The 8th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
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Around 406 he left Lushan for the northern capital of Chang'an, where he presumably attended Kumārajīva's translation seminars of the Vimalakīrti and Saddharma-puṇḍarīka Sūtra s. Later, he wrote commentaries to both of these scriptures.
Quite unlike the Hīnayāna version, however, the Mahāyāna text preached that nirvāṇa was "permanent, joyous, personal, and pure" (Chin., chang, le, wo [!], jing ), assertions that are substantially at odds with the normative Mahāyāna teaching that the nature of nirvāṇa, like that of all dharma s, is itself empty (śūnya ) of all attributes.
More curious to Daosheng's ears, however, was the statement in Faxian's translation that the icchantika s (Chin., yichanti, beings who have cut off their roots of virtue and seek only to gratify their desires) could never attain buddhahood.