borobudur differs markedly from the general design of other structures built for this purpose. Instead of being built on a flat surface, Borobudur is built on a natural hill. However, construction technique is similar to other temples in Java. Without the inner spaces seen in other temples, and with a general design similar to the shape of pyramid, Borobudur was first thought more


likely to have served as a stupa, instead of a temple. A stupa is intended as a shrine for the Buddha. Sometimes stupas were built only as devotional symbols of Buddhism. A temple, on the other hand, is used as a house of worship. The meticulous complexity of the monument's design suggests that Borobudur is in fact a temple.

The basic unit of measurement used during construction was the tala, defined as the length of a human face from the forehead's hairline to the tip of the chin or the distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the middle finger when both fingers are stretched at their maximum distance. The unit is thus relative from one individual to the next, but the monument has exact measurements. A survey conducted in 1977 revealed frequent findings of a ratio of 4:6:9 around the monument. The architect had used the formula to lay out the precise dimensions of the fractal and self-similar geometry in Borobudur's design. This ratio is also found in the designs of Pawon and Mendut, nearby Buddhist temples. Archeologists have conjectured that the 4:6:9 ratio and the tala have calendrical, astronomical and cosmological significance, as is the case with the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia.The main structure can be divided into three components: base, body, and top. The base is 123 m × 123 m (404 ft × 404 ft) in size with 4 metres (13 ft) walls.] The body is composed of five square platforms, each of diminishing height. The first terrace is set back 7 metres (23 ft) from the edge of the base. Each subsequent terrace is set back 2 metres (6.6 ft), leaving a narrow corridor at each stage. The top consists of three circular platforms, with each stage supporting a row of perforated stupas, arranged in concentric circles. There is one main dome at the center, the top of which is the highest point of the monument, 35 metres (115 ft) above ground level. Stairways at the center of each of the four sides give access to the top, with a number of arched gates overlooked by 32 lion statues. The gates are adorned with Kala's head carved on top of each and Makaras projecting from each side. This Kala-Makara motif is commonly found on the gates of Javanese temples. The main entrance is on the eastern side, the location of the first narrative reliefs. Stairways on the slopes of the hill also link the monument to the low-lying plain.


The Temple as a MANDALA


Empires such as Bagan, Ayutthaya, Champa, Khmer, Srivijaya and Majapahit are known as "mandala" in this sense. Our temple is the second largest Buddhist temple in the world after Angkor Wat. Constructors erected this monument in the shape of a mandala and an opening Lotus flower on a square base (118 x 118 m) that smoothly turns into a circle.1

Borobudur has eight tiers: the five lower ones are square, whereas the three upper ones are round. The shape of the building itself resembles a mandala and represents a scheme of the universe according to Buddhist beliefs, where heaven and earth are united. On the upper tier there are 72 small stupas around a big central stupa. Every stupa is bell-shaped. Inside the stupas, there are Buddha statues. The temple complex contains 1,460 bas-reliefs with religious motifs. Relief panels describe the world of passions and the world of human perceptional development. Gradually ascending the helical serpentine road, a traveller perceives the world of matter and reaches the spiritual world.


The temple structure may be divided into three components:


? the temple base,

? the temple summit.

? the temple body,


The temple base is 118 x 118 m in width and 4 m in height. It is made of smooth plates with three tiers and 20 corners. The temple body consists of five square platforms-tiers: the higher one ascends the smaller every next tier is. The very first platform of the “monument body” is located 7 metres

away from the edge of the base. Every subsequent platform is shifted 2 metres relative to the previous platform. The temple summit consists of three rounded platforms, on which 72 small stupas and the main stupa in the centre are installed. The central stupa is the highest point of the monument, towering 35 metres above the temple foot. It represents a bell-shaped stupa, 7 metres in height, topping the huge pyramid.


1.The lowest level of the temple complex, called Kamadhatu, represents the world of passions. 160 images of sensory manifestations have not been preserved to nowadays – we know about the existence of those from ancient manuscripts only. 2.The second level – the five tiers called Rupadhatusymbolizes the real world and contains religious themes. The entire history of Buddhism is reflected in sculptures and bas-reliefs. Here, there are 432 Buddha statues: 104 on the first and second terraces (each), 88 on the third terrace, 72 on the fourth, and 64 on the fifth.


3.The remarkable beauty is completed by the three upper rounded terraces. This is the Arupadhatu level. There are 32 stupas on the lowest terrace, 24 on the middle, and 16 on the upper. A naturalsized statue of Buddha is inside each of the stupas. The largest stupa – the symbol of eternity – finishes the building. 32+24+16 = 72: an interesting interpretation of the structure of the world.

10 th: The most interesting is the secret of the “tenth terrace”. It was discovered totally accidentally that bas-reliefs are carved under the ground on Borobudur base walls, just like on the six lower terraces of the stupa. About 1,500 square metres of valuable bas-reliefs have turned to be hidden under the ground. The lower tier of the bas-relief describes the afterlife, and we can assume this was the reason why human eyes were not supposed to see it. An enormous piece of work was deliberately concealed from people, since only all-seeing deities could admire the bas-reliefs.


There is an assumption that Borobudur was constructed in a shape of Buddha sitting on a Lotus flower. In 1949 geologists discovered deposits that were interpreted as the bottom of a lake. There is a probability that the temple complex was located on a lake. By the constructors’ plan, the entire magnificence of the temple was above the lake surface, and Buddha statue crowned the entire structure.

Buddhist monks who were building Borobudur implemented the idea of “a bible in stone”, having left the knowledge to descendants for many centuries. Images on the walls told about Buddha’s life. Following the way along the galleries, a person approached enlightenment. In order to read this textbook in stone, one needed to cover almost 5 km. Visitors covered the way to the very top of the temple, moving clockwise through all the eight tiers. Every platform represents a stage of education on the way of transition from the earthly plane to the heavenly plane. At first sight, all statues of Buddha look alike, but there is a subtle difference between them in a certain position of Buddha’s hands


Biggest Mandala in the world


Borobudur is biggest Mandala in the world, when You see from sky You can see the Mandala, if You see further, You can see 3 Temple in one straight line ( Mendut Temple, Pawon Temple and Borobudur Temple ) betwen that, there is Elo river and Progo river and it was built at 8th century Thus, most likely the architecture of the Borobudur is based on a Javanese variant of Buddhism, for if we look at the decoration in greater detail we obviously can confirm that its origin is based on Indian mythology and Buddhist iconography, however, we can also clearly see how these fundamental elements have been strongly combined with local (that is, Javanese) influences. The style in which the characters are depicted on the Borobudur differ greatly from the traditional Indian (Buddhist) iconography. The statues are depicted in other bodily postures, and with less refined details as they have in India; the Javanese obviously had a different idea of physical beauty and how this ought to be depicted, and that’s why on the Borobudur the voluptuous curves of the body as familiar in Indian iconography are altered according to local Javanese perception of beauty (by which the female body is


dressed in more clothes, and often can only be distinguished from the male body by the curves of their breasts). If we consider the assumption of the Borobudur representing a ma??ala, then the main st?pa signifies the final destination of the spiritual path, which is situated in the center of the cosmos. At this point one becomes united with the five transcendental Buddhas of the Formless Realm: Vairocana in the center, Ak?obhya in the East, Ratnasambh?va in the South, Amit?bha in the West, and Amoghasiddhi in the North. This particular line-up corresponds with the Vajradh?tu Ma??ala and the Garbhadh?tu Ma??ala in Tibet and Nepal. One could gain access to the center of the cosmos by entering the ma??ala from the outside, and gradually moving further inwards. In this context, a ma??ala can be interpreted as a palace with four entrance gates at the four cardinal points of the Universe, stretching the entire cosmos. The palace is a metaphor for human manifestation in this world, which, by means of using the ma??ala as a meditation object, guides the practitioner to the ultimate (spiritual) goal in life. Visualization techniques such as these are still being practised in Vajray?na Buddhism today.


Though the assumption of the Borobudur as a ma??ala seems possible, this view remains yet impossible to prove. In spite of the previously mentioned similarities with the ma??alas, there are, however, also many differences. Beside the five transcendental Buddhas many other deities – both male and female – are often seen depicted in ma??alas. However, neither of these deities can be found on the Borobudur. Instead we do find many other depicted Buddhas on the Borobudur, but these do not display any of the features similar to other male or female deities. Thus, the other Buddhas do not function as a mere substitution for the various other deities (like guards, gatekeepers, goddesses of worship or Taras) commonly seen in ma??alas. Therefore, we may assume, that, as already had been suggested, the Borobudur displays a variant of Buddhism in the way it manifested in Java at the time of the reign of the Sailendra dynasty. This particular local variant of Buddhism was based on Indian influences and Mah?y?na Buddhism, which came to Java from China during the heydays of the Tang dynasty (618-906). The unique combination of these aspects would eventually become the Buddhism of Java. Then there also was the Hindu dynasty of Sanjaya that ruled on Java during the same period of the Sailendra dynasty. The fact that the Sanjaya shared their power with the


Sailendra dynasty – for example, through donations for the construction of the Kalasan temple – illustrates, that, apart from its religious function, the Borobudur also formed an important expression of power.3

The role of royal patronage and religious institution4 The Borobudur monument combines the symbolic forms of the stupa (a Buddhist commemorative mound usually containing holy relics), the temple mountain (based on Mount Meru of Hindu mythology), and the mandala (a mystic Buddhist symbol of the universe, combining the square as earth and the circle as heaven). The style of Borobudur was influenced by Indian Gupta and post- Gupta art.In all the regions of Southeast Asia, the arts flourished under the patronage of the kings. About the time of the birth of Christ, tribal groups gradually organized themselves, after some years of settled life as rice cultivators, into city-kingdoms, or conglomerations of villages. A king was thus little more than a paramount tribal chieftain. Since the tribes had been accustomed to worshiping local spirits, the kings sought a new spirit that would be worshiped by the whole community. One reason that the gods of Hinduism and Buddhism were so readily acceptable to Southeast Asia was this need for new national gods. The propagation of the new religions was the task of the kings, and consequently the period from the 1st to the 13th century was a great age of temple building all over Southeast Asia. Architecture, sculpture, and painting on the temple walls were the arts that flourished. In the ancient empires of eastern Indochina and the islands, scholars of Sanskrit, the language of the sacred works of Hinduism, became part of the king’s court, producing a local Sanskrit literature of their own. This literary activity was confined to the hereditary nobility and never reached the people, except in stories from the great Hindu epics Mahabharata and Ramayana. Because the Hindu religious writings in Sanskrit were beyond the reach of the common people, Hinduism had to be explained to them by Hindu stories of gods and demons and mighty men. On the other side of the peninsula, in the Pyu- Burmese empire of Prome, which flourished before the 8th century, there was no such development— first, because Hinduism was never widely accepted in Burma and, second, because the more open Burmese society developed neither the institution of a god-king nor that of a hereditary nobility. Although Pali scholars surrounded the king in later Pagan, Pali studies were pursued not at the court

but at monasteries throughout the kingdom so that even the humblest villager had some faint contact with Pali teachings. While the courts of the kings in Cambodia and Java remained merely local centres of Sanskrit scholarship, Pagan became a centre of Pali learning for Buddhist monks and scholars even from other lands. As in the case of stories from the Indian epics, stories of the Jatakas (birth stories of the Buddha) were used to explain Buddhism to the common people, who could not read the scriptures written in Pali. Just as scenes from the great epics in carving or in fresco adorned the temples in Cambodia and Java, scenes from the Jatakas adorned the Pagan temples.

The patronage of the king and the religious enthusiasm of the common people could not have produced the great temples without the enormous wealth that suddenly became available in the region following the commercial expansion. With the Khmer and Javanese empires, the wealth was produced by a feudalistic society, and so the temples were built by the riches of the king and his nobles, combined with the compulsory labour of their peasants and slaves, who probably derived some aesthetic pleasure from their work because of their religious fervour. Nonetheless, their monuments, such as Borobudur, in Java, and Angkor Wat, in Cambodia, had an atmosphere of massive, allconquering power. At Pagan, where wealth was shared by the king, the royal officials, and the common people, the temples and the monasteries were built by all who had enough not only to pay the artisans their wages but also to guarantee their good health, comfort, and safety during the actual construction. The temples were dedicated for use by all monks and lay people as places of worship, meditation, and study, and the kings of Pagan did not build a single tomb for themselves. The Khmer temple of Angkor Wat and the Indonesian temple of Borobudur were tombs in that the ashes of the builders would be enshrined therein; the kings left stone statues representing them as gods for posterity to worship, whereas at Pagan there was only one statue of a king, and it depicted him on his knees with his hands raised in supplication to the Buddha. Consequently, the atmosphere that pervaded the temples of Pagan was one of joy and tranquillity. The mandala is likened by some to a "floor plan of the universe." The type most familiar in the West is an intricately patterned painting on cloth or paper that often takes the general form of a circle within a square. The word "mandala" comes from the Sanskrit verbal root "mand" (meaning to mark off, decorate, set off) and the Sanskrit suffix "la" (meaning circle, essence, sacred center).

The mandala's symbolic power can be traced back to millennia-old roots in Indian temple architecture, which created sacred spaces linking the worshiper to the larger cosmos. In these temples, time and space were represented in a vocabulary of circles and squares. Similarly, a mandala helps believers visualize the universe and their place in it, often in relation to a specific deity found in the center of the image.


the evolution of the symbol has happened throughout Asia under the influence of various religious and artistic traditions over a period of several thousand years-some complex; others quite simple offerering proof of the continuing vitality of the mandala and its role in Buddhist devotions. The mandala is of significant importance in both Hinduism and Buddhism. Both religions adopt the mandala as a peaceful and creative symbol. Hence, the speculative project finds a balance to build a memorial, which will signify peace and harmony of the Tamil community. The scale of the mandala here is monumental imposing the idea of spirituality and peace. Contemplating the mandala does not only provide insight into reality, the Cosmos but also communion with it. Mandala is the mystery that pervades all existence. Mandala alleviates suffering individually as well as in society. Contemplation can help overcome antagonism, conflict, stress and even war. Bindu as a symbolism is the beginning of the process that culminates into a mandala. In Buddhism, the mandala is a ritual instrument, much like a mantra, used to assist meditation and concentration. Throughout history, these pictorial temples--intricate, two-dimensional, multi-colored patterns of concentric circles, squares, and other shapes--have signified the human need for wholeness, order, and balance. But while many people of the West accept mandalas as representative of a cosmic force, few understand they are meant to be blueprints as well. Indeed, a Tantric Buddhist meditator studies a two-dimensional mandala like an architect, building up in his mind the image of a palace encompassing the sacred principles of Buddhist philosophy.


MANDALA AND BUDDHIST TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE


The mandala in Buddhism is a cosmic model depicting Buddha’s dwelling place as the center of the universe. Like in the Hindu temples, the structuring of the Buddhist temples has also been predominantly based on the spiritual model of the mandala. Illustrations can be seen both in the form of two-dimensional mandalas as well as three-dimensional mandalas. The two-dimensional mandalas which are drawings composed of squares and concentric circles could be temporarily painted on 73 various material or drawn on the ground or sand or other natural substances using coloured powder. Customs involving ceremonious gatherings along with prayers and chantings while drawing the mandalas are believed to alleviate difficulties and be of greater good to an individual or a community. These ceremonies could even last up to a number of days. Three-dimensionally, the mandala diagram becomes a visual model of the built environment. In the Buddhist worship place, the central space is significant having a statue of the Buddha fronted by a worshipping space surrounded by walls. This is encircled by a circumambulating space. The circumambulation pathway is a space of psychological awakening before reaching the spiritual pinnacle


MANDALA AND HINDU TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE


Although there have been various arguments by authors of Indian temple architecture like Stella Kramrisch and Michael W. Meister about the applicability of the Vastu Purusha Mandala as a governing device for temple architecture, it is safe to say that for formulating the layout of the temple, the Vastu Purusha Mandala has been an imperative tool. Though the 8 x 8 grid or the Manduka Vastu Mandala has been used in various temples of Indian architecture, it is to be noted that regional differences have played a major influence on the workability of the mandala design throughout India. Customarily, mandalas were spaces for the symbolic consciousness of universal theories which help in the awakening of the individual psyche. The mandalas can be thought of as diagrams that function as a cue to reach a contemplational state which is the primary aim of the tradition. The form of the temples that are based on the regulating lines of the mandala were meant to create spaces that bring about a “physical and spatial” communion between God and man. A mandala (emphasis on first syllable; Sanskrit ?????, ma??ala – literally "circle") is a geometric configuration of symbols with a very different application. In various spiritual traditions, mandalas may be employed for focusing attention of practitioners and adepts, as a spiritual guidance tool, for establishing a sacred space and as an aid to meditation and trance induction. It is used as a map (in Shintoism) in the Indian religions of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism or Japanese religion of Shintoism representing deities, or in the case of Shintoism, paradises, kami or actual shrines. In New Age, the mandala is a diagram, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos metaphysically or symbolically; a time-microcosm of the universe, but it originally meant

to represent wholeness and a model for the organizational structure of life itself, a cosmic diagram that shows the relation to the infinite and the world that extends beyond and within minds and bodies. he basic form of hinduism mandalas is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point and it is called also a yantra. Each gate is in the general shape of a T. Mandalas often have radial balance.




A yantra is similar to a mandala, usually smaller and using a more limited colour palette. It may be a two- or three-dimensional geometric composition used in sadhanas, puja or meditative rituals, and may incorporate a mantra into its design. It is considered to represent the abode of the deity. Each yantra is unique and calls the deity into the presence of the practitioner through the elaborate symbolic geometric designs. According to one scholar, "Yantras function as revelatory symbols of cosmic truths and as instructional charts of the spiritual aspect of human experience"[5] Many situate yantras as central focus points for Hindu tantric practice. Yantras are not representations, but are lived, experiential, nondual realities. As Khanna describes: Despite its cosmic meanings a yantra is a reality lived. Because of the relationship that exists in the Tantras between the outer world (the macrocosm) and man's inner world (the microcosm), every symbol in a yantra is ambivalently resonant in inner–outer synthesis, and is associated with the subtle body and aspects of human consciousness.


Political meaning


The Rajamandala (or Raja-mandala; circle of states) was formulated by the Indian author Kautilya in his work on politics, the Arthashastra (written between 4th century BCE and 2nd century BCE). It describes circles of friendly and enemy states surrounding the king's state. In historical, social and political sense, the term "mandala" is also employed to denote traditional Southeast Asian political formations (such as federation of kingdoms or vassalized states). It was adopted by 20th century Western historians from ancient Indian political discourse as a means of avoiding the term 'state' in the conventional sense. Not only did Southeast Asian polities not conform to Chinese and European views of a territorially defined state with fixed borders and a bureaucratic apparatus, but they diverged considerably in the opposite direction: the polity was defined by its centre rather than its boundaries, and it could be composed of numerous other tributary polities without undergoing administrative integration.


Mount Meru


A mandala can also represent the entire universe, which is traditionally depicted with Mount Meru as the axis mundi in the center, surrounded by the continents.

Wisdom and impermanence

In the mandala, the outer circle of fire usually symbolises wisdom. The ring of eight charnel grounds represents the Buddhist exhortation to be always mindful of death, and the impermanence with which samsara is suffused: "such locations were utilized in order to confront and to realize the transient nature of life". Described elsewhere: "within a flaming rainbow nimbus and encircled by a black ring of dorjes, the major outer ring depicts the eight great charnel grounds, to emphasize the dangerous nature of human life". Inside these rings lie the walls of the mandala palace itself, specifically a place populated by deities and Buddhas.


Five Buddhas


One well-known type of mandala is the mandala of the "Five Buddhas", archetypal Buddha forms embodying various aspects of enlightenment. Such Buddhas are depicted depending on the school of Buddhism, and even the specific purpose of the mandala. A common mandala of this type is that of the Five Wisdom Buddhas (a.k.a. Five Jinas), the


1. Buddhas Vairocana,

2. Aksobhya,

3. Ratnasambhava,

4. Amitabha and

5. Amoghasiddhi.


When paired with another mandala depicting the Five Wisdom Kings, this forms the Mandala of the Two Realms.


Practice

Mandalas are commonly used by tantric Buddhists as an aid to meditation.


The mandala is "a support for the meditating person", something to be repeatedly contemplated to the point of saturation, such that the image of the mandala becomes fully internalised in even the minutest detail and can then be summoned and contemplated at will as a clear and vivid visualized image. With every mandala comes what Tucci calls "its associated liturgy ... contained in texts known as tantras" instructing practitioners on how the mandala should be drawn, built and visualised, and indicating the mantras to be recited during its ritual use.

By visualizing "pure lands", one learns to understand experience itself as pure, and as the abode of enlightenment. The protection that we need, in this view, is from our own minds, as much as from external sources of confusion. In many tantric mandalas, this aspect of separation and protection from the outer samsaric world is depicted by "the four outer circles: the purifying fire of wisdom, the vajra circle, the circle with the eight tombs, the lotus circle". The ring of vajras forms a connected fence-like arrangement running around the perimeter of the outer mandala circle. As a meditation on impermanence (a central teaching of Buddhism), after days or weeks of creating the intricate pattern of a sand mandala, the sand is brushed together into a pile and spilled into a body of running water to spread the blessings of the mandala. External ritual and internal sadhana form an indistinguishable whole, and this unity finds its most pregnant expression in the form of the mandala, the sacred enclosure consisting of concentric squares and circles drawn on the ground and representing that adamant plane of being on which the aspirant to Buddha hood wishes to establish himself. The unfolding of the tantric ritual depends on the mandala; and where a material mandala is not employed, the adept proceeds to construct one mentally in the course of his meditation."



Conclusions:


1. Borobudur in its base is a regular square with 118-m sides.

2. Such layout is used in meditative practices of Hinduism and Buddhism to intensify processes of inner concentration during meditation.

3. The numbers 7, 72. were applied in the temple design and construction, which evidences the availability of relevant knowledge at that time.

4. No wonder, the temple complex is under UNESCO protection, i.e. it is not available for further tudies.

5. If we look at Borobudur from above, we can see it represents a complete mandala.

6. The temple has 8 tiers: 5 square and 3 round ones. On the upper tier, there is the large stupa – a bell-shaped monument with a statue of Buddha inside.


7. Borobudur is situated approximately 2,439.85 km (1,516.05 miles) away from Angkor Wat.

8. If we look at mutual disposition of some ancient religious sites from the North Pole, interesting correlations may be observed.

9. At the upper tier there are 72 small bell-shaped, stupa-like towers located around the big central tower.


10. Between Chandi Mendut and Borobudur there is the small Chandi Pavon – at a distance of approximately 1,150 metres away from Mendut and 1,750 metres away from Borobudur. Disposition of the structures complies with the golden ratio.


A mandala and a yantra


11. Mandala in the form of a circle with an indication of a square and a point in the centre, and a foursided pyramid with six steps and fourfold division;


12. Kali Yantra (translated from Sanskrit, “kala” means “time”; this word originates from the Indo- European root that means spinning; a word that is close in its meaning in Russian is “kolo”); in Hindu mythology it means cyclical creations and destructions of the Universe, rotation of time in the concept of rebirth of the Soul and of a subject of fate.


R E F E R E N C E


1.https://rgdn.info/en/borobodur._buddiyskaya_stupa

2. See Chapter 4

3https://www.indomagic.com/articles/art-material-culture/architecture/architecture-of-borobudurtemple/ 4. shttps://www.britannica.com/art/Southeast-Asian-arts/Indigenous-traditions




Reliefs in Borobudur Temples


“The sun shines by day. The moon is radiant by night. Armoured shines the warrior King.

Meditating the br?hmana shines. But all day and night the Buddha shines in glory.”

Dhammapada


Introduction: Borobudur, located in Yogyakarta, Java, is one of the biggest Buddhist monuments in the world. It was built in 8th–9th AD as a stepped pyramid with 9 platforms and approximately 2670 individual reliefs which cover its facades and galleries. Among them, 1460 are narratives and 1112 are decorative. The narrative panels are grouped into 11 series and distributed at the hidden foot (K?madh?tu) and the five square platforms (Rupadhatu). The hidden foot contains the first series of the narrative panels of karmic law and the remaining 10 series are distributed in four galleries. They are Buddhacharita, the life of Buddha; Jakatas, the previous lives of the Buddha, and the story of

Sudhana's visits to the 53 virtuous personalities as given in Gandvyuha, or the chapter of “the Entry to the Realm of Reality” in the Avatamsaka Sutra. Built from nearly two million stone blocks of andesite, a bluish-gray volcanic stone, Borobudur is shaped like a stepped pyramid, the base of which is 402 feet long from north to south and 383 feet long from east to west; the height is now 95 feet above ground level. The colossal monument consists of six rectangular terraces topped by three concentric circular terraces.

Four of the terraces are galleries, each enclosed by a balustrade and an inner wall, open to the sky and carved with sculptures. At first sight, the square galleries are an overwhelming mass of images depicting the activities of gods and mortals carved in the dark volcanic stone along the wide processional paths. There are more than 1,300 narrative panels illustrating the life of Buddha and Buddhist texts, the largest and most complete collection of Buddhist reliefs in the world. Originally, there were over 500 statues of the Buddha, 432 seated in lotus position on the square terraces and 72 meditating inside the bell-shaped stupas on the top terraces. There are no elaborate carvings on these three upper levels..


RELIEFS


The stories are compiled in the Dvijavadana (Glorious Heavenly Acts) and the Awadana Sataka (Hundred Awadanas). The first twenty panels in the lower series of the first gallery depict, the Sudhanakumaravadana. The series of reliefs covering the wall of the second gallery is devoted to Sudhana's tireless wanderings in search of the Highest Perfect Wisdom. The story is continued on the wall and balustrade of the third and fourth galleries. Its depiction in most of the 460 panels is based on the holy Nahayana text Gandavyuha, the concluding scenes being derived from another text, the Badracari.


Reading the Bas Reliefs at Borobudur


Reading the bas reliefs at Borobudur requires a specific technique. The panels on the wall read from left to right, while those on the balustrade read from right to left, conforming with the pradaksina, a ritual performed by pilgrims who move in a clockwise direction, whilst always keeping the sanctuary to their right. The story begins and ends at the eastern side of the gate at every level. Stairs connect

each level to the next from each direction of the compass, but the idea is to always ascend from the stairs at the eastern corner. The panels depict stories of Karma, of passion, robbery, murder, torture and humiliation. But not all are negative. Some panels also tell of the cause and effect of good deeds, and describe the behavior of the Javanese Society of that day, from religion to livelihood to social structure, fashion, and even the various types of plants and animals. Ultimately, it describes the human life cycle: BirthLifeDeath.


Kamadhatu is a picture of highly populated world still dominated by Kama, or lust. This zone is at the bottom level of Borobodur, and is therefore not visible due to some added construction. Some say these structures were added to strengthen the building's foundations, while others speculate that they have been added to conceal the obscene content of the reliefs. For visitors that wish to see these reliefs, the Karmawibhangga Museum displays pictures of the Kamadhatu.

Lalitawistara are a series of beautifully sculpted reliefs that depict the history of Buddha, starting from his descent from Heaven, to his enlightenment under the bodhi tree, and finally to his first teachings in the city of Banaras. Lalitawistara consists of 120 panels, but yet does not tell the complete story of Buddha. These reliefs are found on the temple walls in hallway 1 on level 2. Jataka and Awadana are reliefs telling of Buddha, before he was reborn as Prince Siddharta. These are also engraved in hallway 1 on the second level, and tell of Buddha's kindness and self-sacrifice as he was reincarnated in various forms of human or animal. It explains of how good works are what set humans apart from animals, and tells of the stages of preparation to the next and higher level of Buddha. Awadana also tells the story not of the Buddha figure, but of the Prince Sudhanakumara. The stories on the awadana reliefs are compiled in the books Kitab Diwyawadana, (A Diety's noble deeds," and Kitab Awadanasataka, (A hundred awadana stories.)


Bhadracari is a row of 460 neatly carved reliefs along the walls and balustrades. These reliefs are scattered throughout various levels of the temple and tell of Sudhana, the son of a wealthy merchant, who wanders in quest of the ultimate knowledge or truth. These panels are based on the Mahayana Buddhist scriptures, entitled Gandawyuha. The story tells of 10 great vows made by Bodhisattva Samantabadhra concerning his Buddhist practice, which later became the leading guidelines of all Bodhisattvas, and particularly of Sudhana.

Understanding the Thousands of Relief Panels of Borobudur From the 5th to 7th levels of the temple, there are no reliefs on the walls. This is because these levels represent the nature of the “Arupadhatu," which means “without tangible form." At this level, people are free from all desires of any shape or form, but yet have not attained Nirvana. On this level, there are several Buddha statues placed inside stupas. At the 10th and highest level of the temple, is the largest and tallest stupa in Borobudur.


Within this stupa


The Story of the GOOD MAN Sudhana: This paper is a preliminary study exploring the various reliefs on the walls of the temple.To understand the relifs some fundamental buddist beliefs need to be portrayed here albeit in short: A Buddhist Mahayana Sutra of Indian origin dating roughly c. 200 to 300 CEis known as the Ga??avy?ha Sutra or The Excellent Manifestation S?tra , Sutra of the Tree's Display; cf. Skt "ga??i", "the trunk of a tree from the root to the beginning of the branches”) . It depicts one of the

world's most celebrated spiritual pilgrimages, and comprises the 39th chapter of the Avatamsaka Sutra, or Flower Ornament Scripture. In Buddhabhadra's Chinese translation of the Avatamsaka, this 39th chapter is entitled "Entrance into the Dharma Realm".The Sutra is described as the "Sudhana's quest for the ultimate truth", as the sutra chronicles the journey of a disciple, Sudhana ("Excellent Riches"), as he encounters various teachings and Bodhisattvas until his journey reaches full circle and he awakens to teachings of the Buddha. The penultimate master that Sudhana visits is the Mañju?r? Bodhisattva, the bodhisattva of great wisdom. Thus, one of the grandest of pilgrimages approaches its conclusion by revisiting where it began. The Ga??avy?ha suggests that with a subtle shift of perspective we may come to see that the enlightenment that the pilgrim so fervently sought was not only with him at every stage of his journey, but before it began as well—that enlightenment is not something to be gained, but "something" the pilgrim never departed from.The final master that Sudhana visits is the bodhisattva Samantabhadra, who teaches him that wisdom only exists for the sake of putting it into practice; that it is only good insofar as it benefits all living beings. The story goes( on the Panels) of the visit of the good man, Sudhana who also had a good track record of his previous lives. There are 460 panels that describe this visits He expressed his sincere wish to learn the way of Dharma and visited Manjusri asking for his advice. Manjusri showed him the path. He then visited 53 Kalyanamitras inclusive of Gods, Goddesses, monks, laymen, travelers, kings and Bodhisattvas. The 53rd visit was to Maitreya who showed him the door of Dharma and told him to visit Manjusri again. Manju sri empowered him with wisdom and told him to visit Samantabbadra. Through Samantabbadra's Adhishthana or aid he reached perfection at the end. The temple is a massive step pyramid structure made from giant stone blocks, built on a hill, surrounded by valleys and hills. The levels rise up representing the stages of enlightenment. Borobudur stupas overlooking a mountain. For centuries, it was deserted. A main dome, located at the center of the top platform, is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues seated inside a perforated stupa. It is the world’s largest Buddhist temple, as well as one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world.

The journey for pilgrims begins at the base of the monument and follows a path around the monument and ascends to the top through three levels symbolic of Buddhist cosmology: K?madh?tu (the world of desire), Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the world of formlessness).The monument guides pilgrims through an extensive system of stairways and corridors with 1,460

narrative relief panels on the walls and the balustrades. Borobudur has the largest and most complete ensemble of Buddhist reliefs in the world. Evidence suggests Borobudur was constructed in the 9th century and abandoned following the 14thcentury decline of Hindu kingdoms in Java and the Javanese conversion to Islam. Worldwide knowledge of its existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, then the British ruler of Java, who was advised of its location by native Indonesians. Borobudur has since been preserved through several restorations. The largest restoration project was undertaken between 1975 and 1982 by the Indonesian government and UNESCO, following which the monument was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Borobudur is still used for pilgrimage; once a year, Buddhists in Indonesia celebrate Vesak at the monument, and Borobudur is Indonesia’s single most visited tourist attraction.


Etymology


In Indonesian, ancient temples are referred to as candi; thus locals refer to “Borobudur Temple” as Candi Borobudur. The term candi also loosely describes ancient structures, for example gates and baths. The origins of the name Borobudur, however, are unclear,although the original names of most ancient Indonesian temples are no longer known.The name Borobudur was first written in Sir Thomas Raffles’s book on Javan history. Raffles wrote about a monument called borobudur, but there are no older documents suggesting the same name.The only old Javanese manuscript that hints at the monument as a holy Buddhist sanctuary is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365. The name Bore-Budur, and thus BoroBudur, is thought to have been written by Raffles in English grammar to mean the nearby village of Bore; most candi are named after a nearby village. If it followed Javanese language, the monument should have been named “BudurBoro”. Raffles also suggested that Budur might correspond to the modern Javanese word Buda (“ancient”)—i.e., “ancient Boro”. However, another archaeologist suggests the second component of the name (Budur) comes from Javanese term bhudhara (“mountain”). The construction and inauguration of a sacred Buddhist building—possibly a reference to Borobudur—was mentioned in two inscriptions, both discovered in Kedu, Temanggung Regency. The Karangtengah inscription, dated 824, mentioned a sacred building named Jinalaya (the realm of those who have conquered worldly desire and reached enlightenment), inaugurated by Pramodhawardhani,

daughter of Samaratungga. The Tri Tepusan inscription, dated 842, is mentioned in the sima, the (taxfree) lands awarded by Çr? Kahulunnan (Pramodhawardhani) to ensure the funding and maintenance of a Kam?l?n called Bh?misambh?ra. Kam?l?n is from the word mula, which means “the place of origin”, a sacred building to honor the ancestors, probably those of the Sailendras. Casparis suggested that Bh?mi Sambh?ra Bhudh?ra, which in Sanskrit means “the mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of Boddhisattvahood”, was the original name of Borobudur. Approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Yogyakarta and 86 kilometres (53 mi) west of Surakarta, Borobudur is located in an elevated area between two twin volcanoes, Sundoro-Sumbing and Merbabu-Merapi, and two rivers, the Progo and the Elo. According to local myth, the area known as Kedu Plain is a Javanesesacred” place and has been dubbed “the garden of Java” due to its high agricultural fertility. During the restoration in the early 20th century, it was discovered that three Buddhist temples in the region, Borobudur, Pawon and Mendut, are positioned along a straight line.A ritual relationship between the three temples must have existed, although the exact ritual process is unknown.


Borobudur was built on a bedrock hill, 265 m (869 ft) above sea level and 15 m (49 ft) above the floor of a dried-out paleolake. The lake’s existence was the subject of intense discussion among archaeologists in the 20th century. In 1931, a Dutch artist and scholar of Hindu and Buddhist architecture, W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp, developed a theory that the Kedu Plain was once a lake and Borobudur initially represented a lotus flower floating on the lake. Borobudur lay hidden for centuries under layers of volcanic ash and jungle growth. The facts behind its abandonment remain a mystery. It is not known when active use of the monument and Buddhist pilgrimage to it ceased. Sometime between 928 and 1006, King Mpu Sindok moved the capital of the Medang Kingdom to the region of East Java after a series of volcanic eruptions; it is not certain whether this influenced the abandonment, but several sources mention this as the most likely period of abandonment. The monument is mentioned vaguely as late as ca. 1365, in Mpu Prapanca’s Nagarakretagama, written during the Majapahit era and mentioning “the vihara in Budur”. Soekmono (1976) also mentions the popular belief that the temples were disbanded when the population converted to Islam in the 15th century.

The monument was not forgotten completely, though folk stories gradually shifted from its past glory into more superstitious beliefs associated with bad luck and misery. Two old Javanese chronicles (babad) from the 18th century mention cases of bad luck associated with the monument. According to the Babad Tanah Jawi (or the History of Java), the monument was a fatal factor for Mas Dana, a rebel who revolted against Pakubuwono I, the king of Mataram in 1709. It was mentioned that the “Redi Borobudurhill was besieged and the insurgents were defeated and sentenced to death by the king. In the Babad Mataram (or the History of the Mataram Kingdom), the monument was associated with the misfortune of Prince Monconagoro, the crown prince of the Yogyakarta Sultanate in 1757. In spite of a taboo against visiting the monument, “he took what is written as the knight who was captured in a cage (a statue in one of the perforated stupas)”. Upon returning to his palace, he fell ill and died one day later.


Architecture


The archeological excavation into Borobudur during reconstruction suggests that adherents of Hinduism or a pre-Indic faith had already begun to erect a large structure on Borobudur’s hill before the site was appropriated by Buddhists. The foundations are unlike any Hindu or Buddhist shrine structures, and therefore, the initial structure is considered more indigenous Javanese than Hindu or Buddhist.

Borobudur is built as a single large stupa and, when viewed from above, takes the form of a giant tantric Buddhist mandala, simultaneously representing the Buddhist cosmology and the nature of mind. The foundation is a square, approximately 118 metres (387 ft) on each side. It has nine platforms, of which the lower six are square and the upper three are circular. The upper platform features seventy-two small stupas surrounding one large central stupa. Each stupa is bell-shaped and pierced by numerous decorative openings. Statues of the Buddha sit inside the pierced enclosures.


Stairs of Borobudur through arches of Kala Lion gate guardian


The design of Borobudur took the form of a step pyramid. Previously, the prehistoric Austronesian megalithic culture in Indonesia had constructed several earth mounds and stone step pyramid structures called punden berundak as discovered in Pangguyangan, Cisolok and Gunung Padang, West Java. The construction of stone pyramids is based on native beliefs that mountains and high places are the abode of ancestral spirits or hyangs. Thepunden berundak step pyramid is the basic design in Borobudur, believed to be the continuation of older megalithic tradition incorporated with Mahayana Buddhist ideas and symbolism. The monument’s three divisions symbolize the three “realms” of Buddhist cosmology, namely Kamadhatu (the world of desires), Rupadhatu (the world of forms), and finally Arupadhatu (the formless world). Ordinary sentient beings live out their lives on the lowest level, the realm of desire. Those who have burnt out all desire for continued existence leave the world of desire and live in the world on the level of form alone: they see forms but are not drawn to them.

Finally, full Buddhas go beyond even form and experience reality at its purest, most fundamental level, the formless ocean of nirvana.The liberation from the cycle of Sa?s?ra where the enlightened soul had no longer attached to worldly form corresponds to the concept of ??nyat?, the complete voidness or the nonexistence of the self. K?madh?tu is represented by the base, Rupadhatu by the five square platforms (the body), andArupadhatu by the three circular platforms and the large topmost stupa. The architectural features between the three stages have metaphorical differences. For instance, square and detailed decorations in the Rupadhatu disappear into plain circular platforms in the Arupadhatu to represent how the world of forms—where men are still attached with forms and names—changes into the world of the formless. Congregational worship in Borobudur is performed in a walking pilgrimage. Pilgrims are guided by the system of staircases and corridors ascending to the top platform. Each platform represents one stage of enlightenment. The path that guides pilgrims was designed to symbolize Buddhist cosmology.


In 1885, a hidden structure under the base was accidentally discovered. The “hidden footing” contains reliefs, 160 of which are narratives describing the real K?madh?tu. The remaining reliefs have short inscriptions that apparently provide instructions for the sculptors, illustrating the scenes to be carved. The real base is hidden by an encasement base, the purpose of which remains a mystery. It was first thought that the real base had to be covered to prevent a disastrous subsidence of the monument into the hills. There is another theory that the encasement base was added because the original hidden footing was incorrectly designed, according to Vastu Shastra, the Indian ancient book about architecture and town planning. Regardless of why it was commissioned, the encasement base was built with detailed and meticulous design and with aesthetic and religious consideration. A narrow corridor with reliefs on the wall( Picture below)

Half cross-section with 4:6:9 height ratio for foot, body and head, respectively

Approximately 55,000 cubic metres (72,000 cu yd) of andesite stones were taken from neighbouring stone quarries to build the monument. The stone was cut to size, transported to the site and laid without mortar. Knobs, indentations and dovetails were used to form joints between stones. Reliefs were created in situ after the building had been completed. The monument is equipped with a good drainage system to cater for the area’s high stormwater runoff. To prevent flooding, 100 spouts are installed at each corner, each with a unique carved gargoyle in the shape of a giant or makara.


Borobudur differs markedly from the general design of other structures built for this purpose. Instead of being built on a flat surface, Borobudur is built on a natural hill. However, construction technique is similar to other temples in Java. Without the inner spaces seen in other temples, and with a general design similar to the shape of pyramid, Borobudur was first thought more likely to have served as a stupa, instead of a temple. A stupa is intended as ashrine for the Buddha. Sometimes stupas were built only as devotional symbols of Buddhism. A temple, on the other hand, is used as a house of worship. The meticulous complexity of the monument’s design suggests that Borobudur is in fact a temple.

The basic unit of measurement used during construction was the tala, defined as the length of a human face from the forehead’s hairline to the tip of the chin or the distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the middle finger when both fingers are stretched at their maximum distance. The unit is thus relative from one individual to the next, but the monument has exact measurements. A survey conducted in 1977 revealed frequent findings of a ratio of 4:6:9 around the monument. The architect had used the formula to lay out the precise dimensions of the fractal and self-similar geometry in Borobudur’s design. This ratio is also found in the designs of Pawon and Mendut, nearby Buddhist temples. Archeologists have conjectured that the 4:6:9 ratio and the tala have calendrical, astronomical and cosmological significance, as is the case with the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia.

The main structure can be divided into three components: base, body, and top. The base is 123×123 m (403.5 × 403.5 ft) in size with 4 metres (13 ft) walls. The body is composed of five square platforms, each of diminishing height. The first terrace is set back 7 metres (23 ft) from the edge of the base. Each subsequent terrace is set back 2 metres (6.6 ft), leaving a narrow corridor at each stage.

The top consists of three circular platforms, with each stage supporting a row of perforated stupas, arranged in concentric circles. There is one main dome at the center, the top of which is the highest point of the monument, 35 metres (115 ft) above ground level. Stairways at the center of each of the four sides give access to the top, with a number of arched gates overlooked by 32 lion statues. The gates are adorned with Kala’s head carved on top of each and Makaras projecting from each side. This Kala-Makara motif is commonly found on the gates of Javanese temples. The main entrance is on the eastern side, the location of the first narrative reliefs. Stairways on the slopes of the hill also link the monument to the low-lying plain.


Reliefs

Reading the Bas Reliefs at Borobudur


Reading the bas reliefs at Borobudur requires a specific technique. The panels on the wall read from left to right, while those on the balustrade read from right to left, conforming with the pradaksina, a ritual performed by pilgrims who move in a clockwise direction, whilst always keeping the sanctuary to their right. The story begins and ends at the eastern side of the gate at every level. Stairs connect each level to the next from each direction of the compass, but the idea is to always ascend from the stairs at the eastern corner. The panels depict stories of Karma, of passion, robbery, murder, torture and humiliation. But not all are negative. Some panels also tell of the cause and effect of good deeds, and describe the behavior of the Javanese Society of that day, from religion to livelihood to social structure, fashion, and even the various types of plants and animals. Ultimately, it describes the human life cycle: BirthLifeDeath.


Kamadhatu is a picture of highly populated world still dominated by Kama, or lust. This zone is at the bottom level of Borobodur, and is therefore not visible due to some added construction. Some say these structures were added to strengthen the building's foundations, while others speculate that they have been added to conceal the obscene content of the reliefs. For visitors that wish to see these reliefs, the Karmawibhangga Museum displays pictures of the Kamadhatu. Lalitawistara are a series of beautifully sculpted reliefs that depict the history of Buddha, starting from his descent from Heaven, to his enlightenment under the bodhi tree, and finally to his first teachings in the city of Banaras. Lalitawistara consists of 120 panels, but yet does not tell the complete story of Buddha. These reliefs are found on the temple walls in hallway 1 on level 2.


Jataka and Awadana are reliefs telling of Buddha, before he was reborn as Prince Siddharta. These are also engraved in hallway 1 on the second level, and tell of Buddha's kindness and self-sacrifice as he was reincarnated in various forms of human or animal. It explains of how good works are what set humans apart from animals, and tells of the stages of preparation to the next and higher level of Buddha. Awadana also tells the story not of the Buddha figure, but of the Prince Sudhanakumara. The stories on the awadana reliefs are compiled in the books Kitab Diwyawadana, (A Diety's noble deeds," and Kitab Awadanasataka, (A hundred awadana stories.) Bhadracari is a row of 460 neatly carved reliefs along the walls and balustrades. These reliefs are scattered throughout various levels of the temple and tell of Sudhana, the son of a wealthy merchant, who wanders in quest of the ultimate knowledge or truth. These panels are based on the Mahayana Buddhist scriptures, entitled Gandawyuha. The story tells of 10 great vows made by Bodhisattva Samantabadhra concerning his Buddhist practice, which later became the leading guidelines of all Bodhisattvas, and particularly of Sudhana.


Understanding the Thousands of Relief Panels of Borobudur From the 5th to 7th levels of the temple, there are no reliefs on the walls. This is because these levels represent the nature of the “Arupadhatu," which means “without tangible form." At this level, people are free from all desires of any shape or form, but yet have not attained Nirvana. On this level, there are several Buddha statues placed inside stupas. At the 10th and highest level of the temple, is the largest and tallest stupa in Borobudur. Within this stupa was found the Imperfect Buddha or Unfinished Buddha, which can now be found in the The stories are compiled in the Dvijavadana (Glorious Heavenly Acts) and the Awadana Sataka (Hundred Awadanas). The first twenty panels in the lower series of the first gallery depict, the Sudhanakumaravadana. The series of reliefs covering the wall of the second gallery is devoted to Sudhana's tireless wanderings in search of the Highest Perfect Wisdom. The story is continued on the wall and balustrade of the third and fourth galleries. Its depiction in most of the 460 panels is based on the holy Nahayana text Gandavyuha, the concluding scenes being derived from another text.


The position of narrative bas-reliefs stories on Borobudur wall Borobudur is constructed in such a way that it reveals various levels of terraces, showing intricate architecture that goes from being heavily ornamented with bas-reliefs to being plain in Arupadhatu circular terraces. The first four terrace walls are showcases for bas-relief sculptures. These are exquisite, considered to be the most elegant and graceful in the ancient Buddhist world.


The bas-reliefs in Borobudur depicted many scenes of daily life in 8th-century ancient Java, from the courtly palace life, hermit in the forest, to those of commoners in the village. It also depicted temple, marketplace, various flora and fauna, and also native vernacular architecture. People depicted here are the images of king, queen, princes, noblemen, courtier, soldier, servant, commoners, priest and hermit. The reliefs also depicted mythical spiritual beings in Buddhist beliefs such as asuras, gods, boddhisattvas, kinnaras, gandharvas andapsaras. The images depicted on bas-relief often served as reference for historians to research for certain subjects, such as the study of architecture, weaponry, economy, fashion, and also mode of transportation of 8th-century Maritime Southeast Asia. One of the famous renderings of an 8th-century Southeast Asian double outrigger ship is Borobudur Ship. Today, the actual-size replica of Borobudur Ship that had sailed from Indonesia to Africa in 2004 is displayed in the Samudra Raksa Museum, located a few hundred meters north of Borobudur. The Borobudur reliefs also pay close attention to Indian aesthetic discipline, such as pose and gesture that contain certain meanings and aesthetic value. The reliefs of noblemen, and noble women, kings, or divine beings such as apsaras, taras and boddhisattvas are usually portrayed in tribhanga pose, the three-bend pose on neck, hips, and knee, with one leg resting and one upholding the body weight. This position is considered as the most graceful pose, such as the figure of Surasundari holding a lotus.


NARRATIVE PANELS DISTRIBUTION SECTION LOCATION STORY #PANELS

hidden foot wall Karmavibhangga 160

first gallery

main wall

Lalitavistara 120

Jataka/Avadana 120

balustrade Jataka/Avadana 372

Jataka/Avadana 128

second gallery

balustrade Jataka/Avadana 100

main wall Gandavyuha 128

third gallery

main wall Gandavyuha 88

balustrade Gandavyuha 88

fourth gallery

main wall Gandavyuha 84

balustrade Gandavyuha 72

Total 1,460


Borobudur contains approximately 2,670 individual bas reliefs (1,460 narrative and 1,212 decorative panels), which cover the façades and balustrades. The total relief surface is 2,500 square metres (27,000 sq ft), and they are distributed at the hidden foot (K?madh?tu) and the five square platforms (Rupadhatu).

The narrative panels, which tell the story of Sudhana and Manohara, are grouped into 11 series that encircle the monument with a total length of 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). The hidden foot contains the first series with 160 narrative panels, and the remaining 10 series are distributed throughout walls and balustrades in four galleries starting from the eastern entrance stairway to the left. Narrative panels on the wall read from right to left, while those on the balustrade read from left to right. This conforms with pradaksina, the ritual of circumambulation performed by pilgrims who move in a clockwise direction while keeping the sanctuary to their right. The hidden foot depicts the workings of karmic law. The walls of the first gallery have two superimposed series of reliefs; each consists of 120 panels. The upper part depicts the biography of


the Buddha, while the lower part of the wall and also the balustrades in the first and the second galleries tell the story of the Buddha’s former lives. The remaining panels are devoted to Sudhana’s further wandering about his search, terminated by his attainment of the Perfect Wisdom.


The law of karma (Karmavibhangga)


The Karmavibangga scene on Borobudur’s hidden foot, on the right depicting sinful act of killing and cooking turtles and fishes, on the left those who make living by killing animals will be tortured in hell, by being cooked alive, being cut, or being thrown into burning house. The 160 hidden panels do not form a continuous story, but each panel provides one complete illustration of cause and effect. There are depictions of blameworthy activities, from gossip to murder, with their corresponding punishments. There are also praiseworthy activities, that include charity and pilgrimage to sanctuaries, and their subsequent rewards. The pains of hell and the pleasure of heaven are also illustrated. There are scenes of daily life, complete with the full panorama of samsara (the endless cycle of birth and death). The encasement base of the Borobudur temple was

dissembled to reveal the hidden foot, and the reliefs were photographed by Casijan Chepas in 1890. It is these photographs that are displayed in Borobudur Museum(Karmawibhangga Museum), located just several hundred meters north of the temple. During the restoration, the foot encasement was reinstalled, covering the Karmawibhangga reliefs. Today, only the southeast corner of the hidden foot is revealed and visible for visitors.


The story of Prince Siddhartha and the birth of Buddha (Lalitavistara)


Prince Siddhartha Gautama became an ascetic hermit.


The story starts with the descent of the Lord Buddha from the Tushita heaven and ends with his first sermon in the Deer Park near Benares. The relief shows the birth of the Buddha as Prince Siddhartha, son of King Suddhodana and Queen Maya of Kapilavastu (in present-day Nepal). The story is preceded by 27 panels showing various preparations, in the heavens and on the earth, to welcome the final incarnation of the Bodhisattva. Before descending from Tushita heaven, the Bodhisattva entrusted his crown to his successor, the future Buddha Maitreya. He descended on earth in the shape of white elephants with six tusks, penetrated to Queen Maya’s right womb. Queen Maya had a dream of this event, which was interpreted that his son would become either a sovereign or a Buddha. While Queen Maya felt that it was the time to give birth, she went to the Lumbini park outside the Kapilavastu city. She stood under a plaksa tree, holding one branch with her right hand, and she gave birth to a son, Prince Siddhartha. The story on the panels continues until the prince becomes the Buddha.

The stories of Buddha’s previous life (Jataka) and other legendary persons (Avadana) Queen Maya riding horse carriage retreating to Lumbini to give birth to Prince Siddhartha Gautama Jatakas are stories about the Buddha before he was born as Prince Siddhartha. They are the stories that tell about the previous lives of the Buddha, in both human and animal form. The future Buddha may appear in them as a king, an outcast, a god, an elephant—but, in whatever form, he exhibits some virtue that the tale thereby inculcates. Avadanas are similar to jatakas, but the main figure is not the Bodhisattva himself. The saintly deeds in avadanas are attributed to other legendary persons. Jatakas and avadanas are treated in one and the same series in the reliefs of Borobudur. The first twenty lower panels in the first gallery on the wall depict the Sudhanakumaravadana, or the saintly deeds of Sudhana. The first 135 upper panels in the same gallery on the balustrades are devoted to the 34 legends of the Jatakamala. The remaining 237 panels depict stories from other sources, as do the lower series and panels in the second gallery. Some jatakas are depicted twice, for example the story of King Sibhi (Rama’s forefather).


Sudhana’s search for the Ultimate Truth (Gandavyuha)


Gandavyuha is the story told in the final chapter of the Avatamsaka Sutra about Sudhana’s tireless wandering in search of the Highest Perfect Wisdom. It covers two galleries (third and fourth) and also half of the second gallery, comprising in total of 460 panels. The principal figure of the story, the youth Sudhana, son of an extremely rich merchant, appears on the 16th panel. The preceding 15 panels form a prologue to the story of the miracles during Buddha’s samadhi in the Garden of Jeta at Sravasti.

During his search, Sudhana visited no fewer than thirty teachers, but none of them had satisfied him completely. He was then instructed by Manjusri to meet the monk Megasri, where he was given the first doctrine. As his journey continues, Sudhana meets (in the following order) Supratisthita, the physician Megha (Spirit of Knowledge), the banker Muktaka, the monk Saradhvaja, theupasika Asa (Spirit of Supreme Enlightenment), Bhismottaranirghosa, the Brahmin Jayosmayatna, Princess Maitrayani, the monk Sudarsana, a boy called Indriyesvara, the upasika Prabhuta, the banker Ratnachuda, King Anala, the god Siva Mahadeva, Queen Maya, Bodhisattva Maitreya and then back to Manjusri. Each meeting has given Sudhana a specific doctrine, knowledge and wisdom. These meetings are shown in the third gallery.

After the last meeting with Manjusri, Sudhana went to the residence of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra, depicted in the fourth gallery. The entire series of the fourth gallery is devoted to the teaching of Samantabhadra. The narrative panels finally end with Sudhana’s achievement of the Supreme Knowledge and the Ultimate Truth.


Buddha statues:


Apart from the story of the Buddhist cosmology carved in stone, Borobudur has many statues of various Buddhas. The cross-legged statues are seated in a lotus position and distributed on the five square platforms (the Rupadhatu level), as well as on the top platform (the Arupadhatu level). The Buddha statues are in niches at the Rupadhatu level, arranged in rows on the outer sides of the balustrades, the number of statues decreasing as platforms progressively diminish to the upper level. The first balustrades have 104 niches, the second 104, the third 88, the fourth 72 and the fifth 64. In total, there are 432 Buddha statues at the Rupadhatu level. At theArupadhatu level (or the three circular platforms), Buddha statues are placed inside perforated stupas. The first circular platform has 32 stupas, the second 24 and the third 16, which adds up to 72 stupas. Of the original 504 Buddha statues, over 300 are damaged (mostly headless), and 43 are missing (since the monument’s discovery, heads have been stolen as collector’s items, mostly by Western museums). A Buddha statue with the hand position of dharmachakra mudra (turning the Wheel of the Law) Buddha statues inside and outside a stupa

At first glance, all the Buddha statues appear similar, but there is a subtle difference between them in the mudras, or the position of the hands. There are five groups of mudra: North, East, South, West and Zenith, which represent the five cardinal compass points according to Mahayana. The first four balustrades have the first four mudras: North, East, South and West, of which the Buddha statues that face one compass direction have the corresponding mudra. Buddha statues at the fifth balustrades and inside the 72 stupas on the top platform have the same mudra: Zenith. Each mudra represents one of theFive Dhyani Buddhas; each has its own symbolism. Following the order of Pradakshina (clockwise circumumbulation) starting from the East, the mudras of the Borobudur buddha statues are:

STATUE MUDRA
SYMBOLIC
MEANING
DHYANI
BUDDHA
CARDINAL
POINT
Bhumisparsa mudra
Calling the
Earth to witness Aksobhya East
Vara mudra
Benevolence,
alms giving Ratnasambhava South
Dhyana mudra
Concentration
and meditation Amitabha West
102
STATUE MUDRA
SYMBOLIC
MEANING
DHYANI
BUDDHA
CARDINAL
POINT
Abhaya mudra
Courage,
fearlessness Amoghasiddhi North
Vitarka mudra
Reasoning and
virtue Vairochana Zenith
Dharmachakra mudra
Turning the Wheel
ofdharma (law) Vairochana Zenith
103
Gallery of reliefs
104

Borobudur is constructed in such a way that it reveals various levels of terraces, showing intricate architecture that goes from being heavily ornamented with bas-reliefs to being plain in Arupadhatu circular terraces. The first four terrace walls are showcases for bas-relief sculptures. These are exquisite, considered to be the most elegant and graceful in the ancient Buddhist world. The bas-reliefs in Borobudur depicted many scenes of daily life in 8th-century ancient Java, from the courtly palace life, hermit in the forest, to those of commoners in the village. It also depicted temple, marketplace, various flora and fauna, and also native vernacular architecture. People depicted here are the images of king, queen, princes, noblemen, courtier, soldier, servant, commoners, priest and hermit. The reliefs also depicted mythical spiritual beings in Buddhist beliefs such as asuras, gods, bodhisattvas, kinnaras, gandharvas and apsaras. The images depicted on bas-relief often served as reference for historians to research for certain subjects, such as the study of architecture, weaponry, economy, fashion, and also mode of transportation of 8th-century Maritime Southeast Asia. One of the famous renderings of an 8th-century Southeast Asian double outrigger ship is Borobudur Ship. Today, the actual-size replica of Borobudur Ship that had sailed from Indonesia to Africa in 2004 is displayed in the Samudra Raksa Museum, located a few hundred meters north of Borobudur.[89] The Borobudur reliefs also pay close attention to Indian aesthetic discipline, such as pose and gesture that contain certain meanings and aesthetic value. The reliefs of noblemen, and noble women, kings, or divine beings such as apsaras, taras and boddhisattvas are usually portrayed in tribhanga pose, the three-bend pose on neck, hips, and knee, with one leg resting and one upholding the body weight. This position is considered as the most graceful pose, such as the figure of Surasundari holding a lotus. During Borobudur excavation, archeologists discovered colour pigments of blue, red, green, black, as well as bits of gold foil, and concluded that the monument that we see today – a dark gray mass of volcanic stone, lacking in colour – was probably once coated with varjalepa white plaster and then painted with bright colors, serving perhaps as a beacon of Buddhist teaching.[91] The same vajralepa plaster can also be found in Sari, Kalasan and Sewu temples. It is likely that the basreliefs of Borobudur was originally quite colourful, before centuries of torrential tropical rainfalls peeled-off the colour pigments.

105
Section Location
DISTRIBUTION OF PANELS
Story
No. of
panels
hidden foot wall Karmavibhangga 160
first gallery
main wall
Lalitavistara 120
Jataka/Avadana 120
balustrade
Jataka/Avadana 372
Jataka/Avadana 128
second gallery
balustrade Jataka/Avadana 100
main wall Gandavyuha 128
third gallery
main wall Gandavyuha 88
balustrade Gandavyuha 88
fourth gallery
main wall Gandavyuha 84
balustrade Gandavyuha 72
Total 1,460
106

Borobudur contains approximately 2,670 individual bas reliefs (1,460 narrative and 1,212 decorative panels), which cover the façades and balustrades. The total relief surface is 2,500 square metres (27,000 sq ft), and they are distributed at the hidden foot (K?madh?tu) and the five square platforms (Rupadhatu). The narrative panels, which tell the story of Sudhana and Manohara, are grouped into 11 series that encircle the monument with a total length of 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). The hidden foot contains the first series with 160 narrative panels, and the remaining 10 series are distributed throughout walls and balustrades in four galleries starting from the eastern entrance stairway to the left. Narrative panels on the wall read from right to left, while those on the balustrade read from left to right. This conforms with pradaksina, the ritual of circumambulation performed by pilgrims who move in a clockwise direction while keeping the sanctuary to their right. The hidden foot depicts the workings of karmic law. The walls of the first gallery have two superimposed series of reliefs; each consists of 120 panels. The upper part depicts the biography of the Buddha, while the lower part of the wall and also the balustrades in the first and the second galleries tell the story of the Buddha's former lives. The remaining panels are devoted to Sudhana's further wandering about his search, terminated by his attainment of the Perfect Wisdom. Borobudur, Indonesia (photo: Claire André, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)


Why was the original base encased?


Many theories and conjectures have been put forwards. These can be summed up in two trends of thought, whether the base was covered for technical structural/architectural reasons, or for conceptual/religious reasons. The present author’s study has led her to a conjecture in favour of the religious reasons. During the two restorations of the monument, in the 1970s and in the early 20th century, numerous unexpected technical and architectural features were brought to the light. These new data could only be explained by one hypothesis: the Borobudur as we see it today is not the monument that was originally planned. At some point during its construction, the original plans were changed: not only the base was hidden by a broad terrace, but balustrades were added and entrances were narrowed. These modifications, probably carried out by the command of a new architect, possibly reflect a change of the religious tendencies. Certain aspects of the reliefs of the hidden base would indeed not have been suitable for the Mahayana teachings as professed in 9th century Java. Lots have been said about the religiously or conceptually ‘unsuitable’ features of this set of reliefs in relations to Buddhist thinking, as well as in the eyes of the later priestly architect of Borobudur, who must have been the one who gave order for the encasement of the old base. There is violence in many hell scenes, with many gruesome forms of severe punishment vividly and elaborately unfolded in front of the spectators’ eyes . The ratio with the happy ones is even-handed - good deeds and their rewards.. And yet, we notice that the ‘positive’ scenes of rewards and of paradises are rather stereotypical and quite cursory unfolded, usually without any specification or distinguished detail, in contrast with depictions of the retributions in the hells. The Karmavibhanga itself actually gives only cursory references to the rebirth in hells, without further specifications. Vivid, variant descriptions of the many types of hells were obtained by the priest-designer from other sources (a.o. the Abhidharmakosa). The emphasis of his intent and his visual presentation did appear to lie heavily and more vividly on such violent ‘negative’ and gruesome scenes.


Hell scenes usually form part of visual depictions of Buddhist cosmology only when these explain the geography of the universe, but rarely or never are included in such sacred designs on which worshippers are meant to meditate on. A similar concept, based on the auspicious features (mangalas/sarvamangala) that will bring good tiding, prosperity and success, is also found visually depicted and elaborated many times in the reliefs on the 3rd and 4th galleries of Borobudur itself (reliefs nos. III, 51-77 and IV B 1-17). While the texts repeatedly refer to ‘all dominions of the universe’ where the grace and compassion of the Buddha and the redeeming force of Buddhahood pervade, no visual depictions of the unhappy worlds of hells are represented on the upper galleries of Borobudur.

The set up: of Borobudur conforms to that of a diagram for contemplation and meditation, which should exclude ‘negative’ elements of evil thought and deeds, of mistakes and violence – the nonbeneficial elements that would only gather like dusts of defilement to cloud and weigh down the mind on its upwards surge to purity and Salvation. This violent opening scene may have shocked or at least disturbed the new priestly advisor of the Shailendras, who took charge of the final site.In all panels dealing with suffering and punishments in hell (reliefs nos. 86-91), and in the unhappy world of the hungry ghosts (relief no. 95) and the animals (relief no. 93), the victims are all on their own, entirely dependent on their own karmas. This paradigm of absolute self-reliance would have clashed uncomfortably with the spirit of the Mahayana, the religion of the Shailendras, which centred round the worship of the Bodhisattva Saviours and Tara Saviouresses, such as we know from their monuments and inscriptions, and as being unfolded repeatedly in the reliefs of the 3rd and 4th gallery of Borobudur itself. The usual Mahayana way of depicting such scenes of torment and suffering would have been to add an image of the Saviour, either in the form of a The Mahayana texts Gandavyuha and Bhadracari, visually unfolded on the 3rd and 4th galleries of Borobudur, consistently emphasise the concept of ‘the Buddhas of all Dominions’. Furthermore, Maitreya, the Future Buddha, set examples for all the Future Buddhas including Samantabhadra and Sudhana who play the principal roles in the Gandavyuha and Bhadracari scenes on these upper terraces, to preach and to save living beings of all kinds and in all forms, be they high or low, good or


wicked, happy or miserable, in all the six dominions, the ten quarters and the three time spans of the universe (reliefs nos. III, 67-76 and IV, 2-72). There seem to have been many ‘unsuitable’ aspects of this set of reliefs in the eyes of the new priestdesigner of Borobudur. Certain changes in religious perception would have been expected to take place during the construction of Borobudur. The Shailendras’ inscriptions, dating from 778 CE to the first half of the 9th century, contain indications of new religious trends that entered their world during this period. One or more of the later gurus, acting as chief architect-designers of their sacred foundations, must have been responsible for the change of plan at Borobudur, and likewise to the encasement of its original base. The decision to remove this series had obviously been taken before the base was entirely finished, possibly simultaneously with the making of the new structural plan for the monument, which included a new design for all its terraces. This, according to Dumarçay would have taken place around 792 CE. This attempt to delete the scenes must have been made before the architect-designer decided to encase the entire lower base altogether within the new terrace that formed part of the new structural design of Borobudur. The main purpose was obviously to blot out this ‘unsuitable’ series from the visions of the on-lookers. The destructive operation would have begun by having the components of the scenes chiselled away part by part. The damaged panels and their photographic images from 1890-1891 thus tell their story, which is to be interpreted in favour of religious motivations to encase the original base including - or rather because of - its ‘unsuitable’ or ‘ unhappy’ sculptured components. There could have also been certain technical requirements in the course of the building operations, but such would not have been essential reasons for the base to be covered. If structural requirements had actually been the primary concern and a true necessity, there would have been no need to waste time nor labour to carefully scrape away the sculptured scenes first before eventually encasing them forever in a shell of stone. Reliefs depicted at Borobudur’s “hidden foot” are scenes taken from the Karmawibhangga texts. These reliefs depicted in 160 panels were rediscovered by J.W. Ijzerman in 1885, and in 1890- 1891 were photographed by Kassian Cephas before the reliefs were closed down once again. The Karmawibhangga deals with the Law of Cause and Effect, the Karmic Law. The doctrine was very important for the Buddhist visitors. In order they understand easily the episodes they saw, the


sculptors portray many aspects of the early life in Java from the 9th to 10th century AD, during Borobudur’s era. The reliefs were studied by N.J. Krom, S. Levi, and Jan Fontein. Fontein studies these reliefs by comparing the episodes with two Karmawibhangga texts which were translated into Chinese named as T 80 and T 81. The purpose in writing this paper is to find out the Karmavibhanga text(s) used by the sculptors in carving the Karmawibhangga at Candi Borobudur. In this case I use the Historical-archaeology as a method; this approach seeks an equal combination of “historical” and “archaeologicaldata to the study of the past Research on the Karmawibhangga reliefs at “the hidden base” of Candi Borobudur have been carried out by several scholars, among others are N.J. Krom (1920), Sylvain Levi (1931), and Jan Fontein. The result of the study, each of them has a specific text related to the Karmawibangga text which deals with the Law of Cause and Effect, The Karmic Law. In this article I intent to find out which text used by the sculptors to carve the relief Karmawibhangga at candi Borobudur. 1

By using the Historical-Archaeological approach, the sculptors used only one single text, which was the original Sanskrit text of T80. According to Fontein the T 80 consists of paragraphs, and each paragraph consists of 10 types of actions (Cause) and the result for all beings in their rebirth (Effect). We can see the relationship between the Cause-Effect of the paragraphs on the episodes of the relief Karmawibhangga at Borobudur, for instance in paragraph I, “rebirth of short duration” was mentioned as the Effect and we saw a small child (“short duration”) dead as a result of one of the types of action in paragraph I. There is an assumption that Borobudur was constructed in a shape of Buddha sitting on a Lotus flower. In 1949 geologists discovered deposits that were interpreted as the bottom of a lake. There is a probability that the temple complex was located on a lake. By the constructors’ plan, the entire magnificence of the temple was above the lake surface, and Buddha statue crowned the entire structure.


Buddhist monks who were building Borobudur implemented the idea of “a bible in stone”, having left the knowledge to descendants for many centuries. Images on the walls told about Buddha’s life. Following the way along the galleries, a person approached enlightenment. In order to read this textbook in stone, one needed to cover almost 5 km. Visitors covered the way to the very top of the temple, moving clockwise through all the eight tiers. Every platform represents a stage of education on the way of transition from the earthly plane to the heavenly plane. At first sight, all statues of Buddha look alike, but there is a subtle difference between them in a certain position of Buddha’s hands (in Buddhism such hand position is called mudra). In Mahayana (one of the two major branches of Buddhism) there are 5 groups of mudras: the north, the east, the south, the west, and the highest point (zenith). The north, the east, the south, and the west indicate not spatial directions, but the sequence of movement, expressed in a relevant position of hands. Such movement, just like the movement of the sun, starts in the east. Hence, the main entrance to Borobudur is located on the eastern side, where the sun rises. On the eastern side Buddha’s hands touch the ground:


In the south his hands are raised:
In the west his arms are folded below his chest:


In the north Buddha’s left hand is put on the knee, while his right hand is lifted in a placatory gesture: The position of Buddha’s hands on the fifth balustrade and inside the 72 stupas on the upper rounded platforms embodies the highest point in Buddha’s life, when he delivered his first sermon in Sarnath after achieving enlightenment.
114
Every mudra embodies one of the five Dhyani Buddhas that symbolize five aspects of the Supreme Wisdom of the initial Buddha. 115
116
Borobudur in section:


REFERENCE


1. Identification of Karmawibhangga Reliefs at Candi Borobudur, Hariani Santiko, Researchgate, Article · December 2016


STUPA Design Elements


How can the eye see itself without a mirror?

How can you clap with one hand?

If we have attained this birth due to our karma (deeds) in our previous births,

then how did we get our first birth?

Gautama Buddha was born in India in the 6th century. At the age of twenty-nine, he renounced riches to become a monk and lead a life of meditation. Originally, Buddhism was not a religion, but a doctrine that explained the steps to reaching Nirvana, a release from life's misery. The ultimate goal is to avoid rebirth and a continuation of life, cycle after cycle. When the Buddha gained Enlightenment, he taught his followers. In his famous sermon at Deer Park in what is now Benares, he established the principles of a faith that brings inner tranquility.

 



Hear me, gracious ones, for I offer you knowledge of the path to Enlightenment. This is the first noble truth: life is suffering. The second noble truth: suffering is caused by human fears and desires. Third: suffering can be eliminated. And the fourth noble truth is that the elimination of suffering can be achieved by following the Noble Eight-fold path.


The Eight-fold path shows the way to extinguish desire: correct view, correct intention, correct speech, correct conduct, correct livelihood, correct zeal, correct remembrance (which retains what is true and excludes the false) and correct meditation.


On the island of Java stands a mountain of a thousand statues... surrounded by volcanoes, shrouded in mystery. In 1814, two hundred men cross the lush Kedu plains of Central Java to search out this legendary mountain near the small village of Boro. For six weeks, they slash and burn the choking vegetation. They clear away tons of volcanic ash. Hidden beneath the debris, they find strange figures carved in stone – thousands of them. Borobudur stands in the geographical center of the island of Java, fifteen miles from Yogyakarta, on a plateau that is the caldera of an ancient volcano ringed by



the Menoreh mountains. Two sets of twin volcanoes – Merapi and Merbabu to the northeast, Sumbing and Sindoro to the northwest – stand sentinel across the plains. Merapi, the "fire mountain," is active. A legend is told of a heavenly architect who built Borobudur in a single day and laid a curse on anyone who dared ascend his holy shrine. According to Asian art historian, Jan Fontein: "There is a mountain south of Borobudur that when viewed from the monument looks very much like the profile of a man; the nose, lips and chin are clearly delineated. The story goes that the ridge depicts Gunadharma, the architect of Borobudur, who is believed to keep watch over his creation through the ages."

Borobudur could be regarded as a Vajradhatu–mandala and is, in turn, related to Mendut Temple, which is identified as a Garbhadhatu-mandala. The pair of mandalas( temples) is called Dharmadhatu-mandala. It was built as a nine-stepped structure to served as a place of worship- as a monument crowned with a great stupa. However, because the large stupa structure could not withstand the huge weight, it was disassembled to attain the present-day structure of Borobudur. Now built as a place of pilgrimage where ancient Javanese Buddhists could gain knowledge established only for a Yogin. But today it has a special place in the southwest area for the commoners and priests to accumulate a virtue. The profile originally intended was taller and sharper than what we see today.


The shape of the stupa - like a badly-risen cake, results from a mix of climate and ambition. The first building campaign began with a basement covered in 160 relief panels but, when the substantial weight of the first terrace was added, the land slipped, no doubt because the core of the structure (part natural hill, part infill) soaked up water like a sponge. A decision was taken to abandon the basement by girdling it with a terrace - a corset to ensure against future landslips. The figures for Borobudur are stupendous:

stone embankment covering the basement: 11,600 cubic metres

1,460 narrative panels covering 1,900 square metres

1,212 decorative panels covering 600 square metres

100 monumental gargoyles to carry away the rainwater

432 Buddha images displayed from the galleries

72 Buddhas displayed in stupas on the great terrace

1,472 stupa-shaped ornaments


Originally, the Borobudur had three levels, each of them corresponding to a level of the Mahayana Buddhism universe: Kamadhatu, the lower level of human life, a world of passions overwhelming the human beings, is represented by the lower level of the temple, which is now partly buried. Ruphadhatu is the second level. It is represented in the temple by the processional terrace and by the four rectangular terraces; it is ornamented by 2,000 bas-reliefs depicting the life of Prince Siddharta before he became the Buddha. On this level can also be found statues of the Buddha representing the five mudras (or hand positions).

Above the rectangular terraces, three circular ones are ornamented by 72 stupas of stone. These stupas are bell-shaped, representing the sacred shape of Buddhism. Each of them encloses a statue of the Buddha
Above these circular terraces, the higher level corresponds to the world of total abstraction (Arupadhatu), represented by a large stupa, about 15 meters in diameter. As each level represents a period of human life, the pilgrims had to walk along them clockwise, starting with the stairs on the eastern side. They could thus gradually follow the rules of Buddhist philosophy and eventually gain access to Wisdom. But in 1885, an accidental discovery rekindles interest in preserving this ancient treasure. J. W. Ijzerman, a Dutch architect involved in a restoration project, walks along the high processional path that surrounds the base of Borobudur. "And he noticed that the moldings of the wall continued underneath a crack that he saw in the floor," says Fontein. "This meant that all these stones must have been added at a time when part of the building was already finished." Ijzerman excitedly calls for a section of the path to be removed. When sixteen layers of stone have been pulled away, Ijzerman discovers another tier of panels quite unlike those of the upper galleries. These are portrayals of hellish tortures mixed with scenes of sweet pleasure. In all, one hundred sixty panels are uncovered. A few scenes had been left unfinished, with instructions to the stone carver inscribed in Sanskrit, and the style of lettering is so distinctive that it can be dated specifically to the middle of the 9th century. Experts conclude that Borobudur must have been built by the Sailendra kings who ruled in Central Java at that time.

3 Levels: Borobudur Temple has three levels representing the three worlds in the universe:


1. Kamadhatu or the world of desire,

2. Rupadhatu or the world of appearance and arupadhatu or the world without visual existence.

At the level of rupadhatu, a man has left his desires but still has ego and resemblance.

3. Arupadhatu is a world where ego and resemblance no longer exist. At this level, a man has


been released from samsara and decided to break his affiliation with the mortal world. Kamadhatu is found at the foot of the structure, the five steps above it are described as rupadhatu and the third round terraces are described as arupadhatu . Similar to the Mahayana and the Tantric Buddhism, Vajrayana was practiced in Borobudur during ancient times and the ability to integrate the philosophy of Tantric or Vajrayana and Mahayana through reliefs and sculptures in the temple indicates the high intelligence of Borobudur’s architect. Stupa: This is the Central component of a Buddhist temple, including Borobudur. Originally built to bury the relics of Buddha shortly after his body was cremated further developments indicate that it was used to store not only the relics of Buddhist monks but also Buddhist objects . A stupa, which describes the concept of Buddhism, has several sections, namely the basis of the stupa (Prasadha), the parts of the ball (dagob) or bell (genta) and the top or crown (yashti) . The stupa was also decorated with parasols (chattra) at the top of the yashti . The stupas are on the terrace of the temple having a form different from that of other stupas in Indonesia. 1,537 stupas could be subdivided into 1,536 buffer stupas and 1 main stupa located from the second-level terrace to the tenth-level terrace. The number of stupas on each terrace is different.


The third terrace has the most number of stupas (416). On the basis of this evidence, it can be concluded that the number of stupas on each terrace is the multiples of 8, except on the second, fifth and tenth terraces.
The perforated stupas are erected from the seventh to the ninth terrace


2 forms and 4 types of stupas exist in Borobudur. The forms are plain and perforated. The plain stupas can be found from the second to the sixth terrace and in the tenth terrace, where the great stupa is located. The number of plain stupas is 1,465, whereas the number of perforated stupas is 72.


The stupas of Borobudur can be classified into four types, namely type A, type B, type C and type D. These four types are the

1. Type A: plain stupas having a Prasadha with ornate lotus seams (dalla) and a semi-circle (kumuda), solid Anda, rectangular harmika and basic circleshaped yashti. This type of stupa is the smallest in Borobudur. There are 1,464 stupas of this type, which are located from the second to the sixth terrace on the ledges, niches and roofedgates or paduraksa.


2. Type B: Or the hollow space-diamond stupas which are 56 in numbe, located on the seventh and eighth terraces. containing the Dhyani Buddha Vairocana that symbolises the turning wheel of dharma They are characterised by a Prasadha with a flat seam (patta), lotus (gentha-side), ornate lotus (dalla) and semi-circle (kumuda), and the hollow space-diamond stupas are characterised by an Anda, a rectangular harmika and a basic circle-shaped yashti. The type B stupas contain a statue of Dhyani Buddha Vairocana with the mudra or hand gesture of Dharma Chakra Parvatana. the plain stupas on these terraces are probably used as the boundary between the ledge (Vedika) and the floor (pradaksinapatha).


3. Type C: the hollow space-square stupas are 16 in number located on the ninth terrace containing no statues. Therse are characterised by a Prasadha with a flat seam (patta), lotus (gentha-side), ornate lotus (dalla) and semi-circle (kumuda), and the hollow space-square Anda, by an octagonal harmika and basic octagonal-shaped yashti.


4. Type D or Single main stupa that becomes the centre of the Borobudur Temple is characterized by Prasadha with a flat seam (patta), a lotus (genthaside), an ornate lotus (dalla) and a semi-circle (kumuda). The Anda is a solid, rectangular and octagonal harmika, with basic octagonal-shaped yashti. The Yashti on the main stupa has not been fully restored since the discovery of the temple. The reconstruction of the yashti was carried out on the basis of a picture showing that it previously contained three parasols. It is characterised by a (Chatra).

There is a main stupa, with a belt adorned with vines, which is located on the tenth terrace. It has been suggested that the main stupa should be stylised with a parasol. It has been found that the plain stupas (type A) are located from the second to the sixth terrace. This argument is visualised in the temple in the form of type C stupas or the hollow space-diamond stupas. The Dhyani-Buddha Vairocana statues placed in this position show the ambiguity between the being and nothingness or maya. Buddha was visualised in the arupadhatu stages, but he is still able to carry out his activities. The activities presented in arupadhatu, which teaches Dharma, finalise and liberate all beings. They are manifested from the seventh to the ninth terraces. The Vairocana Buddha statue is placed in this stupa in order to demonstrate his activity; Buddha teaches all beings and to all directions. The hollow space-square stupas, which do not contain a Buddha statue, hold a higher position than the hollow space-diamond stupas. They have become a symbol of the last level arupadhatu, eventually reaching a Parinirvana stage, which is symbolised by the main stupa. According to Parinirvana Sutra , Buddha of Kamadhatu went to the top, and after passing through various levels in arupadhatu, he entered the level of arupadhatu to eventually reach the level where feelings no longer exist. Then, Buddha went down from the top to the lowest level of rupadhatu. Then, he again reached the highest level of rupadhatu to finally enter Parinirvana. 3.1 Comparison between the stupas of Borobudur and other temples Stupas are also found in other Mahayana-Vajrayana Buddhist temples, such as Mendut, Pawon, Ngawen, Kalasan, Sari, Lumbung and Sewu Temples, as well as the Ratu Boko archaeological sites and Pura Pegulingan. The form of plain stupas found in all of these sites is similar to that of Borobudur. It has been found that the plain stupas in Sewu Temple are similar to those of Borobudur, which are placed on the ledge. They reinforce the opinion about their function at Borobudur as a boundary between the ledge (Vedika) and floor (pradaksinapatha). The Sewu Temple was built in the late 8th century having Vajradhatu-mandala structure, with a great number of Dhyani Buddha figures. However, there was limited information on the essence of Boddhisattva who was worshipped in the temple because the inscription of Kelurak, which was found at Sewu Temple, provided information only about a temple named Manjusri-grha or the house of Manjusri, and it could be built to worship Manjusri . On the basis of the



similarities found, it can be suggested that Borobudur and Sewu Temples are most probably correlated and were erected at the same time. Both temples also represent Sailendra art and Mahayana and Vajrayana sects, such as stupas on the ledge and Vajradhatu-mandala structure. The author found the main stupas or type A stupa at Pawon, Kalasan, Sari, Lumbung and Sewu Temples, as well as at the Ratu Baka archaeological site and Pura Pegulingan. The main stupas at Mendut and Ngawen Temples were built during the ancient times. The main stupas in both temples have collapsed or been damaged and cannot be reconstructed. Vairocana statues inside a hollow space-diamond stupa. The main stupa at Pura Pegulingan in Bali, which is similar to a miniature of stupa, can be found at these sites. The miniature of stupa at Pegulingan is probably related to the statues of Pancatathagata, which itself is related to the Vajrayana Buddhism doctrine, and it could be seen on the Dhyani Buddha statues that are placed on the four corners of the stupa (Astawa, 1996). The Ratu Boko Temple was built as a vihara and named Abhayagirivihara; it still preserves the legacy of Buddhism (Magetsari, 1981).


The main stupa at Ratu Boko, has been reconstructed ever since its discovery. Meanwhile, Ngawen, Mendut, Pawon, Kalasan, Sari, Lumbung and Sewu Temples have one main stupa surrounded by plain smaller stupas. The main stupas at these temples are the symbols of Parinirvana. It has been found that these main stupas in each temple were not decorated with parasols or chattra. Design Elements in the Bodoboudur- Forms and types of Borobudur’s stupas A. Revianur Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia



Indian design Influences of Borobudur

Timeline


4,000 BC Javanese descended from seafarers of China.

6th century BC Birth of Gautama Buddha.

400 AD Java becomes sea link between India and China

Javanese began carving stone statues and inscriptions.

768-814 Charlemagne rules from northeastern Spain north to the Baltic Sea and east into the Italian peninsula. He is crowned emperor in 800 AD.
800s Mayans build large cities with tens of thousands of inhabitants under reign of King Samaratunga.
7th and 8th

centuries
Monks and holy men make pilgrimages to Java from Asian continent.
128
8th – 13th
centuries

Sailendra dynasty rules Sumatra and Java. 750 to 850 Golden Age of the Sailendra dynasty. 760 Probable beginning of Borobudur construction.
830 Probable completion of Borobudur construction.
700-900 People of Central Java enjoy a high level of cultural development, erecting many grand palaces and religious monuments.

c.930 Javanese culture and political life move east, away from the lands around Borobudur.
13th – 14th
centuries
Islam religion comes to Java.
1500-1800s Borobudur is abandoned; volcanic ash fills the galleries; vegetation, including trees, takes root on the buried monument.

1709 According to the 18th century chronicle Babad Tanah Jawi, the rebel Ki Mas Dana makes a stand at Borobudur in a revolt against the Sultan of Mataram. The monument is besieged and the rebel defeated, brought before the king and sentenced to death.

1758 In the Babad Mataram (History of the Kingdom of Mataram), a story is told of the crown prince of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, who disobeyed his father and journeyed to climb "the mountain of a thousand statues." The Sultan sent his men to bring him back, but he became ill and died as soon as he returned to the palace.
1811-1816 Java comes under British rule. 1814 Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, the English
Lieutenant Governor of Java, is informed of the existence of a huge monument called Chandi Borobudur. Raffles orders Dutch engineer officer H.C. Cornelius and two hundred villagers to fell trees, burn undergrowth and dig away the earth that covers the monument.


1815 May 18th: Raffles visits Borobudur.
1844 A bamboo teahouse is built on top of the central stupa of the monument.
1885 Panels that surround the hidden base of Borobudur are discovered by J.W. Ijzerman, Chairman of the Archeological Society in Yogyakarta, under the processional pathway that has been built around the monument. This discovery brings about renewed efforts to safeguard Borobudur from
vandalism and natural threats.
1890-1891 The hidden panels are excavated and photographed, then the pathway is replaced.

1896 Dutch Colonial officials give the King of Siam eight wagon loads of statues and bas-reliefs from Borobudur, including five of the best Buddhas and two complete stone lions. 1911 A Dutch archeologist from Leiden University paints many of the reliefs with ochre to improve his photography. The
yellow ochre remains, encouraging the growth of algae, fungus, lichen and moss on the stones themselves.
1907-1911 The first major restoration project at Borobudur is begun by Theodor van Erp, a Dutch army engineer officer. He spends the first seven months excavating the grounds around the monument, finding missing Buddha heads and panel stones. Van Erp then dismantles and rebuilds the upper three
circular terraces and crumbling stupas. His team cleans many of the sculptures of moss and lichen. However, he is unable to solve the drainage problem which is undercutting the monument. Within fifteen years, the gallery walls are sagging and the reliefs show signs of new cracks and deterioration.

1948 The Republic of Indonesia comes into existence. 1955 The Indonesian government asks UNESCO for advice on treating the weathered stones of Borobudur.
1968 The Indonesian government and the United Nations, working through UNESCO, launch a "Save Borobudur" campaign. A bold plan is proposed to dismantle and rebuild the lower terraces of Borobudur, clean and treat the story 130
panels, and install a new drainage system to stop further erosion.
1971 The plan is approved by the Indonesian government and restoration committee.
1975 Restoration work begins.
1983 Feb. 23: Completion of the project is marked by an inaugural ceremony.

1991 Borobudur is included in UNESCO's World Heritage list. Borobudur represents not only the creativity of Javanese geniuses but also one of the world’s greatest constructional and artistic masterpieces. It represents the spirit of the Monastic movement in India as materialised in this structure, with influences from the eastern school of India and the architecture of Bengal. To understand the design elements, we need to focus our opticals on 14 of the following.


1.Buddhist temples and buildings of India

2.Stupas -Buddhist Memorial Monument

3.The Indian prototype- Sanchi Stupa

4. History of Stupas

5. Sanchi: Home of the World's Oldest Stupa

6.Buddhist temples

7. Features

8. Temple Gates

9. Borobudur: the Ultimate Buddhist Temple

10. Indian connect in the history of Borobodur

11. Why it was built

12. Shailendra dynasty

13. The Sailendras and indian buddhism

14. Architectural development in st?pa structure


1. Buddhist temples and buildings of India


There are essentially three kinds of Buddhist structures:


1) stupas, bell-shaped structures that contain a holy relic or scripture;

2) temples, place of worship somewhat similar to a church; and

3) monasteries, which contain living quarters and meditation cells for monks.


Stupas are solid structures that typically cannot be entered and were constructed to contain sacred Buddhist relics that are hidden from view (and vandals) in containers buried at their core or in the walls. Temples have an open interior that may be entered and in which are displayed one or more cult images as a focus for worship. Although this simple distinction between Stupa and temple is useful, the distinction is not always clear. There are stupas that have the external form of a stupa but are like a temple with an inner corridor and multiple shrines. Local temples are essentially self sufficient and rely on their own lands and support from the local lay community to keep going. Property belongs to the community. There is not a hierarchy of priest, bishops and archbishops like there is Christianity. The word pagoda is sometimes used to collectively describe stupas and temples but generally refers to Japanese- and Chinese style towers inspired by South Asian stupa. The word pagoda is derived from dagada , the word used for relic chamber in Sri Lanka. Classic Japanese- and Chinese-style pagodas usually have multiple stories, each with a graceful, tiled Chinese-style roof, and a top roof capped by a spire. The base represents the earth, the spire symbolizes heaven, and the connecting piece symbolizing the cosmic axis, to the Way.



History of Buddhist Temples


Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Bodhgaya, where Buddha experienced his enlightenment The word for temple in many languages is the same as cave. Many early Buddhist temples were "artificial caves" that attempted to recreate the atmosphere of Buddhist caves in northern India. Describing what they were probably like, the historian Paul Strachen wrote: In his book Pagan: Art and Architecture of Old Burma , "the now spartan brick gu [[[temple]]]" was "cluttered with regal objects and requisites, a clamor of activity as food offerings were shuttled from the kitchens down passageways crowded with chanting devotees, brightly colored wall paintings, gilded furnishings and flapping banners and hangings...the usual plain, seated Buddha image, found in the deserted temples


of Pagan today, would have been bathed, perfumed and dresses with the finest and most costly garments."
The architecture of Buddhist temples is influenced by the architecture of country in which they are found and various traditions of Buddhist architecture. Japanese pagodas, for example, have unique Japanese features that are modeled after Chinese-style pagodas, which in turn were modeled after Indian stupas.
Because ancient wood temples were often destroyed by fire, temples today are usually made of brick and stone with brass and iron ornaments. Chinese pagodas were often built to commemorate important leaders or event or house important artifacts or documents. Many Buddhist temples are located in the forests and mountains. There are two reason for their remote locations: first, mountains and forest have always been associated with spiritual purity, and second, Buddhist monks were often persecuted and remote location gave them some safety. In China, Japan and Thailand temples are often in the middle of town.


2. STUPAS -Buddhist Memorial Monument


The first and most fundamental of Buddhist architectural monuments, the Buddhist stupa serves as a marker for a sacred space, a symbolic representation of the Buddha’s burial mound. To understand the stupas and pagodas that one will see throughout Asia—including those in Angkor, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), Indonesia, China, Japan—it is helpful to first appreciate the design of the earliest stupas, which can be found in India and Sri Lanka. These stupas exerted great influence on later designs.

Great Stupa, Sanchi, India.forerunner for Bodobodur


3. The Indian Prototype: Sanchi Stupa


The Great Stupa at Sanchi, in central India, is one of the earliest stupas; it served as an architectural prototype for all others that followed. The world-famous stupa — first constructed by the 3rd century BCE Mauryan ruler Ashoka in brick (the same material as those of Sri Lanka) — was later expanded to twice its original size in stone.

Elevation and plan. Great Stupa, Sanchi, India. In the most basic sense, as an architectural representation of a sacred burial site, a stupa—no matter where it is located in the world or when it was built—has three fundamental features.


A hemispherical mound (anda). The anda’s domed shape (green highlights) recalls a mound of dirt that was used to cover the Buddha’s remains. As you might expect, it has a solid core and cannot be entered. Consistent with their symbolic associations, the earliest stupas contained actual relics of the Buddha; the relic chamber, buried deep inside the anda, is called the tabena. Over time, this hemispherical mound has taken on an even grander symbolic association: the mountain home of the gods at the center of the universe. A square railing (harmika). The harmika (red highlights) is inspired by a square railing or fence that surrounded the mound of dirt, marking it as a sacred burial site.

A central pillar supporting a triple-umbrella form (chattra).The chattra, in turn, was derived from umbrellas that were placed over the mound to protect it from the elements (purple highlights). Just as the anda’s symbolic value expanded over time, the central pillar that holds the umbrellas has come to represent the pivot of the universe, the axis mundi along which the divine descends from heaven and becomes accessible to humanity. And the three circular umbrella-like disks represent the three Jewels, or Triantha, of Buddhism, which are the keys to a true understanding of the faith: (a) Buddha; (b) dharma (Buddhist teachings or religious law); and (c) sangha (monastic community).
Around these three core building blocks were added secondary features. Enclosure wall with decorated gateways (toranas) at the cardinal directions. The wall — with its trademark three horizontal stone bars (in the top image) — surrounds the entire structure. The wall is marked in light blue highlights and the toranas in yellow. A circular terrace (medhi). The terrace—surrounded by a similar three-bar railing— supports the anda and raises it off the ground (black highlights); it likely served as a platform for ritual circumambulation.


4.History of Stupas


After Buddha's death his relics were divided and a number of stupas were built to house them. Although no ancient stupas remain the relics they housed are believed to have been saved and placed in other stupas. Many of the oldest stupas date back to the period of Buddhist expansions during the rule of King Ashoka (268-239 B.C.) The objects inside stupas are often unknown. A gold reliquary excavated from a 2nd century B.C. stupa in Bimaran Afghanistan was decorated with images of

Buddha and Hindu gods. The reliquary is believed to have contained the ashes of a revered saint or some object he touched.
Stupa developed in India in the 3rd century B.C. and were general objects of worship for Buddhists before the formation of Buddha imagery, sculpture and painting. Sanchi stupa, built near present-day Bhopal, India, is the oldest. It is shaped like a half sphere and built to allow worship around it. The functions of Buddhist stupas were also diffused, and shapes show a variety of styles in each cultural area.


Great Stupa in Sanchi Stupa is a Sanskrit word that literally means “to heap” or “to pile up." Some scholars believe that stupas predated Buddhism and originally were mounds of dirt or rocks built to honor dead kings. Later, these scholars say, the Buddha imbued them with spiritual meaning. Sylvia Somerville wrote in her book on stupas: “This explanation runs counter to Buddhist tradition, which maintains that because the stupa conveys enlightened qualities, it could only have been revealed by the mind of enlightenment. …In fact, some stupas, such as the Swayambhunath Stupa in Nepal, are believed to be self-arising expressions of enlightenment." Stupas are the oldest Buddhist religious monuments. The first Buddhist ones were simple mounds of mud or clay built to enclose relics of Buddha. In the third century B.C., after his conversion to Buddhism, Emperor Asoka ordered the original stupas opened and the remains were distributed among the several thousand stupas he had built. Stupas at the eight places associated with the life of the Buddha were important before Ashoka and continued to after his death. Over time, stupas changed



from being funerary monuments to being objects of veneration. As this occurred they also changed in appearance changed also.
Over the centuries many old stupas became pilgrimage sites. Famous ones became the center of complex ceremonial areas. They were often surrounded by a railing with gateways, through which pilgrims entered the ceremonial ground. Stone lions guarded the entrances. Outside vendors sold food and offerings to pilgrims.


5.Sanchi: Home of the World's Oldest Stupa


Sanchi (30 miles from Bhopal) is a pilgrimage site that attracts worshipers from all over the world who come to see Buddhist art and architecture that dates back to the third century B.C. Designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1989 and regarded as one of the most remarkable archaeological complexes in India, it contains monasteries and the world's oldest stupa.



Sanchi is the oldest extant Buddhist sanctuary. Although Buddha never visited the site during any of his former lives or during his earthly existence, the religious nature of this shrine is obvious. The chamber of relics of Stupa 1 contained the remains of Shariputra, a disciple of Shakyamuni who died six months before his master; he is especially venerated by the occupants of the 'small vehicle' or Hinayana. Having remained a principal centre of Buddhism in medieval India following the spread of Hinduism, Sanchi bears unique witness as a major Buddhist sanctuary to the period from the 3rd century BC to the 1st century AD.

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Eight Great Stupas

6.Buddhist Temples


A temple is a place of worship as opposed to a shrine, which is a sacred place for praying. It generally contains an image of Buddha and has a place where Buddhists practice devotional activities. Temples attract large crowds during festivals or if they are famous but otherwise a fairly quiet. They are often sought as places for quiet meditation, with most acts of worship and devotion being done in front of an altar at home.
Buddhist temples are generally a cluster of buildings---whose number and size depends on the size of the temple---situated in an enclosed area. Large temples have several halls, where people can pray,

and living quarters for monks. Smaller ones have a single hall, a house fore a resident monk and a bell. Some have cemeteries.
Temples can be several stories high and often have steeply sloped roofs are often supported by elaborately-decorated and colorfully-painted eaves and brackets. The main shrines often contain a Buddha statue, boxes of sacred scriptures, alters with lit candles, burning incense and other offerings as well as images of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and devas. The central images depends on the sect. Buddhist temples come in many shapes and sizes. Pagodas found in China and Japan are perhaps the best known. Stupas, stone structure built over Buddhist scriptures or relics of the Buddha or famous holy men, are found throughout the Buddhist world. . Buddhist temples are designed to symbolise the five elements:

1) Fire,

2) Air,

3) Earth, symbolised by the square base,

4) Water, and

5)Wisdom, symbolised by the pinnacle at the top of the temple.


All Buddhist temples contain an image or a statue of Buddha. People sometimes donate money to temples and have their names hung on special wooden plaques attached to lanterns of the temple. Generally, the larger the donation, the larger the plaque. Buddha never viewed himself as an object of worship. He probably would not have been very pleased to see his birthday as the object of veneration and merit so crassly exchanged for money.
Many temples are tourist attractions and outing destinations for local people. Souvenir amulets and other offerings are sold in little shops or booths; the names of large contributors are placed in special boxes; and priests are available to perform special rites.

Angkor Wat, a Hindu-Buddhist temple

7.Features of Buddhist Temples


Buddhist temples usually contain numerous Buddha statues. The central Buddha images are often surrounded by burning incense sticks and offerings of fruit and flowers. Some contain the ashes or bone reliquaries of popular holy man. Many Buddhist temples face south and sometimes to the east, but never to the north and west which are regarded as unlucky directions according to Chinese feng shui. Many temples are entered through the left door and exited through the right. The main hall is usually found at the center of the temple grounds. Inside are images of the Buddha, other Buddhist images, altars and space for monks and worshipers. The main hall is sometimes connected to a lecture hall, where monks gather to study and chant sutras.. Other buildings include a the sutra depositor, a library or place where Buddhist scripture are kept; living, sleeping, and eating areas for monks, and offices. Large temples often have special halls, where treasures are kept and displayed.

Some temples have shrines for making prayers to the dead filled with funerary plaques with photographs of dead relatives. The photographs are often of deceased people whose funeral ceremony was performed at the temple. Some temple feature sets of wooden plaques with the names of large contributors and other sets with afterlife names of deceased people. In the old days the afterlife names were only given only to Buddhist priests but now they are given to lay people who paid the right price


and now in some places have become a kind of ranking system in the after life based in how much one has contributed..
Many Buddhist temples contain large bells, which are rung during the New Year and to mark other occasions, and cemeteries. The pathway to the temples is often lined with stone or paper lanterns donated by worshipers, or strung with prayer flags. Many temples are filled with small shops selling religious items.


8. Buddhist Temple Gates


Buddhist temples usually have outer gates and inner gates protected by statues or paintings of beasts, fierce gods, or warriors that ward off evil spirits. The gateways are composed of wood, stone, bronze or even concrete. The beasts include Chinese lions and Korean dogs. Fierce guardian gods and warriors on the outer gate sometime have lighting bolts coming out of their nostrils and a serrated swords in their hands. Their duty is to keep demons and evil spirits out of the temple area. The inner gate at the antechamber to the temple complex is often guarded by four guardian kings, representing the four cardinal directions. The king in the north holds a pagoda representing earth, heaven and cosmic axis. The king in the east holds a sword with the power to evoke a black wind that produces tens of thousands of spears and golden serpents. The king in the west possesses lute. And the king in the south holds a dragon and a wish-fulfilling jewel.



9.Borobudur: the Ultimate Buddhist Temple


Borobudur, was built during over a half century by the Sailendra Dynasty after Mahayana Buddhism was introduced from the Srivijaya Kingdom of South Sumatra in the early half of the 8th century AD. Many Buddhism images and reliefs in Borobudur were made referencing Gandavyuha and Vajrayana/Esoteric Buddhism from Sri Lanka and East India. The stepped pyramid shape without an inner space as found at Borobudur is found in neither India nor Sri Lanka. And there are no stupas with that similar shape in Southeast Asia prior to Borobudur. Similar shaped monuments are found only in South Sumatra etc. This type of monument, originating

from the mountain religions of Megalithic culture that predated the introduction of Buddhism continued through the Historical Age. Borobudur can be seen as a massive monument of this origin, decorated in Buddhism style.


Borobudur in Java


Borobudur is a step pyramid, built around a natural hill, comprised of a broad platforms topped by five walled rectangular terraces, and they in turn are topped by three round terraces. Each terraces is outlined with ornaments and statues and the walls are decorated with bas reliefs. More than two million blocks of volcanic stone were carved during its construction. Pilgrims have traditionally walked around the monument in a clockwise manner moving up each of the five levels, and in process covering five kilometers.

Unlike most temples, Borobudur did not have actual spaces for worship. Instead it has an extensive system of corridors and stairways, which are thought to have been a place for Buddhist ceremonies. Borobodur also has six square courtyards, three circular ones, and a main courtyard within a stupa at the temple's peak. The entire structure is formed in the shape of a giant twirling staircase, a style of architecture from prehistoric Indonesia.


Borobudur is a three'dimensional model of the Mahayana Buddhist universe. The climb to the top of the temple is intended to illustrate the path an individual must take to reach enlightenment. At the main entrance on the east side, visitors can not even see the top. Scholars believed this was intensional. At the top was the ideal of Buddhist perfection, the World of Formlessness. The architecture and stonework of this temple has no equal. And it was built without using any kind of cement or mortar!


Borobudur resembles a giant stupa, but seen from above it forms a mandala. The great stupa at the top of the temple sits 40 meters above the ground. This main dome is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues seated inside perforated stupa. Five closed square galleries, three open circular inner terraces, and a concentric scheme express the universe geometrically. At the center of the top of the temple is a beautifully shaped stupa which is surrounded by three circles of smaller stupas that have the same shape. There are 72 of these, each with a Buddha statue inside. Touching them is supposed to bring good luck. Unfortunately many had their heads lopped off by 19th century explorers looking for souvenirs. The 72 small latticed stupas look like perforated stone bells. The temple is decorated with stone carvings in bas-relief representing images from the life of Buddha— the largest and most complete ensemble of Buddhist reliefs in the world.


Borobudur is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage. The ten levels of the temple symbolize the three divisions of the religion's cosmic system. As visitors begin their journey at the base of the temple, they make their way to the top of the monument through the three levels of Budhist cosmology, Kamadhatu (the world of desire), Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the world of formlessness). As visitors walk to the top the monument guides the pilgrims past 1,460 narrative relief panels on the wall and the balustrades.


Borobudur, northwest view


10. Indian connect in History of Borobudur


Borobudur was built by the Sailendra Dynasty kings in the 8th and 9th centuries, around that time that Charlemagne ruled Europe. When it was completed an epic poet from Ceylon wrote: "Thus are the Buddha incomprehensible, and incomprehensible is the nature of the Buddhas, and incomprehensible is the reward of those who have faith in the incomprehensible." According to UNESCO: Founded by a king of the Saliendra dynasty, Borobudur was built to honour the glory of both the Buddha and its founder, a true king Bodhisattva. This colossal temple was built between AD 750 and 842: 300 years before Cambodia's Angkor Wat, 400 years before work had begun on the great European cathedrals. Little is known about its early history except that a huge army of workers worked in the tropical heat to shift and carve the 60,000 square meters of stone. 11. Why it was built remains a mystery. There are no written records on the subject. No ancient cities have been found nearby. There is no clear sanctuary as a place of worship and no room to store icons. Many historians and archeologists believe that Borobudur is not a temple but rather a kind of advertisement for Buddhism. According to an expert on the subject, John Mikic, Borobudur was built to “to engage the mind” and to “give a visual aid for teaching a gentle philosophy of life."


Borobodur was an active religious center until the 10th century when it was abandoned for reasons that are not clear. At the beginning of the 11th century AD, because of the political situation in Central Java, divine monuments in that area, including the Borobudur Temple became completely neglected and given over to decay.According to UNESCO: the Stylistically the art of Borobudur is a tributary of Indian influences (Gupta and post-Gupta styles). 12.The Shailendra dynasty (IAST: ?ail?ndra derived from Sanskrit combined words ?aila and Indra, meaning "King of the Mountain", was the name of a notable Indianised dynasty that emerged in 8th-century Java, whose reign signified a cultural renaissance in the region. The Shailendras were active promoters of Mahayana Buddhism with the glimpses of Hinduism, and covered the Kedu Plain of Central Java with Buddhist monuments, one of which is the colossal stupa of Borobudur.The Shailendras are considered to have been a thalassocracy and ruled vast swathes of maritime Southeast Asia, however they also relied on agricultural pursuits, by way of intensive rice cultivation on the Kedu Plain of Central Java. The dynasty appeared to be the ruling family of both the Medang Kingdom of Central Java, for some period, and the Srivijaya Kingdom in Sumatra. The inscriptions created by Shailendras use three languages; Old Malay, Old Javanese, and Sanskrit - written either in the Kawi alphabet, or pre-N?gar? script. The use of Old Malay has sparked speculation of a Sumatran origin, or Srivijayan connection of this family. On the other hand, the use of Old Javanese suggests their firm political establishment on Java. The use of Sanskrit usually indicates the official nature, and/or religious significance, of the event described in any given inscription. After 824, there are no more references to the Shailendra house in the Javanese ephigraphic record. Around 860 the name re-appears in the Nalanda inscription in India. According to the text, the king Devapaladeva of Bengala (Pala Empire) had granted 'Balaputra, the king of Suvarnadvipa' (Sumatra) the revenues of 5 villages to a Buddhist monastery near Bodh Gaya. Balaputra was styled a descendant from the Shailendra dynasty and grandson of the king of Java. From Sumatra, the Shailendras also maintained overseas relations with the Chola kingdom in Southern India, as shown by several south Indian inscriptions. An 11th-century inscription mentioned the grant of revenues to a local Buddhist sanctuary, built in 1005 by the king of the Srivijaya. In spite the relations were initially fairly cordial, hostilities had broken out in 1025.


Rajendra Chola I the Emperor of the Chola dynasty conquered some territories of the Shailendra Dynasty in the 11th century. The devastation caused by Chola invasion of Srivijaya in 1025, marked the end of Shailendra family as the ruling dynasty in Sumatra. The last king of Shailendra dynasty — the Maharaja Sangrama Vijayatunggavarman — was imprisoned and taken as hostage. Nevertheless, amity was re-established between the two states, before the end of the 11th century. In 1090 a new charter was granted to the old Buddhist sanctuary, it is the last known inscription with a reference to the Shailendras. With the absence of legitimate successor, Shailendra dynasty seems ceased to rule. Other family within Srivijaya mandala took over the throne

13.The Sailendras and indian buddhism The rise of the p?la dynasty in the 8th century ad brought paradigm shifts in Buddhist text, ritual, and sacred architecture that sent cultural waves across the expanding maritime and land trade routes of Asia.The architectural concepts travelled in the connected Buddhist world between the Ganges valley and Java. A movement of architectural ideas can be seen from studying the corpus of the temples in the P?la (750–1214 AD) and ?ailendra (775– 1090 AD) domains of India and Indonesia. This led to a paradigm shift in the design of a st?pa architecture at Kesariya (Bihar) that emphasizes the arrangement of deities in the circular ma??alic fashion with a certain numerological configuration of life-size Buddha figures placed in the external niches of the monument. This new architectural concept possibly played a key role in the development of a more elaborate structure of Borobudur in Java.The architectural linkages emerge stronger with the central fivefold structure of the temples of the P?las and ?ailendras. In order to make the essential comparison, a quick method of drawing architectural plans is developed that is based on the basic measurements and not archaeological plans.


14. Architectural development in st?pa structure: The main archaeological sites of the middle and lower Ganges plain were recorded in the 19th century by Alexander Cunningham, following the travel accounts of the Chinese scholar-pilgrims Faxian (c. 337–422) and Xuanzang (c. 602–64). Northeast India contained not only early Buddhist st?pas and monastic complexes, but also a range of st?pa structures that advanced from the traditional hemispherical st?pa of Sanchi, through the cruciform, terraced st?pa structure of Nandanga?h to the elaborate st?pa-ma??ala of Kesariya. Most of the P?la structures that may have served as a model for Central Javanese temples are in dilapidated state today, making it difficult to track the architectural borrowings. But since 1998, the ASI excavations of some parts of Kesariya Stupa in Bihar,India have uncovered striking design similarities with the massive Central Javanese st?pa of Borobudur, whose stepped pyramid structure and ma??alic arrangement of deities in circular


This article demonstrates how the spread of Buddhism through maritime routes was closely linked with commercial activities, and how these networks were different from overland routes. It also provides a survey on early India–China networks and introduces the activities of Buddhist monks and the importance of ?r?vijayan rulers and their contribution to the maritime spread of Buddhism. In the second part, the article discusses the role of Sri Lanka and the Bay of Bengal networks in the maritime transmission of Buddhism. It shows that Buddhism spread in various forms from one cultural zone of Asia to another. It also demonstrates that the transmission of Buddhist doctrines, images and texts was a complex process that involved itinerant monks, traders and travellers.1 The Buddhas of Borobudur, for example, resemble in some ways the stone Buddhas of the P?la Buddhist monastery of Ratnagiri in Odisha . There are unresolved debates about the origin of the ?ailendra dynasty69 and their sudden rise to power in Central Java in c. 750–1090 that coincided with a massive surge in temple construction that included Borobudur (c. 760–830) and Candi Kalasan. The construction dates of Buddhist monuments of the ?ailendras and the P?las are close and they have many design features in common. We have already seen how the design ideas for Buddhist art and architecture were circulating from the 5th century. It was the network of monks, artists, and craftsmen that made possible the construction of the huge monuments and ritual centres. The first record of the association of the ?ailendras and P?la India is dated to the Kelurak inscription of c. 778 and the last inscription found in India referring to ?ailendras is the smaller Leiden copperplate inscription of c. 1090.By then, the ties between the two states had been sustained for more than three centuries. 2


From an architectural point of view, a monument like Borobudur can only have been the culmination of a long period of artistic gestation. Wolff Schoemaker (1924: 22) suggests three to four centuries of an autochthonous gestation period and argues about the lack of an autonomous development of sculpture in Java. Given the ?ailendra-P?la contacts and the construction of the earlier ?aiva temples on the Dieng plateau, it is not beyond the bounds of possibility in this connected Buddhist world that a breakthrough development in the P?la domain, which transformed a st?pa into a ma??ala of life-size Buddhas, was enhanced with narrative reliefs at Somapura and Vikrama??la and reached its ultimate 151
form of expression on Javanese soil. Jordaan has argued that the ?ailendras built their monuments in direct cooperation with Indian architects and craftsmen. This seems possible at the high conceptual level of architectural design, but at the level of relief carving and highly innovative st?pik? design there is no trace of non-Javanese influences.3



R E F E R E N C E S
1.China and Beyond in the Mediaeval Period: Cultural Crossings and Inter-Regional Connections, ed. Dorothy C. Wong and Gustav Heldt (Amherst: Cambria Press, 2014)

2. , Borobudur’s P?la forebear? A field note from Kesariya, Bihar, India,swati chemburkar
3.Across Space and Time: Architecture and the Politics of Modernity,By Patrick Haughey,google books



Mysteries Solved?

?lavaka next asked the Buddha:

“How does one cross the flood?

How does one cross the sea?

How does one overcome sorrow?

How is one purified?”

The Exalted One replied

“By confidence one crosses the flood, by heedfulness the sea.

By effort one overcomes sorrow, by wisdom is one purified.”



TEMPLE TRIAD


Straight-line arrangement of Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut Temples

To explain the additions or extensions at Barabudur and Mendut by successive Shailendra rulers, possibly without exception, which have come to light during restoration activities at those temples, one needs to understand that religious merit of the royal zealot did increase to a great extent from the building of a stupa. Indeed for every spectator the sacred construction work would be an incentive to join the creed while it would help the initiate in his meditations aiming at the attainment of the Bodhi.

Furthermore, the “accumulation of religious merit” which the monarch earned through the construction of a magnificent temple would also benefit his realm — “the thriving State of the Shailendras” as it is designated in the inscriptions of the period. This topographical relationship looks hardly casual, as probably a processional way ran along the line in ancient times (the path is still partly mimicked by the modern road from Borobodur to Pawon up to the river Pogo). Borobudur Temple (Biggest Buddha’s temple in the world)


Borobudur, is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. The monument consists of nine stacked platforms, six square and three circular, topped by a central dome. The temple is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. The central dome is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues, each seated inside a perforated stupa. It is the world’s largest Buddhist temple, as well as one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world. Built in the 9th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty, the temple was designed in Javanese Buddhist architecture, which blends the Indonesian indigenous cult of ancestor worship and the Buddhist concept of attaining Nirvana. The temple also demonstrates the influences of Gupta art that reflects India’s influence on the region, yet there are enough indigenous scenes and elements incorporated to make Borobudur uniquely Indonesian. The monument is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage. The journey for pilgrims begins at the base of the monument and follows a path around the monument and ascends to the top through three levels symbolic of Buddhist cosmology: K?madh?tu (the world of desire), Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the world of formlessness). The monument guides pilgrims through an extensive system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels on the walls and the balustrades. Borobudur has the largest and most complete ensemble of Buddhist reliefs in the world. Chandi MENDUT and Chandi PAVON supplement the temple complex. They were built during the reign of King Indra (782–812 AD) of the Shailendra dynasty. The whole temple complex symbolizes the way of a spiritual seeker from the mundane life to the Divine life, to the state of Buddha. In old times a big road led from Borobudur eastern entrance to Chandi Mendut, passing through Chandi Pavon. Along the entire road there were walls with numerous towers, niches, and sculptures.


? Chandi Mendut,

? Chandi Pawon,

? the famous Borobudur temple complex.

Pawon Temple

Pawon temple (known locally as Candi Pawon) is a Buddhist temple located between two other Buddhist temples, approximately 1,150 metres away from Mendut and 1,750 metres away from Borobudur.

, Pawon is connected with the other two temples, all of which were built during the Sailendra dynasty (8th–9th centuries). Examines the detail and style of its carving this temple is slightly older than Borobudur.


The three temples were located on a straight line, suggesting there was a symbolic meaning that binds these temples.

“Between Mendut and Borobudur stands Pawon temple, a jewel of Javanese temple architecture. Most probably, this temple served to purify the mind prior to ascending Borobudur.”1 The original name of this Buddhist shrine is uncertain. Pawon literally means “kitchen” in Javanese language, which is derived from the root word awu or dust. The connection to the word “dust” also suggests that this temple was probably built as a tomb or mortuary temple for a king. Pawon from the word Per-awu-an (place that contains dust), a temple that houses the dust of cremated king. However who was the personage that entombed here is still unknown. Local people name this temple as “Bajranalan” based on the name of the village. Bajranalan is derived from the sanskrit word Vajra (thunder or also a Buddhist ceremonial tool) and Anala (fire, flame). Due to its small size, Pavon resembles a memorial monument. When the temple was found, it was in a very poor condition. Themes of decorative reliefs in Pavon include the “heavenly tree”, vessels with gifts, bearded dwarfs spilling necklaces, rings and jewels from boxes. Such themes are explained by the fact that Chandi Pavon is dedicated to the deity of wealth Kubera, who was usually depicted at entrances to temples. Inner premises of the temple are trimmed with dark volcanic stone. Although no statues have been preserved in Chandi Pavon, it is possible to ascertain by outer wall reliefs that the temple once was

dedicated to Kubera – the generous lord of luck and wealth. There are also extant images of Kalpataru – the mythical tree of desires in Hindu and Buddhist traditions. The desires ingrained in righteous thoughts and true faith will be fulfilled.
In the contemporary era during the full moon in May or June, Buddhists in Indonesia observe Vesak annual ritual by walking from Mendut passing through Pawon and ends at Borobudur.


Mendut Temple


Mendut temple is a ninth-century Buddhist temple, located in Mendut village, Mungkid sub-district, Magelang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The temple is located about three kilometres east from Borobudur. Mendut, Borobudur and Pawon, all of which are Buddhist temples, are located in one straight line. There is a mutual religious relationship between the three temples, although the exact ritual process is unknown.

Borobodur was once the center of religious rituals of Mahayana Buddhism, which was corroborated by the existence of other temples with Mahayana Buddhism around it. Studies conducted on the location of Borobudur and the other temples surrounding it shows that the three temples are positioned along a single straight line, which was organized during the construction of Mendut Temple. It is also shown that the imaginary line connecting the three temples is linked to Mount Merapi.Studies on the temples surrounding Borobudur show a similarity with regard to the period of construction, which is the era of Mataram Kuno (Ancient Mataram), as well as their religious affiliation, that is, Mahayana Buddhism, which excludes Banon Temple as it is filled with statues of Hindu Gods . These studies led to an interpretation that Borobudur Temple is highly associated with Pawon and Mendut Temples located in the east. The association between Borobudur and the two surrounding temples also identifies that the three temples were the centers for religious rituals in the past. Geographically, Ngawen Temple is located in the east of Borobudur Temple. However, no study has been conducted revealing the association between Borobudur, Pawon, Mendut, and Ngawen Temples in the past. To further observe the association between the four temples, this study will focus on their location, religion, ornaments, and statues. The author believes that this research would provide a new interpretation of Borobudur and the surrounding Buddhist temples as monuments for sacred procession in the past and as a world heritage in the future.Field observation of the four temples, namely Borobudur, Pawon, Mendut, and Ngawen was conducted.



The temple possesses several meanings related to the belief of Mahayana Buddhism. Moreover, in the past, Borobudur had served as the center of other sacred buildings surrounding it . Within a distance of 5 km around the temple, there are three other temples affiliated with Mahayana Buddhism, among which are Pawon Temple (1,150 m from Borobudur) and Mendut (2,900 m). Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut Temples are located in the west of Elo River, and Ngawen is, in fact, located in the east side of the river,which is, in turn, 4 km away from Borobudur .According to previous studies, Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut Temples are positioned on a straight line and they form a triadic of sacred buildings affiliated to Mahayana Buddhism. However the imaginary axis connecting the three temples is not a straight line, and it is interpreted that they were the centers of religious rituals and processions in the past. Furthermore, it is suggested that the three temples were closely associated with Mount Merapi. Nevertheless, further examination of the map shows an addition temple called Ngawen Temple, from which a parallel imaginary axis can also be drawn, connecting it to the other three temples. Thus, on the basis of this fact, it can be interpreted that, in the past, the procession of the religious rituals might begin in Ngawen Temple and end in Borobudur. The layout of Chandi Mendut is traditional. It is a temple with a deity figure placed on a pedestal, intended for ritual processions. The walls contain thematic reliefs with scenes from Buddhist parables. The reliefs contain well-preserved images of Bodhisattvas. Inside Chandi Mendut itself there are three statues: Gautama Buddha in the middle, Bodhisattva Avalokite?vara on the left, and a non-identified Bodhisattva on the right (there is an assumption that it is a statue of Vajrapani).


The most unusual thing is that Shakyamuni Buddha is sitting in a “European” or “royal” pose with his both feet put on the lotus pedestal and his knees widely parted, without any traces of clothes. Bodhisattvas are sitting in traditional poses with one foot under their body and the other foot lowered.In traditional Buddhist iconography the image of the body part relating to genitals is always hidden by either a pose (asana) or pleats on the clothes (when Buddha is standing or lying). Hence, for adherents of canonical Buddhism the aforesaid depiction of Buddha is probably somewhat shocking. Religious associations of Borobudur Temple with other nearby temples: Two major schools, namely Mahayana and Hinayana (Theravada), are found in Buddhism.Mahayana Buddhism is described as the “great vehicle”, in which a holy man stays on the Earth, rather than going to heaven, in order to be able to help. Moreover, in Mahayana Buddhism, it is believed that a savior visits the Earth in the future, whereas Hinayana Buddhism or Theravada is described as a “small vehicle”, in which the Buddha is merely the Buddha himself, without the presence of Bodhisattva. Discussions on structures built during the Hindu–Buddhist era are highly associated with religious context. Revealing the religious background of a structure requires an observation of the components of the building. According to Soekmono (2005), temples in Indonesia can be classified in two major groups, namely Hindu and Buddhist temples. One of the main features of Buddhist temples is the existence of the stupas. A stupa is a bell-shaped structure of the shrine, which is a unique feature of Buddhist temples. Nevertheless, to explore more about the religious affiliation of a specific structure, we need to focus on the statues, reliefs, sketches, and other ornaments of structures. The most important argument for the coherence of Barabudur, Mendut and Pawon in my view is the fact — which Van Erp discovered by chance — that the three of them had been lain out along one straight line: 15Pawon on the right shore of the Progo River, 1750 m East of Barabudur, and Mendut 1150 m further East, on the left shore of the Elo River, just upstream from its junction with the Progo.16

Van Erp considered this fact and, as it were, the logically deducible. 163
a. for the west, the beginning of the western staircase at Barabudur;

b. for the Suryaloka, the bhavagra ? the top level of the Akanistha Heaven; c. for the east, Candi Mendut; and

d. for the zenith, Candi Pawon.
TRIAD




Borobudur stands in the geographical center of the island of Java, fifteen miles from Yogyakarta, on a plateau that is the caldera of an ancient volcano ringed by the Menoreh mountains. Two sets of twin volcanoes – Merapi and Merbabu to the northeast, Sumbing and Sindoro to the northwest – stand sentinel across the plains. Merapi, the "fire mountain," is active. A legend is told of a heavenly architect who built Borobudur in a single day and laid a curse on anyone who dared ascend his holy shrine. According to Asian art historian, Jan Fontein: "There is a mountain south of Borobudur that when viewed from the monument looks very much like the profile of a man; the nose, lips and chin are clearly delineated. The story goes that the ridge depicts Gunadharma, the architect of Borobudur, who is believed to keep watch over his creation through the ages."


There were only two fleeting references to Borobudur in historical reports of the 18th century. The first recorded visitor to Borobudur was a rebel who fled to the mountain called Bara-Budur in 1709 after leading an attempt to usurp the throne from the Sultan of Matara. The Sultan sent troops who surrounded the mountain, captured him and sent him to be executed. The next documented visitor to the monument was the heir apparent of Yogyakarta, a defiant young prince who had a reputation for rebellious and depraved behavior. In 1758, he set out to visit the "mountain of a thousand statues" against the advice of a prophecy that royalty who climbed the mountain would die. When he did not return to court, the king sent his men to bring back the wayward son. He was found vomiting blood and soon after died.

But records revealed no consensus on the meaning of the name "Borobudur." Two alternatives were proposed based on Javanese manuscripts from 842 AD: "the mountain of the accumulation of virtue on the ten stages of the Bodhisattva," or "the mountain which is terraced in successive stages." Sir Thomas Raffles, the British governor of Indonesia responsible for the excavation of Borobudur in 1814, thought that "boro" might mean "great" and "budur" might correspond to the more modern Javanese word "buda," interpreted as "The Great Buddha." One Javanese expert indicated that "boro" is related to the word for "monastery," and "budur" is a place name. This would suggest that Borobudur means "Monastery of Budur."Fortunately, because of the native tolerance of religious diversity, many of the monuments of Java were simply abandoned rather than destroyed or defaced, and a cloud of mystery and superstition descended on Borobudur. The first study on Borobudur was conducted during the Dutch East Indies era by Van Erp and N. J. Kroom,2 which coincided with the temple’s restoration project. Based on the similarities with regard to the architectural style and ornamentation of the three temples it indicated an association between Borobudur Temple and two other temples located nearby, namely Pawon Temple and Mendut Temple. They seem to have been built in the same period, that is, the Sailendra dynasty era. The next study was conducted by J. L. Moens in the 1950s 3 connected the three temples with Banon Temple, a Hindu temple located near Pawon Temple. Furthermore, it shows that Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut Temples were all ritual centers of Mahayana Buddhism, whereas Banon Temple was a place for the followers of Siwa-Siddhanta. Another study conducted by IGN Anom imaginarily connected


Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut Temples,showing that the three temples were built along a straight line
Association of the positioning of Borobudur Temple with the four nearby temples Borobudur Temple is located in the west of Elo River. The temple possesses several meanings related to the belief of Mahayana Buddhism. Moreover, in the past, Borobudur had served as the center of other sacred buildings surrounding it.. Within a distance of 5 km around the temple, there are three other temples affiliated with Mahayana Buddhism, among which are Pawon Temple (1,150 m from Borobudur) and Mendut (2,900 m) . Borobudur, Pawon and Mendut Temples are located in the west of Elo River, and Ngawen is, in fact, located in the east side of the river, which is, in turn, 4 km away from Borobudur . According to previous studies, Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut Temples are positioned on a straight line and they form a triadic (a group of three) of sacred buildings affiliated to Mahayana Buddhism.

However, according to Totok Roesmanto , the imaginary axis connecting the three temples is not a straight line, and it is interpreted that they were the centers of religious rituals and processions in the past. Furthermore, it is suggested that the three temples were closely associated with Mount Merapi. Nevertheless, further examination of the map shows an addition temple called Ngawen Temple, from which a parallel imaginary axis can also be drawn, connecting it to the other three temples.Thus, on the basis of this fact, it can be interpreted that, in the past, the procession of the religious rituals might begin in Ngawen Temple and end in Borobudur.
Discussions on structures built during the Hindu–Buddhist era are highly associated with religious context. Revealing the religious background of a structure requires an observation of the components of the building. Temples in Indonesia can be classified in two major groups, namely Hindu and Buddhist temples. One of the mainfeatures of Buddhist temples is the existence of the stupas. A stupa is a bell-shaped structure of the shrine, which is a unique feature of Buddhist temples. Nevertheless, to explore more about the religious affiliation of a specific structure, we need to focus on the statues, reliefs, sketches, and other ornaments of structures.
Bodobodur and Merapi Volcano: Borobudur was mysteriously abandoned by the 1500s, when the center of Javan life shifted to the East and Islam arrived on the island in the 13th and 14th centuries.



Perhaps Mount Merapi had erupted, choking the rice lands with layers of volcanic ash. Whatever the cause, the population moved to East Java in a mass exodus, and Borobudur was left behind, its meaning lost in time. Some scholars believe that famine caused by an eruption of Mount Merapi forced the inhabitants of Central Java to leave their lands behind in search of a new place to live. When people once again inhabited this area, the glory of Borobudur was buried by ash from Mount Merapi.

Mountain peaks, according to Buddhist thought, are the place where contact with divine truth may take place. There are 129 volcanoes in Indonesia and smoke can be seen emerging from the mountaintop at least 300 days a year. Mount Merapi, which stands at about 9,551 feet (2,911 meters) tall, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta, on the island of Java.It is a stratovolcano being the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending north and northwest, to the Mount Ungaran volcano. The name Merapi could be loosely translated as "Mountain of Fire" from the Javanese combined words "Meru," meaning "mountain," and "api," meaning "fire."Tectonically, Merapi is situated at the subduction zone where the Indo-Australian Plate is sliding beneath the Eurasian Plate. It is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire – a section of fault lines and volcanoes stretching from the western coast of South America, Alaska through Japan and Southeast Asia. Merapi has been active for about 10,000 years. The volcano's biggest and most devastating eruptions occurred in 1006 and 1930. The eruption of 1006 was so bad that many believe the existing Hindu kingdom in the area was destroyed, as it spread ash over all of central Java. During the 1930 eruption more than 1,300 people were killed."The material has to travel 30 miles [48 km] to get to the surface; there has to be enough propellant force to push them all that way and out.Merapi is the poster child for unstable lava domes," Wunderman said. "The dome on Merapi rests on a steep, unstable environment, and it is easy for pieces to break off and do damage; for example, hot gases can be released and form a superheated, high speed cloud that rolls down the mountain. The volcano is considered sacred by some local people who believe a supernatural kingdom exists atop Merapi, according to Indhanesia.com, an informational website about Indonesia. Every year a priest climbs to the top to make an offering.



Creation


Merapi is very important to Javanese, especially those living around its crater. As such, there are many myths and beliefs attached to Merapi. Although most nearby villages have their own myths about the creation of Mount Merapi, they have numerous commonalities. It is believed that when the gods had just created the Earth, Java was unbalanced because of the placement of Mount Jamurdipo on the west end of the island. In order to assure balance, the gods (generally represented by Batara Guru) ordered the mountain to be moved to the centre of Java. However, two armourers, Empu Rama and Empu Permadi, were already forging a sacred keris at the site where Mount Jamurdipo was to be moved. The gods warned them that they would be moving a mountain there, and that they should leave; Empu Rama and Empu Permadi ignored that warning. In anger, the gods buried Empu Rama and Empu Permadi under Mount Jamurdipo; their spirits later became the rulers of all mystical beings in the area. In memory of them, Mount Jamurdipo was later renamed Mount Merapi, which means "fire of Rama and Permadi."


Spirit Kraton of Merapi


The Javanese believe that the Earth is not only populated by human beings, but also by spirits (makhluk halus). Villages near Merapi believe that one of the palaces (in Javanese kraton) used by the rulers of the spirit kingdom lies inside Merapi, ruled by Empu Rama and Empu Permadi. This palace is said to be a spiritual counterpart to the Yogyakarta Sultanate, complete with roads, soldiers, princes, vehicles, and domesticated animals. Besides the rulers, the palace is said to also be populated by the spirits of ancestors who died as righteous people. The spirits of these ancestors are said to live in the palace as royal servants (abdi dalem), occasionally visiting their descendants in dreams to give prophecies or warnings.


Spirits of Merapi



To keep the volcano quiet and to appease the spirits of the mountain, the Javanese regularly bring offerings on the anniversary of the sultan of Yogyakarta's coronation. For Yogyakarta Sultanate, Merapi holds a significant cosmological symbolism, because it forms a sacred north-south axis line between Merapi peak and Southern Ocean (Indian Ocean). The sacred axis is signified by Merapi peak in the north, the Tugu Yogyakarta monument near Yogyakarta main train station, the axis runs along Malioboro street to Northern Alun-alun (square) across Keraton Yogyakarta (sultan palace), Southern Alun-alun, all the way to Bantul and finally reach Samas and Parangkusumo beach on the


estuary of Opak river and Southern Ocean. This sacred axis connected the hyangs or spirits of mountain revered since ancient times—often identified as "Mbah Petruk" by Javanese people—The Sultan of Yogyakarta as the leader of the Javanese kingdom, and Nyi Roro Kidul as the queen of the Southern Ocean, the female ocean deity revered by Javanese people and also mythical consort of Javanese kings.

Abandonment Borobodur lies 28 KM away from the mountain. No one knows what happened to the culture that built the monument. Perhaps Merapi had erupted, choking the rice lands with layers of volcanic ash. Whatever the cause, the population moved to East Java in a mass exodus, and Borobudur was left behind, its meaning lost in time. Borobudur lay hidden for centuries under layers of volcanic ash and jungle growth. The facts behind its abandonment remain a mystery. It is not known when active use of the monument and Buddhist pilgrimage to it ceased. Sometime between 928 and 1006, King Mpu Sindok moved the capital of the Medang Kingdom to the region of East Java after a series of volcanic eruptions; it is not certain whether this influenced the abandonment, but several sources mention this as the most likely period of abandonment. The monument is mentioned vaguely as late as c. 1365, in Mpu Prapanca's Nagarakretagama, written during the Majapahit era and mentioning "the vihara in Budur".Soekmono (1976) also mentions the popular belief that the temples were disbanded when the population converted to Islam in the 15th century. The monument was not forgotten completely, though folk stories gradually shifted from its past glory into more superstitious beliefs associated with bad luck and misery. Two old Javanese chronicles (babad) from the 18th century mention cases of bad luck associated with the monument. According to the Babad Tanah Jawi (or the History of Java), the monument was a fatal factor for Mas Dana, a rebel who revolted against Pakubuwono I, the king of Mataram in 1709. It was mentioned that the "Redi Borobudur" hill was besieged and the insurgents were defeated and sentenced to death by the king. In the Babad Mataram (or the History of the Mataram Kingdom)


, the monument was
associated with the misfortune of Prince Monconagoro, the crown prince of the Yogyakarta Sultanate in 1757. In spite of a taboo against visiting the monument, "he took what is written as the knight who was captured in a cage (a statue in one of the perforated stupas)". Upon returning to his palace, he fell ill and died one day later.
170
During the Britiash administration from 1811 to 1816, Lieutenant Governor-General Thomas Stamford Raffles was appointed governor who took great interest in the history of Java. On an inspection tour to Semarang in 1814, he was informed about a big monument deep in a jungle near the village of Bumisegoro. He was not able to see the site himself, but sent Hermann Cornelius , a Dutch engineer who, among other antiquity explorations had uncovered the Sewu complex in 1806–07, to investigate. In two months, Cornelius and his 200 men cut down trees, burned down vegetation and dug away the earth to reveal the monument. Due to the danger of collapse, he could not unearth all galleries. He reported his findings to Raffles, including various drawings. Although Raffles mentioned the discovery and hard work by Cornelius and his men in only a few sentences, he has been credited with the monument's rediscovery, as the one who had brought it to the world's attention. Christiaan Lodewijk Hartmann, the Resident of the Kedu region, continued Cornelius's work, and in 1835, the whole complex was finally unearthed. His interest in Borobudur was more personal than official. Hartmann did not write any reports of his activities, in particular, the alleged story that he discovered the large statue of Buddha in the main stupa. In 1842, Hartmann investigated the main dome, although what he discovered is unknown and the main stupa remains empty. The Dutch East Indies government then commissioned Frans Carel Wilsen, a Dutch engineering official, who studied the monument and drew hundreds of relief sketches. Jan Frederik Gerrit Brumund was also appointed to make a detailed study of the monument, which was completed in 1859. The government intended to publish an article based on Brumund's study supplemented by Wilsen's drawings, but Brumund refused to cooperate. The government then commissioned another scholar, Conradus Leemans, who compiled a monograph based on Brumund's and Wilsen's sources. In 1873, the first monograph of the detailed study of Borobudur was published, followed by its French translation a year later. The first photograph of the monument was taken in 1872 by the Dutch- Flemish engraver Isidore van Kinsbergen.
Appreciation of the site developed slowly, and it served for some time largely as a source of souvenirs and income for "souvenir hunters" and thieves. In 1882, the chief inspector of cultural artifacts recommended that Borobudur be entirely disassembled with the relocation of reliefs into museums due to the unstable condition of the monument. As a result, the government appointed Willem Pieter Groeneveldt, curator of the archaeological collection of the Batavian Society of Arts and



Sciences,[38] to undertake a thorough investigation of the site and to assess the actual condition of the complex; his report found that these fears were unjustified and recommended it be left intact. Borobudur was considered as the source of souvenirs, and parts of its sculptures were looted, some even with colonial-government consent. It is said that in 1896 King Chulalongkorn of Siam visited Java and requested and was allowed to take home eight cartloads of sculptures taken from Borobudur. These include thirty pieces taken from a number of relief panels, five buddha images, two lions, one gargoyle, several kala motifs from the stairs and gateways, and a guardian statue (dvarapala). Several of these artifacts, most notably the lions, dvarapala, kala, makara and giant waterspouts are now on display in the Java Art room in The National Museum in Bangkok.


Restoration


Borobudur attracted attention in 1885, when the Dutch engineer Jan Willem IJzerman Chairman of the Archaeological Society in Yogyakarta, made a discovery about the hidden foot. Photographs that reveal reliefs on the hidden foot were made in 1890–1891. The discovery led the Dutch East Indies government to take steps to safeguard the monument. In 1900, the government set up a commission consisting of three officials to assess the monument: Jan Lourens Andries Brandes, an art historian, Theodoor van Erp [nl], a Dutch army engineer officer, and Benjamin Willem van de Kamer, a construction engineer from the Department of Public Works. In 1902, the commission submitted a threefold plan of proposal to the government. First, the immediate dangers should be avoided by resetting the corners, removing stones that endangered the adjacent parts, strengthening the first balustrades and restoring several niches, archways, stupas and the main dome. Second, after fencing off the courtyards, proper maintenance should be provided and drainage should be improved by restoring floors and spouts. Third, all loose stones should be removed, the monument cleared up to the first balustrades, disfigured stones removed and the main dome restored. The total cost was estimated at that time around 48,800 Dutch guilders. The restoration then was carried out between 1907 and 1911, using the principles of anastylosis and led by Theodor van Erp. The first seven months of restoration were occupied with excavating the grounds around the monument to find missing Buddha heads and panel stones. Van Erp dismantled and rebuilt the upper three circular platforms and stupas. Along the way, Van Erp discovered more things he could do to improve the monument; he submitted another proposal, which was approved


with the additional cost of 34,600 guilders. At first glance, Borobudur had been restored to its old glory. Van Erp went further by carefully reconstructing the chattra (three-tiered parasol) pinnacle on top of the main stupa. However, he later dismantled the chattra, citing that there were not enough original stones used in reconstructing the pinnacle, which means that the original design of Borobudur's pinnacle is actually unknown. The dismantled chattra now is stored in Karmawibhangga Museum, a few hundred meters north from Borobudur. Due to the limited budget, the restoration had been primarily focused on cleaning the sculptures, and Van Erp did not solve the drainage problem. Within fifteen years, the gallery walls were sagging, and the reliefs showed signs of new cracks and deterioration. Van Erp used concrete from which alkali salts and calcium hydroxide leached and were transported into the rest of the construction. This caused some problems, so that a further thorough renovation was urgently needed. ...nature takes a toll

But during the 19th century, as Borobudur's past became more clear, its future grew much less certain. The climate of Java is particularly ruthless to man-made structures. In the words of Professor Soekmono, former head of the Archeological Service of Indonesia: "For over a thousand years, the rigours of the tropical climate have probed the latent weaknesses of the edifice. Sudden changes of heat and cold between day and night, where temperatures may vary by 40 degrees Fahrenheit in twenty-four hours, cause stones to crack. But the worst havoc has been caused by the heavy rains, over eighty inches a year on average, with torrential downpours of up to half an inch in five minutes. They overwhelmed the inadequate drainage system, percolating down into the central core where they washed away the earth and weakened the foundations." "Moisture on the stones had also corroded many of the beautifully carved reliefs and favored the growth of disfiguring patches of mosses and lichens. The terrace walls sagged and tilted at crazy angles and the floors sloped inwards. Had the lower terrace walls collapsed, the whole colossal structure would have come tumbling down in a great slithering avalanche of earth and masonry." Nature itself was destroying the monument, literally tearing Borobudur apart. Despite repeated efforts at restoration throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, major decay and structural disintegration plainly threatened Borobudur with inevitable and irreparable collapse. Several interesting suggestions


for protection of the monument were made during that time. One of the preservationists suggested that Borobudur be covered by a giant umbrella to keep the rain off. Another proposal was to demolish the entire edifice and deposit the reliefs in a museum. In 1907, Theodore Van Erp, a Dutch engineering officer, led a major restoration project. He rebuilt the crumbling stupas and heaving floors of the upper terraces, cleaning the sculptures of moss and lichen. But after four years, the limited funds were exhausted before work could begin on the lower galleries, and the basic problem of drainage had not been solved. Carvings were rapidly disintegrating; walls were crumbling. By 1948, when the Republic of Indonesia came into existence, Borobudur was on the brink of ruin. According to Soekmono, 5"Deterioration was so widespread all over the monument that no partial restoration could effectively ensure its safeguard. Since the Indonesian people were determined to pass on the best of their cultural heritage to forthcoming generations, drastic but deliberate action was called for in the form of a gigantic project." But it would be several decades before attention would again turn to Borobudur. Little is known about the early history of Borobudur except that it was built some time between AD 750 and 850, during the Sailendra Dynasty. A huge workforce must have been required to hew, transport and carve the 60,000 cubic metres of stone in constructing the temple, but the details remain as vague as the monument's name, which possibly derives from the Sanskrit words ‘Vihara Buddha Uhr’, meaning Monastery on the Hill’.


The three temples at Borobodur belong to the Mahayana Buddhism. The details of the cults practised are unsure, but a relationship certainly existed between the temples and the proclaimed divine nature of the kings who ordered their construction. In this connection, a possible, symbolic relationship between the three monuments was investigated in details by Moens. In this controversial but anyhow scholarly work, the idea is that the temples were connected by a “magical birthritual, in which the monarch’s consecration occurred both as the Buddha and as King. Moens proposed a ritual based on an analogy with the sun path in the sky in one day, and thus endowed with three main “stations”: east, zenith, and west. To these steps corresponded for the west, the beginning of the western staircase at Borobudur; for the east, Mendut; and for the zenith, Pawon. Role of the moon: It is worth mentioning that the role of the moon is quite relevant in Buddhism, since festivals and recurrences associated with Buddha's life are timed by the full moon. As is well known, in the course of a 18,6 years cycle the maximal declination of the Moon in her monthly cycle undergoes a slow variation from a minimum to a maximum, equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic minus/plus the obliquity of the earth-moon plane ( =5° 9') with respect to the ecliptic. This leads to a minor standstill at declination and a maximal standstill at declination . In 800 AD the obliquity of the ecliptic was about 9' greater than today so =23° 39' and the two standstills correspond to declinations 28° 48' and to 18° 30' respectively. The last matches impressively well the orientation of Pawon, while the first is not far (less than two degrees in declination, corresponding to less than 2 degrees also in azimuth) from that of Mendut (parallax corrections are negligible at these latitudes).

Since the minor standstill of the Moon is always mimicked by the sun two times a year, it is impossible to distinguish it from a solar orientation in the case of a single building. However, the coincidence of two buildings possibly related to the two standstills is, to say the last, impressive. In this respect it is important to remember that precise azimuths for the major standstills of the Moon are very difficult to individuate, and major standstills lunar orientations should always be understood as aimed to the full moon closest to the solstice, which always attains a declination close to the extremal one in the years of the standstills. The choice of orientation to the extrema of the moon might thus have arisen from calendrical reasons.


Moens: Confirmed that the temple triad of Barabudur, Mendut and Pawon dates from the period of the Shailendra dynasty, 1& 3which in close cooperation with the kings of the Sanjaya dynasty dominated Central Java for nearly two centuries, is no longer liable to doubt since the explorations of Van Erp and Krom. In his extensive Barabudur-monograph, Van Erp called the three temples “...a triad that according to (their) architecture and ornamentation derive from the same time period.” 7This observation of course concerns the style of the temples as we are familiar with today, that is to say following the renovations and extensions which must have been executed by the end of the ninth century when Shailendra hegemony in Java came to an end.


REFERENCES


 


1. and 3. .J. L. Moens (1951). "Barabudur, Mendut en Pawon en hun onderlinge samenhang (Barabudur, Mendut and Pawon and their mutual relationship)" (PDF). Tijdschrift voor de Indische Taai-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen: 326– 386. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 10, 2007. trans. by Mark Long 2. 1.Beschrijving van Barabudur,Krom (N.J.) & Van Erp (T.),Martinus Nijhoff, 1920-31., 1920 4."Mataram, Historical kingdom, Indonesia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 1 January 2015. See also The Role of Dutch Colonialism in the Political Life of Mataram Dynasty: A Case Study of the Manuscript of Babad, Tanah Jawi, Asian Social Science 10(15) · July 2014 5. Art of Indonesia: Pusaka, Haryati Soebadio, Bambang Sumadio, et al. | 1 March 1998 6.Archaeoastronomy of the “Sun path” at Borobudur,Giulio Magli,School of Architecture, Urban Planning and Construction Engineering,Politecnico di Milano, Italy 7. BESCHRIJVING VAN BARABUDUR. EERSTE DEEL. ARCHAEOLOGISCHE BESCHRIJVING DOOR, Krom, N.J.; Erp, T. van.,Published by 's-Gravenhage, 1920. (1920) Not the Borobudur but a Thigh temple like a lotus concept



Archaeoastronomy and the Borobudur temples


Introduction: Borobudur was probably built between the 8th and 9th centuries, and after awhile disappeared from the existence, deep beneath the layers of ash because of volcanic eruption and then abandoned by the people around a middle age. There is a study that suggests Borobudur was abandoned following the fourteenth century decline of Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms in Java.


The Borobudur should wait until the 19th centuries when Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, which during that period of time appointed as the British ruler in Java, and on 1814 informed by the native about an abandoned temple somewhere in the jungle, so for the first time, the world acknowledge about its existence. And since that time, there were numerous restoration project to preserve the Borobudur, up until this time.
Mysteries of the Temple Complex: There is still mystery surrounding the Borobudur, what is the exact purpose of Borobudur? If that is for religious purpose, yes, it is, indeed. One theory is the Borobudur is related to Buddhism cosmology, a Mandala, and the building represents the “three worlds’ of Buddhism cosmology, started as the ‘world of desire’ (K?madh?tu) on the base level, then the ‘world of form’ (Rupadhatu), the the ‘world without form’ (Arupadhatu) on top. But, is there something else?

As with other ancient civilizations, the forms often have metaphorical symbols, like the square shape and all the attributes in the Rupadhatu, changed into the plain circular platforms in Arupadhatu, speak about the phylosophycal of changing the world in Buddhism, as a pilgrim journeys from below, through a system of stairways and corridors with about 1500s narrative relief panels on the wall and the balustrades, finally reach the top level, in the world without, and we found no figurative panels at all, instead we will find Stupas there. But, do the forms & alignment of the Stupas tell something that related to the sky? That is the very question that we want to answer from our expeditions. Archaeoastronomy (also spelled archeoastronomy) is the interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures". It considers symbolically rich cultural interpretations of phenomena in the sky by other cultures. It is often coupled with ethnoastronomy, the anthropological study of skywatching in contemporary societies. Archaeoastronomy is also closely associated with historical astronomy, the use of historical records of heavenly events to answer astronomical problems and the history of astronomy, which uses written records to evaluate past astronomical practice.

Since the 19th century, numerous scholars have sought to use archaeoastronomical calculations to demonstrate the antiquity of Ancient Indian Vedic culture, computing the dates of astronomical observations ambiguously described in ancient poetry to as early as 4000 BC. Archaeoastronomy is sometimes related to the fringe discipline of Archaeocryptography, when its followers attempt to find 181
underlying mathematical orders beneath the proportions, size, and placement of archaeoastronomical sites such as Stonehenge and the Pyramid of Kukulcán at Chichen Itza. Archaeoastronomy uses a variety of methods to uncover evidence of past practices including archaeology, anthropology, astronomy, statistics and probability, and history. Because these methods are diverse and use data from such different sources, integrating them into a coherent argument has been a long-term difficulty for archaeoastronomers. Archaeoastronomy fills complementary niches in landscape archaeology and cognitive archaeology. Material evidence and its connection to the sky can reveal how a wider landscape can be integrated into beliefs about the cycles of nature, such as Mayan astronomy and its relationship with agriculture Other examples which have brought together ideas of cognition and landscape include studies of the cosmic order embedded in the roads of settlements. It can be applied to all cultures and all time periods. The meanings of the sky vary from culture to culture; nevertheless there are scientific methods which can be applied across cultures when examining ancient beliefs.


Alignments


A common source of data for archaeoastronomy is the study of alignments. This is based on the assumption that the axis of alignment of an archaeological site is meaningfully oriented towards an astronomical target. Brown archaeoastronomers may justify this assumption through reading historical or ethnographic sources, while green archaeoastronomers tend to prove that alignments are unlikely to be selected by chance, usually by demonstrating common patterns of alignment at multiple sites. An alignment is calculated by measuring the azimuth, the angle from north, of the structure and the altitude of the horizon it faces. The azimuth is usually measured using a theodolite or a compass. A compass is easier to use, though the deviation of the Earth's magnetic field from true north, known as its magnetic declination must be taken into account. Compasses are also unreliable in areas prone to magnetic interference, such as sites being supported by scaffolding. Additionally a compass can only measure the azimuth to a precision of a half a degree. A theodolite can be considerably more accurate if used correctly, but it is also considerably more difficult to use correctly. There is no inherent way to align a theodolite with North and so the scale has to be calibrated using astronomical observation, usually the position of the Sun. Because the position of celestial bodies changes with the time of day due to the Earth's rotation, the time of these calibration observations must be accurately known, or else there will be a systematic error in the measurements. Horizon altitudes can be measured with a theodolite or a clinometer.



Solar positioning


While the stars are fixed to their declinations the Sun is not. The rising point of the Sun varies throughout the year. It swings between two limits marked by the solstices a bit like a pendulum, slowing as it reaches the extremes, but passing rapidly through the midpoint. If an archaeoastronomer can calculate from the azimuth and horizon height that a site was built to view a declination of +23.5° then he or she need not wait until 21 June to confirm the site does indeed face the summer solstice. Central Java in particular it is well endowed with Hindu and Buddhist candi, and we can assume that most (if not all) of these had astronomical associations. have already written about the orientation of the eastern gateway at Borobudur

Temple alignments using Astronomy: The ancestors of the Indonesian people since ancient times used the constellation in the sky as a time marker for example, the people of Central Java observed the constellation of Orion until it rose to a certain height to determine the beginning of the farming period. Astronomy is not an invisible knowledge for our ancestors, they observe the motion of the stars, the sun and the moon as markers of time.Borobudur could have been an astronomical monument that recorded all the movements of the sky in that era. To prove it, the hypothesis starts from the shape of the temple which is quite unique. When observed from the sky, the shape is symmetrical. Floors 1 to 7 are equilateral while floors 8 to 10 are circular with the center of a main stupa with a total height of 20 meters and a diameter of 17 meters. This main stupa has a unique position, at the center of the circle of small stupas. From this symmetrical shape of the temple (like a clock) finally it is hypothesized that the main stupa of the temple has a function as a time marker. The first time marker used by humans is gomon or the sundial. The system is very simple, only a stick that is placed vertically on the ground. By observing the length of the wand's shadow each time it can be drawn a wand shadow pattern. Well, this stick shadow pattern is used by ancient humans to mark the time.



Main Stupa of BOrobudur Temple. Credit: Irma Hariawang


To test the truth of the hypothesis, the research team made observations at Borobudur Temple. Observed the main stupa shadow pattern when the sun is at the Vernal Equinox point (the point of intersection of the celestial equatorial plane and the ecliptic plane) which is 19 to 20 March. This time is considered special because on that day the sun will rise and set in the east and west true (east true & west true). Armed with these observational data, a shadow model of the main stupa is made every day of the year and corrected for measurement and observation errors. The result is the shadow of the main stupa making a distinctive pattern that falls on certain small stupa around it. Examples of practical applications such as this, if we see the shadow of the main stupa falling on Stupa 1 on level 8 then it is time to plant (for example).



The shadow of the main stupa in one year. giant clock mechanism.


This discovery certainly must be adjusted to many factors, for example the tectonic shock factor which makes the position of the temple stupa shifted so that the fall of the shadow is no longer accurate. In addition, the mechanism of time marker that is used by the community in the Borobudur development era is not yet known, so we do not yet know for certain the stupas which are considered important and which are used as signs. 1
Relief of the Moon, 7 small circles as stars and sun on the walls of the temple. Like the picture of a constellation. Credit: irma Hariawang


Temple Alignments and Calendrical Links to Sun path: Amelia Carolina Sparavigna also considered the nine stacked platforms, six square and three circular, topped by a central dome. The temple is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. The central dome is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues, each seated inside a perforated stupa” One can see the 72 stupas on the top platform of the temple. The number 72 is equal to the even number of the days passing from the zenithal passage in October to the December solstice, and from the December solstice to the zenithal passage on the end of February or first of March.
In fact, she stressed the possibility that the number of the ancillary temples or stupas in the temples of Sewu, Prambana and Borobudur, had a calendrical link to the path of the sun. There is another link concerning the mudras of the statues of Buddha. At first glance, all the Buddha statues appear similar, but there is a subtle difference between them in the mudras, or the position of the hands. There are five groups of mudra: North, East, South, West and Zenith, which represent the five cardinal compass points according to Mahayana.

The first four balustrades have the first four mudras: North, East, South and West, of which the Buddha statues that face one compass direction have the corresponding mudra. Buddha statues at the fifth balustrades and inside the 72 stupas on the top platform have the same mudra: Zenith. Each mudra represents one of the Five Dhyani Buddhas; each has its own symbolism". During the restoration in the early 20th century, it was discovered that three Buddhist temples in the region, Borobudur, Pawon and Mendut, are positioned along a straight line pointing to another link to the zenith passage of the sun - an alignment of three temples, Borobodur and the satellites Mendut and Pawon temples, along the sunset azimuth on the days of zenithal sun.The three temples at Borobodur belong to the Mahayana Buddhism. 2The details of the cults practised are unsure, but a relationship certainly existed between the temples and the proclaimed divine nature of the kings who ordered their construction. In this connection, a possible, symbolic relationship between the three monuments was investigated in details by Moens (1951). In this controversial but anyhow scholarly work, the idea is that the temples were connected by a “magical birthritual, in which the monarch’s consecration occurred both as the Buddha and as King. Moens proposed a ritual based on an analogy with the sun path in the sky in one day, and thus endowed with three main “stations”: east, zenith, and west. To



these steps corresponded for the west, the beginning of the western staircase at Borobudur; for the east, Mendut; and for the zenith, Pawon. Although this interpretation is well known, it has never been referred explicitly to the specific days of the zenith passages, a connection which instead looks natural: if the “solar pathritual had to be referenced into in the architecture of the temples, and if the zenith culmination of the sun was, as it seems, a fundamental ingredient of the ritual, then we would expect the procession to go in the direction from sunrise to sunset, and the processional path to be oriented in such a way as to indicate the zenith sunset, as it actually occurs. Finding comparison belonging to the same cultural context would also be of help, but one the problems is that Borobodur architectural conception is almost unique. Besides the already mentioned Bayon, as far as the present author is aware the unique, vaguely reasonable comparison is the socalled 108 stupas monument, located on a hillside directly on the western bank of the Yellow River at Qingtongxia, Ningxia, China. The monument is slightly later than Borobodur, as it was constructed during the Western Xia dynasty (1038–1227 AD), as part of a greater Buddhist temple complex. It is composed by 108 stupas of sun-dried mud bricks, arranged in rows disposed in a triangular formation which narrows with height, from 19 stupas on the first row to the uppermost single one. A front view of this monument is actually quite reminiscent of one side of Borobodur. As far as the present author is aware, the orientation of the 108 stupas monument has never been studied. The azimuth is 120° which, with an horizon height close to zero, gives a impressive declination -24° that is, very close to the winter solstice sunrise. The monument is therefore, with hardly any doubt, astronomically oriented although not to the same solar phenomenon of the Borobodur axis; of course however, at the latitude of Ningxia about 37° north, zenith passages do not occur. Archaeoastronomy of the “Sun path” at Borobudur

G. Magli has proposed that the line indicated the azimuth of the sunset on the days of zenithal sun (let us note that, for the line of the three temples, an alignment along sunrise was proposed too in [15]). It is easy to test the alignment proposed by Magli using software such as SunCalc.org for instance. Using date 12 October, we can see the alignment. Actually, SunCalc.org and the Photographer's Ephemeris give this day for the zenith passage. Figure 2: The alignment of the three temples along the sunset on a day of zenith passage of the sun, obtained by means of SunCalc.org. For what concerns


the architecture of Borobudur, let me add to the references also the very interesting article [1 on the algorithm used for building the temple.3
Borobudur has geographics coordinate 110 12 10.34 E 7 36 30.49 S. The main structure of Borobudur can be devided into three components: foot, body, and head. Borobudurs head part consist of a main stupa at the center and three terraces which is (more or less) circular in shape. Top terrace contain 16 little stupas, with radius = 24 m. Middle terrace contain 24 little stupas, with radius = 37 m. This terrace is 1.5 m lower than top terrace. Bottom terrace contain 32 little stupas, with radius = 53 m. This terrace is (also) 1.5 m lower than middle terrace. The stupas of each terrace distributed evenly at the edge of each terrace. The main stupa with three terraces called Arupadhatu. We suspect this Arupadhatu configuration is serve a purpose as a chronometer, with the main stupa as the gnomon. In this work we reconstruct Borobudur as if how it was suppose to looks like at the time it as built. We include cakra, part of main stupa that is now detached from main stupa for some technical reasons. Cakra adds 7.5 m to the height of main stupa, making it 20.44 m in total, relative to top terrace. Javanese culture recognize a system to track time for everyday use, known as pranotomongso. Pranotomongso use bencet (a kind of sundial) to measure time. With this in mind, we try to incorporate pranotomongso as a time tracking system to Borobudur as a chronometer. The Main Stupa of Borobudur and Pranotomongso Calendar System 505 2. the Shalivahana Shaka calendar. used in Java and Bali among Indonesian Hindus. Nyepi, the "Day of Silence", is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali. Nepal's Nepal Sambat evolved from the Saka calendar. Prior to colonization, the Philippines used to apply the Saka calendar as well as suggested by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription.
The term may also ambiguously refer to the Hindu calendar; the Shalivahana era is also commonly used by other calendars.The historic Shalivahana era calendar is still widely used. It has years that are solar.
Structure: The calendar months follow the signs of the tropical zodiac rather than the sidereal zodiac normally used with the Hindu calendar.


  1. Name (Sanskrit) Length Start date (Gregorian) Tropical zodiac Tropical zodiac (Sanskrit)




1 Chaitra 30/31 March 22/21 Aries Me?a

2 Vaish?kha 31 April 21 Taurus V??abha

3 Jy?shtha 31 May 22 Gemini Mithuna

4 ?sh?dha 31 June 22 Cancer Karkata

5 Shr?vana 31 July 23 Leo simha

6 Bhaadra 31 August 23 Virgo Kany?

7 ?shwin 30 September 23 Libra Tul?

8 K?rtika 30 October 23 Scorpio V??cika

9 Agrahayana 30 November 22 Sagitarius Dhanur

10 Pausha 30 December 22 Capricorn Makara

11 M?gha 30 January 21 Aquarius Kumbha

12 Phalguna 30 February 20 Pisces M?na


Chaitra has 30 days and starts on March 22, except in leap years, when it has 31 days and starts on March 21. The months in the first half of the year all have 31 days, to take into account the slower movement of the sun across the ecliptic at this time.The names of the months are derived from older, Hindu lunisolar calendars, so variations in spelling exist, and there is a possible source of confusion as to what calendar a date belongs to. Years are counted in the Saka era, which starts its year 0 in the year 78 of the Common Era. To determine leap years, add 78 to the Saka year – if the result is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar, then the Saka year is a leap year as well. Its structure is just like the Persian calendar. A model was made of the ideal Borobudur, based on the position, size and orientation of actual Borobudur. In the model, correction for precession was incorporated. This puts Borobudur at circa 800 CE, around the time it was built. A pattern of shadow of main stupa (+cakra) relative to little stupas position in each terrace (series of pictures to the right) was studied in the search for interesting


pattern of the falling shadow, that could be used as a marker of time for them who use Borobudur as a chronometer .
Series of shadow of main stupa for 12 mongsos. Edge of the shadows with dark color is signified the shadow of beginning of that mongso. 3. Discussion In Figure 1, we present regular pattern of the shadow cast by main stupa during each mongso. During the beginning of each mongso, the shadow falls (more or less) exactly on specific stupa(s), marked by filled red circle. From the repeating pattern we suspect that those stupas may play important role as time marker for the ancient people. To verify this, we have to figure out a mathematical pattern behind it. For this work, we just identified a specific stupas suspected as marker on specific time (mongso). There is an indication that ancient mathematical of sanskrit might hold the clue on astronomical calculation by ancient people. We will elaborate the mathematical sanskrit as the means to define the pattern and the specific astronomical purpose (if any) of Borobudur.


Algorithmic way that was incorporated in constructing Borobudur’s architecture is a strong possibility for some issues related to the lack of standard metric system attached to ancient Javanese society and the closeness of Javanese culture with the fractal geometry that also found in traditional fabric, batik. Thus, we can say that while the inspiration of the building of Borobudur temple is religious issue, i.e.: Buddhism, the architecture is more likely strongly connected to the ancient Javanese culture. Borobudur temple was built as building a single and small stupa, but the way to making it was incorporated the technique of self-similarity. However, the emerged construction is eventually a kind of algorithmic fractal mega-architecture. The complexity of Borobudur is emerged from simple rules of building stupa as the fractal geometry applies. The calculated fractal dimension of Borobudur is 2.325, a number that shows the realm of the structure that is in between the two dimensional form and the three dimensional conic (or bell) shaped construction. This shows how self-similarity does exist and it is a theoretical challenge for interdisciplinary works among geometry, statistical analysis, computer sciences, anthropology, archaeology as well as mechanics to reveal deeper insights related to the dimension calculated. While in the previous works (Situngkir, 2008) the discussions have brought us to the interesting facts related to tradition fabric that also emanated applied fractal geometry, more observation and analysis related to the fractal aspects in cultural heritage might be appealing.


The self-similarity of Indonesian Borobudur Temple is observed through the dimensionality of stupa that is hypothetically closely related to whole architectural body. Fractal dimension is calculated by using the cube counting method and found that the dimension is 2.325, which is laid between the twodimensional plane and three dimensional space. The applied fractal geometry and self-similarity of the building is emerged as the building process implement the metric rules, since there is no universal metric standard known in ancient traditional Javanese culture thus the architecture is not based on final master plan. The paper also proposes how the hypothetical algorithmic architecture might be applied computationally in order to see some experimental generations of similar building. The paper ends with some conjectures for further challenge and insights related to fractal geometry in Javanese traditional cultural heritages.


Fractal structure of Borobudur was built by Modern Mathematical Sciences( See next Chapter) New mathematical calculations were used to built Borobudur Temples as far back as in the years 750 and 842. Fractals are geometric shapes that have elements similar to the overall shape. Often a fractal has a certain pattern that repeats with a recursive and iterative.Confirming the hypothesis is the work of Hokky Situngkir, researcher and president of Bandung Fe Institute. According to him, Borobudur was built space that has a similarity with the elements themselves. In the Borobudur, for example, there are many forms of geometry stupa. “Candi Borobudur stupa itself is a giant in which consists of stupas of other smaller ones. Keep up to infinity,” he explains. In addition, Hokky explains, it is also verified by measurements Parmono Atmadi from UGM, which sees order Borobudur buildings that meet the elements of 9:6:4 ratio. Ratios, for example, is present at high proportions of three parts of the temple, which is part Arupadhatu (formless world) – the main stupa and stupas that form a circle, the Rupadhatu (the form) – the part that covers stupas are located on the runway square shaped, and the Kamadhatu (lust of the world) – the legs. The actual stupa itself is a form of three-dimensional ellipsoid that satisfy the ratio 9:6:4. “This order we meet in all parts of Borobudur, either horizontally or vertically,” Borobudur meet the dimensional fractal dimensionality between 2 and 3.4



R E F E R E N C E S


1, Hariawang, I.I., Simatupang, F.M., Radiman, I., and Mumpuni, E.S.,2011. Orientation of Borobudur’s east gate measuredagainst the sunrise positon during the vernal equinox. In Nakamuraet al., 37–42.

Hidayat, B., 2000.
2. Amelia Carolina Sparavigna. The Zenith Passage of the Sun at Candi Borobudur. Philica, Philica, 2017. ffhal-01677101f. See also

The Main Stupa of Borobudur as Gnomon and Its Relation With Pranotomongso Calendar System Ferry M. Simatupang , Irma I. Hariawang , Emanuel Sungging Mumpuni1, 1Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40135, Indonesia and National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN), Center of Space Science, Jl. Dr. Djundjunan 133, Bandung 40173, Indonesia.

Proceedings of The 11th Asian-Pacific Regional IAU Meeting 2011 NARIT Conference Series, Vol. 1, c 2013 S. Komonjinda, Y. Y. Kovalev, and D. Ruffolo, eds.

3. Giulio Magli School of Architecture, Urban Planning and Construction Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy,Giulio Magli, Researchgate December 2017.

4. Borobudur was Built Algorithmically ,Hokky Situngkir

Dept. Computational Sociology, Bandung Fe Institute ,Center for Complexity, Surya University

5.Borobudur Was Built Algorithmically,Article in SSRN Electronic Journal · September 2010


Mathematics and Numerology in the Borobudur Temples


Mostly in Eastern religions, particularly in Indonesia the ancient Imperial cults of Borobudur temple as Buddhism, ritually celebrate their beliefs as a congregation where prayer and religious addresses are a communal activity. This culture is interesting to study whether building a place of worship is built on the cultural elements or there is a correlation with formula or complicated calculations about how the building is erected . The mathematical study for Borobudur’s architectural design has once related to answer the question about the metric system used by ancient Javanese to build such giant buildings with good measurement.

Borobudur was constructed during the eighth century as a guide to the Noble Path of the Buddha. Born from silence and unfolding into the serenity of the other shore, it expresses the glory of Indonesia's awareness and creativity, the smile of her plastic forms over the centuries as well as her travels along the edge of thoughts that cross the endless corridors of memory. Though the Western world rediscovered this magnificent structure almost 200 years ago, this sacred place nonetheless remains seated in its enigmatic depth, engulfed in vaporous illusions, waiting for someone to find the base simplicity of its Truth. This temple is a catalyst and invites adventurous minds to find new directions by bringing into focus the vast universe of the Borobudur in order to cultivate the way its designers found to weeding out error in its construction. The questions posed or solutions offered herein are like water and waves: different yet identical in essence. They stir discussion. One of the special contributions lies in its correlating the cyclical movements of the Sun and Moon with the numerical symbolism. The magical effect of the Sun suddenly appearing out of the volcano Merapi and empowering the Borobudur-mountain with its radiant energy in poetic imagery is the vision of the creator of this edifice. This magic moment of satori or enlightenment echoes the experiences of the unknown Shailendra monarch who had commissioned the monument's construction and the inspiration that made the architect envision this Buddhist wonder.1 As a a legacy from the greatness of the past, there have been still a lot of mysteries behind the structures of Indonesian Borobudur Temple. Some of them are described eloquently . The hypothetical propositions backed by science are still a few, especially when it is related to



mathematical one. Yet, Borobudur has been worldly recognized as one of biggest wonders in human civilizations. The Borobudur was a built in the theological tradition from 760 to 825 AD Mahayana Buddhist, located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. Glance view of the Borobudur brings us to see the complexity of architectural design implemented to the temple with specific and unique appearance relative to other architectural and historical wonders, e.g.: Egyptian and Mayan Pyramid, Cambodian Angkor Wat. The temple is built upon 123 x 123 m2 land and comprises 6 square platforms and 3 circular platforms on top with a dome as the highest points. The decoration of the temple presents 2,672 detail relief panels narrating Buddhist mythologies. There are 504 Buddha statues in Borobudur and various stupas, the Buddhism related mound-like and bell-shaped structure. At the circular platform of the temple, there are 72 Buddha statues seated inside perforated stupa. A description related to history of reconstruction, site description, anthropological and archaeological perspective of the site are elaborated by Soekmono (1976)

as the temple is closely related to
Indonesian social living, even at the modern times (Vickers, 2005). It is also worth to note a good introduction the functional part of temples, in general , in Indonesian culture as described in Soekmono (2005). The late traditional kingdoms in Indonesian archipelago inherited various temples, and Borobudur is one of the greatest.3
Space is a term used to describe dimensional aspects existing between other, significant phenomena.The semiotics of space is a descriptive process enquiring into the relevantsignificance of the relationships between objects and theirspatial contexts. Since semioticsisthe disciplined study of the life of signs that ‘stand for or represent’ something, space is generally overlooked as the background to other objects of attention.
Mathematical ideas have formed new semiotic spaces, where those without a mathematical background can only "feel" the effects and many of their consequences in real life space. The truth of a theorem, equations, and many mathematical relations are basically correct, depending on what is meant by theorems, equations, and conceptual relations of mathematics itself. Mathematics that we know today tells the long road of human thought from ancient simple concepts and abstractions, which have relations and connectedness with each other with concepts.


This then leads us to the intriguing question when looking at the splendor of the diverse ethnographies in the cultural landscape of the archipelago. The splendor of Borobudur Temple which is known as one of the largest and most complex Buddhist sites on our planet, has extraordinary architecture, from its construction structure, to the ornamentation and decoration carved there. And we are also increasingly intrigued, when we also understand that at the time of the great temple was built, we do not use mathematical thinking as architects or civil engineers today build a mega-structure similar to Borobudur.
4:6:9 Ratio: A survey conducted in 1977 revealed frequent findings of a ratio of 4:6:9 around the monument. The architect had used the formula to lay out the precise dimensions of the fractal and self-similar geometry in Borobudur's design. This ratio is also found in the designs of Pawon and Mendut, nearby Buddhist temples.There is an interesting geometric fact shown in Borobudur, These are as related to the mythology, about the parts of the temple, including the legs, body, and head of a human being representing the celestial body of the Buddha.. A comparison is also found in an existing stupa, which is part of Borobudur, both large-sized stupas (on the upper floor), and small stupas on the ground floor. Stupa size variations look different, but it's really interesting to see that the ratio of the size of the foot: body: head remains as obeyed in accordance with the large cross section of Borobudur.

Figure 1. Cross-section of the Borobudur Temple: foot-body-head.


By making detailed measurements of all the stupas to the very small shapes that have a similarity to the stupa which is an element of the temple, it is shown that as if the temple builder does not care about the dimensions and scaling dimensions of the temple, but always "filling" the temple building in 3 -dimensional in the form of stupas which between levels in the parts obey the ratio ...: 4: 6: 9: .... [14]. It is as if the change in size of the stages in a stupa if the geometric shape is continued continuously from the size of the stupa that is built continues to infinity. But the concept of "infinity" is certainly a mathematical concept that is difficult to find in relation to everyday reality. "Unlimited" is a metaphor derived from various conceptual structures that are interrelated in the mathematical treasures]. The concept of "infinity" is a concept that is often found in geometry when we talk about aspects with extraordinary symmetry, namely in geometric shapes with structures that have similarities in themselves. Wake structure that has a dimension that is not an integer (1, 2, 3, ...) but fractions ( fraction ), which wake geometric, known as the "fractal" ( fractal ). The similarity test on yourself at Borobudur Temple was also carried out. Detailed measurements ranging from large landscapes stupa temple to form the smallest performed, followed by calculation of the counting-box ( Box- counting) to wake up with a 3-dimensional Minkowski Dimension- Bouligand method. Borobudur was calculated to have a fractal dimension D ~ 2.3252 . As a geometric shape with dimensions 2 <D <3, Borobudur Temple is shown to have a 3-dimensional "fragmented" shape. Borobudur Temple provides 2-dimensional "experience" despite its 3-dimensional shape. Borobudur cannot be equated as a cone, even though it is a cone. Borobudur is a giant stupa in which there are other stupas that compose it. Like batik art crafts , similar patterns of self-fractal geometry were detected in the Borobudur Temple.

The order and patterns that emerge in the Borobudur Temple, however, are a mathematical method. It's just that the method of mathematics is not as common as is known by modern society. Borobudur was built by stacking one stone with another stone. The geometric method of Borobudur Temple is different. It does not begin with standard geometrical patterns. It starts with stupas of various sizes, and with certain rules, stones are stacked with certain "algorithms" so that, as a whole, Borobudur itself has the form of a giant stupa . This same mathematical method is also found in pigmentation patterns in animals, such as the shellfish shell pigmentation pattern. Nature also



seems to have geometry , and this similar pattern was also adapted by the people with primitive geometry that built the Borobudur Temple. An geometric method that fills emptiness with patterns and shapes that ultimately form patterns and shapes that are similar to the patterns and shapes of the constituents themselves .No standard meter is used other than the size ratio between one part and the other. Stacking stones with certain rules to create great works such as Borobudur. A unique mathematical method, which even tempts physicist Stephen Wolfram to call it a new "science" way: Stacking stones with certain rules to create great works such as Borobudur. A unique mathematical method, which even tempts physicist Stephen Wolfram to call it a new "science" way: Stacking stones with certain rules to create great works such as Borobudur. A unique mathematical method, which even tempts physicist Stephen Wolfram to call it a new "science" way:the new kind of science .

If these are the mathematical traces of the inhabitants of the archipelago in the past, we as a generation that inherited the Borobudur Temple have a call to dig further. Explores metaphors and how our conceptual relations abstraction of life in nature and socially. There is as much collective intelligence as Borobudur is along the vast archipelago of our archipelago. Starting from agricultural techniques such as subak in Bali, the procedure for the transformation of natolu in the Batak tribe, state and bureaucratic patterns , to the creation of art crafts that can inspire our modern civilization today and the future .
We live in an era filled with social and ecological crises. It is possible that further excavation of traditional life management that has been proven to be able to maintain the harmony of life as printed on the splendor of Borobudur Temple can be an inspirational footing .We also live in the information age, where creativity plays a very important role in it. It could be that further excavation of this unique way of crafting can inspire modern aesthetic works that can add value to our modern civilization , now and in the future.
Fractal Geometry: term ‘Fractal’ actually comes from the Latin word ‘Fractus’ which means ‘broken’. Fractal means, the recursive geometrical forms, bearing self-similarity on different scales. According to the Fractal foundation – “A fractal is a neverending pattern. Fractals are infinitely complex patterns that are self-similar across different scales. They are created by repeating a simple process repeatedly in an ongoing feedback loop. Driven by recursion, fractals are images of dynamic systems – the pictures of Chaos. Geometrically, they exist in between our familiar dimensions. Fractal


patterns are extremely familiar, since nature is full of fractals. For instance: trees, rivers, coastlines, mountains, clouds, seashells, hurricanes, etc. Abstract fractals – such as the Mandelbrot Set – can be generated by a computer calculating a simple equation over and over.” The self-similar recursive geometry is known as Fractal. Hindu Philosophy describes the cosmos as holonomic and self-similar in nature. In the connection of this context,fractal theory is being followed in Indian Hindu Temple Architecture much before the discovery of Fractal Theory. From the site plan level to the minute detailing level, the basic structure of Hindu temples with supportive structures in Hindu temple architecture, geometry always plays a vital and enigmatic role. The geometry of a plan started with a line,forming an angle, evolving a triangle, then a square and distinctly a circle and so on, ultimately deriving complex forms. As per the previous discussion, the occurrence of complexity, results into self-similarity and further it leads to the occurrence of fractal geometry. Geometry is a disciplined field and the fractals follow it. Both of them have definite paths of action.Ancient Indian mathematicians were very skilful in geometry. They used the knowledge of geometry in other disciplines also. They derived many of the comprehensive conclusions with the help of geometry. The Indian old scripts are the evidences of those practices. The concept of progression can also be applied in the geometry. When this progression held in a proper manner or following a rule, it becomes a process, which has several names like iteration, repetition etc. However, at the end of the process, the outcome turns into a beautiful illusion. The Indians understood this beautiful illusion by practice. They were creative minds. They proved their efficiency not only in applied science but also in arts and crafts. They worshipped the nature and they were very eager to reveal the mystery of creation. Somehow they got the hints of creation; the principles of selfsimilarity, iteration, repetition. They observed that, in the mountains, in the trees, in ground covers, in water; everything follows those principles.
How to build using fractal Dimensions 4: There are no evidence that ancient Indonesian society had a metric standard for the precisions and geometry on which they built the civilian constructions. Yet, ruins of buildings and artifacts expressing complex mega-constructions are there, spreading throughout the archipelago. Computationally elaborated study, we can see that the Borobudur, the biggest Buddhist temple and heritage from ancient Indonesian civilization, use some sort of ratio



conjectured to be used by the architect of the temple in overcoming the lacking standard of measurement. In the latter, the algorithmically built temple has fractal geometry with dimension ± 2.3252. The self-similarity of the building is shown to be emerged from the way of building stupa, Buddhist’s relic as the basic shape from which the Borobudur was built. Apparently, the shape of the stupa, with the hypothesized ratio applied, is obvious in a lot of sizes, from a small 3-dimensional ornaments to the shape of the temple itself. Fractal dimension is calculated by using the cube counting method and found that the dimension is, which is laid between the two-dimensional plane and three dimensional space. The applied fractal geometry and self-similarity of the building is emerged as the building process implement the metric rules, since there is no universal metric standard known in ancient traditional Javanese culture thus the architecture is not based on final master plan. The hypothetical algorithmic architecture might be applied computationally in order to see some experimental generations of similar building. The paper ends with some conjectures for further challenge and insights related to fractal geometry in Javanese traditional cultural heritages.5 Observing the complexity of architectures from ancient social life, like temples, that are found a lot in Indonesian archipelago, is often bringing question on how such simple civilization could erect them regarding to the known technical simplicity they had. This question is sometimes followed by appearing mysteries related to detail within them as our modern eyes scrutinize each of them. The simple method emerging complex patterns as shown in cellular automata is hypothesized to be able answering the question. The paper reports the utilization of three-dimensional forms emerged by the two-dimensional totalistic cellular automata with some modifications related to the delimitation of the growing sites horizontally.



The emerging 3-dimensional forms are compared with some ancient temples in Indonesia. The more detailed observation of the emerged 3-dimensional shape gives more interesting result, related to the 200
ratio 4:6:9 discovered in multi-scaled measurements of Borobudur Temple previously, which is emerged from more elementary and simple rules of particular cellular automata. Furthermore, our discussions conclude some characteristics of the utilized cellular automata used in the observation. This observation confirms the explanatory power of cellular automata to ancient architectures. This is a supplementary to the widely recognized exploratory power of cellular automata as inspiration to the modern and contemporary architectural designs.


REFERENCES


1.Borobudur, Mark Long (Author), Voute Caesar (Author), Fitra Jaya Burnama (Photographer) DK Printworld, 2008

2.Chandi Borobudur: A monument of mankind,Soekmono, The Unesco Press (1976)

3. Ethnic vs Math: The Secret inside Borobudur Temple, Wanda Nugroho Yanuarto, Indonesia,2017

Borobudur was Built Algorithmically Hokky Situngkir , Dept. Computational Sociology, Bandung Fe Institute Center for Complexity, Surya University, Indonesia https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1508/1508.03649.pdf

4. Some architectural design principles of temples in Java : a study through the buildings projection on the reliefs of Borobudur Temple,Parmono Atmadi,Yogyakarta : Gadjah Mada University Press, 1988.


5.Exploring Ancient Architectural Designs with Cellular Automata Hokky Situngkir [hs@compsoc.bandungfe.net] Dept. Computational Sociology Bandung Fe Institute BFI Working Paper Series WP-9-2015.See also Adapting cellular automata to support the architectural design process, Christiane Herr, Automation in Construction, January 2007

6..Role of Fractal Geometry in Indian Hindu Temple Architecture, Dhrubajyoti Sardar, S. Y. Kulkarni, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 2015


7.Reading Borobudur, Presented at the Indonesian Mathematics Student Association (IKAHIMATIKA) Association " Nothing without Math ," Jakarta, November 3, 2012. https://qact.wordpress.com/2012/11/05/matematikaborobudur/



Fractals & Lotus-Design Elements of Borobodur


Deservedly so, when one visits Europe one can marvel at the building they built in the 1600s and 1700s. What impressive feats they accomplished. But then Borobudur was built in the 800s.Its engineeringits
base is 123 m x 123 m. Its superstructure is 3 tiered with a head, body, feet ratio of 9,6,4. Creating a level base that measures 123m x 123m to be very tough, I mean, the italians cannot even create a level base for the Pisa tower .If you ask a civil engineer now how he/sahe is going to create a level base that measures 123m x 123m, he will need a laser rangefinder, possibly one that can adjust for the earth's curvature.
Based on inscriptions found on some of the stones of the monument, archaeologists agree that construction of Borobudur was probably begun around 760 AD and completed by about 830, the Golden Age of the Sailendra dynasty, under the reign of King Samaratunga. Sailendras dynasty kings were of foreign origin, either from South India or from Indo-China, and ruled Sumatra and Java from the 8th through the 13th centuries. Under their rule, the islands were major centers of Buddhist scholarship. The Javanese had been carving stone statues and inscriptions since about 400 AD, but between 700 and 900 AD, many of the Island's greatest shrines were erected. Javanese society of that time must have been healthy and wealthy enough to support an endeavor such as the building of Borobudur. It would have required plentiful manpower to haul the stone – as much as 45,700 cubic yards taken from nearby streams and rivers, all fitted perfectly together without mortar. Skilled craftsmen would have been needed to carve the images, which were completed after the stones were in place, and abundant agricultural resources to provide food. By the middle of the 9th century, Borobudur was completed with a large monastery at the southwest foot of the hill. "Today it takes a trained eye to see Borobudur from a distance," says Asian art historian, Jan Fontein. "But we know that, in ancient times,this stone was covered with a kind of white plaster – called "plaster as hard as diamond" or "vajalaypa" – which may have been a base for colors and just as the pilgrim who went to Chartres saw the cathedral rise up from miles away, so the



pilgrim who came to Borobudur may have seen the monument in ancient times, hours before he reached it."
Records from the 9th and 10th centuries show that Borobudur was a center of pilgrimage for about 150 years during a short but intense period of Buddhism. Chinese coins and ceramics found at Borobudur from the 11th to the 15th centuries suggest that pilgrims continued to visit Borobudur during that time.1
Incredible Hindu temples were made with incredible thought about positioning, with size and geometry taken into consideration. All optimised using numerics. Today it looks like we've lost a chapter in human history as to how Vedic structures were created with such elegance. According to ancient architectural tradition, Hindu temples are symbols of the model of the cosmos and their form represents the cosmos symbolically. The human being is said to contain within itself, the entire cosmos – ‘Aham Bhramosmi’ philosophy. The term comes from the Sanskrit, aham, meaning “I” and brahma, meaning “divine,” or “sacred”. While Brahms is the Hindu creator god, Asmi translates to “I am.” Aham Brahmasmi is a term that is used in Hindu and yoga philosophy to describe the unity of the Atman (individual self or soul) with Brahman (the Absolute)., thus reinforcing the idea of ‘part in whole’ and ‘whole in part’. Aham Brahmasmi is one of the main Mahavakyas- the short statements known as the "Great Utterances" from the Upanishads.2 Traditionally, temples have been the most prominent religious institution in India and fractals form an integral part of those temples. A single gaze at a temple and you will find fractal-like spires (shikharas) or a tower surrounded by smaller towers, surrounded by still smaller towers, and so on, for eight or more levels. Each part of the facade is designed to look like a miniature reproduction of the whole


Vishnu temple in Varanasi. This single-pointed wholeness composed of many self-similar peaks at various points in the structure displays a striking fractal quality Since Hindu philosophy views the cosmos to be holonomic and self-similar in nature – each fragment of the cosmos is believed to be whole in itself – temples are designed and constructed as models of the cosmos.The architecture of the Hindu temple symbolically represents the quest for moksha– ultimate spiritual liberation, the realization of oneness by setting out to dissolve the boundaries between man and the divine. or this purpose certain notions are associated with the very forms and materials of the building.
Paramount is the identification of the divinity with the fabric of the temple, or, from another point of view, the identification of the form of the universe [for example the cosmic mountain] with that of the temple.Such an identification is achieved through the form and meaning of those architectural elements that are considered fundamental to the temple.


Temples are of different sizes populated by sculptures and images of deities, animals, mythical beings and varied symbols to create a distinctive visual and spiritual experience. Not all Hindu temples are based on sacred geometry but many are.
The temple is a fractal part of the whole of Hinduism, and that the use of fractal geometry has a special symbolic meaning in the forms of Hindu temples. Like the whole is reflected and celebrated in each part!



Indian temples are like 3-dimensional structure based on fractal geometry


It’s not just that these temples appear to be algorithmically generated, the ancient Vastu Sustra texts provide procedural rules or recipes for their design, layout and build (including the positions of ornaments). The texts transmit recursive programs, by verbal instruction, to masons so that the Hindu Temple becomes a model of a fractal Universe. A model which represents ‘views of the cosmos to be holonomic and self-similar in nature’. The idea of fractal cosmology is no stranger to western academia. In 1987 the Italian physicist Luciano Pietronero argued, in his paper, that the Universe shows ‘a definite fractal aspect over a fairly wide range of scale’ based on correlations of galaxies and clusters, their spatial distribution and average mass density. ‘According to Hindu philosophy the cosmos can be visualised to be contained in a microscopic capsule, with the help of the concept of subtle element called ‘tammatras’. The whole cosmic principle replicates itself again and again in ever smaller scales’ – Kirti Trivedi.3 Symmetries of the cosmos manifest themselves in the designs and representations made by man. This is most relevant in the case of Hindu temples, because of the obvious necessity to relate with the cosmic dynamism. The notion of temple as a model of the cosmos has existed over 3000 years in texts and for more than 1000 years in actually realised monuments has explored the connections that tie the details of the temple form and its iconography to fundamental Vedic ideas related to transformation.4 Kak
If we trace the artistic forms of things, made by man, to their origin, we find a direct imitation of nature. This does explain the common processes used for the creation of art. It should be noted that sometimes the aesthetic appeal of fractal-like patterns is also explained by the fact that the nervous system is governed by fractal-like processes. There is enough evidence to prove that nature, cosmos, human body and human mind all follow the same algorithm in geometrical progression. 2. Temple architecture – manifestation of the philosophy “As the pigments are but the vehicle of painting, so is the building but the vehicle of architecture, which is the thought behind form, embodied and realised for the purpose of its manifestation and transmission. Architecture, then, interpenetrates building, not for satisfaction of the simple needs of the body, but the complex ones of the intellect.” (Lethaby, 1891, 2005 )


How humans experience architecture, is an extensively talked about subject. The conclusions can be drawn only after certain connect and relationship has been formed between the building and the observer. This connection needs a basis or connecting thread to be formed. The scales at which human beings can comfortably perceive things and interpret to understand, is limited. The cosmic scale and the atomic scale – the two ends of scale – are unperceivable to the human naked eye, and therefore contribute only conceptually to the ideas of homogeneity, isotropy, self similarity etc. So, the eternal truth embedded within these concepts geometrically, needed to be manifested into a scale which human eye can perceive and interpret in their own right, also being an inherent part of their worldly experience.

Many scientists have found that fractal geometry is a powerful tool for uncovering secrets from a wide variety of systems and solving important problems in applied science. The list of known physical fractal systems is long and growing rapidly.
Fractals is a new branch of mathematics and art. Perhaps this is the reason why most people recognize fractals only as pretty pictures useful as backgrounds on the computer screen or original postcard patterns. But what are they really? Most physical systems of nature and many human artifacts are not regular geometric shapes of the standard geometry derived from Euclid. Fractal geometry offers almost unlimited waysof describing, measuring and predicting these natural phenomena. But is it possible to define the whole world using mathematical equations? The image of lotus flower is very important to Buddha. This flower symbolizes modesty, simplicity, and compassion. The image of lotus flower on the Borobudur Temple can be captured by using bird eye angle perspective, using aerial photography just like the forms made from silhouette lines of the temple. Meanwhile the circle at Arupadhatu with its stupas symbolizes the hump of lotus flower which is associated with encircled stupas on the Arupadhatu level. This aerial photography show a simplified geometrical shape of the hump of lotus flowe. The imagery of Borobudur Temple as a lotus flower with leaves, hump and veins of leaves remind the idea that interprets Borobudur Temple and its landscape as a lotus flower on the pond. This image confirms the possibility of Borobudur Temple which was built in the middle of water environment.5


Many people are fascinated by the beautiful images termed fractals. Extending beyond the typical perception of mathematics as a body of complicated, boring formulas, fractal geometry mixes art with mathematics to demonstrate that equations are more than just a collection of numbers. What makes fractals even more interesting is that they are the best existing mathematical descriptions of many natural forms, such as coastlines, mountains or parts of living organisms. Although fractal geometry is closely connected with computer techniques, some people had worked on fractals long before the invention of computers. Those people were British cartographers, who encountered the problem in measuring the length of Britain coast. The coastline measured on a large scale map was approximately half the length of coastline measured on a detailed map. The closer they looked, the more detailed and longer the coastline became. They did not realize that they had discovered one of the main properties of fractals.


Fractals’ properties


Two of the most important properties of fractals are self-similarity and non-integer dimension. What does self-similarity mean? If you look carefully at a fern leaf, you will notice that every little leaf - part of the bigger one - has the same shape as the whole fern leaf. You can say that the fern leaf is self-similar. The same is with fractals: you can magnify them many times and after every step you will see the same shape, which is characteristic of that particular fractal.In the Hindu temple, the potentially divine becomes visibly manifest and therefore approachable by man. Temple construction


manuals of the ancient world Brihatsamhita and Sthapatyaveda give the solution as the temple which should act as the microcosm of the cosmos .
Though Borobodur is no Hindu temple, the construction and technology is definitely inspired,to say the least, by Hindu Temple Architecture. Even the artisans and the Architect may have been brought from India to undertake this gigantic task. Hindu temple architecture is vast and requires an understanding of not only Hindu philosophy, but also the nature of religious practices, rituals and temple worship in Hinduism combining subjects of philosophy, cosmology, psychology, mathematics, geometry and in-depth understanding of the social and cultural life of the people and the times.

Architecture, described as thought behind form, is the most appropriate vehicle, for he messages addressed for human mind. This special relationship formed between the structure and the human mind, substantiates the experience through symbolism. Therefore the connecting basis may be developed through the use of symbolism, which touches the intellect in more than one way.


Figure: Outer fractal Fascade, Kandaria Mahadev Temple, Khajuraho


3. Symbolic expression and perception


“The history of symbolism shows that everything can assume symbolic significance: natural objects (like stones, plants, animals, men, mountains and valleys, sun and moon, wind, water, and fire), or man-made things (like houses, boats, or cars), or even abstract forms (like numbers, or the triangle, the square, and the circle). In fact, the whole cosmos is a potential symbol.” (Carl Gustav Jung, Man and His Symbols, 1964)
The Borobodur monument is a symbolic structure that represents certain fundamental concepts of Buddhist philosophy about the nature of cosmos, The very dynamics of the cosmos are expressed in the tensions of the conflict between good and evil rather than in an ultimate resolution which never takes place


Geometry and its Application


In Hindu thought, number is considered an expression of the structure of the universe and a means of effecting the interplay between the universe and man . When numbers are given shape and form, geometry comes into play. The existence of the phenomenon of self similarity in the natural world has

been observed and known since antiquity, but its mathematical understanding and the process of arriving at it began with Mandelbrot’s work in 19776
The geometrical basis of the Hindu Temple plan -Vastu Purush Mandala, is the result of fractal iterations. The hidden fields of forces within the square where each side of the square applies force towards the centre. Thus increasing the number of squares in a Mandala helps the diagram to contain the (cosmic) energies more concretely where the field of forces is increased in a fractal manner. These restored energies in the Mandala radiate outwards to the physical world eternally from the centre. With time, the final shape of Mandala turns into a complex matrix through various transitional stages. The well-controlled zigzag plan of the temple creates the vertical visual rhythm, accentuated in the elevation through its sharp recessions and projections, whereas the horizontal friezes on the elevation create the horizontal rhythmic growth upward (Md Rian I, et. al., 2007). In the shikhara, the amalgamation of the form of lotus the circle depicts the endless cycles, of time the wholeness and the consciousness due to its never-ending shape. Each iteration starts from the intersection between a side of the diagonal square and the last iterated line, and stops at the intersection between grid line and the circle. This iteration stops at the corners of the square. Hindu cosmology, manifested in the plan of Hindu temple two dimensionally, was also manifested in its elevation but three dimensionally and more symbolically. Looking at a well known and well researched Shiva temple of India, the Kandaria Mahadev Temple, Khajuraho, in the light of the previous discussion, it is brought about superficially, that these Hindu temples confirm to the idea which is a beautiful combination of the religious faith, geometrical achievements, understanding of human comfort and aesthetics, how human beings perceive (psychology), fractal geometry and its concept, knowledge of cosmology and its philosophy, and most importantly, symbolism.
Fractal geometry comes in to help understand, decipher and interpret the temple in its magnificence. Buildings satisfying certain rules are sub-consciously perceived as sharing essential qualities with natural and biological forms , and as a consequence, they appear more comfortable psychologically . From a study of natural entities Salingaros concludes that the scaling relationship between these elements should obey the ration of 2.7, to be aesthetically pleasing . Scaling coherence, which is the



basis of fractal geometry, is a major feature of Temple Architecture . The ratio of 2.7 walks along the lines of fractal geometry and supports the argument. It becomes evident that the various relationships established, through fractal geometry, are not manifested with similar physical appearances, but similar aesthetic appeal. This is because the algorithm or process used to develop the physical arrangement is similar.
The need to relate all these streams of thought and study is to be able to demonstrate that even though the integrated whole doesn’t form a part of imparted knowledge of a person, the concept and idea manifested, does impact the human mind in the way discussed above. This fact is due to the philosophical connotations of the various strategies and tactics employed in its construction, which meets not only the human eyes but the intellect, and touches it deeply. Samit Datta advocated that the primitive, but beautifully complex, and satisfying form of these temples has been arrived at; not through the use of complex computer algorithms, generative of structures; but by intuitive processes, giving a fair idea of human intrinsic affiliations, satisfying intellectual needs. It is estimated that, had fractal geometry not been used in the physical manifestation of the temple philosophy, it would have been difficult to impart the knowledge intended by temple construction.


Every element in the temple structure, the prasada, the shikhara, the finial, the sculpture on the exterior and interior walls, the jagged plan form and the appearance in totality, take help of fractal geometry; within the perceivable scales; to promote their idea and concept. The implementation of fractal geometry ensures that the underlying structure resemble the structure found in nature and hence provides the temple with its aesthetic appeal. It has been noticed that, not only does the physical manifestation follow the principles of fractal geometry, but also the idea of construction, i.e., the concept of the temple and its philosophy, is akin to the concept ofractal geometry and fractal progression. This, points towards the conception that even though the formal theory of fractals had not been developed; like today; at the time of temple construction, the concept existed in the minds of the priest and sthapaty. This concept is in tune with the cosmological and philosophical theory attested by the temple structure. This attempt has been directed, not so much, towards creation, or recreation, of a temple form, but focus has been on the process for arriving at these forms.

An analysis of the cosmological and philosophical requirements of the temple structure aims to fulfil symbolically, alongside the theory of fractals. Fractals play a mediatory role in the theoretical application, of the relationship of the philosophical concept and the physical manifestation of a Hindu temple. 7
From its early origins to the tenth century, the Hindu temple embodied a progressive elaboration of a simple formal schema based on a cuboidal sanctum and a solid form of distinctive curvature. Pointed out Prof. S.Datta. The architectural form of the temple was the subject of wide experimentation, based on canonical sacred texts, within the regional schools of temple building in the Indian subcontinent. This paper investigates the practice of this knowledge in the constructive geometry of temple superstructures, with attention focused on the canonical rules for deriving the planar profile of a temple using a mandala (proportional grid) and the curvature of the sikhara (superstructure) using a rekha sutra (curve measure).

Using a computational reconstruction he develops a mathematical formulation of the superstructure form and a detailed three-dimensional reconstruction of a tenth-century superstructure, Through these reconstructions, a more complete explanation is provided of the architectural thinking underlying superstructure form and temple ornamentation. This inquiry raises a broader question that merits further exploration and dialogue. Considering the philosophical and mathematical concepts revealed by this method of reconstruction, were ancient Hindu temple builders grappling with a method for encoding a notion of infinity through their use of geometric sequences? 8 In another paper the visual complexity in the temple forms of Pallava Architecture is mainly created by repetition of architectural elements in the Vimana-like Sala and Kuta in an orderly way in diminishing scale . In the south indian temple architecture (Dravidian Style) the superstructure of the vimana or its several storeys are set with small temple shapes, Similar to the originalshape. The smaller shapes are aligned in a definite pattern at each horizontal level, the repetition ofthese shapes at each band forming a kind of garland at each level. The repetition of identical shapeseither in the vertical or in the horizontal or vertically as well as horizontally, is another frequently used procedure to add visual complexity to the temple form. The same pattern of design can be observed in the Borobodur edifice.9



Unlike other temples, built on a flat surface, Borobudur sits on a bedrock hill, 265 m (869 ft) above sea level and 15 m (49 ft) above the floor of the dried-out paleolake. Lotus flowers appear in almost every Buddhist work of art, often serving as a throne for buddhas and base for stupas. The architecture of Borobudur itself suggests a lotus depiction, in which Buddha postures in Borobudur symbolize the Lotus Sutra, mostly found in many Mahayana Buddhism (a school of Buddhism widely spread in southeast and east Asia regions) texts. Three circular platforms on the top have been thought to represent a lotus leaf.[In every part of the world the landscape has its own distinctive appearance, shaped both by the forces of nature and the design of mankind. To the natural scene - mountains, hills, plains, barren deserts or lush forests - human beings contribute architectural features of many kinds: mud huts, magnificent pyramids, soaring church spires or the modern clusters of skyscrapers. Since its beginnings in India, Buddhism has spread over an area extending from the deserts of Central Asia in the west to the islands of Japan in the east, and from the icy regions of Tibet in the north to the sundrenched tropical island of Sri Lanka in the south. The natural features of all these regions are very different, and so are their architectural features. But wherever you travel throughout this vast area, there is one type of architectural monument which is everywhere; whether on bleak mountain tops, in pleasant valleys, in the midst of vast plains, or even by the seashore. This ubiquitous Buddhist monument is the stupa. There is an interesting legend behind the origin of the stupa. The ancient text 'Maha-parinibbana Sutta' tells us that it was the Buddha himself who outlined the basic design of the stupa. The story begins at Buddha's deathbed. When he realized that death was imminent, Buddha gave instructions about the disposition of his body. He said that his body should be cremated, and the relics divided up and enclosed in four different monuments. These monuments were to be erected at the following places, marking important milestones in the Buddha's spiritual journey: 1). Lumbini: The place of Buddha's birth. 2). Bodhgaya: Where the Buddha attained enlightenment under the bodhi tree. 3). Sarnath: Where he gave his first teaching. 4). Kushinagar: Place of Buddha's death (parinirvana) His intrigued disciples naturally asked what form this monument should take. In reply the Buddha did not say anything, but gave a practical demonstration. He took his outer yellow robe folded it in two and two until it formed a rough cube. Then he took his begging-bowl, which of course was round, turned it upside down, and put it on top of the robes. 'Make the stupa like this,' he said. Indeed till today, whatever its geographical location, the basic form of the stupa retains this elemental character.



Fundamentally, a stupa is essentially made up of the following five constituents: a). A square base b). A hemispherical dome c). A conical spire d). A crescent moon e). A circular disc Each of these components is rich in metaphoric content and is identified with one of the five cosmic elements said to make up the entire manifested existence. These are earth, water, fire, air and space. Square Base: This symbolizes the element earth. The phenomenal world spreads out in the four directions and the square with its four sides is an appropriate metaphor for the same. These four directions define the earth and bind it in order. Hence the square is the perfect symbol to denote the terrestrial world. Often a stupa would have four gates, one for each direction, and various deities protecting the specific directions would stand guard over them. The Hemispherical Dome: The main mass of the classical form of the stupa consists of a solid, hemispherical dome.

Early Buddhist texts refer to this as the garbha, meaning 'womb' or 'container.' With this reference the stupa as a whole is called the 'dhatu-garbha.' Dhatu is Sanskrit for element. Herein lies the derivation of the word 'dagoba,' which is the short form of dhatugarbha and which is the most usual designation of the stupa in Sri Lanka. Thus this section of a stupa is an allusion to the primordial, creative waters. Indeed in all the major cosmologies, life arose from the archetypal waters, a female symbol of formless potentiality. The dome by virtue of representing the womb from which issues all manifested existence signifies this creative matrix. In a beautiful ritual of devotion, the hemisphere of the stupa is identified with the golden cosmic egg of Yogic thought called 'Hiranyagarbha.' Hiranya is Sanskrit for golden and garbha, as mentioned above, means womb. According to Vedic cosmology, this golden womb was the nucleus from which all creation evolved. As a matter of fact it was often the practice to carve small recesses in the curved wall of the stupa to hold rows of oil lamps, so that the whole mound may be illuminated at night. The effect was to render the abstract concept of the golden womb or egg into a visible reality. The dome is a symbol of both the womb and the tomb. According to Buddhist thought, before we are invested with a material body our souls are free and fully alive in the spiritual world. Our physical conception in the womb follows our death in the spiritual realm. The womb is thus the symbol of the tomb. This is the metaphysical counterpart of the historical view that the stupa evolved out of the ancient funerary mound. In this context the stupa is often referred to as the 'chaitya,' a word which is derived from the Sanskrit word for funeral pyre 'chita.' The Conical Spire: This signifies the element of fire. Fire, of course, always rises upwards. When we kindle a fire it never burns downwards but always goes straight up. So fire symbolizes energy ascending upwards. It represents wisdom which burns away all ignorance. The Crescent



Moon: This denotes the element of air. Air has the capacity to expand. The female of the species shares this property with air. This is exemplified in the expansion of a pregnant woman. Indeed the crescent moon is an ancient symbol denoting femininity since the waxing and waning of the moon is said to mirror a woman's menstrual cycle. The Circle: The perfect shape of the circle expresses wholeness and totality. It represents the principle which has no end or beginning. It thus signifies the element of space. Finally crowning the apex of the stupa is a jewel like shape. This surmounts all the five elements and hence expresses a higher state of reality than that characterized by these elements. This protruding jewel is found not only on top of stupas but also crowns the heads of Buddha-images of all countries and all periods. This is the ushnisha which sometimes looks like a flame springing from Buddha's head, and sometimes like a lotus bud growing there. This protuberance signifies the Highest Reality, namely the Enlightenment of the Great Buddha himself. Hence in a sense, the journey to the stupa's top is a process of spiritual ascension, where the jewel lying at the end of the quest is Nirvana itself. The identification of the highest point in the stupa with the highest point in Buddha's image leads us to ponder as to whether a more deeper correspondence can be established between the stupa and Buddha's physical body. According to Yogic thought, the five elements are correlated with the five psychic centers within the human body. This correlation is as follows:


1). The earth (prithvi) is the lowest psychic center. This is located between the feet and the knees.

2). Water (apas) lies between the knees and the anus.

3). Fire (agni) lies between the anus and the heart.

4). Air (vayu) lies between the heart and the middle of the eyebrows.

5). Space (akasha) lies between the middle of the eyebrows to the top of the head.


Sahasrara chakra:Finally above the head is the final seat of enlightenment. This is identified with the Sahasrara chakra, which is said to be the seat of pure consciousness or ultimate bliss. This is the Buddha' s ushnisha. According to the principles of yoga, our composite selves are made of two superimposing constituents. These are the physical self, known as the gross body, and the other is the higher self, which is the microcosm of the universe, known as the subtle body. The subtle and the gross bodies are both analogues of each other. We have seen above how the subtle body is presented

in the stupa. The Buddha's physical form too finds an echo in the stupa. In such a visualization, the base is Buddha's legs, the dome is his torso, and to represent the head a second cubical structure is added between the dome and the spire. This cube known as the harmika is exactly at the place where Buddha's eyes should be. This can be seen in the typical stupas of Nepal where, on each side of the harmika, a pair of eyes is painted. Conclusion There is an amusing story told about an old man who had led a rather negative and unhelpful life, marked by constant conflicts over petty matters. Nevertheless, he wanted to become a monk for good luck. The head monks, however hard they tried, were having difficulty ordaining him, since tradition decreed that a prospective candidate for priesthood need to have performed at least one good deed. Mobilizing all their clairvoyant powers and searching even his former lives, they could find no good deed. Not wanting to give up, the compassionate monks then took him to see the Buddha himself. Now the Buddha's power of clairvoyance was far more powerful than even the most saintliest of his followers. Looking back the man's many, many lifetimes the Buddha finally said, 'Ah! It's all right, you can ordain him - I've found something good in his past.' 'What is it?' they enquired. The Buddha replied, 'Long ago, he was reborn as an ant, and he came with his clan to the great stupa of Bodhnath (Nepal), where some people had gathered to pay homage to the monument. At the moment when the head of the family began his pious circumambulations, our man here was crawling across his boot, trying to get more crumbs. He was able to hang on to the boot while the pilgrim made it three times around the stupa! This was a meritorious deed, good enough to gain a monkhood for him.' In the traditional view, a building needs to satisfy both the physical and metaphysical needs of man. As an expression of artistic intent, it will elaborate upon the manner in which phenomenal world relates to the spiritual one. Architecture being by nature three-dimensional is eminently suitable to act as a metaphor, since any construct is bound to be rooted in the phenomenal world, and then must begin the ascent to the Higher levels. The stupa by virtue of being the monument of Buddha's choice is deemed especially sacred as exemplified in the above story. The spiritual merit of this monument is enhanced no less by it being a reflection of the Cosmic Man, visualized in the ideals of Yoga, who resides in each of us.


Early stupas


Before Buddhism, great teachers were buried in mounds. Some were cremated, but sometimes they were buried in a seated, meditative position. The mound of earth covered them up. Thus, the domed shape of the stupa came to represent a person seated in meditation much as the Buddha was when he achieved Enlightenment and knowledge of the Four Noble Truths. The base of the stupa represents his

crossed legs as he sat in a meditative pose (called padmasana or the lotus position). The middle portion is the Buddha’s body and the top of the mound, where a pole rises from the apex surrounded by a small fence, represents his head. Before images of the human Buddha were created, reliefs often depicted practitioners demonstrating devotion to a stupa. The ashes of the Buddha were buried in stupas built at locations associated with important events in the Buddha’s life including Lumbini (where he was born), Bodh Gaya (where he achieved Enlightenment), Deer Park at Sarnath (where he preached his first sermon sharing the Four Noble Truths (also called the dharma or the law), and Kushingara (where he died). The choice of these sites and others were based on both real and legendary events.The stupa (“stupa” is Sanskrit for heap) is an important form of Buddhist architecture, though it predates Buddhism. It is generally considered to be a sepulchral monument—a place of burial or a receptacle for religious objects. At its simplest, a stupa is a dirt burial mound faced with stone. In Buddhism, the earliest stupas contained portions of the Buddha’s ashes, and as a result, the stupa began to be associated with the body of the Buddha. Adding the Buddha’s ashes to the mound of dirt activated it with the energy of the Buddha himself. "Stupa of Heaped Lotuses" or "Birth of the Sugata Stupa"refers to the birth of Gautama Buddha when it is said he took seven steps in each of the four directions" (East, South, West and North). In each direction lotuses sprang, symbolizing the brahmavih?ras: love, compassion, joy and equanimity. The four steps of the basis of this stupa is circular, and it is decorated with lotus-petal designs. Occasionally, seven heaped lotus steps are constructed. These refer to the seven first steps of the Buddha.


This stupa is not just a souvenir for decoration. It has been also designed for ritual purpose: there is empty space inside to be filled with mantras and other substances. We tend to think of a mandala (?????) as a graphic pattern, though the Sanskrit derivation of the word is from the ‘cycles’ or ‘circles’ (ie ‘sections’ or ‘books’) of the Rig Veda. The Vedas were hymns recited on ritual occasions. Mandala patterns were developed to symbolise the rituals and the ideas underying the rituals. Buddhists took on the idea from Hindus and used mandala patterns in the design of stupas (chortens), tankas and many other things. Used in this way, a mandala symbolises the geography of the cosmos. Early mandala patterns had a lotus flower with open petals and the Buddha at its centre. Circles and squares were added and a mandala came to represent the four material


elements of the universe (earth, water, fire, wind) with Mount sumeru as the world axis. Energy moves in a cosmic dance from the centre to the periphery, and then back to the centre, encompassing inanimate and living things.
Buddhist Chinese and Japanese gardens are also mandalas. The word ‘Pagoda’ derives from ‘stupa’ and these gardens symbolise the cosmos, with the temple as a house for a Buddha. In later Chinese gardens temples evolved into garden pavilions for the delight of their owners. Structure of Chorten
The shape of the Stupa represents Buddha with a crown who is seated in a posture of meditation on a lion throne. The top of the spire, with the well-known ‘twin-symbol’ uniting the sun and moon, is the crown, the square at the spire’s base is his head, the vase shape symbolizes his body, the steps (four) of the lower terrace are his legs while the square foundation base is his throne.


Types of Chortens


In Tibetan Buddhism, there a

re eight different kinds of chortens, each signifying a major event in the life of Buddha Shakyamuni.


1. Lotus Blossom Stupa
The Lotus Blossom Stupa, also known as Stupa of Heaped Lotuses, represents the birth of Buddha. It is said that at the time of his birth, he took seven steps in all four directions signifying love, joy, compassion, and equality. This chorten generally has four circular steps at the base and is decorated with designs of lotus petals.


2. Enlightenment Stupa


Also termed as Stupa of the Conquest of Mara, this stupa signifies the time when Buddha under the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya attained enlightenment. It is said that the demon Mara tried to tempt and attack him, but Buddha come out the conqueror.


3. Stupa of Many Doors or Gates


Buddha then preached his teachings to his followers near Sarnath. The doors on this monument signify the opening of the doors to Dharma and point to the teachings: Four Noble Truths, Noble Eightfold Path, Twelve Links in the Chain of Dependent Origination, and Six Perfections.


4. Stupa Of Descent From The God Realm


When Bhudda’s mother was reincarnated in another realm, he went there to teach her Dharma. This chorten consists of a ladder on each side and commemorates the return of Bhudda back to earth. 5. Stupa of Great Miracles or Stupa of Conquest of the Tirthikas When Buddha was 50 years old, he performed various miracles to prove his spirituality and even overpowered several demons.


6. Stupa of Reconciliation


This octagonal chorten honours Buddha’s efforts in solving a conflict among his monastic followers. It was built in the kingdom of Magadha where the conflict resolution took place.


7. Stupa of Complete Victory


This chorten has only three circular steps which are undecorated. It honors Buddha’s extension of his life by three months when his followers pleaded him to stay.


8. Stupa of Nirvana


The Nirvana chorten represents Buddha’s death and him achieving a state of true peace. This monument is undecorated and appears to be bell-shaped.
The ninth-century world-heritage Buddhist monument of Borobudur (Java, Indonesia) stands above the floor of a dried-out palaeolake, but it remains uncertain as to whether it was ever constructed on a lake shore. Here we reveal through new chronological and palaeoenvironmental data on the extant sediment record of the area that Borobudur intentionally stood by an existing lake. For the first time, evidence of this conjunction validates quite literally the debated cosmological interpretation of the edifice as an aquatic lotus symbol upon which Buddha is seated. The fluctuating life history of the lake spanned at least 20 000 years.



R E F E R E N C E


1.Symbolism in Hindu Temple Architecture and Fractal Geometry – ‘Thought Behind Form’ Tanisha Dutta – PhD Research Scholar, Department of Architecture and Planning, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), Nagpur, India
Vinayak S. Adane – Professor, Department of Architecture and Planning, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), Nagpur, India



1. The Fractal Structure of Hindu Temples,byBhavika
https://fractalenlightenment.com/14556/fractals/the-fractal-structure-of-hindu-temples 2. Aesthetics of Asian Art and Design,Kirti Trivedi, Bloomsbury Academic, 2018

3. Architecture, Mysticism and Myth,W. R. Lethaby,Cosimo, Inc., 2005

4. Cultural Messages of the Borobudur Temple’s Symbols Seen from Aerial Photography Media, 2013, Ade Dani Setiawan ,
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286166143_Cultural_Messages_of_the_Borobudur_Te mple's_Symbols_Seen_from_Aerial_Photography_Media

5. Mandelbrot, B. B., Fractals: Form, Chance, and Dimension. San Francisco. W. H. Freeman and Company. 1977.

6. Symbolism in Hindu Temple Architecture and Fractal Geometry - 'Thought Behind Form' Tanisha Dutta1 , Vinayak S. Adane, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)2012

7. Infinite Sequences in the Constructive Geometry Of Tenth-Century Hindu Temple Superstructures, Sambit Datta School of Architecture and Building Deakin University 1, Gheringhap Street Geelong VIC 3219 AUSTRALIA


8. T h e V i s u a l C o m p l e x i t y i n t h e T e m p l e f o r m s o f P a l l a v a
A r c h i t e c t u r , Jaikumar Ranganathan Dr.G.SubbaiyanPh D Research Scholar https://www.academia.edu/37140454/The_Visual_Complexity_in_the_Temple_forms_of_Pallava_Ar chitecture


9. Borobudur monument (Java, Indonesia) stood by a natural lake: chronostratigraphic evidence and historical implications,H. Murwanto, Y. Gunnell, S. Suharsono, 2004 Researchgate, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1191/0959683604hl721rr



The Borobodur Temple as a MANDALA



Empires such as Bagan, Ayutthaya, Champa, Khmer, Srivijaya and Majapahit are known as "mandala" in this sense. Our temple is the second largest Buddhist temple in the world after Angkor Wat. Constructors erected this monument in the shape of a mandala and an opening Lotus flower on a square base (118 x 118 m) that smoothly turns into a circle.1



Borobudur has eight tiers: the five lower ones are square, whereas the three upper ones are round. The shape of the building itself resembles a mandala and represents a scheme of the universe according to Buddhist beliefs, where heaven and earth are united. On the upper tier there are 72 small stupas around a big central stupa. Every stupa is bell-shaped. Inside the stupas, there are Buddha statues. The temple complex contains 1,460 bas-reliefs with religious motifs. Relief panels describe the world of passions and the world of human perceptional development. Gradually ascending the helical serpentine road, a traveller perceives the world of matter and reaches the spiritual world.


The temple structure may be divided into three components:

? the temple base,

? the temple summit.

? the temple body,


The temple base is 118 x 118 m in width and 4 m in height. It is made of smooth plates with three tiers and 20 corners. The temple body consists of five square platforms-tiers: the higher one ascends the smaller every next tier is. The very first platform of the “monument body” is located 7 metres away from the edge of the base. Every subsequent platform is shifted 2 metres relative to the previous platform. The temple summit consists of three rounded platforms, on which 72 small stupas and the main stupa in the centre are installed. The central stupa is the highest point of the monument, towering 35 metres above the temple foot. It represents a bell-shaped stupa, 7 metres in height, topping the huge pyramid.


1.The lowest level of the temple complex, called Kamadhatu, represents the world of passions. 160 images of sensory manifestations have not been preserved to nowadays – we know about the existence of those from ancient manuscripts only.


2.The second level – the five tiers called Rupadhatu – symbolizes the real world and contains religious themes. The entire history of Buddhism is reflected in sculptures and bas-reliefs. Here, there are 432 Buddha statues: 104 on the first and second terraces (each), 88 on the third terrace, 72 on the fourth, and 64 on the fifth.



3.The remarkable beauty is completed by the three upper rounded terraces. This is the Arupadhatu level. There are 32 stupas on the lowest terrace, 24 on the middle, and 16 on the upper. A naturalsized statue of Buddha is inside each of the stupas. The largest stupa – the symbol of eternity – finishes the building.
32+24+16 = 72: an interesting interpretation of the structure of the world.


10 th: The most interesting is the secret of the “tenth terrace”. It was discovered totally accidentally that bas-reliefs are carved under the ground on Borobudur base walls, just like on the six lower terraces of the stupa. About 1,500 square metres of valuable bas-reliefs have turned to be hidden under the ground. The lower tier of the bas-relief describes the afterlife, and we can assume this was the reason why human eyes were not supposed to see it. An enormous piece of work was deliberately concealed from people, since only all-seeing deities could admire the bas-reliefs.


There is an assumption that Borobudur was constructed in a shape of Buddha sitting on a Lotus flower. In 1949 geologists discovered deposits that were interpreted as the bottom of a lake. There is a

probability that the temple complex was located on a lake. By the constructors’ plan, the entire magnificence of the temple was above the lake surface, and Buddha statue crowned the entire structure.
Buddhist monks who were building Borobudur implemented the idea of “a bible in stone”, having left the knowledge to descendants for many centuries. Images on the walls told about Buddha’s life. Following the way along the galleries, a person approached enlightenment. In order to read this textbook in stone, one needed to cover almost 5 km. Visitors covered the way to the very top of the temple, moving clockwise through all the eight tiers. Every platform represents a stage of education on the way of transition from the earthly plane to the heavenly plane.


Biggest Mandala in the world


Borobudur is biggest Mandala in the world, when You see from sky You can see the Mandala, if You see further, You can see 3 Temple in one straight line ( Mendut Temple, Pawon Temple and Borobudur Temple ) betwen that, there is Elo river and Progo river and it was built at 8th century Thus, most likely the architecture of the Borobudur is based on a Javanese variant of Buddhism, for if we look at the decoration in greater detail we obviously can confirm that its origin is based on Indian mythology and Buddhist iconography, however, we can also clearly see how these fundamental elements have been strongly combined with local (that is, Javanese) influences. The style in which the characters are depicted on the Borobudur differ greatly from the traditional Indian (Buddhist) iconography. The statues are depicted in other bodily postures, and with less refined details as they have in India; the Javanese obviously had a different idea of physical beauty and how this ought to be depicted, and that’s why on the Borobudur the voluptuous curves of the body as familiar in Indian iconography are altered according to local Javanese perception of beauty (by which the female body is dressed in more clothes, and often can only be distinguished from the male body by the curves of their breasts).



If we consider the assumption of the Borobudur representing a ma??ala, then the main st?pa signifies the final destination of the spiritual path, which is situated in the center of the cosmos. At this point one becomes united with the five transcendental Buddhas of the Formless Realm: Vairocana in the center, Ak?obhya in the East, Ratnasambh?va in the South, Amit?bha in the West, and Amoghasiddhi in the North. This particular line-up corresponds with the Vajradh?tu Ma??ala and the Garbhadh?tu Ma??ala in Tibet and Nepal. One could gain access to the center of the cosmos by entering the ma??ala from the outside, and gradually moving further inwards. In this context, a ma??ala can be interpreted as a palace with four entrance gates at the four cardinal points of the Universe, stretching the entire cosmos. The palace is a metaphor for human manifestation in this world, which, by means of using the ma??ala as a meditation object, guides the practitioner to the ultimate (spiritual) goal in life. Visualization techniques such as these are still being practised in Vajray?na Buddhism today.


Though the assumption of the Borobudur as a ma??ala seems possible, this view remains yet impossible to prove. In spite of the previously mentioned similarities with the ma??alas, there are, however, also many differences. Beside the five transcendental Buddhas many other deities – both male and female – are often seen depicted in ma??alas. However, neither of these deities can be found on the Borobudur. Instead we do find many other depicted Buddhas on the Borobudur, but these do not display any of the features similar to other male or female deities. Thus, the other Buddhas do not function as a mere substitution for the various other deities (like guards, gatekeepers, goddesses of worship or Taras) commonly seen in ma??alas. Therefore, we may assume, that, as already had been suggested, the Borobudur displays a variant of Buddhism in the way it manifested in Java at the time of the reign of the Sailendra dynasty. This particular local variant of Buddhism was based on Indian influences and Mah?y?na Buddhism, which came to Java from China during the heydays of the Tang dynasty (618-906). The unique combination of these aspects would eventually become the Buddhism of Java. Then there also was the Hindu dynasty of Sanjaya that ruled on Java during the same period of the Sailendra dynasty. The fact that the Sanjaya shared their power with the Sailendra dynasty – for example, through donations for the construction of the Kalasan temple – illustrates, that, apart from its religious function, the Borobudur also formed an important expression of power.3



The role of royal patronage and religious institution


The Borobudur monument combines the symbolic forms of the stupa (a Buddhist commemorative mound usually containing holy relics), the temple mountain (based on Mount Meru of Hindu mythology), and the mandala (a mystic Buddhist symbol of the universe, combining the square as earth and the circle as heaven). The style of Borobudur was influenced by Indian Gupta and post- Gupta art.In all the regions of Southeast Asia, the arts flourished under the patronage of the kings. About the time of the birth of Christ, tribal groups gradually organized themselves, after some years of settled life as rice cultivators, into city-kingdoms, or conglomerations of villages. A king was thus little more than a paramount tribal chieftain. Since the tribes had been accustomed to worshiping local spirits, the kings sought a new spirit that would be worshiped by the whole community. One reason that the gods of Hinduism and Buddhism were so readily acceptable to Southeast Asia was this need for new national gods. The propagation of the new religions was the task of the kings, and consequently the period from the 1st to the 13th century was a great age of temple building all over Southeast Asia.

Architecture, sculpture, and painting on the temple walls were the arts that flourished. In the ancient empires of eastern Indochina and the islands, scholars of Sanskrit, the language of the sacred works of Hinduism, became part of the king’s court, producing a local Sanskrit literature of their own. This literary activity was confined to the hereditary nobility and never reached the people, except in stories from the great Hindu epics Mahabharata and Ramayana. Because the Hindu religious writings in Sanskrit were beyond the reach of the common people, Hinduism had to be explained to them by Hindu stories of gods and demons and mighty men. On the other side of the peninsula, in the Pyu- Burmese empire of Prome, which flourished before the 8th century, there was no such development— first, because Hinduism was never widely accepted in Burma and, second, because the more open Burmese society developed neither the institution of a god-king nor that of a hereditary nobility. Although Pali scholars surrounded the king in later Pagan, Pali studies were pursued not at the court but at monasteries throughout the kingdom so that even the humblest villager had some faint contact with Pali teachings. While the courts of the kings in Cambodia and Java remained merely local centres of Sanskrit scholarship, Pagan became a centre of Pali learning for Buddhist monks and scholars even from other lands. As in the case of stories from the Indian epics, stories of the Jatakas



(birth stories of the Buddha) were used to explain Buddhism to the common people, who could not read the scriptures written in Pali. Just as scenes from the great epics in carving or in fresco adorned the temples in Cambodia and Java, scenes from the Jatakas adorned the Pagan temples. .
The patronage of the king and the religious enthusiasm of the common people could not have produced the great temples without the enormous wealth that suddenly became available in the region following the commercial expansion. With the Khmer and Javanese empires, the wealth was produced by a feudalistic society, and so the temples were built by the riches of the king and his nobles, combined with the compulsory labour of their peasants and slaves, who probably derived some aesthetic pleasure from their work because of their religious fervour. Nonetheless, their monuments, such as Borobudur, in Java, and Angkor Wat, in Cambodia, had an atmosphere of massive, allconquering power. At Pagan, where wealth was shared by the king, the royal officials, and the common people, the temples and the monasteries were built by all who had enough not only to pay the artisans their wages but also to guarantee their good health, comfort, and safety during the actual construction. The temples were dedicated for use by all monks and lay people as places of worship, meditation, and study, and the kings of Pagan did not build a single tomb for themselves. The Khmer temple of Angkor Wat and the Indonesian temple of Borobudur were tombs in that the ashes of the builders would be enshrined therein; the kings left stone statues representing them as gods for posterity to worship, whereas at Pagan there was only one statue of a king, and it depicted him on his knees with his hands raised in supplication to the Buddha. Consequently, the atmosphere that pervaded the temples of Pagan was one of joy and tranquillity. The mandala is likened by some to a "floor plan of the universe." The type most familiar in the West is an intricately patterned painting on cloth or paper that often takes the general form of a circle within a square.

The word "mandala" comes from the Sanskrit verbal root "mand" (meaning to mark off, decorate, set off) and the Sanskrit suffix "la" (meaning circle, essence, sacred center). The mandala's symbolic power can be traced back to millennia-old roots in Indian temple architecture, which created sacred spaces linking the worshiper to the larger cosmos. In these temples, time and space were represented in a vocabulary of circles and squares. Similarly, a mandala helps believers visualize the universe and their place in it, often in relation to a specific deity found in the center of


the image.
the evolution of the symbol has happened throughout Asia under the influence of various religious and artistic traditions over a period of several thousand years-some complex; others quite simple offerering proof of the continuing vitality of the mandala and its role in Buddhist devotions. The mandala is of significant importance in both Hinduism and Buddhism. Both religions adopt the mandala as a peaceful and creative symbol. Hence, the speculative project finds a balance to build a memorial, which will signify peace and harmony of the Tamil community. The scale of the mandala here is monumental imposing the idea of spirituality and peace. Contemplating the mandala does not only provide insight into reality, the Cosmos but also communion with it. Mandala is the mystery that pervades all existence. Mandala alleviates suffering individually as well as in society. Contemplation can help overcome antagonism, conflict, stress and even war. Bindu as a symbolism is the beginning of the process that culminates into a mandala. In Buddhism, the mandala is a ritual instrument, much like a mantra, used to assist meditation and concentration. Throughout history, these pictorial temples--intricate, two-dimensional, multi-colored patterns


of concentric circles, squares, and other shapes--have signified the human need for wholeness, order, and balance. But while many people of the West accept mandalas as representative of a cosmic force, few understand they are meant to be blueprints as well. Indeed, a Tantric Buddhist meditator studies a two-dimensional mandala like an architect, building up in his mind the image of a palace encompassing the sacred principles of Buddhist philosophy. MANDALA AND BUDDHIST TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE
The mandala in Buddhism is a cosmic model depicting Buddha’s dwelling place as the center of the universe. Like in the Hindu temples, the structuring of the Buddhist temples has also been predominantly based on the spiritual model of the mandala. Illustrations can be seen both in the form of two-dimensional mandalas as well as three-dimensional mandalas. The two-dimensional mandalas which are drawings composed of squares and concentric circles could be temporarily painted on various material or drawn on the ground or sand or other natural substances using coloured powder. Customs involving ceremonious gatherings along with prayers and chantings while drawing the


mandalas are believed to alleviate difficulties and be of greater good to an individual or a community. These ceremonies could even last up to a number of days. Three-dimensionally, the mandala diagram becomes a visual model of the built environment. In the Buddhist worship place, the central space is significant having a statue of the Buddha fronted by a worshipping space surrounded by walls. This is encircled by a circumambulating space. The circumambulation pathway is a space of psychological awakening before reaching the spiritual pinnacle


MANDALA AND HINDU TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE


Although there have been various arguments by authors of Indian temple architecture like Stella Kramrisch and Michael W. Meister about the applicability of the Vastu Purusha Mandala as a governing device for temple architecture, it is safe to say that for formulating the layout of the temple, the Vastu Purusha Mandala has been an imperative tool. Though the 8 x 8 grid or the Manduka Vastu Mandala has been used in various temples of Indian architecture, it is to be noted that regional differences have played a major influence on the workability of the mandala design throughout India. Customarily, mandalas were spaces for the symbolic consciousness of universal theories which help in the awakening of the individual psyche. The mandalas can be thought of as diagrams that function as a cue to reach a contemplational state which is the primary aim of the tradition. The form of the temples that are based on the regulating lines of the mandala were meant to create spaces that bring about a “physical and spatial” communion between God and man.

A mandala (emphasis on first syllable; Sanskrit ?????, ma??ala – literally "circle") is a geometric configuration of symbols with a very different application. In various spiritual traditions, mandalas may be employed for focusing attention of practitioners and adepts, as a spiritual guidance tool, for establishing a sacred space and as an aid to meditation and trance induction. It is used as a map (in Shintoism) in the Indian religions of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism or Japanese religion of Shintoism representing deities, or in the case of Shintoism, paradises, kami or actual shrines. In New Age, the mandala is a diagram, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos metaphysically or symbolically; a time-microcosm of the universe, but it originally meant to represent wholeness and a model for the organizational structure of life itself, a cosmic diagram that shows the relation to the infinite and the world that extends beyond and within minds and bodies.


he basic form of hinduism mandalas is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point and it is called also a yantra. Each gate is in the general shape of a T. Mandalas often have radial balance.
A yantra is similar to a mandala, usually smaller and using a more limited colour palette. It may be a two- or three-dimensional geometric composition used in sadhanas, puja or meditative rituals, and may incorporate a mantra into its design. It is considered to represent the abode of the deity. Each yantra is unique and calls the deity into the presence of the practitioner through the elaborate symbolic geometric designs. According to one scholar, "Yantras function as revelatory symbols of cosmic truths and as instructional charts of the spiritual aspect of human experience"[5] Many situate yantras as central focus points for Hindu tantric practice. Yantras are not representations, but are lived, experiential, nondual realities. As Khanna describes: Despite its cosmic meanings a yantra is a reality lived. Because of the relationship that exists in the Tantras between the outer world (the macrocosm) and man's inner world (the microcosm), every symbol in a yantra is ambivalently resonant in inner–outer synthesis, and is associated with the subtle body and aspects of human consciousness.



Political meaning


The Rajamandala (or Raja-mandala; circle of states) was formulated by the Indian author Kautilya in his work on politics, the Arthashastra (written between 4th century BCE and 2nd century BCE). It describes circles of friendly and enemy states surrounding the king's state. In historical, social and political sense, the term "mandala" is also employed to denote traditional Southeast Asian political formations (such as federation of kingdoms or vassalized states). It was adopted by 20th century Western historians from ancient Indian political discourse as a means of avoiding the term 'state' in the conventional sense. Not only did Southeast Asian polities not conform to Chinese and European views of a territorially defined state with fixed borders and a bureaucratic apparatus, but they diverged considerably in the opposite direction: the polity was defined by its centre rather than its boundaries, and it could be composed of numerous other tributary polities without undergoing administrative integration.


Mount Meru


A mandala can also represent the entire universe, which is traditionally depicted with Mount Meru as the axis mundi in the center, surrounded by the continents. Wisdom and impermanence

In the mandala, the outer circle of fire usually symbolises wisdom. The ring of eight charnel grounds represents the Buddhist exhortation to be always mindful of death, and the impermanence with which samsara is suffused: "such locations were utilized in order to confront and to realize the transient nature of life". Described elsewhere: "within a flaming rainbow nimbus and encircled by a black ring of dorjes, the major outer ring depicts the eight great charnel grounds, to emphasize the dangerous nature of human life". Inside these rings lie the walls of the mandala palace itself, specifically a place populated by deities and Buddhas.


Five Buddhas


One well-known type of mandala is the mandala of the "Five Buddhas", archetypal Buddha forms embodying various aspects of enlightenment. Such Buddhas are depicted depending on the school of Buddhism, and even the specific purpose of the mandala. A common mandala of this type is that of the Five Wisdom Buddhas (a.k.a. Five Jinas), the


6. Buddhas Vairocana,

7. Aksobhya,

8. Ratnasambhava,

9. Amitabha and

10. Amoghasiddhi.


When paired with another mandala depicting the Five Wisdom Kings, this forms the Mandala of the Two Realms.


Practice


Mandalas are commonly used by tantric Buddhists as an aid to meditation.


The mandala is "a support for the meditating person", something to be repeatedly contemplated to the point of saturation, such that the image of the mandala becomes fully internalised in even the minutest detail and can then be summoned and contemplated at will as a clear and vivid visualized image. With every mandala comes what Tucci calls "its associated liturgy ... contained in texts known as tantras" instructing practitioners on how the mandala should be drawn, built and visualised, and indicating the mantras to be recited during its ritual use.


By visualizing "pure lands", one learns to understand experience itself as pure, and as the abode of enlightenment. The protection that we need, in this view, is from our own minds, as much as from external sources of confusion. In many tantric mandalas, this aspect of separation and protection from the outer samsaric world is depicted by "the four outer circles: the purifying fire of wisdom, the vajra circle, the circle with the eight tombs, the lotus circle". The ring of vajras forms a connected fence-like arrangement running around the perimeter of the outer mandala circle. As a meditation on impermanence (a central teaching of Buddhism), after days or weeks of creating the intricate pattern of a sand mandala, the sand is brushed together into a pile and spilled into a body of running water to spread the blessings of the mandala. External ritual and internal sadhana form an indistinguishable whole, and this unity finds its most pregnant expression in the form of the mandala, the sacred enclosure consisting of concentric squares and circles drawn on the ground and representing that adamant plane of being on which the aspirant to Buddha hood wishes to establish himself. The unfolding of the tantric ritual depends on the mandala; and where a material mandala is not employed, the adept proceeds to construct one mentally in the course of his meditation."



Conclusions:

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12. Borobudur in its base is a regular square with 118-m sides. 13. Such layout is used in meditative practices of Hinduism and Buddhism to intensify processes of inner concentration during meditation.
14. The numbers 7, 72. were applied in the temple design and construction, which evidences the availability of relevant knowledge at that time.
15. No wonder, the temple complex is under UNESCO protection, i.e. it is not available for further studies.
16. If we look at Borobudur from above, we can see it represents a complete mandala. 17. The temple has 8 tiers: 5 square and 3 round ones. On the upper tier, there is the large stupa – a bell-shaped monument with a statue of Buddha inside. 18. Borobudur is situated approximately 2,439.85 km (1,516.05 miles) away from Angkor Wat. 240
19. If we look at mutual disposition of some ancient religious sites from the North Pole, interesting correlations may be observed.
20. At the upper tier there are 72 small bell-shaped, stupa-like towers located around the big central tower.
21. Between Chandi Mendut and Borobudur there is the small Chandi Pavon – at a distance of approximately 1,150 metres away from Mendut and 1,750 metres away from Borobudur. Disposition of the structures complies with the golden ratio. A mandala and a yantra
22. Mandala in the form of a circle with an indication of a square and a point in the centre, and a foursided pyramid with six steps and fourfold division;
12. Kali Yantra (translated from Sanskrit, “kala” means “time”; this word originates from the Indo- European root that means spinning; a word that is close in its meaning in Russian is “kolo”); in Hindu mythology it means cyclical creations and destructions of the Universe, rotation of time in the concept of rebirth of the Soul and of a subject of fate.


R E F E R E N C E


1.https://rgdn.info/en/borobodur._buddiyskaya_stupa

3https://www.indomagic.com/articles/art-material-culture/architecture/architecture-of-borobudurtemple/ 242

About the Author

The author has worked for 30 years in the human resources arena in India and abroad. He was Group Vice -President of MZI Group in New Delhi and has anchored Human Relations in Go Air and Hotel Holiday Inn;was General Manager-Health Human Resources at the Lata Mangeshkar Hospital amd Medical college. Is currently Consultant to Gorewada International Zoo,Nagpur and visiting Faculty at the Central Institute of Business Management and Research, Nagpur.

In Sweden he anchored HR in Stadbolaget RENIA, SSSB and advisor to a multi millionaire. He has studied in Nagpur, India where he obtained degrees of Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Arts(Managerial Economics) and Bachelor of Laws. He has done his Graduate Studies in labour laws from Canada at the Queen's University, Kingston; a MBA from USA, and Doctorate from Stockholm University, Sweden. Apart from that he has done a Management Training Program in Singapore.
A scholar of the Swedish Institute, he has been an Edvard Cassel Fund and Wineroth Fund Awardee.A scholar for the Swedish Institute for 5 years. In 1984 he was involved with the Comparative Labour Law Project of the University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A. He was also visiting lecturer there. In 1985 he was invited by the President of Seychelles to do a study of the efficacy of the labour laws of Seychelles. Author of a book on a Swedish human resource law, his brief life sketch is part of the English study text book of 7 th Class Students in Sweden -“Studying English. SPOTLIGHT 7”- and 8 th Class students in Iceland - “SPOTLIGHT 8- Lausnir.”
BOOKS written by Dr Uday

1. Act on Co-determination at work-an efficacy study - 1990 Doctoral thesis published by Almqvist & Wiksell International, Stockholm,Sweden This is a first of a kind empirical study of both employees and business owners reactions of how efficiently a labour law was functioning in a country(Sweden).Adorns Stanford and Harvard University Libraries and granted Copyright by the Library of Congress,USA in 1990.
2. Health Human Resource Management- 2006
A to Z of the Management of health workers starting from recruitment to training, development and enhancing their efficacy. Good book for all health care institutions as well as medical and nursing staff and students. 244
3. Theme Park Human Resource Engineering- 2007 How the workers in theme parks deal with a complex environment and need to be managed in order to being out superior delivery of customer focused services helping in more footfalls at the same time not compromising on safety. 4. Project Human Resource Management- 2008
Projects are cumbersome and their