The Blazing Lights of the Sun and Moon
INTRODUCTION SPOKEN BY KPSR
This text, the Sherab Raltri, Sword of Prajña, by Mipham Rinpoche, summarizes many important points from the sutras and tantras. There are two important spontaneously written texts in which Mipham expresses his vision of Buddhist teaching. They are this1 Sword of Prajña of the Completely True Meaning, and2
The Precious Torch of Certainty. Many great masters say Mipham wrote five "sword" texts and five "lotus" texts, named for the scepters in the hands of Mañjushri. To reach enlightenment is the main purpose of this text, of course. But in particular, among the three prajñas, hearing, contemplating, and
meditating, this text focuses on contemplation. It is an overview that tells how to contemplate thoroughly what we have studied. When the Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies was established in 1967, this was the first course in the Nyingma department. The root text was written by Mipham Rinpoche at
the request of Lhagsam Tenpa Gyaltsen, a famous master in his own right. Mipham wrote a short commentary, which I studied in Tibet; but I couldn't find it or any other commentary that had been brought to India. I did have some notes that Mipham made in the text, and I used them. I started writing every day,
on the blackboard, and students would copy it down. By the end of the year the whole thing was done. Every year there would be another ten or twelve students, and the same thing would happen again. Everyone thought we should publish this, but we didn't. Later, when I was in New York, some students
wrote and asked if it could be printed, and if anything would need to be changed. When I went back to Nepal, I made some corrections and edited the text with the help of some students there. Then the Tibetan version was printed. Guru Rinpoche wrote a famous commentary on the Mañjushri-nama-sa.mgiti, called the3 Blazing Lights of the Sun and Moon. That seemed auspicious, so I adopted the title for this commentary.
Unsurpassably great and glorious former teacher, Supremely kind crown jewel of the learned and accomplished, Jetsun Mañjushri emanating in human form, Known as Jamgon Mipham Chokle Namgyal Gyamtso, Supreme in glory and goodness, producing a hundred and eight Commentaries setting forth the intended meaning Of the sutras and tantras of the Victorious One.
This treatise teaches without error the vast and profound piths of the mahayana sutras and tantras. The subject expressed is the two truths. It is expressed in terms of the four correct reasonings. The fruition is the great treasure of the eight confidences. That is the way in which this great text
was composed. This treatise, the Sword of Prajña of the Completely True Meaning is one of four very famous commentaries. It is supreme among commentaries that explain without error difficult points of words and their meanings. This commentary on the Sherab Raltri4 is entitled the Blazing Lights of the Sun
and Moon. These days the precious teachings of the Buddha in general have been harmed and diminished, particularly in Tibet, the Land of Snow, by the army of the red Chinese. In this situation, replenishing the blaze of the former teachings from the remaining embers was supremely kind. Born in Riwoche in Khams he indisputably went to the heights level of learning, discipline, and nobility. Born and remaining a glorious lord of the teachings and beings, This is Khenchen Palden Sherab, glorious, good, and excellent. It was he who composed this. In 1976, in Varanasi, when the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies was established, this text was presented to students at the institute as lectures about Khen Rinpoche's own Nyingma tradition. As no commentary on it had reached India, Khen Rinpoche, with supreme compassion for those under his care, newly composed this one. Until now, it remained as an
active course, and so it could not be requested that it be published. Now after 13 auspicious presentations of those lectures, Khen Rinpoche has responded to new requests to publish it, from the country of America. Greatly moved by these requests and the approach of this supreme occasion, he gave the order
to print this, and the pure requests of those sitting at his feet were accomplished. After thirteen times sending a lamp to beings, in the 2530th year of the teacher's passing in his sthaviraaspect, in the seventh tibetan month, tenth day, by these requests that this be printed, auspiciousness increased.
In the wind-chariot of the two accumulations, excellently leading the four forces5 of the army of the ten powers6, You overcome the warfare of the gods of desire7 and their host is overcome; While with the sharp fangs and claws of the four fearlessnesses8, you drink from the skulls of vicious feuding elephants9, the eternalists and nihilists.
Knowing the nature and extent of dharmas10, having removed the darkness of the two obscurations from the place of snow-mountains,11 by your generosity there are the two yogic disciplines.12 In the center of the wheel of 11213 spokes you, the supremely exalted lion of men, Siddartha, bestow auspicious fortune.14
Blazing with the deathless splendor of a thousand radiant marks,15 Liberated16 from a lotus blossom in the middle of a lake, You are the nirmanakaya who overcomes the phenomenal world,17 My beautiful crown-ornament until the heart of enlightenment.
A hundred devotional petals crown the lotus anthers of teaching.19 Dharma Lord,20 I always offer you reverent homage.21 You who are the ever-youthful lion of speech, Bestow on these beings shining intelligence, filling the sky.
In the expansive lotus-garden of speech of all the conquerors, With 100,000 melodious blooms of holy Dharma, You are a singing swan23 that shines as bright as moonlight. May you now enjoy the vast lake of my mind
SUPPLICATION TO THE VIDYADHARAS OF THE THREE LINEAGES The secret streams of truth of the three collections of tantra24 By a gulp of analysis swallowed into the belly of intellect.25 Are regurgitated as excellent teaching, as with Agastya.26 I praise a hundred times the former rigdzins and rishis.
At the council of well-written teachings, the sagely teacher, In a bowing throng of attendant-ministers27 unbiased in learning, On his elephant vehicle,28 which is the great perfection, Surveying all like Indra, with a thousand different eyes,29 Confidently manifesting the hundred pointed vajra30 Whose prongs are the points of teaching, debate, and composition, Wearing a crown that is set with gems of many traditions, The incomparable lord of learning who is known as Longchenpa, Is renowned as a king of the gods of a kind not seen before His fame surpasses even that of the lord of the world.31
A thousand elephants of vicious self-serving contention, Arrogant, with no gentle thoughts of any kind, You overcome and have no thought of enduring them, The lion of speakers, with far-reaching laughter of proper reason, Is the victorious one called Mipham Chokle Namgyal.
By the sharp vajra-weapon of scripture and proper reason, Opponent asuras' arrogant power32 is overcome. Gracious one who sees the excellent path of truth, Prevail among spiritual friends like Indra among the gods.
supremely excellent omniscient embodied essence of all the victorious ones of mantrayana, the lion of vajra teachers, appear in the form of a spiritual friend. Mastering the eight great treasures of confidence36 and the four discriminating knowledges,37 you are an authority on ordinary and extraordinary
fields of knowledge, beyond the scope of thought. In particular, revealing in an extraordinary way the well-taught word of the Sugata, the profound and vast intentions of the sutras and tantras, uniquely analyzing without depending on others38, you, the jetsun inseparable from Mañjushri, are truly
omniscient and great in vision, a learned and accomplished master. You, the jetsun guru who possesses objectless compassion, whose very name is so awesome that we hesitate to utter it39, are famed as Mipham Jamyang Namgyal Gyamtso or Jampel Gyepe Dorje throughout the three worlds.40 The completely certain
truth formerly well-taught by you in this Sherab Raltri is what I shall explain. The explanation has three parts.41 These are the name or title, the main part of the teaching so entitled, and the final conclusion.
First overall part.
The meaning of the subject
The profound and vast meaning told in the Buddha's teachings in the sutras and tantras and the commentaries on their intention, accords with the way things are. This is revealed as profound, completely certain prajña through the process of true and genuine correct reasoning. This prajña cuts all at once like a sword through the nets of non-realization, wrong understanding, and doubt. That is the contents of this text.
Second overall part: the main text that teaches what the title denotes.
Within that are:
1. the ancillary parts of the composition that are good in the beginning, 2. the meaning of the composition that is good in the middle, and 3. the meaning of the conclusion that is good at the end.
The ancillary parts of the composition that are good in the beginning
Here there are the expression of offering and the promise to compose the text. Each of the two is presented in verse.
The Doctrine never possesses any kind of confusion. It has completely abandoned any kind of error. It is mind without any doubt about the three meanings. Let us bow to the treasure of Mañjushri's knowledge.
"The Doctrine", grub mtha'48 in Tibetan, is the translation of the Sanskrit "siddhanta." The Doctrine is the ultimate goal49 of examination and analysis by scripture and correct reasoning. It is the certain
knowledge at the end of establishing. Beyond this there is nothing further to establish.
Likewise, the there are two kinds of paths beyond the world. These are the vehicle of philosophical characterization, and the vajrayana. The great translator Kawa Paltsek53 says in his Explanation of the details of Views:
There are both the worldly and the world-transcending. Like articles of gold, they appear from a single substance. The levels of their appearance are five times three plus two,54 Being known, these should be left alone and accepted.
Regarding the Buddhist view that is beyond the world, FIRST, the Buddhist teachings of The Doctrine are scriptural pramana.55 As such, they have none of the faults of confusion. The reason is that the one who taught them is the Buddha Bhagavat. He has completely abandoned all errors of the two
obscurations,56 along with the habitual patterns which are the seeds of their continuation.57 The doctrine was taught by this great being whose knowledge is the vision of perceptual pramana.58 The way of establishing this highest truth as The Doctrine, is to establish it as scriptural pramana, established
teaching purified by the three analyses.59 This is done through a process of correct reasoning. This process uses the three kinds of inferential reasoning60 in such a way that the three modes of correct reasoning are all complete.61 From so doing comes certainty without doubt. This certainty is
the essence of profound intelligence. It is the great treasure of knowing Mañjushri.62 Again, let us pay homage with the three gates to the great treasure of you, Mañjushri, arising by your blessing.63
"The dharmin "Buddhist doctrine" has no confusion; because it was taught by the Buddha, who has completely abandoned all error."
To prove this, when all the errors of the two obscurations, together with their habitual patterns, have been completely abandoned, ultimate knowledge, wisdom, arises. Whoever has this ultimate knowledge can teach the path properly. Doing so depends only on the cause of compassion. The great compassion
is the extraordinary cause attained by the Buddha.69 Therefore, in regard to the Buddha Bhagavat, there are the cause of the benefit for oneself, complete renunciation-realization, and the cause of the benefit for others, the completed power of wisdom and lovingkindness. From these arise all the teachings of
the holy Dharma, in accord with the faculties, power of mind, and thoughts of those to be tamed. If any of these is practiced, its own particular fruition will be attained. In that sense they are non-deceptive. Therefore, Buddhist doctrine is established as nondeceptive.70 The Prajñaparamita Sutras say:
They also say:
The one who has gone there has the meaning of realization.72
Whoever knows clearly the solitary object of knowledge, Will resolve completely all of the objects of knowledge.74 I therefore prostrate to a guru such as that Who in such a way is equal and otherless.
Also Asanga says in the Suutraala.mkaara:
Whether they may be the lesser, middle, and greater
And all the limitless divisions of their aspects,
Are not realized by anyone but you.
Also he says:
You alone, by wisdom,
Encompass every object,
By everyone but you Some objects are left out.
Also he says:
You do good even without urging.
You are kind to others without a reason,
A good friend, even for those who have not met you;
A helper and counselor that we do not need to know.
Also he says:
If we should try to do this with even our flesh and blood Why even speak of how to view all other things? Doer of good deeds you even gave your life For the beings who asked you, by your bodies and lives, You have ransomed a hundred times the bodies and lives Of those given over to slayers of embodied beings.
In connection to the wishes of all sentient beings, you liberate them from the fetters of the kleshas. As many dharma-teachings as have been explained are one in being antidotes for taming the kleshas.
These teachings are so-designated From his knowledge and what they accomplish But they appear differently By differences between minds.80
Again, to take another approach, the words that exhaust defects are not deceptive. Therefore, this inference should be made:
In teaching what is to be accepted and rejected together with the means by which that should be done, Which is the principal benefit of certainty, As He was non-deceptive, this should be inferred. What is to be accepted and rejected and what are the means of doing that are non-erroneous teachings. They are non-deceptive. For example, the way in which the four noble truths are explained is nondeceptive. Familiarity with this is a pre-requisite for the benefit of beings. Moreover the non-deceptive object of this should be proclaimed to be non-deceptive,
1. because to do otherwise would be contradictory
2. because to say that a teacher who explains it is unnecessary is a wrong and fruitless teaching.81
And also Dharmakirti says:
Why is Buddhist doctrine true? Here is what has been said. The teachings do not disagree with actual reality. If this is seen, its meaning becomes the cause of complete purity. That is the meaning of its being true. Moreover, Buddhist doctrine is free from the six faults and has the three virtues. Therefore it is not deceptive. Rather, it is established as scriptural pramana, the teachings of holy Dharma.84
===2) "Wrong benefit," or "wrong sense" means falling into the extremes of eternalism and nihilism, saying things injurious to the Dharma and so forth. When these two faults are absent, then Buddhist doctrine is true and possesses benefit===.
3) "Merely heard," means just repeating what has been heard.
4) "Merely contentiousness," means merely searching out faults in others.
Buddhist doctrine is free from these faults is sincerely or genuinely established.
5) "Hypocritical" means that attesting to the dharma for motives that are not right.
6) "Unkind" means being without the compassion that wishes to protect sentient beings from suffering. When it is free from these two faults, Buddhist doctrine is the holy Dharma that eliminates the suffering of samsara.
The teachings of Buddhist doctrine remedy the cause of samsara, the kleshas, and their fruition, the sufferings of the three lower realms of samsara. Therefore, it is established that the teachings are scriptural pramana and unconfused. Vasubandhu's rnam bshad rigs pa, says:
Whoever has what is meaningful, fully connected to Dharma, Is taught to abandon all the kleshas of the three realms. Whoever teaches the beneficial virtues of peace Is taught to be a sage and irreversible.90
Also he says in the Uttaratantra:
What is spoken only in terms of Conqueror's teachings Explained with a mind that is undistracted from that, In accord with the path of attaining liberation, Like the words of the Sage himself should be received on the head.91
The natural state of all the knowable dharmas of the phenomenal world of samsara and nirvana is taught as the true path of emptiness and interdependent arising, and therefore the Buddhist teachings are established as the unconfused doctrine of scriptural pramana.
Thus, the Buddha taught the teachings included within the stages of the nine vehicles, as many as there are within the scriptural doctrine of holy Dharma, in accord with the nature, capabilities, and wishes of those to be tamed. If we practice these with devoted aspiration, the particular fruition of each will be gained without deception. Therefore, it is taught that the doctrine is not confused. For that reason, the Second Buddha of Uddiyana said:
As this is extensively taught there and elsewhere, if we have faith in all the doctrine and do not close our eyes to the intelligence of pure perception, that will be the first opening of the great gate of the path of liberation.
SECOND, the Buddhist teachings of Holy Dharma are The Doctrine or scriptural pramana. By reason of their being established as unconfused, the one who taught them, the Buddha Bhagavat, is established as a great being of pramana. As such, he has eradicated and completely abandoned all the errors of
ignorance. He knows and sees all knowables with unobscured perception. The pramana of the teachings depends on the pramana of the teacher. As for the pramana of the teacher, the cause is explained as the intent of perfect benefit. For that reason, from the perfect activity of the teacher arises the
perfect fruition. This has the benefit for oneself that one is a sugata, and the benefit for others that one is their protector. The great teacher Dignaga says in the first praise of the tshad ma kun btus 95
Also in his auto-commentary he says:
The FIRST topic is a praise to the Buddha Bhagavat. By having a perfect cause and fruition, he has become authentic. That is the reason for my arousing devotion to him.98 The perfect cause is his perfect intention and perfect action on it. It is explained that his wish is to benefit beings.99 The
2) The benefit of irreversibility, is like a plague being well-cured.
THIRD, given that this teaching, purified by the three analyses, is an unequalled way of entering into complete liberation, what is to be proved is that the teacher who has perfect intention, application, and fruition is a being of unequalled pramana. This can be established beyond doubt by syllogistic proofs, using the three kinds of inferential pramana in which all of the three modes of syllogism are complete. In syllogistic form:
It is established that it the teacher who spoke it was the Buddha. So the FIRST mode is there, presence of the dharma in the subject. When teaching is scriptural pramana, it is certain that the teacher of it is a buddha, an authentic being. That is the second mode, the forward entailment. When the
teacher is not an authentic being, it is certain that the scriptural teaching is not pramana. That is the third mode, the reversed entailment. After the process of correct reasoning with the three pramanas, if confidence in the non-deceptive certain knowledge of such a teacher and teaching arises within our
being, that is supreme faith. This is also the ultimate essence of refuge and supplication. It is also the root of the path of liberation, and of blessings entering into our being, the single root of a multitude of good things.103 The second buddha of Uddiyana Padmasambhava says that if we have ultimate devotion, we will receive blessing, and if we are free from doubt our wishes will be fulfilled:
If our minds are devoted, blessings will enter in. By being free from doubt, our wishes are established
What is spoken by the Tathagata is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end. Like fine gold being smelted, cut, and polished, it will not be harmed by perception, inference, or his own words in the scriptures. This wisdom unmixed with samsaric things,105 is completely undisturbed by
their total clutter. By this wisdom, having seen suchness,106 you Buddha are the leader of the divine and human realms. You are the crown of them all. They offer garlands to adorn your two lotus feet, as master and guru of all the world. Who, having known you, would not generate faith, practicing from the heart with complete detachment?
Whoever relies on that surmounts degeneracy, With undeceived certainty in the guru and the three jewels, Grasping that from now onward to the bone core of the heart, I go to refuge until the essence of enlightenment.
Now there is a kind of analysis
This precious certain knowledge is essentially non-deceptive. It is unequalled intelligence free from the murkiness of doubt, possessing a thousand undefiled rays of light.108 Since this is the great treasure of your knowledge, Mañjushri, I bow to you. Or again, since that intelligence without doubt
arises from the blessing of the great treasure of your knowledge, Mañjushri, I bow to you.109 That comes chiefly from the process of correct reasoning of the cause depending on the fruition.110 I express homage to the chief of all benefits. Moreover, for these words of the root verses that express homage,
the first verse refers to the jewel of the holy Dharma, the second to the jewel of the Buddha, and the third to the jewel of the sangha.111 To you I bow as the embodiment of these three excellencies, the great treasure of jetsun Mañjushri's knowledge. The purpose of this expression of homage is to benefit
oneself by showing why these people are holy beings,112 and also to gather the two accumulations. The benefit for others, is to inspire their faith in the teachings and teacher. The mdo rgya cher rol pa says:
The ched du brjod pa'i tshoms says:115
The absolute is free from all the complexities of existence, non-existence, and so forth. Therefore, it is profound. The relative is the bhumis, paramitas, and so forth. Its vastness is difficult to realize. These are the Sugata's teachings of the mahayana. Those teachings are like amrita. May whatever fortunate ones wish to experience their taste or to practice them be granted the light of undefiled understanding of the excellent teachings116 of this Sword of Prajña. May it be produced within their being. The teacher Nagarjuna says:
How the topic of composition is good in the middle
The Buddhas taught the Dharma In terms of the two truths, The relative truth of the world As well as the absolute truth.
The perfect buddha bhagavans taught something like 84,000 gates of Holy Dharma. In as many of these as were taught, briefly, what is spoken about relies completely on the two truths. These are the relative truth of the world and the ultimate truth beyond the world. As for the meaning of the worldly one, the Prasannapada of Chandrakirti says:118
So he and many others have said.121 No better realization is possible than realization of the nature of the two truths as they are. It should be known that, in the progression of the nine vehicles,realization of the nature of the two truths becomes ever more profound.122 Here, to give a provisional analysis of the details of the system of the two truths,123 there are the essence, semantic analysis,124 definition125, divisions and purpose, five altogether.
1) the essence of the relative is the objects contemplated by mind and the five sense-powers. All these are objects of thought.126 The essence of the absolute is the sphere of individual and personal wisdom free from mind, free from all the extremes of complexity.
2) the semantic analysis,127 of truth in the phrase "relative truth". Natureless, illusory appearance is the confused viewpoint of transient relative. This viewpoint is "truth" insofar as its identifying characteristics128 are not deceptive. It is also "truth" in the sense that it leads us to absolute truth, our ultimate aim. Since the dharmas of path and fruition are not deceptive, in that sense, relative truth is called "truth".
3) the definition of relative truth, is the truth of "dharmas that are not beyond the sphere of mind and that will not bear analysis." The definition of the absolute is that of "nature beyond mind where conceptions are completely pacified."
There are two kinds of truth by which the world is known No other distinctions are heard, and they are self-sufficient. These are the absolute truth and the relative truth. There is no such thing as any third kind of truth.
Because of the needs of worldly beings, within the relative, the distinction of true and false was made. As appropriate kinds of symbolic knowledge for this purpose, the classifications were created of the true relative and the false relative.
The true relative is the appearance of objects to a mind in which the six senses are not defective. The false relative is the appearance of objects to the mind in which the six senses are defective, seeing hairs before the eyes and so forth.129
The meaning of the composition that is good in the middle
Within this there are two sections
I. The short teaching of the two correct reasonings:
The good eye of the two immaculate pramanas Is the excellent view that is to be established. The two objects of analysis130 are the natures of relative truth and absolute truth. If philosophical analysts want to enter properly into these by means of131 certain, unerring awareness, they must establish the excellent/ supreme view like a good eye that ascertains awareness of its two aspects. These two aspects are:
The action133 of these is the four reliances. The fruition is explained as the eight great treasures of confidence. First, the three first correct reasonings are explained together, and then the reasoning of proper establishing is explained.
FIRST there is the general teaching of appearance as interdependent origination; then the explanation of the particularizations of the correct reasonings of essence, cause, and effect. The meaning is summarized under those three.
How in the world are there these appearances of samsara and nirvana? Certainly and definitely, they all arise134 interdependently from causes and conditions. What is other than that, with no dependence on causes and conditions, never appears within the scope of mind. For example, a lotus flower in
the sky never appears. For that reason, all knowables that can be named should be understood as interdependentarising-emptiness. To think interdependent arising is only the arising of conditioned things from their causes is a very small vision of that universal necessity.135 If all things that are unconditioned do not also arise interdependently, there will be no equality between them. The great teacher Nagarjuna says:
Whatever arises interdependently Is to be explained as emptiness. The classification which depends on that Is itself the path of madhyamaka. Except in terms of interdependent arising No dharmas can be said to be existent. "But what is interdependent arising?" There are three aspects: the meaning of the word, the essence, and the divisions.
1) The meaning
utpada is a word for arising. Outer and inner dharmas do not arise autonomously. They arise from an assembly of causes and conditions. In dependence on previous causes, other things arise unobstructedly later and later still. Therefore, this is called interdependent arising.
That which arises interdependently Is characterized as meeting and working together.137
2) The essence
These dharmas, summarized under the inner and outer, never arise without a cause. They do not arise from non-causes, such as causeless eternal creators other than themselves, the self, time, or a god138 Their arising is called interdependent because each thing arises in dependence on being connected to the assembly of its own particular causes and conditions. 3) The divisions
The divisions are external and internal interdependent arising.
All external dharmas arise interdependently as the sprout does from the seed.
Inner dharmas, the skandhas of sentient beings, high, middle, and low, arise interdependently in the style of the twelve links of interdependent origination, as exemplified by the arising of the sprout from the seed.
4) How these in turn are divided
1) The seven causal connections as they apply to the seed are
These co-producing conditions produce a six-fold association between sprout and fruit.
There also arise pain, lamentation,144 suffering, unhappiness, and disturbance. Thus only this great heap of suffering arises. By the cessation of ignorance old age, death, suffering and so forth, this great heap of nothing but suffering, will cease.
Conventionally speaking, when the previous ones of these twelve links exist, the later ones will subsequently arise. By the arising of the previous ones, the later ones are produced. If the former ones do not exist and have not arisen, neither will the later ones. Since they will not arise, the heap of suffering will cease.
As for the associated conditions, suffering arises from the kleshas, including ignorance,145 being objects of attention,146 and having been associated with the inner senses and so forth.147 Karma also arises like that.
5 Open orifices are the element of space.
The eye-consciousness arises by bringing it together its support the eye-power or organ, perceived form, light, unobscured space, and mental attention149. Awareness is joined to the appropriate other-entity, and it is known. Consciousness arises from its preceding moment of closely associated150
consciousness, and therefore is seen to remain as a continuous stream. Without preceding closely-associated causes, the one who has thoughts cannot arise, any more than a sprout can arise from a stone, or light from darkness. This continuity of the clear insight of consciousness, as it arises in someone
well-trained in reading and so forth, is observed arising form earlier to later, in unbroken continuity. If the assembly of causes is entirely complete, then how will the stream be broken at the time of death? This stream is like a viable seed. If it has the conditions of water, manure, heat, moisture and
so forth, it will inevitably grow; or it is like the continuous flow of a great river.151 Thus all outer and inner dharmas arise from the necessary associations of just the causes and conditions that each requires. If they are not all there, these dharmas will not arise. If they are all there, these dharmas certainly will arise. That is the nature of interdependent origination.
From beginningless time within the continual movement152 of this stream, there is no ego to be its producer, no owner etc. at all. The causes do not think, "I will produce these fruitions." They arise having the five interdependent connections of cause and effect.
What are these?
5. From a wheat seed a wheat sprout arises. From the goodness of merit, doesn't there come a succession of good causes and fruitions? Outer and inner causes and effects should be known to have these five kinds of causal accord. For example, Lord Nagarjuna said:
Recitations of texts, lamps, and mirror reflections, Burning glasses and insults, reverberating echos, As well as the skandhas that are linked in the chain of rebirth, Should be understood by the wise as never transferring.154
B. The explanation of the particularizations of the correct reasonings of
2) cause, and
Within that there are the explanations of:
3) the correct reasoning of suitable establishing
4) the correct reasoning of nature.155
a. The main subject:
Correct reasoning should be understood to be of four kinds:
3) the correct reasoning of suitable establishing
As for the Dharmic effort of analyzing dharmas, if it is asked how many kinds of correct reasoning there are, it is said that there are four kinds of correct reasoning. These are the correct reasoning of dependence, the correct reasoning of productive action, the correct reasoning of establishing reasons, and the correct reasoning of nature.
FIRST To briefly explain the general meaning of these four correct reasonings,
FIRST: The meaning of "correct reasoning."
Jamgon Mipham says:
Why is it called correct reasoning, rigs pa? Because it is suitable or reasonable, rigs pa nyid, that the nature of dharmas is as it is and, therefore, it is called rigs pa, correct reasoning. Also whatever is analyzed in accord with this is called correct reasoning.156
"Correct reasoning,157" in Sanskrit is called nyaya. Since nyaya consists of the nature or real state of things, the nature of things as they are, it is called correct reasoning. Yukti or samyukti, since it is proper, is also called correct reasoning. Thus, correct reasoning should be known to consist
both of both the way each thing is and the mind in accord with that. In terms of to verbal etymology, nyaya means "to attain." Since what is attained is indestructible158, it is called correct reasoning. Yukti is good connection. It consists of good connection of words. Nyaya consists of irrefutability.
Pratipada also means irrefutability. A proposition that cannot be refuted by being contradicted by any words and thoughts at all, but can be well-established is called correct reasoning. Whatever characteristics and reasons produce such knowledge also are also are included in "correct reasoning." These should be known as correct reasoning in the overall or general sense.
"From the power of the things themselves all dharmas, having the nature of interdependent arising, are established in a way free from exaggeration and denigration." That is the definition of correct reasoning. The theg chen tshul 'jug, says:
1 "Establishment by the collective power of the causes in terms of the fruition" is the definition of the correct reasoning of the producing cause.159 2 "Establishment of the collective power of the fruition in terms of the cause" is the definition of the correct reasoning depending of the fruition.160 3
"Establishment by that which is the nature of each dharma" is the definition of the correct reasoning of nature.161 4 "Establishing the way of knowables in regard to cause, fruition, and essence through correct reasoning from the power of the things themselves" is the definition of the correct reasoning of suitable establishing.162
The former text says:
Establishment in terms of the fruition is the correct reasoning of productive action. Establishment in terms of the cause is the correct reasoning of dependency. Establishment in terms of the essence is the correct reasoning of nature. Correct reasoning itself, produced without defilements, is establishing. This is the correct reasoning of proper establishing.
Fourth, that which is removed by the four correct reasonings, or their action.
3 The correct reasoning of nature removes doubts about essences, since it establishes the essences of the relative and the absolute. 4 The correct reasoning of suitable establishing removes doubt about correct reasoning itself. This is because the nature of the two truths is truly established by the pramanas of perception and inference.
The former text says:
Before debating both debaters must establish a dharmin that is established by shared perception or appears the same to both of them165 and is indisputably established for them both. Otherwise the objects to be examined and analyzed by means of the four correct reasonings cannot be established. For example, If the particular object166 someone calls "fire" is not hot and burning, it is the wrong object for fire. The former text says:
As for the objects and validity of these, if the object of the nature is undefiled, and if the object is not wrong, reasoning is properly classified as correct reasoning of nature. Similarly, if the objects of production, establishment, and correct reasoning are undefiled and if their objects are not wrong, these are properly classified as correct reasoning. The object of nature being undefiled is like its being expected that a burning glass will heat.
Sixth The fault of excess, over-application, fault of the four correct reasonings.
When didactic conceptual reasoning in the scope of consciousness alone produces great obstinate rigidity, and this becomes extreme, there will be the fault of reification or materialism. Here the theg chen tshul 'jug says:
Here are the excesses of the four correct reasonings: if by the correct reasoning of nature there is exaggerated extreme establishment,168 all things will not be eliminated. In the end, we will become exponents of self-existing causes. As for excess169 of the correct reasoning of productive action, all
action and effort will not be eliminated. In the end we become exponents of doers of acts.170 If the correct reasoning of dependency is excessive, all powers will not be eliminated. In the end we become exponents of causation by creator deities. If the correct reasoning of proper establishing is
excessive, all occasions of correct reasoning will be faultless. Then in the end pride will manifest. When exponents of materialism and reification establish things, they are established mostly by excess in the correct reasonings of nature and of direct171 perception.172 Therefore, the right measure/ scope and excess of these should be told.
Whoever instructs in nature from the path of conceptual fixation harms the long continuation of the Sage's teachings. When those with the authentic Dharma of the Tathagata depart into something else, this should be refuted.
As the profound nature of that is not within the scope of conceptual arguers, if we search for dharmata through conceptual argument alone, we are far from the Sage's teachings, and they will have been damaged. Rather than that, wrong expositions and bad expositions of the profound nature, the intended meaning of the teacher, the Sage, should be refuted.
Whatever arises interdependently Has no cessation and it has no birth; It is neither nothingness nor eternal; It is without coming and without going; It is neither different things nor one. It completely pacifies complexity. To those who are the teachers of that peace, The speakers who are perfect buddhas, In homage to those holy ones I prostrate.
the path of correct reasoning within these three realms of samsara, is the subject, the two truths. One of these two truths is not refuted and the other established. Appearance is interdependent arising. Interdependent arising is emptiness. These two are inseparable in essence, like fire and heat.
Existence and non-existence, both and neither, the four extremes; birth and cessation; eternalism and nihilism; going and coming; these eight complexities and so forth, in the union of appearance and emptiness, are like the eight examples of illusion. Ground, path, and fruition are on an equal footing, and
become allpervading. If we realize this excellent profound certainty, having established the view of buddhism, we have reached its life-source, the profound pith. If we do not know this, having fallen into the places of excess of the four correct reasonings, as explained above, we will be far from
establishing the view of the buddha. Knowing how to do this is very important. That is how the way of existence of things is to be evaluated. The evaluating mind in accord with that is called pramana or correct reasoning. When the knowable objects of correct reasoning have been analyzed in terms of
the three aspects of cause, fruition, and essence, these are said to be the correct reasonings of productive action, dependence, and nature respectively. When within these objects of analysis exaggeration has been cut through, producing a proper style of affirmation and negation, that is the correct
reasoning of proper establishing. So it is taught. For objects that are directly perceived, the evaluator is the pramana of direct perception and for hidden or indirect objects173 the evaluator is the pramana of inference. There are these two. Though inference has a hidden object, through the power of
inference, the dharmin is grasped as pramana, so that, in the end, it becomes directly perceived. However, that direct perception can reach only its nature. Though some production and dependence are also part of the nature of things, they are gathered together within the correct reasoning of nature
alone. What resolves the style of all correct reasonings, and makes them praiseworthy174 is the correct reasoning of nature. Having reached this, there is a suitable benefit with no need to establish anything else, just as the reason why fire is hot needs no further explanation. Thus rang zom mahaapandita says:
The aspects of nature, production, dependence, and proper establishing, the so-called four correct reasonings, are indeed establishable; but so that those of little learning and small mind may have easy realization, reasons conforming to the correct reasoning of nature alone should be told them.
Such mental analysis in accord with the nature of things is known as the correct reasoning abiding in the power of things themselves.175 Since the way things are is unerringly evaluated, the meaning of this kind of correct reasoning cannot be appropriated by the others. Both conventional and ultimate
pramana are said to dwell in the power of the things themselves. Thus, that fire is naturally hot is, relatively speaking, its nature, or the way it is. That fire is natureless is its nature, or the way it is absolutely speaking. By combining these two pramanas, the way things are is unerroneously resolved, but this is not to say it will be so for every single verse.
For external causes, eg the seed, water, and manure and for inner causes, eg mental object, the senses, and so forth, when the assembly of causes is all present, there is the power of producing the fruition, eg the sprout, consciousness etc. From that being so, this is called the correct reasoning of productive action. The dgongs pa nges par 'grel pa'i mdo, says this about it:
The correct reasoning of production is like this. By whatever causes and whatever conditions dharmas occur176 or are established, saying what actions produce the arising of these is called the correct reasoning of causal production.177
As for the skandhas, which are produced by their own causes and their own conditions, their own action produces the joining of those causes and those conditions. Thus, for example, the eye produces looking at forms. The ear produces the hearing of sounds,... and so on up to the mind produces knowledge
of dharmas. Form is made to appear within the sphere of apprehension of the eye,... and so on up to dharmas are made to appear within the sphere of apprehension of the mind. Moreover the kind of productive action of these on one another with the configurations and means by which this comes about is called the correct reasoning of productive action.
As for the correct reasoning of dependence, whatever fruitions there are, sprouts, consciousness, etc., all those objects have their own individual causes that produce them. They must certainly depend on the seed, the sense powers, and so forth. This is called the correct reasoning of the dependency of the fruition on the cause. The dgongs pa nges par 'grel ba'i mdo, says:
The correct reasoning of dependence is like this: By such and such causes and such and such conditions composite things arise, and whatever conventionally imputed things arise, these are called the correct reasoning of dependency.
The correct reasoning of dependence is like this: In brief, dependence has two aspects, the dependence of arising and the dependence of imputation.180 The dependence of arising is like this: By whatever causes and whatever conditions the skandhas arise, those skandhas depend on those causes and conditions.
The dependence of imputation is like this: By whatever assembly of names, of words, and of letters the skandhas are imputed, those skandhas are dependent on those assemblies of names, words, and letters.
The correct reasoning of dependence is said to be the correct reasoning of dharmas and their effects. Compounded things, whatever is imputed to those things conventionally, and whatever fruitions arise, these and their causes and conditions are taught to be in a relationship of dependence.
It may be asked, "Well what kinds of cause and fruitions are there?" As for the classification of the causes, conditions, and fruitions of arising, there are six causes, five fruitions, and four conditions.
As for these six,
1 The producing cause
The Abhidharmakosha says:
The producing cause produces another from itself.
With regard to the producing cause the vaibhashika school says that it is all dharmas other than the fruition itself. If so, all causes and non-causes are included within this. The FIRST division, the producing cause with power, is like attributing to the sprout dependency on the seed. The SECOND, the
producing cause without power, is like saying that the sprout is uncompounded and arises within formless mind, like the skandhas of hell. Classifying these181 producing causes without power as causes is done simply on the basis that arising was not hindered. Though it is said that some of these182 may
also have an indirect power, only producing causes with power need to be considered.183 This is the general classification for all causes. So that the producing cause will not be obscured, among the kinds of causes in a situation, a certain number of causes are taught. Within the classification of the producing cause, the direct cause184 and co-producing condition185 are taught.
b. The co-producing condition is like water and manure for the seed or the perceived condition and the sense-power within awareness. Moreover, there are the producing causes like that of the seed producing a sprout and like a lamp shining inside a vase in a dark house. Also ten kinds of producing cause are taught. The dbus mtha' rnam 'byed:
As for the ten producing causes there are arising Duration, support and supported, becoming and separation. Other, and belief, understanding, and attainment; The eye, food, a lamp, and fire and so forth Are the examples that are presented of them; As are a sickle, and also knowing how to make things, As well as smoke, and inner causes, the path, and so forth.
8) The belief-producing cause is like the sign of smoke producing certainty of fire. 9) The understanding-producing producing cause is like certainty about the object arising from the cause and such and such reasons. 10) The cause of attainment is like attaining nirvana from the path.
The Abhidharmakosha says:
The co-emergently arising cause is like things being each others' mutual fruition, depending on each other like the poles of a tripod. This is like a single assembly of the four elements; mind and its subsequent states,190 and characteristics and the characterized. What are subsequent cognitive acts?191
These are like the linkage192 of mental events and spotless meditation. Mind and those subsequent events are one without earlier and later time. The fruition arises simultaneously or as one with it;193 as since the nature of virtue and so forth are one with the mind, they are called subsequent events or
continuations of mind. Generally, as for causes, there are the sorts of cause that produce the produced effect and the kind of cause without which it does not arise. From these two ways of classifying cause and effect, the FIRST is like the seed and water and so forth producing the sprout. The SECOND is
like classification as "short" being dependent on "long," or "there" being dependent on "here," and so forth. In this case, the classification of latter resembles classification as cause and effect. Really the one does not produce the other. The "effect" arises at one and the same time with the cause, so that if one is not there, that is a sufficient reason why the other also will not arise. In that sense it is classified as a cause.
The Abhidharmakosha says:
In the cause of equal situation, skal mnyam rgyu, the cause and the fruition are the same kind of thing, as virtue comes from a virtuous mind etc., barley grows from barley, and so forth. Here the cause does arise before the fruition, and is chiefly classified through being of the same kind of thing and in the same place.
The Abhidharmakosha says:
According to what is said there, the equality possessing cause of minds is their being produced only because there are mental events. However, this is distinguished from co-emergent causation in that mind and mental events are equal in five ways:
3. Neither earlier or later than each other, they are at one and the same time.
4. In the ways they take account of phenomena and so forth194 they are one and the same.
The Abhidharmakosha says:
As for the all-pervading cause, kun a'gro rnams, "all-pervading" refers to the kleshas. It is merely a separate explanation of production of dharmas possessing the kleshas, which is also otherwise explained, so that this is merely additional. It says that all dharmas having the kleshas is what produces them. Those having the kleshas are born from those having the kleshas. Accordingly, that from having the kleshas they arise with the kleshas is distinguished from equal situation. In this regard, the dharmas that arise intrinsically with the kleshas arise before those that have them as produced fruitions.
The Abhidharmakosha says:
These comprise the list of the five kinds of fruition.
1. the ripening fruition
The Abhidharmakosa says:
Ripening fruitions are fruitions produced in dependence on the defiled joy and sorrow of samsara. The essence, being obscured, is not what can be expected to occur.195 What is to be expected is selfcaused virtue or non-virtue. They arise from ripening causes. They are included within the continuua of sentient beings or designated as dharmas associated with them.
The Abhidharmakosha says:
The Abhidharmakosha says:
4. The person-produced fruition
The Abhidharmakosha says:
The person-produced fruition is a fruition of both the co-emergent and equally-possessing causes. When a person produces a vase, the maker and the object made both individually exist. The name is conferred on what is like that example.
5. The fruition of separation
The Abhidharmakosha says:
Separation is exclusively involved with mind.
In the fruition of separation, the prajña of mind, by its power of individual-discrimination,196 eliminates the separable aspect to be abandoned. Our own uncompounded essence is classified as the fruition. Our own essence is not produced by a cause, but hindrances to it need to be abandoned. From their being abandoned the essence arises in experience. If they are not abandoned, this is the cause of its not so arising.
C. The four conditions
2. The immediately preceding condition
As for mind and mental contents equally being preceding conditions, previous to any incorrect mind and mental events their own respective preceding incorrect mind and mental events have arisen.197 Until the last moment before an arhat enters the mind without outflows, all mind and mental events are immediately preceding conditions.
The producing cause, so-called, is explained as the controller.
Therefore in regard to these causes and fruitions Knowing the way in which they exist and do not exist, Since by that they can be made to start and stop,199 The arts and such200 and doctrines all have this as their root. Therefore these arts and doctrines have been gathered together, As helpful advice201 within the world and beyond the world.
For these formerly explained reasons, as for the cause of productive action and dependence of the fruition on the cause, by such causes such fruitions are produced. By knowing as they are the ways that those fruitions exist dependently on these causes, and how they are not produced by them and do not exist
dependently on them, we engage in and refrain from actions in the world. Thus there will be the creative arts and crafts202 and so forth, medicine, grammar, pramana, the study of Buddhism the 5 major sciences dealing with worldly objects. there are also rhetoric, drama and dance, astrology,
composition, and poetics, the lesser five sciences.203 There are these ten sciences of knowables. There are not only those but also the productive function of all the doctrines of Buddhists and outsiders204 without remainder, and so by means of the style of these two dependencies205 we have the root
of practical discrimination.206 For this reason, it should be known that within these two correct reasonings of production and dependency, all worldly helpful instructions and all helpful doctrines that are beyond the world are collected.
SECOND, the correct reasoning of nature is explained in two ways by means of the relative, appearance, and by means of the absolute, emptiness.
Within this there are two parts, the main topic and its classifications.
FIRST, The main topic:
Having arisen interdependently All dharmas, by their own natures, Each have their individually existing characteristics. Solidity, moisture, heat, and so forth These conventional natures have no falsity.
Interdependently arising through causes and conditions, whatever has arisen gathered under samsara, nirvana, and the three paths,207 all these dharmas, none of which are produced by anything else, each by their own natures exist with characteristics which are not those of others. They have their own
individual natures which are not shared. Earth is solid, water is moist, fire is hot, air is motile, space is unobstructed, and so forth. If anyone says these conventional natures are not like that, it is false. These indispensable conclusions are known as the correct reasoning of essential nature.208 The dgongs pa nges par 'grel pa'i mdo says:
The correct reasoning of nature is like this. It was proper even before the Tathagata arose in the world. Even if he had not arisen, it would be proper. The existence of natures209 and the existence of dharmadhatu are the correct reasoning of nature.
the Shravaka-bhumi says:
The correct reasoning of nature is like this, why the skandhas are like that, and why worldly existences are like that. Why solidity is the defining characteristic of earth, that of water moisture, that of fire heat, and that of air motility. Similarly, why the defining characteristic of form is
properly being visible/ sensible.210 That of feeling is being emotionally felt211. That of perception is knowing all characteristics. The defining characteristic of formations is forming212 The defining characteristic of consciousness is producing consciousness of the factual.213 Why? Because that
is their nature. That is the nature of those dharmas. Since their essences are like that, these natures which they have are said to be properly theirs. The bka' yang dag pa'i tshad ma'i mdo btus pa says:
SECOND, The classifications
Within a single dharma are also various dharmas. Conventional terms that establish and eliminate Distinguish limitless classifications of different objects. Each of these exists with216 its own particular nature. By perception these objects are completely grasped. By means of what characteristics pertain to each of these Dharmas have their different characterizations. Joined and distinguished by conceptual mind. Knowables are to be understood.217 from these two kinds: Real substantial things218 and imputed characteristics219 From that come the classifications of many complexities.
For example, this is like there being various dharmas within the single dharma a vase. A vase has impermanence, is a material thing and so forth, By such statements of what it "is" and "has" what is established about it is asserted. Also it is not permanent, is without consciousness, and so forth. By means
other than it and which it is said not to have at all. Thus by its own nature it exists as what it is. As for what happens by such dharmas perceived, they are grasped as objects221, substantial entities with their intrinsic individual characteristics,222 like a vase. What has been produced has impermanence, arising, and so forth. Using such characteristics223 it is constructed224 as apparently different dharmas. Conceptions of it are grasped as
a mixture of the verbal and the real.225 They are grasped with a mixture of sound and meaning. By these characteristics,226 conceptual mind distinguishes these as individuals and joins them together. Thus dharmas that are things exist substantially and have characteristics attributed to them. By means of these two aspects in relation to knowables, without error we assert and deny, accept and reject. We become involved with or avoid them.227 The way things
are228 is rightly realized. From that come numerous extensive classifications of complexities such as things and non-things, object and perceiver, general and particular, compounded and uncompounded, permanent and impermanent, materiality and awareness, cause and fruition, substantial existence and imputed existence, conceptual and non-conceptual, contradiction and logical entailment, characteristic and characterized, the thing which is distinguished and the
dharma that distinguishes it, the expression and expressed, clarifying and eliminating,229 negation and assertion, general characteristics and individual characteristics and so forth. Having produced these various conventional classifications of common meanings, in reliance on them the limitless topics of knowables are clarified.
Thus the dharmas whose essence is cause and its fruition If they are rightly apprehended and analyzed, They are not conceived as having been produced, And so they also do not arise dependently. Even though each appears according to its own essence, The essence of all of these alike is emptiness,230 Dharmadhatu possessing the three marks of liberation, They are dharmata, the absolute nature of things.
As explained before, the producer, the cause, and the fruition, the thing dependent upon the cause, and dharmas that essentially have the nature of cause and fruition, if they are completely examined and analyzed by the correct reasoning that examines for the absolute, not even a particle of nature exists
for them.231 They are characterized by the three marks of liberation.232 If we examine the cause, by the reasons of the vajra slivers,233 if knowable dharmas are well analyzed and examined, no producer, or "cause," is observed to arise in terms of any of the four extremes, cause by self other, both, or
no cause. Therefore cause is markless.234 If we analyze the fruition, by the reasons of existence and non-existence or arising and cessation, through dependence on causes and conditions there may be arisings of fruitions. However, since those alleged fruitions will not be existent, non-existent, both,
or neither, and so forth, these fruitions are unborn, and they cannot be wished for.235 If we examine the essence, by the reason of being free from one and many, though conventionally there is that which is other, appearing with a nature of its own that is essentially not in common, that which is other has not been produced. Therefore, by its own nature it is emptiness free from
being either truly one or truly many. It is essentially empty of nature.236 If so, in the absolute, conventional cause, effect, and essence, are dharmadhatu having the three marks of liberation. It is properly said that their essence is that of the absolute.
THIRD, The summary of the essence:
As explained above, conventionally the action of the cause produces the fruition. Each fruition is produced in dependence on its own producing cause. As this is the intrinsic nature of things, when there is such a reason, that is the end of correct reasoning. If we reach the proper intrinsic nature of things, we need seek no further for other reasons. This is the nature of things, like fire being hot.
When something has been evaluated According to the nature of the two truths, Since it is established by the power of the thing itself, This is the correct reasoning of suitable establishing. As it appears and as it exists Its own essence is directly perceived. Or depending on perceived appearances, Without deception, other things are inferred.
As explained above, an object to be evaluated has both the apparent nature of relative truth and the empty nature of absolute truth. In accord with these what is evaluated or the perceiver arising from it, the evaluating mind is established from the power of the way things intrinsically are in themselves. Therefore it is also called the correct reasoning or pramana of suitable establishment. The dgongs pa nges par 'grel ba'i mdo says:
The correct reasoning of proper establishing is like this. When we say by what cause and conditions something is entailed238 to occur and explained, and the sense we want to establish established; that which was fully and truly comprehended239 is called the correct reasoning of proper establishing.
Properly established correct reasoning is like this.
The three pramanas are accepted scripture, perception, and inference. They produce realization. So, as for correct reasoning of proper establishing, these are the three pramanas that appropriate241 the essence of the holy ones. They are like this: The skandhas are presented and established as
2) The non-deceptive agent is a mind with the two pramanas.244
Someone may say, "but isn't pramana also defined as "the producer of cognizance246 of an unknown object?" Yes, it is. These two are dissimilar only their style of verbal expression. The realities have no dissimilarity. How so? In knowledge that cognizes247 unknown objects, there is first a mind deceived
about that object. This is because that which is non-deceptive knowledge is the producer of cognizance about that unknown object. Therefore these two definitions both join the individual definitions applying to conventional and absolute pramana. Since they join both of these, they are said to be
So the Jamyang guru Mipham has said. In general, the definition of mind, blo, is "that which understands," rig pa. The definition of awareness, shes pa, is "apprehension248 and experience." As for the fortune of supreme knowledge,249 if all thoughts of non-pramana are gathered into correct reasoning,
intellectualizations, uncertain appearances, subsequent cognition,250 wrong knowledge, and doubts are said to be gathered into it too.251 The mind of pramana has two kinds of pramana. These are the two divisions. The tshad ma'i mdo, the Pramana Sutra says:
Direct perception and inference alike are pramana. The definition of pramana is apprehended as double.
Also the tshad ma rnam 'grel says:
There are two objects to apprehend.252
Therefore there are two pramanas.
In terms of fruition, there are dharmas with a real productive power and those with no such power. In terms of intrinsic nature254 for different things the same dharma may be in common or not in common.255 In terms of word and object, there are cases where the expressing word expresses a real thing and those where it does not. In terms of the knowledge of the perceiver, there are conceptually known apparent objects and non-conceptually known apparent
objects. In terms of the way the object appears, there are evident and hidden, which are necessarily two in number, and so forth. The mind apprehending these has both perception and inference, which are likewise necessarily two in number. The definition of an evident object of evaluation256 is "that which is realized by the pramana of direct perception." The definition of hidden object of evaluation257 is "that which is realized by inference."
There are four divisions of perception:
Their definitions are below.
The definition of inference is "mind that realizes what is to be established, its own hidden object, in dependence on a reason in which all the three modes are complete." The divisions of inference are:
There are also these divisions:
1. Inference from the power of the thing itself
2. Inference from reports
3. Inference from belief.
Inference of belief
The two truths:
Relative truth is the way things appear.
In that way each of the two pramanas is itself divided into two, making four altogether. Presenting in order the bases of distinguishing these:
Therefore, glorious Dharmakirti says:
The meanings of things, seen and unseen
By the two aspects, perception and inference, Are irrefutable and non-deceptive.
SECOND Suitable establishing of perception and inference
Within this are the general teaching, the explanation of the particulars, and the summary.
1) the general teaching:
If there is no perception, then there are no signs Because there are no signs, there is no inference. Things arising from cause, and cessation of such things, All these appearances would be impossible. If it is like that, their emptiness and such, Depending on what could they be possibly known? Therefore, without depending on the conventional, The absolute as well will never be realized. FIRST there is the explanation of proper establishing of perception. The rigs pa thigs pa, the Drop of Correct reasoning, says:
As perception is free from conception, it is unconfused. Conception is expressible knowledge and appearance appropriate to be mixed with that. Perception is free from that mixing, for example not confused by dimness, turning quickly, being in a boat, shaking about, and so forth. Such knowledge is perception.
There are four kinds of perception:
This is directly subsequently produced to or by the knowledge of the senses, having sense knowledge as its own preceding object, and its immediately preceding condition. It is similar to that sense knowledge.
The objects of these are individual characteristics. Whatever different objects far and near appear in awareness are individual characteristics. These same characteristics exist absolutely. This is because the characteristics of things exist only as productive powers.264 There are also universal or general characteristics.265 These are the objects of inference. However, the fruition of such inferential pramana is perceptual knowledge. This is
because its essence is only to realize objects. That pramana is concerned with objects and their similarity, since by its power, realizations of objects are established.266 The great pandit Shantarakshita, pad ma'i ngang tshul and 'dul ba'i lha all say that freedom from conception eliminates inference. Non-confusion eliminates obscured knowledge and so forth. Both are explained as having the characteristic of eliminating what does not accord with correct reasoning. Dharmottara says:
As for non-confusion, since the meaning/ object grasped is not confused, it has the power to eliminate conceptualization. To clear away the wrong conceptions of the nyaiyaaikas, samkhyas, mimamsakas, and so forth who say that perception is conceptual,267 it is said to be free from conception.
The mdo'i rang 'grel, says:
In the case of sensory and mental perception, the essence of sensory and mental perception in general, or as a whole, is recognition or identification.268 There is not recognition or identification in perceptual pramana alone. Pramana is "non-confused." By being joined to that it should be known to be revealed in its particulars.269
The supremely learned phya ba says:
When perception and perceptual pramana have been distinguished, the definition of the FIRST is "unconfused knowledge free from conceptualization." The definition of the SECOND is that "by experiencing something we have not realized before,270 exaggeration is cut through."
The object characterized by perceptual pramana is exclusively non-confused knowledge. The definition of perceptual pramana is "unconfused knowledge free from conceptualization." There are four divisions of perceptual pramana:
Here are their respective definitions:
The divisions of the pramana of sense perception are the unconfused five sense consciousnesses, the eye consciousness and so forth. Seeming sense perception corrupted by illusion273, appearance of the one moon as two and so forth is not perceptual pramana.
"unconfused knowledge free from conceptualization arising in dependence on the dominant condition of the yogas of shamatha and vipashyana." Phenomena like the appearance of skeletons in the meditation on repulsiveness are not unconfused. Therefore, they are not pramana.
Confused or unconfused, whatever awareness arises is unconfused and free from conception, as mere self-apprehending experience in itself. In regard to their objects, those four kinds of perception do not mix up objects, times, and aspects. This is because actual individual characteristics appear in perception, with no conceptions that could confusedly grasp words and meanings.274
Thus the essence is understood.
The mdzod says:
Conception and analysis are like fine and coarse.
The rnam 'grel says:
Joining names and kinds277 etc. in freedom from conception is direct perception.278
Here there are four styles.
4. Saying that after the first moment of sense perception mental perceptions arise in a series accompanying another series of sense perceptions, and that finally at the end of the last moment of sense perception there arises the last moment of mental perception.
Of these four, the Jamyang guru says that just this last should be maintained.
In terms of support:
In terms of their objects:
These four direct perceptions are not related by the difference that refutes one, since all four are real things. Nor are they merely related by the difference of different manifestations of a single essence. This is because the three other perceptions are different substances, while also they are not different in essence from perception of self-awareness. The other three perceptions have one essence with perception of selfawareness, but they are different objects.
ause they clear any four wrong conceptions these excellent divisions are taught. Some say that the sense-power itself is the seer of pramana. To eliminate this view, the FIRST is taught. The knowledge arising from the sense-powers is not the power of perception. Some attribute faults to mental perception. The SECOND division is taught for the sake of completely abandoning this fault. Some do not accept the self-awareness of mind and mental contents. The THIRD is taught to eliminate this. Some do not accept the direct perception of yogins, and so this is called the FOURTH kind of perceptual pramana.
Also the great teacher dgra las rgyal pas says:
Saying that there are four kinds of perception is to eliminate particular wrong conceptions: 1. the thought that perceptual pramana is seen by the senses themselves, rather than by the knowledge that depends on them. 2. The thought that the phenomena of perception of the mental sense, whose essence has already been explained, exist as other.281 3. The thought that self-awareness is impossible. 4. the thought that yogic knowledge is impossible.
If these four direct perceptions were absent, since smoke and so forth would not appear, there would be no signs or reasons. Therefore, inference would be non-existent. If that were non-existent, that from the cause, the seed, the sprout arises, and that it ceases in destruction and so forth, all that appears and is heard in the world, all these conventional dharmas, would be unknown. If that is said, there would be no occurrence of the reasons by which the natural state of such relative entities, emptiness and so forth, is known.
Therefore it is taught that without dependence on the means of the worldly appearance of conventional truth, the absolute truth, emptiness, that arises from that would not be realized. Glorious Chandrakirti's commentary, the Prasannapada, says:
FIRST, Sense perception:
By whatever mind-events have arisen from the five senses Apprehension of their objects is experienced. Without this sense perception, objects would not be seen, As they are not in the case of those who are blind, and so forth.
Depending on the dominant condition the eye-power and similarly the ear, nose, tongue, and body-sense, the five consciousnesses of a person experience the apprehension of their objects, form, sound, smell, taste, and touchables. This is sense perception. without it, like those who are blind, deaf, and so forth, we could never perceive external objects.
SECOND, Mental perception:
Of outer and inner objects that rise from the mental sense Mental perception is the drawer of clear distinctions. Without this mental perception all the dharmas would be Without the knowledge of ordinary understanding.
Arising in dependence on the mental sense as dominant condition, knowledge that understands objects285 clearly distinguishes286 experiences of outer objects, form and so on, and by knowledge of selfawareness, distinguishes the objects of inner awareness and dreams.287 This is mental direct perception. A sutra says:
Also the tshad ma mdo says:
...and mental objects....
Its auto-commentary says:
Rngog pa says:
THIRD, yogic direct perception:
Meditating well according to the instructions One apprehends experience of the ultimate as our object. If there is not this kind of yogic direct perception, We will not see the real beyond the everyday.
By the yogin's meditating well in accord with the precepts taught by the guru, the ultimate meaning of egolessness, the two emptinesses, and three and countless kinds are seen. Moreover, in a single atom as many buddha fields as there are atoms, and limitless pure phenomenal worlds, the mandalas of countless289 buddhas, are seen and so forth. Clearly experiencing its own sphere, this is yogic direct perception.
It arises within their meditation.
To analyze in outline this clear realization of egolessness in yogic perception, there are the meaning of the word, the essence, the definition and the divisions. Regarding the FIRST, as for "yoga," the sgra sbyor bam gnyis, The Two Volume Grammar, says:
"Yo" is yoga. This is the name of the meditation which unites shamatha and vipashyana. In Tibetan this is rnal 'byor. Here the meaning is rnal ma, the natural state of the mind, or the state in which it is 'byor joined to mastery. Pratyaksha, in Tibetan is mgnon sum, direct perception. Prati means near or direct. It has many meanings such as "individual." Yaksha is the equivalent of dbang po, the sense powers, so the overall meaning is "depending on the individual senses" or "depending on the senses."
In general as to the four extremes of description and denotation, if we take for example the epithet, "the lake-born," where the literal words mean "born in a lake" but the phrase refers to or denotes a lotus, there are the extremes of:
1. the description existing and the denotation not existing 2. the description not existing and the denotation existing 3. both description and denotation existing 4. neither description or denotation existing.
They are one in that they all depend exclusively294 on meditation.
As it says there, pratyekabuddhas do not study, and have no learning. Shravaka and bodhisattva noble ones may be either learned or unlearned. That makes five kinds altogether. Dividing these five in two by yogic perception of post-meditation with appearance, and yogic perception of meditation without appearance makes ten kinds in all. If these individuals had no such yogic perception, it would therefore follow that they saw nothing especially noble beyond the scope of the minds of ordinary beings.
Just as perceived experience of form cuts through distortion. If such experience exists regarding our own mind, Knowing that, we will not meet the existence of other. Therefore by the essence, gsal rig, luminous insight, Aware of objects295 is of the nature of oneself, Self-apprehension, rang gsal, is without dependence. This is what is meant by terms like self-awareness.296 That which is experienced by the other perceptions, Being ascertained to be perception itself Is the work of self-awareness. If that dod not exist, No other modes of perceiving could establish anything.
For the perception of the eye consciousness, experience of the form of a white conch shell is the cause of cutting through the distortion of thinking it is yellow. In regard to our own mind, self-awareness is exists the cause of cutting through a similar distortion. For a knower who does not know self-awareness, other must exist. If we have self-awareness, the knower for who the other must exist and so forth will ultimately become non-existent. We will
not meet with knowledge that something exists as other at the same time, or not at the same time, and so forth as self-awareness. For that reason, in knowledge, a chariot, a building, and so forth, which have a material nature separate from awareness are eliminated. By their becoming of the essence of awareness,297 while we have knowledge of external objects in consciousness, they are oneself and do not depend on any other. This selfapprehension is self-awareness. The great teacher Shantarakshita says in the Madhyamakala.mkara
is the function of self-awareness. This is because our own mind is not be hidden from one, as for example we have the power to decide whether we are happy or unhappy. If there were no self-awareness, experience of other kinds of perception too could not be established as such by any other means. The reason
is that self-awareness of them would not exist. We may think that for example that blue would be established by being seen by the eye consciousness; but we should analyze how by perception or inference the eye consciousness is established. If first it is established by perception, then the perception would
have to be both at the same time and not at the same time. That is unsuitable. If the eye consciousness is supposed to be established through inference, there will be none, because the perception this presupposes will be non-existent. That is unsuitable. For that reason, if objects such as a vase were
material things, they could not be apprehended and perceived.299 Therefore, their essence is produced within or as awareness.300 Though a mind that is illuminated by and apprehends others must be dependent on them in some sense, this knowledge is not like knowledge of material things. As our own essence
that is being intuited, this need not depend on other conditions. The conventional classification "self-awareness" is totally suitable. This is because it has arisen from oneself alone, has the nature of awareness and is essentially free from action, actor, and karma. For example, it is like a lamp that illuminates itself. The tshad ma mdo says:
Also the Madhyamakala.mkara says:
For that whose nature is being single and partless Three natures are therefore unsuitable. As for this being aware of itself Act and actor are unreal. Therefore, since this is the nature of knowledge, It is properly called self-knowledge.
Third, the summary of the meaning:
Inference has perception existing as its root. Perception in turn is ascertained by self-awareness. Once experience by unconfused mind is reached, There is no other establisher than that alone. Therefore, for whomever relies on pure perception, Unconfused and free from all conceptualization, From whatever dharmas may be manifested Exaggeration will be completely cleared away.
Since inference arises from having relied on the power of perceived signs as reasons, it has perception as its root. Since perception has been ascertained301 by self-awareness itself, perception must be classified as self-awareness. If all experience of a mind that is not confused by the causes of confusion are
the ultimate, self-awareness,302 no other external establisher need be sought. That is the experience of unconfused mind. It is like finding the elephant.303 Thus at the limits of inference, perception is what is reached. Apprehension of objects of perception304 ultimately arrives at apprehension-
experiencing self-awareness. Therefore, if we want to make a presentation of pramana of the seeing of this side, samsara,305 it will be unsuitable without self-awareness. Therefore, the partiality of not accepting self-awareness has been refuted. The ways of establishing that this is true are extensively
taught in the texts of the two lords of correct reasoning Dignaga and Dharmakirti. Whoever is free from conception with its mixed grasping of word and meaning relies on the unconfused purity of the four perceptions. For such a person exaggeration will be completely cleared away from perceived306 dharmas that seem to be a vase etc.. This occurs by the power of the experience that there is no vase, and so forth,. This is the suitable establishing of perception.
In brief, the pramana of inference is ultimately the pramana of perception. The pramana of perception is ultimately the pramana of self-awareness, the clear experience of our own mind apprehending itself as object. Therefore, if within the relative there is no self-awareness, all the world's classifications of truth and falsity will be unsuitable.
As for the refutation of self-awareness in the texts of madhyamaka, it should be known that, by correct reasoning about the absolute, only the true existence of self-awareness is negated and not selfawareness itself.307
In regard to inference there are the essence, divisions and abandoning contentiousness. Within the FIRST, the essence, there are the mind that infers, the signs from which inferences are made, and how inferences are made.
FIRST, the mind that infers
After the universal marks308 of things are fully grasped, By being mixed with names, they are understood.309 This is called conceptual mind, and by its concepts Various conventions are proliferated. Even for persons who do not know linguistic symbols Universal characteristics appear within their minds.
Mixable with names, conceptions such as these Produce engagement and disengagement310 with their objects. If there were no such thing as this conceptual mind, There would be no conventional statements and denials. Any kind of teaching would be impossible. Of inference or of any subjects of learning and
SECOND, within the explanation of the suitable establishment of inference, the definition of the pramana of inference was briefly explained above in the brief explanation of proper establishment. The mind that infers is conceptual mind. What is the essence of conceptuality? Having mentally grasped only
the universal aspects311 of the individual characteristics of objects, such as a vase, by confusing appearance and conceptualization as one thing, it mixes them. for example the word "vase" is mixed with its meaning. The producer of conceptions312 about a vase and so forth is called conceptual mind. As for the action of this,313 in the world conceptual mind produces the proliferation of various conventionalities of assertion, denial and so forth.
Within the minds even of persons who do not understand symbols, small children and those who are like animals, the universal characteristics of food and drink, at least, appear. Even if they do not know their own names, these conceptualizations which mix names and objects produce engaging and disengaging with objects or accepting and rejecting them.314 If there were no conceptual mind, with its mixed grasping of word and meaning, then within the world
there would also be no conventional classifications that refute others and establish our own view. There would be the fault that we could not infer hidden meanings, nor teach any subjects of study. For that reason, through concepts, we think in terms of taking care of the future; we understand the past in terms of memory; and for present objects joining names and kinds, depending on relative concepts or signs, we analyze and establish concepts and so forth315 that are not manifest. For this reason if there were no conceptual inference, there could be no reliance on reasons for accepting good and rejecting evil. All the people in the world would be like children before action is engendered within them. They could simply have no purposes at all.
SECOND, the signs from which inferences are made:
That relying on which something can be understood Is that which is known as the reason or the sign of inference. There are also the presence of the dharma in the subject And the forward entailment and reversed entailment. The three modes are complete, there is no confusion. From reasons or signs
that are resolved by perception That which is hidden can thereby be inferred. By the power of relations what is to be established, In fruition will be established, and its nature, the reason, Will be a reason such that by non-observation Or that whose conception is contradictory with that, That which is to be refuted, has been refuted. Thus the three reasons will be purified.
But how does this conceptual mind infer other hidden dharmas? There are two divisions, inference for our own benefit and for that of others. Inference for our own benefit and inferential pramana have the same meaning. FIRST, the essence of the first, inferential pramana for one's own benefit, is a mind that realizes what is to be established from a reason for which all the three modes of syllogism are present. The tshad ma mdo says:
From the three modes of the sign, the meaning will be seen.
1. Its existence in what is to be inferred.
2. Its presence in similar cases.
3. Its absence in dissimilar cases.
What is to be inferred is the particular characteristic of the subject that we want to know about. Similar cases317 also have the dharma to be established. Dissimilar cases318 do not. There can be no cases other than these or contradictory to them. The three modes are only possession of the three reasons regarding the unperceived, the nature, and the fruition.
As it says there, a reason or sign is a dharma depending on which there is the power of inferring another dharma. The sign establishing that the dharma to be proved is in the subject of the proposition to be proved is called the phyogs chos, the presence of the reason in the subject.319 That is the first
mode. If a sign is not established in a subject and its presence is debatable, analysis of the entailments will be useless. First, we must analyze whether the designated sign exists or does not exist in the subject in question, eg a vase. That in which the sign is known to exist has the presence of the dharma in the subject. That is the first mode of syllogism.
When the reason has been established, the dharma to be established with this reason follows as a consequence, since these two have been analyzed and apprehended as connected. That is the forward entailment, the second mode. For example, "What is produced is impermanent," is certain pramana because "impermanent" follows from "produced."320
If the dharma to be established is wrongly identified or non-existent, then the reason will be wrong and cannot apply. For example, "what is not impermanent cannot be produced." That is the reversed entailment, the third mode of the three.
1) all the according features are present
2) all the discordant ones are absent.
What are the definitions of the three modes?
As for the definition of the phyogs chos, presence of the dharma to which the reason applies in the subject, "the reason, itself said to be known to be established, is established to apply to the dharmin with necessity, according to pramana."322 The definition of forward entailment, 323is that "the reason
is established in such a way that things for which it is established certainly exist only in accord with its similar cases." The definition of reversed entailment324 is that "according to the way the reason is established, what does not accord with the reason will certainly be without the dharma to which the reason applies.325" The definition of a genuine example is that "it is an object certainly pervaded by the certainty of what is to be established."
The divisions of genuine examples, are two:
1) examples according with the reason
2) examples not according with the reason
The definition of an example truly according with the reason is that it is "truly a ground of the forward entailment of the reason to be proved." For example, an according example of what is "produced" being "impermanent" is a vase. The definition of a non-according example, is that it is "a true
example of the reversed entailment of the true thing that is to be established." Space is a non-according example of what is "produced" being "impermanent."326 The definition of a merely apparent example,327 is that it "is taken to be a true basis of entailment by the real thing to be proved,
but this cannot be so." Relying on a reason resolved as valid by the experiential power of any of the four perceptual pramanas, some hidden dharma whose presence is to be evaluated is established inference by the power of logical relationships. Anything that is not logically related cannot be logically established. The tshad ma rnam nges says:
Glorious Chandrakirti says:
All dharmas whatever have329 either the nature of unity or that of difference. In the first case they are essentially one with the possessor or subject, while for things related by difference they can certainly be numbered as a second. For the first, the relationship of unity with the subject, in unity with a single basis such as a vase, due to the characteristic "impermanence" being dichotomous "permanent" is eliminated. If "unproduced" is eliminated for some object, "produced is established. From eliminating "non-thing," there is its opposite the exaggeration
eliminating quality of individual existence. These can be understood from the individual names of each object, and cannot be understood in terms of any other. Therefore, this very individual object that is presented as the object of the verbal concept is one with the essence of a vase alone. As for
its being produced, impermanent, and so forth, those qualities are related to it as further aspects of its single discrete selfhood. Over and above a vase they are connected to it by its single selfhood.
So it is presented. From the viewpoint of the conception that eliminates what is other than the characteristic in question, though there are supposed to be relationships of inclusion and discrimination, since it is said that in reality there is only a single discrete subject, it cannot connect itself to itself, any more than a sword cannot cut itself.331
333 Though in other texts six causes and four conditions, or five causes etc, have been presented, in reality, all causes are included under arisingproducing producing causes334 and logical causes of definitional dependency.335 Though actually336 such connected arising is impossible, having
connected things together by conceptualizing them as an earlier cause and later fruition, when that cause does not exist, that fruition will not arise. That is conventionally called connected arising, 'byung 'brel. As for the definition of relationship, 'brel ba, from the viewpoint of a mind that has
correctly excluded what is other than some quality, the other dharmas are not rejected. There are two divisions. FIRST the definition of connection in a single possessor337 is that from the viewpoint of rejection338 of a dharma because of the subject's single nature, the dharma that is other is not
rejected. As for the definition, of that relationship, "by the power of that rejection the dharma that is other is not cleared away." The definition of subsequent contradiction339, is that it occurs when two things are mutually contradicting and contradicted. As for the FIRST of the two divisions, the
definition of the contradiction of non-co-existence is that whatever dharmas things have, those with the contradiction of non-co-existence cannot be associated by the same causal power. The two divisions are
SECOND, the definition of being mutually abandoned is that whatever dharma allegedly has a contradictory pair of characteristics341 is unreal, eliminated by being contradictory. The two divisions are like:
By having such a relationship, some reason in which the three modes are complete has the characteristic of proving what is to be established in a syllogism. If this is divided, there are three kinds of reasons, gtan tshigs.
There are three kinds of reasons establishing the entailment Of the presence of the dharma in the subject of the thesis. If they are absent, that dharma's non-arising is certain. Merely apparent reasons are those that are other than this. If the classification in correct reasoning of these
strictly necessary343 reasons is extensively explained, in general, as for the definition of a sign presented as a suitable sign or reason,344 "if the basis is established, it is always a suitable reason." If reasons are divided, there are genuine reasons and apparent ones. In the FIRST, genuine
reasons, there are the definition and divisions. As for the FIRST, definitions, the definition of a genuine reason is that it is one in which the three modes are all present. Here dividing them to show the connections, there are three kinds:
The definition of the reason of fruition is: "that which is connected to the arising of the fruition and has been presented as a reason of fruition, establishing the inference that is asserted, in which the three modes are complete." As for the divisions, in terms of the means of presenting the relationship, there are five kinds:
5. "The dharmin "a lump of molasses in the mouth" has form, because it has taste." Here the dharma which is the cause is the reason for an inferred fruition. In reality from the present taste of molasses, both
Thus, there are many ways of establishing the cause by the fruition, and by this splitting of hairs or making fine distinctions349 that water is unmoving is attributed to its being supported by a support. From spoonbills, water, croaking frogs, and ants being carried away there is attributed the cause that rain has fallen, and so forth. All350 such correct reasonings attributing causes to fruitions should be gathered under the heading of reasons of fruition.
FIRST, the definition of the reason of nature is when "a reason is presented that is of the same essential nature351 as the thing to be proved itself, establishing what we want to say, in which all the three modes are present." That is the definition of the reason of nature.
There are divisions in terms of reasons and in terms of what is to be established. The FIRST, division in terms of reasons, is like, "The dharmin "sound" is impermanent, because it is produced or "...because it arises." Here there is dependence on a distinction or qualification.352 The other is like "The dharmin "sound" is impermanent, because it exists as a thing." What is presented here is a syllogism with a sign of the nature that is pure of
distinctions.353 Of these two ways of expressing the reason, the former shows another thing as fruition. This is like dependence on another.354 The later, merely describes the essence autonomously. This is called pure of dependency or without dependency.355 Aside from their mere classification these have no real difference.
SECOND there are real establishment and conventional establishment.
The FIRST, real establishment, is like, "The dharmin "sound" is impermanent, because it is produced." The SECOND, establishment by conventional terms357 is like, "the dharmin "sound" is impermanent, because it is instantaneous."
Within this there are the definition and the distinctions. As for the FIRST, the definition of an syllogism with a reason of non-observation is "that which is presented as a reason for refuting what is to be refuted." This is the definition of an reason of non-observation in which the three reasons are
not observed to be complete. If we divide, there are a true unobserved sign which is incapable of appearing, and a true unobserved sign which is capable of appearing. Within the first are the characteristic and the subject with the characteristic.359 In the FIRST we are unable to prove that a dharma to be
refuted is necessarily absent in the basis of dispute, but are able to refute its existence. That is the definition of a non-apparent unobserved reason in which the three modes are complete. In the way of establishing such a syllogism, for a continuum encountering that invisible object no
pramana could produce the perception of such an object, for example, an invisible rakshasa. This nonapparent unperceived object, which we cannot evaluate360 and so forth, in brief, is an unfathomable or uninferable361 object that should neither be exaggerated or deprecated.362
SECOND Perceivable but unobserved true reasons
Within this there are the definition and the divisions.
FIRST, the definition of a perceivable but unobserved reason is, "a basis of establishment363 in which the dharmas to be refuted can be certainly established to be non-existent, by a reason having all of the three modes." For example if an ordinary person were here we could see that person, so if we do not see anyone, no one is here. In the divisions of a perceivable but unobserved reason there are perceivable but unobserved reasons with a necessarily related pair and with a necessarily excluded pair.364
Within this there are the definition and the divisions.
FIRST, the definition of necessarily related pair is: "a perceivable but unobserved true reason always paired with the thing to be refuted." That is the definition of an apparent unperceived true reason joined to the reason for negation by non-affirming negation.
There are four divisions of necessarily related pairs.
Within this there are the definition and the divisions.
Within this there are the definition and divisions.
FIRST, the definition of a true reason whose simultaneous non-existence is contradictory is: "a reason where the opposite is perceived to be contradicted that depends on the contradictoriness of not existing simultaneously, and whose own necessary connection is certain."
These are twelve in all.
1. Perceiving a nature contradicting the nature. 2. Perceiving a nature contradicting the cause. 3. Perceiving a nature contradicting the fruition 4. Perceiving a nature contradicting the class/ khyab byed
because it is a thing on fire all over.
1. Perception of fruition contradicting the nature. 2. Perception of a fruition contradicting the cause. 3. Perception of a fruition contradicting the fruition. 4. Perception of a fruition contradicting the genus.
Respectively these are like the following examples:
the dharmin "a thing is pervaded by being compelled to give rise to strong smoke"
because it is thing that is pervaded by being compelled to give rise to strong smoke.
3) perception of a contradictory object of entailment.369 There are perception of a object of entailment contradicting nature, cause, fruition, and genus. Examples are: the dharmin "a thing pervaded by a sandalwood fire,"
FIRST, the definition, "a true reason of conceptual contradiction371 depending on a contradiction of abandoning what is mutual whose universal connection is necessarily certain," is the definition of this reason of perceived contradiction. There are two divisions, the FIRST is true reason of conceptual contradiction with the genus.
This is like "The dharmin "a vase" is not dependent on another object for a cause of destruction, because merely from its own existence,373 its destruction is certain." The number of things to which these two apply is not certain, since there are no known limits to what is not included within them. Therefore, it is a certainly true reason whose practical scope depends on the number established.
SECOND, merely apparent reasons
Within this there are the definition and the divisions.
SECOND, the divisions of a merely apparent reason are
FIRST The unestablished reason
Within that are the definition and the divisions.
Within this there are four kinds, non-establishment because:
FIRST, non-establishment because the subject does not exist, is like the subject "absolute sound." Though a reason may be presented, the subject375 does not exist. Therefore, the presence in the subject of the dharma to which the reason is applied cannot be established.376
1. it is impossible 2. it is not universally so 3. it has both aspects that are universally so and aspects that are not.
The third, because it has both aspects that are universally so and aspects that are not is like "The dharmin "sense-consciousness of the appearance of two moons" is perceptual pramana, since it is free from conception and unconfused. The subject is established as universally free from conception, but it is not established as unconfused. So it follows that this is not established as a reason. Such overentailment,377 is uncertain, has an unestablished reason, does not follow...six things like that
SECOND, not being established from the viewpoint of mind.
There are four kinds altogether, non-establishment from the viewpoint of mind of:
The FIRST is like a jewel being presented as the subject if we are not sure whether it is a jewel, rakshasa vase, or lamp. The SECOND, it is like, "Since there is freedom from desire, it has been produced, if we are not sure whether there is freedom from desire. Or it is like, "Because there is smoke," if we are in doubt whether what is there is smoke or mist. The THIRD is like, "The dharmin "a rakshasa vase" is here, since an invisible rakshasa is here."378 In the FOURTH there are non-establishment through belief379 in impossibility, non-entailment, and both.
The FIRST is like "The dharmin "sound" is impermanent, because it is produced," for a mind that thinks sound is unproduced. The SECOND is like, "the dharmin "words" is not self arising, because it is produced by a person," for someone who thinks that some verbal sound is produced and some not. The THIRD is like, "The dharmin "Indra" is permanent, because Indra both a thing and impermanent," from the viewpoint of someone who thinks that, though things for the most part do not endure, gods like Indra may really be permanent."
mountain ravine, a peacock is established," may be uncertain, even though the reason is established." Gathering together here the others that are depended on in disputation and so forth, there are those like "sound is impermanent, because it arises by effort." If someone thinks sound always arises from effort, this would be a true reason, and the inference would be established. Rally, if we think of certain naturally occurring sounds like the sound of water, it is not established for those. This entails that it is also not established for all sounds, and this should be explained. The six such kinds have twelve kinds of nonestablishment.
SECOND, Uncertain reasons.
Within this there are:
1. The definition 2. The divisions.
SECOND, the divisions of uncertain reasons
Within this there are uncertain reasons with no common basis and with a common basis.
Within this are two divisions:
1. Uncertain reasons with no common basis where the characteristics are not different380 2. Uncertain reasons with no common basis where a common basis exists does exist, but both the corresponding and non-corresponding classes are instantiated.381
The two classes are the corresponding class, and the non-corresponding class,382:
Within the FIRST there are these four sub-divisions:
4. The uncertain reason with no common basis because the assembled meaning of the basis and dharma and the reason are identical. This is like, "The dharmin "sound" is impermanent, because it is impermanent sound."
1. The uncertain reason where no common basis is seen because both classes are non-existent. Neither the corresponding nor the non-corresponding class is seen. This is like, "The dharmin "sound" is impermanent, because it is unheard."385 Since both classes are non-existent, they are not seen.
2. The uncertain reason with no common basis where there is doubt because we cannot observe which of the two classes apply to the subject. This is because, although both the corresponding and noncorresponding classes exist, neither can be observed. This is like "The dharmin "this being" has transmigrated from the life of a god, because he has eyes. We are unable to observe either those with eyes who have transmigrated from the life of a god or those who have not; From not seeing either, we are in doubt.
3. The uncertain reason with no common basis where the corresponding class exists but is not seen. This is like, "The dharmin "sound" is permanent, because it is produced," for a disputant who says that vedic sound is permanent and produced from the ultimate nature but not observed. The corresponding class is permanent sound, the non-corresponding class is impermanent sound From that viewpoint, the corresponding class exists, but is not seen.386 However, really what is permanent cannot be produced and there is no permanent sound.
4 The uncertain reason with no common basis where the non-corresponding class exists but is not seen. This is like, "the dharmin "the Vedas" is impermanent, because it is produced from the vedic viewpoint which holds the opposite. The vedic view is that the Vedas have an unproduced eternal existence that cannot be observed by ordinary human beings. The corresponding class is permanent Vedas. The non-corresponding class is impermanent Vedas. From the vedic viewpoint the non-corresponding class exists, but is not observed.
Within the SECOND, reasons where a common basis is uncertain, there are
Within the FIRST, reasons uncertain about a common basis which is a real thing, there are four kinds.
1. The FIRST is like "The dharmin "sound" is impermanent, because it is evaluable. The reason, "being evaluable" is universally true for both classes, the according class "permanent things" and the non-according class "impermanent things". 2. The SECOND is like "The dharmin "sound" arises from effort, because it is impermanent." The reason, "being impermanent" is universally true for the corresponding class, "things that arise from effort," such as "a vase." The reason applies to some aspects of the non-corresponding class, "things that do not arise from effort" such as "a vase" and does not apply to some aspects, such as "space."
3. The THIRD is like, "the dharmin "sound" does not arise from effort, because it is impermanent. The corresponding class has both pervaded and non-pervaded aspects. The reason applies to some aspects of
the corresponding class, "things that do not arise from effort" such as "a vase" and does not apply to some aspects, such as "space. The reason, "being impermanent" is universally true for the non-corresponding class, "things that arise from effort," such as "a vase." 4 The FOURTH is like "The dharmin
"the sound of a conch" is hearable, because it arises from effort." The according class is hearable things. Some hearable things like the sound of a conch or trumpet arise from effort, but some like the sound of a waterfall do not. Some non hearable things like the visual appearances of a painting
arise by effort, but others like the visual appearances of a waterfall do not. For both classes the reason applies to some aspects and does not apply to some aspects.388 Another example is "The dharmin "sound" is permanent because it is not touchable for the bye brag pas, a school which says that the atoms
of the four elements are permanent and touchable, so that there is a basis of both of these, however that there are impermanent sounds and that some untouchable things are permanent. Within the SECOND, reasons uncertain about a common basis depending on mind that has a remainder, there are
FIRST, the reason with uncertainty about there being a true remainder
This is like, "The dharmin "this being" is an omniscient being, because of speaking.390" The reason is seen (eg. by a non-Buddhist opponent) to apply to the non-corresponding class, ordinary people, but the corresponding class, omniscient beings or buddhas, is not seen. Mostly beings are not omniscient, but whether there might not be a truly existing remainder of buddhas existing as the corresponding class exists is uncertain to the opponent.
This is like "The dharmin "this being" is not an omniscient being, because of speaking." the corresponding class of non-omniscient beings is seen and the reason, speaking, is seen to apply to it. The non-corresponding class, omniscient buddhas, is not seen and (the opponent) suspects that it does not exist. However (the opponent) is uncertain whether there may not be a remainder of omniscient buddhas who speak that would contradict the reason, "All speakers are non-omniscient."
it is certain that what is to be established by such a reason is erroneously established.
The FIRST, the contradictory reason of erroneous negation, is like "the dharmin "a lump of clay devoid of the shape of a bulging belly" is a vase, because it does not appear." The reason of non-perception eliminates everything.
The SECOND, the contradictory reason of erroneous assertion, is like, "The dharmin sound is permanent, because it is produced." The natures are contradictory. Or it is like, "The dharmin "sound" is permanent because it arises from effort." A permanent fruition is contradictory. In brief, the fruition's own reason and that which is to be proved are all wrong. SECOND,
contradiction depending on viewpoint of mind, it is like, "The dharmin the sound of a conch is impermanent, because it is sound," for someone who says that sound is permanent. If that were true, what is established would be contradictory. Or it is like, "The dharmin a vase is not newly arisen, because it
exists," for someone who says that all existence is momentary and hence newly arisen. The denial is contradictory. In accepting it we accept a contradiction. When a mind depends on that, it is really an apparent reason. It is not a true reason and will never be one. In reality391 it is not a
As said, mere seeming appearance of a genuine reason Unquestioning, if we mount it quickly as valid reason392 The very profound great level of conceptual understanding, Will it not readily in an instant be destroyed?
THIRD how to make inferences
There are three parts. There are three classifications in terms of what is to be analyzed, four in terms of the manner of establishing, and two in terms of the manner of application.393 FIRST, classifications of how to make inferences in terms of what is to be analyzed:
All that truly appears Is therefore primordial equality, and
By continua that are pure, since purity is seen, One abides in possession of the nature in purity. In dependence on things there is sure to be arising. In dependence on non-things there is sure to be imputation. Therefore things and non-things, are by nature emptiness. The actual natural state is the basis of emptiness; And since it is not something different from emptiness, Inseparable appearance/ emptiness is inexpressible.
It has to be apprehended by personal experience.394
By the ultimate madhyamaka that examines the absolute, if we examine by the correct reasoning of speech, in the genuine reality of the natural state, all this that appears as samsara, nirvana, and so forth has always been primordial equality without distinctions of good and evil and so forth. Therefore, if we analyze with the ultimate correct reasoning that examines the conventional, as taught in vajrayana, since within our own pure continuum, only the pure environment and inhabitants of the mandala are seen. All that exists has the pure nature of the natural state. Things arise in dependence on some kind of
cause and conditions. Non-things do not arise from cause and conditions, but are imputed depending on that which is to be refuted being completely eliminated. Therefore neither things like a vase and non-things like emptiness that hinders a vase are established in the natural state. They are empty
by and of their own nature.395 In reality, the ultimate, natural state of suchness, neither a thing that is empty, such as a vase, nor the emptiness that eliminates it, have separate individual characteristics.396 Apparent objects such as a vase and the emptiness of their not being established are both
inseparably empty from the time they appear, and apparent from the time they are empty. This is not within the sphere of words or conceptions. It is inexpressible by any nouns, adjectives, and so forth at all.397 Someone may think, "Well then who realizes it? it is realized by individual, personal wisdom.
SECOND, how to make inferences in terms of the manner of establishing:
As many aspects as there may be that are excluded and denied can be summarized under the two kinds of negation. These are the following:
The divisions of establishment
in the divisions of establishment there are the establishment of appearance and the establishment of elimination.
FIRST establishment of appearance
The definition of establishment of appearance is that it "is realized with complete definiteness by non-conceptual knowledge." The basis of characterization of establishment of objects of appearance 399 is individual characteristics of objects of appearance.400
SECOND, the establishment of elimination
SECOND, negation/ refutation
2. non-affirming negation.
The definition of affirming negation. "What is to be negated or refuted by conceptual mind, after its negation or refutation has become completely certain, should be realized as completely cut off." This and eliminative assertion or establishment have the same meaning.
SECOND, non-affirming negation
The definition of non-affirming negation, "when existence or establishment has been completely cut off for that which is to be negated by conceptual mind, it should be realized as exclusively cut off without remainder." This has the same meaning as absolute negation.402
Third, how to make inferences in terms of the manner of engagement:
As for refutation, there are three classifications, These are reasons established by asserting one's own thesis,403 Those depending on proclamations of another, And refutation that states the consequence of a position.
In general, first the object to be evaluated by oneself is made unobscured. The object to be established is established using valid pramana of undeceived perception and inference. One produces certainty for oneself by refuting what is wrong and establishing what is right. Inference for others depends on such a previous presentation of valid inference for one's own benefit. For other disputants,404 since what the topic to be evaluated is like405 is not realized and wrongly conceived by them, the same sense formerly seen by oneself is shown to accord with correct reasoning. It is made very clear. We establish our own tradition as suitable and present refutations of the unsuitable positions of others. The tshad ma mdo says:
According to what is said there, establishment and refutation are divided into four kinds:
1 genuine establishment 2. merely apparent establishment 3. genuine refutation 4. merely apparent refutation.
FIRST, genuine establishment
The divisions of truly establishing speech are:
2) proper non-connection establishing speech.
SECOND properly-disconnected establishing speech
SECOND, apparently establishing speech
(1 faults of mind409 (2 faults of meaning410 (3 faults of words.411
The SECOND, faults of meaning, is like, "The dharmin "sound" is permanent, since it is any thesis and corresponding class at all.414 The third, faults of words, is like "The dharmin "sound" is impermanent, since it is produced. For example like a vase. Sound too is produced. Therefore, it too is impermanent." Here there is the fault that the thesis415, the reason, the example, and the conclusion entailed are run together.
The divisions of true refutation are:
(2 refutations depending on the assertions of another, if the three modes of those assertions are not complete, by telling the consequences. As for the respective objects characterized, here is what is said in order to refute an opposing disputant who says that sound is permanent, but produced. For ourselves we establish, "The dharmin "sound" is impermanent, because it is produced." Then for the opponent we say: "From what you say it follows that the dharmin "sound" is unproduced, because it is permanent." Setting out a proof using that reason, we draw the undesired consequence. If that is properly done, we reveal and bring out various necessary consequences of the reason established by pramana416 or asserted by the opponent.
SECOND, apparent refutation.
Truly drawing out the consequences of what has been said
Apparent drawing of consequences of what has been said
SECOND, within the divisions of apparent refutation,
there are the actual presentation and the summary of the meaning.
FIRST, The actual presentation of apparent refutation
The way that things appear within the conventional Does not coincide, with the way things really are. There are two pramanas of all the conventional. These depend on the impure seeing of this side And pure vision, as with the human and deva eye.
These two are distinguished in essence, cause, fruition, and action. The mind that is not deceived about temporary objects Arises from having properly grasped its appropriate object. Clearing exaggeration from objects perceived on this side, It will completely grasp the meaning of situations. Vast
wisdom arises from having perception of the nature. Clearing exaggeration from inconceivable objects, It has as its fruition the knowledge of extent. Within the conventional, relative truth, individual appearances which accord and do not are distinguished. These are appearances in which the way things appear coincide with the way things are, and those in which they do not. As either according with the way things are or the lack of it applies truly and universally without qualification,421 There are two pramanas that evaluate these two situations. These are:
With that we reach the buddhas' vision of trikaya. This is the profound instruction of the vidyadhara gurus of the three lineages, the instructions of the three dharmas by the learned and accomplished lords of the three families. These depths of mind-samaya revealed by former learned and accomplished vidyadharas was again revealed in the valleys of the Land of Snow by the jamyang guru Mipham Rinpoche. He had the three-fold eye that sees the three realms of things to be evaluated in the sutras, tantras, and treatises.
Now this is said:
In the pramana that analyzes conventional truth Are conventional pramana of impure seeing of this side And conventional pramana of the pure seeing of the aryas. The only proper thing is to make this distinction early.
Within absolute truth,
FIRST there is the accountable absolute, emptiness as a mere non-affirming negation. It refutes the arising, enduring, and so forth of the objects of consciousness of the situations of post meditation. They are shown to be non-arising, non-enduring and so forth.
SECOND there is the unaccountable absolute. Here the objects of the ultimate wisdom of meditation are free from all complexities of the extremes of arising or not arising, existing or not existing and so forth.
As ways to resolve absolute truth both in stages and as a unity, according to the essences of postmeditation and meditation, and in terms of the accountable and unaccountable absolute two schools called svatantrika and prasangika madhyamaka arose. These schools are defined by respectively
3 joining or not joining what is to be refuted to the absolute;
However, presenting such distinctions as these is merely making distinctions about their limbs. Here is the real distinction between the two: Svatantrika first brings out the two truths of post-meditation by the power of distinguishing prajña, and then resolves it with the proclamation of the situational
accountable absolute. Having done so, it then enters the stage of the ultimate, unaccountable absolute that is free from all proclamations. Prasangika from the first having taught meditation as the inseparability of the two truths, the unity of appearance and emptiness, the unaccountable absolute truth,
as thought-transcending ineffable sudden wisdom. Here are the bases of distinguishing svatantrika madhyamaka and prasangika: For Svatantrika, in accord with evaluating the two truths by individual pramanas, one's own assertions of them as separate exist, and from that for others, reasons established by
pramana as their own theses, are presented chiefly as syllogisms to overcome the confidence of opponents. For that reason they are called svatantrikas = those who present their own theses. The prasangikas remain free from all assertions about the complexities of the four extremes, but in disputing the
assertions of others by presenting the consequences of the reasons presented by their opponents, they eliminate wrong conceptions. For that reason they are called prasangikas. Respectively, as for the characteristics of the svatantrika and prasangika madhyamaka, the definition of svatantrika is
"madhyamaka exponents who explain emphasizing assertions and teaching of the accountable absolute." Those who teach with explanations emphasizing the unaccountable absolute free from all assertions are the prasangikas = those who draw out consequences. In brief, from the teaching of the masters of svatantrika and prasangika having styles of explanation emphasizing the accountable and unaccountable absolute there arise the two streams of doctrine of svatantrika and prasangika. However, as for the ultimate great ocean of realization, without divisions or mixing up of higher or lower views they should
THIRD, as for abandoning contention
Within this are the general teaching and the particulars.
Within this are abandoning contention about what is:
impossible,423 unestablished, and unnecessary.
As for the FIRST, abandoning contention about what is impossible:
As with two moons,424 or dreaming, or taking a rope for a snake, Has confused aspects and aspects that are unconfused. There is the classification of pramana and non-pramana. If there is no pramana and no non-pramana, Since it will never be possible to make the valid distinction That the confused is false and the non-confused is true, Established doctrine will not be able to exist.
Some may think that even if there is pramana it cannot possibly be unconfused;425 but there is unconfused sense and mental consciousness, with no conceptualizations grasped in a way that mixes word and meaning. There is also mind consciousness with conceptual thought that has an unconfused grasp of mixing of word and meaning. Also there is confused non-conceptual sense consciousness, such as one moon appearing to be two. There is confused non-
conceptual mind consciousness, such as in a dream. there is confused conceptual mind consciousness, such as in a mind that grasps a multi-colored rope as a snake. Within both conceptual and non-conceptual consciousnesses these confused and unconfused aspects are distinguished. Because unconfused awareness
is not deceived, it is pramana; and because confused awareness is deceived, it is not pramana. These individual classifications are established by correct reasoning from the power of the thing itself. If we could not distinguish pramana and non-pramana, we would not be able to distinguish what is false because it is confused, and what is true because it is unconfused. It would follow that we could not establish that the heretical doctrines of outsiders are false, and that Buddhist doctrine is true.
SECOND, abandoning contention about what is unestablished:
If we have genuinely examined and analyzed Pramana and non-pramana of perception and inference, Whatever sorts of classifications there may be, And whatever sorts of complexities may occur in those, These are all established as emptiness of essence.426
If someone thinks, "such emptiness therefore cannot established as absolute,"427 if true reality, or the natural state of suchness, is examined and analyzed by the correct reasoning that examines for the absolute, the pramanas of sense and inference, as well as that which is non-pramana of sense and inference, objects and perceivers that are verbally established as well as those that are refuted, each and every one of these classifications of
complexities is established as emptiness, free from all the extremes of complexity. Therefore the nature free from all the complexities of existence, non-existence, both, and neither, exists universally within all conventional complexities, as heat does in fire. For that reason, appearances like a vase and the emptiness of their not truly existing are never separate.
Since this exists within all conventionalities, appearance, which is upaya, and emptiness, which is the source of upaya, are mixed. That after refuting one, such as the conventional, the other, such as the absolute, is established, or that after refuting the absolute, the relative is established, is impossible. This is because the natural state of things is the inseparable truth of appearance/ emptiness. Therefore, the Heart Sutra says:
THIRD, abandoning contention about what is unnecessary:
Not examining pramana and non-pramana, Only by worldly seeing, might we enter the absolute? Indeed, the possibility cannot be refuted. But as for those who see that "This arises from that," By this very dependence on the world's perception There is inference that penetrates to the truth, They do not use its name, but have not abandoned truth.
As it says here, pramana and non-pramana are not individually examined, according to prasangika tradition. Someone may ask whether having proclaimed relatively merely whatever conventionalities are seen within the world, since we are able to enter directly into the absolute, it might not be unnecessary
to classify things in terms of pramana and non-pramana. It is indeed true that we can never refute that someone without the classifications of pramana and non-pramana might still enter into the absolute. Nevertheless the worldly perception that sees that from this cause, the seed, this fruition, the sprout,
arises, and sees that this fruition, the sprout, arises from its cause, the seed, and so forth, is also pramana. Depending on these perceptual reasons, there is penetration to whether hidden objects exist or not. This is inference, as well as the reasoning that establishes the absolute. Therefore worldly
people too, though they do not clearly distinguish the names of pramana and non-pramana and designate things by them, do not really abandon the classifications of pramana and nonpramana. Since worldly people produce negation and assertion, acceptance and rejection, entering and relinquishing, they very much need the classification of pramana.
Someone may think that conventional is single, and that one pramana analyzing it is enough and two unsuitable. Well what if, within the pramana that analyzes the conventional, no distinction were made between the pramana of all the conventional depending on pure vision and the pramana of all the conventional of the impure seeing of this side. Then there would be only the pramana of the seeing of this side. No pure pramana other than this would exist. That within a single atom there are as many buddha fields as there are atoms, that there is sugatagarbha, that the pure phenomenal world is a universal, divine mandala--such pure visions would be false. Moreover,428 it would never be acceptable to say that a conch shell is truly classified as white and falsely as yellow. This is because there would be nothing else but a single pramana of whatever is seen on this side.
Someone may ask, "Well isn't there just a single absolute truth? So why isn't one pramana enough to analyze for it? What need is there for two?" What if no distinction were made between the pramana that examines for the accountable absolute and the pramana that examines for the unaccountable absolute? T
hen we would be saying that the accountable absolute alone, the conceptually realized path of emptiness as non-affirming negation is the ultimate. This path has neither an ultimate natural state or exaggerations of it. Within it inseparable appearance emptiness, the meaning of the unity of the two truths,
can never be realized, and is, in fact, impossible. Since there would be only the complexities of non-affirming negation and so forth, even the absolute would fall into the extremes of complexity. In that case the absolute too would be a complexity. The absolute truth, the way things are, as well as the correct reasoning that examines the absolute and the pramana that examines the absolute, could not be innately or autonomously established429 and so would be destroyed.
Third, the common summary:
If the relative, what is analyzed, is unestablished, The analyzing mind, and self awareness too, When analyzed, are not established, like the moon in water. The ultimate truth, which is inseparable, single truth Exists as nirvana, unqualified reality.430
In terms of the way things are, ultimate suchness, the object to be analyzed, the relative, is not established as real. The natures of the mind that analyzes are its seven collections of consciousness and self-awareness. If these too are examined and analyzed with the correct reasoning that examines
for the absolute, they are not established either. They are no more established than, for example, the moon in water. If such a natural state is the ultimate, these conventional appearances primordially appearing as empty are the single, unified truth of nature in which the two truths are not
individually distinguished, is the primordial field of nirvana. This naturally established nirvana is unreservedly true. Within it, all dharmas are equal to that, and so there are no dharmas except for dharmadhatu. Within this supreme emptiness possessing all the supreme aspects, knowable dharmas never fall away from that. They too are the ultimate. This is the appearance of the kayas and wisdoms, in which knower and known are inseparable, naturally without center and limit.431
Therefore let us not make it into something fruitless. Those of brilliant intelligence who have the four reasonings, Never abandon433 others. By this discrimination, The four reliances will certainly be produced.
As explained above, after the good eye of spotless prajña has opened, with the correct reasoning of the profound absolute and vast relative, we are sugatas, buddha bhagavats. The path of a sugata's heart sons of supremely great intelligence, the bodhisattvas, is the good path that dwells neither in samsara or peace, but has gone into nirvana. Let us work hard with the means of seeing this. Now within this world realm of forbearance, among the thousand and two guides of the good kalpa, like a mind-produced white lotus, the praiseworthy supreme leader, the son of king Zetsang, the Buddha, has taught in the extensive style the precious vehicles of the teachings of the sutras and tantras. this is very hard to obtain. However, from the power of collecting hundreds of our former merits, when the time for the auspicious connection of aspiration and karma has come, it is obtained. The taste of this is not now experienced within our continuum. Do not enter into the free and well favored situation without the fruition of listening. So
those who wish for liberation are instructed by the kindly ones. It may be asked, "Is such a good path to be seen?" The four correct reasonings are the correct reasoning of productive action, the correct reasoning of dependency, the correct reasoning of nature, and the correct reasoning of suitable
establishing. The intellect having the spotless appearance of the four correct reasonings not following the speech of others, not making itself dependent on others, having the power of undefiled examination of its own correct reasoning from the power of things themselves, depends on these four correct reasonings. By so doing, the four reliances that are being explained, must certainly be produced within our continuum. By our own power, as explained above, if we do not also have analyzing intellect, it is like being without eyes and having to rely on a staff. If we do not examine the world, we will therefore only follow opinion, and grasp things only verbally. If we produce only the easy reasons of the external provisional meaning and the sphere of consciousness, the four reliances will gradually be abandoned.
The four reliances are as follows:
1. Not relying on the individual, but relying on the dharma; 2. Not relying on the words of the dharma, but on their meaning; 3. Not relying on the provisional meaning, but the true meaning; 4. Not relying on the true meaning within consciousness, but within wisdom.
The four reliances are like this:
SECOND, the four reliances,
The FIRST is RELYING ON THE DHARMA, NOT THE INDIVIDUAL:
If it has been properly taught by anyone,
The seeming teacher, however good, will not succeed.
If we do not have the kind of intellect described above that examines by its own power, it is taught that the four reliances will be reversed.434 For this reason, not relying on individuals as individuals, the mind should rely on the dharma they teach. The true means of liberation is the path established by the power of correct reasoning from the things themselves. We are liberated by this being spoken without confusion, but not by the speaker alone. Therefore do not rely on the individual but on the Dharma. For this reason, when any being speaks about the true path established by correct reasoning, it is appropriate; this is so whether that particular speaker is good, bad, or whatever. Even the Sugata, the Buddha himself, by his power that necessarily tames beings, emanated as explained above and in other ways. If the expressible essential meaning of the mahayana is just emptiness free from the complexities of the four extremes, which is what is known as the view of the Chinese Hwa Shang; and if it accords just with the absolute as examined by correct reasoning; and if this is said to be the ultimate, absolute truth and so forth; and if this is what is taught, That contradicts the tradition of mahayana. the teacher is behaving in a style of mere imitation and so forth. However "good" such person may be, it will be of no help. Even evil-doer maras may emanate as seeming to be buddhas with the major and minor marks, perfect in action, but teaching a dharma that reverses the mahayana and so forth.
Even when we have heard and contemplated the Dharma, Do not rely on the words, rely instead on the meaning. If we realize the meaning, whatever words we say, There will be no contradiction in what is said.
Desiring verbal expressions to realize their meaning. Understand them in terms of the meaning of their message. Busying oneself with verbal complexities Is like searching for an elephant we have already found.
If wanting words, we go our way with merely words, Discursive thoughts are not exhausted, but increase. Becoming farther and farther removed from the actual meaning, Is the cause of silly fools' completely exhausting themselves.
This is the exhaustion of any need for words. If a finger points to the moon, a fool looks at the finger. If fools depend on words alone and think they know, The time of really knowing is difficult to find.
should not rely on the expressing words, but on the expressed meaning. If the expressed meaning is realized as it is, the435 expressing words, whether
expressed in good verses or bad and so on, will be suitable and without contradiction. As for the need of words, for the sake of realizing the meaning, the expression of human beings is wished for, and therefore symbols are joined together as a message.436 These should be understood to be words spoken for
the purposes of a particular situation.437 If that is understood, and later we devote ourselves to438 complexities of words, it is like, for example, someone who has lost439 an elephant and, even when it is found, still keeps on looking for it. This is like that.440 Having given credence441 and been
attached only to words, if only words are extensively and genuinely being dealt with,442 not only discursive thoughts, but verbal complexities as well, increase inexhaustibly. We wander farther and farther from the meaning to be understood. Since the meaning is not realized, we are childish fools. Such
mere words are only a cause of exhaustion. Take, for example the utterance, "Bring wood!"443 If the places, times, and details and so forth are fully revealed, that may indeed yield inexhaustible extremes of the meaning, but even so, one will not necessarily understand what was really meant. If the
meaning on that occasion of use, "You Bring that wood over here" is understood, the intention of the expressing words is that alone. If a person points his finger to show the moon to fools, the fools do not know they are supposed to look at the moon, but look at the finger instead. Just so, fools are
attached only to the expressing words, and if they do not discriminate the expressed meaning, but only the expressing words, and think they understand the expressed meaning, it will be very hard for them to reach a time when they really do understand. The Great Commentary on Kalachakra says:
Even in barbarous dialects and in broken words, Those in yogic union convey a grasp of the meaning As there is truly milk mixed into the water, When it naturally comes to the top,444 then they will drink it down.
The absolute itself is the sort of object Where the great ones never will rely on words. Those who know what is actually meant by the names of objects, What use will they have then for wordy of treatises?
What is called "having heard much," is being competent with the meaning, rather than just the words.
It should be understood by what is taught there.
If we enter fully into the meaning of this,
Having come to know the true and provisional meanings, Not putting our reliance on the provisional meaning, Instead we should rely on the meaning that is true.
The omniscient one himself by using his omniscience, Considers the powers and abilities of those to be tamed. As for the stages and vehicles being in accord with those, They are taught to be like the rungs of a ladder.
Whoever has realized what is their basic intention446 Then goes by the eight concealed intentions and intentions. Going literally by pramana Is something to be destroyed. The teachings exist for that reason. In the four schools of doctrine
And in the vehicles up to the ultimate vajra vehicle, Parts that are not understood by the lower ones Have been explained by the higher ones. Then what accords with scripture is made even greater by reason. When it has been seen, the true meaning will be grasped. Like milk rising out of water, is the play of supreme intelligence Within the ocean of speech of all the victorious ones.
The profundity of vajrayana is also sealed With six extremes and four ways of interpreting,447 With the accompaniment the lineage instructions, By undefiled correct reasoning they must be resolved. All dharmas, eternally pure, are one in the great equality. That is the meaning resolved by the two authentic pramanas In the style of the paramitas, and of the developing stage, The perfecting stage and also that of the great perfection;
In these manners the general designation of words Enters into the ultimate pith without contradiction. We gain the deepest certainty about their meaning. That limitless Dharma treasure of supreme intelligence, Is the victory banner of teachings of scripture and realization That waves in the hands of the children of the Victorious One.
hearing and contemplating, we will have come to know how to distinguish the provisional meaning and true meaning taught by the Victorious One. Our mind will not rely on the provisional meaning; but on the true meaning. The knowledge that perceives the nature and extent of knowables, and all dharmas
without obscuration, is buddhahood. By that, through omniscience about the place where there are those to be tamed, the means of taming them, and so forth,in accord with the perceptual constituents, powers of mind, and thoughts of those to be tamed, for the sake of leading them gradually to the level of
omniscience, there are the stages of vehicles for entering the gate. These go from that of the shravaka Vaibhashikas all the way up to ati yoga, the highest unsurpassable secret of vajrayana. They have been taught to be, for example, like the rungs of a ladder. The Shrimahanirvana Sutra says:
As is said there, the types of minds of those who are to be tamed are summarized under superior, intermediate, and lesser. If each of these again is divided into three, there are the stages of the nine vehicles. The second buddha of Uddiyana in his great commentary on Properly Pronouncing the Name of Mañjushri called the Blazing Lights of the Sun and Moon said:
The minds of sentient beings who are to be tamed are higher, intermediate, and lesser. By each of these three being again divided into three, there are nine. They are not said to be easy to understand.
As for the classifications of the provisional meaning and true meaning, the nature of all dharmas is the space of suchness, naturally pure, seeing the luminous nature of mind. Because it is naturally pure, it is the unchanging essence of space, beyond birth, enduring, and cessation. This is the true
epitome of all the words of the teacher and of all the treatises. The dharmin, all that appears, arising and ceasing, coming and going, pure and impure, skandhas, dhatus, and ayatanas, and such various details are appearances like a dream. All teachings that analyze451 and exaggerate the details of
speech, thought, and expression are known as the provisional meaning. In the words of the teacher and all the treatises, this is included within the relative. For example. "The nature of mind like the sky." If in speech, expression, or thought there is pride452 about this, it too is relative. The nature of the absolute is the true meaning which is really so.
What are the sutras of the true meaning? What are the sutras of the provisional meaning? Sutras taught for the purpose of entering the path are those of the provisional meaning. Sutras taught for the purpose of entering into the fruition are those of the true meaning. Sutras that explain ego, sentient being, life, persons, and individuals, those born of Manu, self, the doer, the experiencer, and various words, and those that teach egolessness along with
ego are of the provisional meaning. Sutras that teach emptiness, no characteristics, non-aspiration, not collecting anything, the unborn, the non-arising, no things, and no ego, no sentient beings, no life, no individuals, and no interval until egolessness and liberation, these are those of the true meaning. As for these, it is said that we should rely on the sutras of the true
In brief, the nature of the natural state and the sutras that teach it are the true meaning. The many means of entering into its nature, the impure, confused Dharmas that guide the minds of sentient beings there and all teachings about their divisions and so forth are the provisional meaning and Dharmas
of the provisional meaning. In this way a mirror for looking at Dharmas and a first key to distinguishing them is taught. In order that these may be clarified and the nature of the intended meaning realized, the presentation of the distinction between the intentions and concealed intentions must be explained. These are understandings explained with a little453 exaggeration, having a purpose to which we are not explicitly guided.454 First to instruct in the meaning of the Sanskrit word "tsaa twa ro a bhi pra ya," it refers to the four intentions.455
Regarding those the Sutrala.mkara says:
Equality,456 other purposes457 Likewise other times458 And thoughts of individuals459 Are the four intentionalities.
with the intention of equality, the Buddha taught, "I at that time became the Buddha rnam par gzigs."461 The intention of other objects is like saying "all dharmas are essenceless, there is not form, feeling and such, with the intention that they are not non-existent as mere conventionalities, but in the
absolute. The intention of other times, is like teaching that just by apprehending462 the name of a buddha we will be born in his463 buddha field. It is not certain that this will occur as soon as this life is over, but the intention is that it will certainly happen at some point. the intention of the thoughts of individuals, is like discipline being praised, and generosity being said to be lower to someone having the thought that just generosity is enough. Here in truth discipline is nobler than generosity. Here each case has its own purpose.
These concealed intentions are mostly not to be grasped verbally, but are brought to apprehension465 by other phenomena. The concealed intention of entering is called that because the shravaka teachings enter gradually. When here it is taught that there is individual egolessness, but that dharmas such as form exist,
the hidden intention is that they exist merely in relative truth. As for concealed intention of characteristics, from the intention of the mtshan nyid gsum, the 3 natures of yogachara, having intended the absolute, it is like teaching essencelessness and primordial nirvana and so forth. The concealed
intention of antidotes gnyen po ldem por dgongs pa, is called that because it eliminates that which is to be abandoned from the continuua of those who are to be tamed. Having grasped that buddhahood is in both the excellent and the inferior, beings may therefore abandon trying to attain it, and there will be the vision of buddhahood explained above. If like that they think that the Dharma is easy to obtain, if it is said, "the antidotes attained are like those gained by worshipping as many buddhas as the sands of the river Ganges, then a wish for the mahayana Dharma will arise. The concealed intention is that that is what is taught to happen after realization is attained. For a lazy person who thinks, "I cannot learn the path," because of laziness, it is said, "If you
those who grasp merely small virtuous roots as enough, praising other virtuous roots has an intention for individuals with thoughts like the above. That is what expressed by means of those four intentions Moreover, though it is not the real intention, having regarded or intended it in that way only for the
thought of those individuals, for those who have pride in family, their bodies, or wealth, by praising other fields and individuals, they will have a lessened perception of themselves, they will perceive their own situation as inferior. As an antidote to those who desire defiled objects, world- transcending wealth is highly praised. It is taught that those who because they have done evil deeds of harming holy objects and so forth, repented, their minds are filled with great longing, and that when they harmed the buddhas and bodhisattvas they made a connection with virtue. The intention is that
having confessed or exhausted their faults, that eventually they will act virtuously. For those whose bodhicitta is uncertain and who have a desire to turn away from the mahayana it is taught that there is no vehicle but that one. The intention is that the individual fruitions of the three incidental
vehicles466 will not be attained, but the ultimate realization will be. If so, by teaching the Dharma of the supreme vehicle, all these obstructing faults will be abandoned. Whoever grasps the words in mind or considering their meaning, puts them into practice does as is as taught in the above two verse
dharani. As for the concealed intention of interpretation/ transformation, by some of the heretics and so forth, it is said,"the Buddha's teachings are easy to realize," to reverse such grasping of them as inferior and so forth they have transformed them into other symbols, with a concealed or indirect
intention that they should be known to have another meaning than the words explained by them. For example, Knowing what is essenceless as an essence, The kleshas will be extreme kleshas If we dwell well on what is wrong, We will attain true enlightenment.
As is taught there, if we explain the intended meaning of that, By engaging with both "Saa ra", the essence, and the motion of agitation, for the mind training in trying hard to make them completely motionless,467 even having known the essence, performing the training of effort and discipline, the one who
has the kleshas produces even more kleshas. If those who wrongly grasp purity and virtue as an eternal ego, properly remain in training the prajña, by that they will attain true enlightenment. That is the concealed intention. Similarly, that we should kill our fathers and mothers refers to the father and mother of the world of samsaric formations and the one who clings to them. It has the intention that we should abandoning them and so forth. All sayings of that kind should be known as concealed intention of interpretation. Here, as for the distinction between intention and concealed intention,468 the great translator rngog pa blo ldan shes rab says:
Not understanding another meaning than what speaker is thinking of from the speakers words by the listener is the intention. The same meaning the speaker is thinking of being understood by the listener is the concealed or indirect intention. The theg bsdud kyi 'grel pa bshad sbyar says:
Thus, whoever has realized the basic intention469 of the skandhas and so forth, according to what was just explained, the four concealed intentions and four intentions according to those eight, in those in having grasped the words literally, as for that, by true pramana is also taught for the purpose of being something that has the existence of harm and the teachings also have that purpose The Shravaka vaibhashikas and sautrantikas, and the mahayana
exponents of mind-only and madhyamaka are the exponents of the four schools. The ultimate level of fruition of all of these is the secret mantra or vajrayana, including the three outer and three inner tantras, going up to the highest, ati yoga. When the lower doctrines are examined and analyzed by
lower intellects, the mind does not enter into the true object. That very thing has been done with the highest clarity by the higher ones of the higher doctrines, and the meaning of the scriptures that exhausts faults should be realized or experienced as it is. Having seen greater and greater things
established by this great correct reasoning, not putting together a position out of the provisional meaning alone, we grasp the true meaning with naked directness, for example, like water that has naturally separated from milk. Those whose intelligence has become supreme, conquer the warfare of the four maras. They can play like swans or perform activity in the situation of the Buddha's teachings as if it were a great ocean. This is very profound and hard to realize. The vajrayana also says this, as in the gal po:
By extensive explanations of the six extremes, Realization of the sense of provisional meaning And realization of the true meaning are explained. When words are not realized, their suchness is non-suchness.
The six extremes taught there are:
Since the six tantra vehicles of the vajrayana do not go beyond these six extremes of words and meaning, they are also called the six extremes. Also the gal po says:
There are four ways of interpreting the texts, verbal, general, secret, and the ultimate. The verbal meaning works with explaining the literal meaning of the configurations of words and letters in accord with the texts of grammar and pramana. As for the general meaning,470 if we do not enter quickly into
the blissful mantra path, if we regret dwelling on the slow sutra path and ascetic path, these are explained as bridging paths.471 Also to live in sexual practices of union and liberation, not even dreaming of the pure mantra path, like a dog or a pig, is thought by the exponents of Dharma to be the dharma
of the heretics. If we repent of this, but do not also abandon grasping and attachment to the dream of purity of the sutra path, we will not see the meaning of equality. If we abide in virtuous mind, whatever accumulation of merit there may be, it is explained as in the mi nag mdung thung can bsad pa and so forth: The secret meaning, is the extensive actions of the developing stage and the secret bindings and so forth produced by nadi, prana, and bindu.
The ultimate meaning is realization of the absolute, luminosity. This is the ultimate natural state in which the two truths are unified. Moreover, in the verbal style the four kayas are taught as OM AAH HUUM, HRIH, or EVAM, A and so forth, or as the four chakras. In the general style, the paths and bhumis
of the paramitas and so forth are expressed by mantra as well. In the secret style, the objects of the higher vehicles are not the objects of the lower ones. The ultimate style is the wisdom of buddhahood for which views and vehicles are of no benefit. By means of these six extremes and four styles,
those without the good fortune of the vajrayana, who have wrong views, who are separated from buddhahood so that it does not appear to them, must realize the meaning of secret mind from the path of the instructions of vajrayana. From the instructions of the lineage from dharmakaya Samantabhadra to one's own
root guru, we should correctly resolve the meaning of the realization of the profound, secret vajrayana, through pramana and analysis undefiled by accompanying faults. We should reason correctly by the reasons of the four correct reasonings, the extraordinary realizations of the four correct
reasonings, and so forth. That is the king of all tantras, the peak of all vehicles, the source of all teachings, the general commentary on all scriptures, and the great, direct path of all the buddhas. The holy penetrating mind of all the sugatas, the glorious, miraculous, great net of
miraculously arisen qualities, the guhya garba, or secret essence, the certain continuity of suchness, is taught by the great king whose correct reasoning is not in common with those of the lower vehicles. Here there are three extraordinary correct reasonings:
3. The correct reasoning where words and meaning are not in accord.
FIRST, the reasons of the teachings of pramana,473
Within this there are four topics. These are the following:
FIRST, the reasons of the four realizations,
Within this there are the following:
The dharmin "the inseparable natural state" is free from everything within the scope of mind. Therefore, it is the realm of individual, personal wisdom, the perception of yoga, which is incomprehensible to conventional mind.
SECOND, the reason of the three purities
As it says there, the dharmins "the five elements, the five skandhas, and the eight consciousnesses" dwell within the nature of the three purities. Therefore, they exist primordially with the nature of the five consorts, the five families, and the five wisdoms.
Third, the correct reasoning of the four equalities
The dharmins "the two absolutes," the accountable absolute which cuts through every partial complexity and the unaccountable absolute which cuts through complexities altogether, are equal as the mere absolute. It manifests completely, simply because the natures of complexity are not established. The
dharmin's appearance with causal efficacy is the true relative. Its appearance without causal efficacy is the false relative. These two are equal as the mere relative. Things appear to have self-nature, but if examined they have none. The dharmins "the accountable absolute and the non-accountable
absolute," are equal in having a self-existing essence and having the seven exceptional riches of the absolute.476 That is because the absolute is the space of the dhatu, the natural state non-dual with primordial wisdom. The dharmins "the two kinds of the false relative" are also equal in being within the mandala of the kayas and wisdoms. This is because the nature of the way things really are is primordially pure.
The dharmins "the many ways things appear," the apparent dharmas of samsara and nirvana, in terms of the way things really are, are the mahatma, the great self, naturally present wisdom. That is because this is established as the wisdom that discerns477 the ultimate natural state.
The tantras teach that the dharmin "the five poisons" should not be abandoned. Though the word "poisons" is the same, the meaning is exalted. The five poisons are not abandoned by antidotes, because in realization, they arise as the five wisdoms.
The dharmin "the nature of dharmas" is definitely established not to have the nature of any complexity at all, because it arises as all the various appearances of samsara and nirvana. The dharmin "these appearances of the relative" is definitely not of a fixed nature and may arise as anything. This is
To briefly summarize the profound main point of the views of both sutra and tantra, there is the correct reasoning that establishes the relative as the great purity, establishing all the dharmas of the phenomenal world, from their primordial beginning, as divine appearances, and the correctly established truth existing abiding with that as the essence of the perceiver wisdom. There is also the reasoning that establishes the absolute as the great equality.
All the dharmas of samsara and nirvana, free from their primordial beginning from all extremes of complexity, are within the state of the great emptiness beyond mind, inexpressible by speech or thought, the equality of all good and bad, and accepting or rejecting. Thus, as purity is established from the viewpoint of appearance, and equality from the viewpoint of emptiness; these two are inseparable from all dharmas, equal with them in the sense of being of
one taste with them. This is the utter, total purity of the great net of miracles, the uncompounded unity of insightemptiness. It is dharmakaya, the single dot or drop of bindu, realized by the holy ones through their individual, personal wisdom. It is the unity of the great perfection. When this has been truly resolved by the true pramana that analyzes the conventional and also by the pramana that examines for the absolute, the same meaning is found by
both these analyses. If it is explained in terms of the two stages of the vajrayana path of the secret mantra, this meaning is as follows: The developing stage, utpattikrama, with the symbolism of the relative body, teaches that all dharmas are like illusions and so forth. The teachings of the paramitas and the illusion-like bodies of the deities etc. are visualized. The divine body of prana and mind, taught to be like illusion etc., is perfected.
Spontaneous presence, taught to be like the natural radiance of insight, is gradually brought into the way of being of the great perfection. When the verbal, general, secret, and ultimate meanings are resolved, we enter into this.
The mere luminosity also taught by the paramita-path is the verbal meaning. Abiding in the luminosity of the developing stage is the general meaning. The luminosity evoked by the four emptinesses of the perfecting stage is the secret meaning. In both these two stages, all dharmas are realized as the
By the power of entering into the profound meaning of the pith of these four styles, among which there is no contradiction, there is the profound sense of the teachings of the sutras and tantras, true knowledge that does not need to depend on anything else. Whoever has confidence in such intelligence, has
the supreme mind of which no one can be deprived. We are great heart-children of the Buddha, participants in the kayas of the victorious one. Holders of this great, undiminishing treasury of holy Dharma, as taught in any of the teachings of the three vehicles or the nine, are bodhisattva-mahasattvas, the
protectors of all those remaining within samsara to be tamed. These bodhisattvas have realized the twelve limbs of the buddha's teaching,478 the Dharmas of the scriptures included in the six tantra-vehiclecollections, the three excellent trainings479 and the teaching of realization that includes both of the two stages. They are completely victorious over all partialities that do not accord with these precious teachings
If we practice the true meaning, we do not rely on consciousness, The mind of grasper and grasped that follows verbal concepts, Instead we put our reliance in non-dual wisdom itself. As for the ego that has an object--that is mind.
Its nature is the grasper and the object grasped. Whatever object it has, it is always false. The reality of nature has nothing to do with things. Conceiving things or non-things, with duality or without, All conceptual objects, however they are conceived, Whatever may be grasped, belongs to the realm of Mara. So it has been taught by the Buddha in the sutras.
Denials or assertions can never destroy conceptions; But if it is seen that there is no adding or taking away, There is liberation, free from subject and object. There is the natural radiance of luminosity. Eliminating complexities of the four extremes, This is taught to be the excellence of wisdom.
By valid reasoning that eliminates all extremes, And by the oral instructions given by the guru It seems to us as if just now we first had eyes. Then by the faith of experience of the Sugata's Dharma-amrita, Which is just a name for limitless expanding joy, The wisdom of the Sugata is bestowed on us. Since dharmas without remainder have reached the goal, equality, One attains inexpressible depths of certainty.
The wise call this the inexhaustible Dharma treasure. Having developed skill in the way of the two truths, When the two truths are seen to be a unity It is like threshing the husk for the sake of having the essence. Know that all skillful means lead only to this end480
Let irreversible faith arise for Teacher and teaching. Having attained the supreme, non-dwelling state of wisdom, We are free from all the extremes of samsara and nirvana. The spontaneous flow of the stream of effortless compassion Pervades to the farthest limits of time as well as space.
We should cultivate realization of the true meaning as it is in itself, not relying on the mind of consciousness, whose nature is grasped objects and the grasping mind which follows after words and concepts. Instead, rely on the mind of non-dual wisdom without grasper and grasped. The ego has conceptions
of empty, non-empty, both, and neither and so forth. Since that mind has the nature of the grasper and external objects that are grasped, it is confused. So conceived, it is false. Since it will not bear analysis, we cannot make contact and join with its real nature beyond all complexities of things. What
is the reason? The conception of things, and the opposite conception of non-things, the conception of neither and so forth, however they are conceived, are motions of the mind. They are concepts. Since they are concepts, whatever conceptions may grasp at things and non-things, these are the realm of Mara. So it has been taught in the 'jam dpal rnam par rol pa'i mdo:
Therefore refuting things, establishing non-things, and so forth, whatever conceptual negation and establishment there may be cannot destroy the grasping of conceptual mind. The nature eliminates any dharmas whatever. When we do not establish or postulate any dharmas at all, all complexities of grasper and
In that case, since we are entirely free from conceptualized grasped objects and the conceptualizing subject that fixates them, there are no grasper and grasped. Materiality is empty, nonexistence like space. This has the nature of intrinsic wisdom where knowledge arises by itself. This is luminosity in which all the complexities of the four extremes are naturally absent. The Victorious One has said that this is supreme wisdom. The rgyal yum sdud pa rin po che says:
In the pure worlds, whatever names of dharmas are named They all arise transcended, abandoned in the truth. There is no other deathless, holy wisdom than this. Therefore, this is known as prajñaparamita.
As the blind never see the form of the sun, fools who see only this side have never seen nature free from all the extremes of concepts. By thinking, "It is simply empty," and so forth, not knowing the mind of faith, these fools cannot enter into the nature free from all complexities, and terror arises in them.
The word taught by the Buddha is genuine scriptural pramana of the true meaning. The pramana of correct reasoning, free from all proclamations and eliminating all extremes is the teaching of the mahatmas. The pramana of the oral instructions of the authentic guru with the lineage instructions
practiced by the wise have the power to liberate. When world-transcending wisdom arises in our being by the power of unfeigned devotion for this, it is like a blind person obtaining eyes. Here there is a style of patience or example wisdom in accord with the situation of individual beings. Since true
perception of situations appears within one, the person having the distinctions of true knowledge then experiences the taste of the amrita of the Sugata's holy Dharma. By confident faith in that, joy, the eye that sees the essence, develops. This is not the ordinary physical eye481 but the supreme eye of wisdom. It always one-pointedly views dharmakaya, the wisdom of the Sugata. In this case, all the different dharmas of samsara and nirvana, virtue and vice, good and bad, and so forth are realized as inseparable equality. By that there is a deep true knowledge inexpressible by names, words, and so forth.
This cannot be refuted by anyone in the world, including the gods. That is the subject of this work. It is what is expressed by the teachings and all the inexhaustible Dharma treasury of the three vehicles. As is said:
If we attain the depths of the true meaning, hundreds of thousands of Dharma treasures issue from our hearts. Therefore, by having come to know the true way of the two truths by hearing, contemplating, and meditating; when the unity of the two truths is seen in a way where it is not seen by oneself, the
essence of the fruition is attained. Like gradually removing the husk from the subtle inner truth, we should try to enter into and remain482 in the unity of the two truths, the ultimate means of liberation of all those taught by the Tathagata. By these the singularity of dharmadhatu is realized. Except for
this one ultimate realization, there is nothing else. The Sugata, the Buddha Bhagavat knows means of taming that accord with the faculties, powers, and so forth of those to be tamed. The final goal of all the means he taught is omniscience. Therefore, that is the true path. Irreversible faith arises that
these teachings cannot be ravished from the mind by the host of billions of maras. This is because the way things fundamentally are has the essential nature of the unity of emptiness and compassion. If this is truly realized, we attain the manifestation of supreme self-arising wisdom, the genuine
prajñaparamita, the fruition that dwells neither in samsara or in nirvana, as the benefit for oneself. We are liberated from the one sided extremes of samsara and nirvana, without having to refute them. As the benefit for others, for sentient beings who do not realize this, there naturally arises the
stream of the great compassion will naturally flow, pervading the ten directions and the three times to their limits. By the spontaneous, eternally-pervasive presence of buddha activity, the supports of the path, the actual path, and the ultimate path are established.
Thus contemplating the way of the dharma of the two truths, Using the skillful means of the four reliances, The action of which is taught as the four correct reasonings; From this undefiled483 cause, by the deep wisdom of fruition, If the phenomena of experience blossom forth; One is set free by the eight great treasures of confidence. That bring about this expansion into the space of insight.
Traditions that were formerly heard and contemplated, Not forgotten, then become the treasure of memory. The meaning of these, as profound as it is extensive, Is then completely revealed as the treasure of intellect. All the meanings of the sutras and the tantras Are entered into as the treasure of realization.
All the details of the teachings we have heard Never forgotten become the treasure of retention. Explaining things properly to all sentient beings Is the satisfaction-producing treasure of confidence. As for the precious treasury of holy Dharma, Completely guarded, this becomes the Dharma treasure. The continuous families comprising the three jewels Not cut off, are the treasury of bodhicitta. In the unborn equality of the nature itself, Attaining patience manifests as the treasure of practice. These are inseparable and inexhaustible. Those who attain the eight-fold power of the treasures of confidence, As praised by the victorious ones and all their sons, Over the three worlds they are empowered as lords.
As explained above, the way of the dharma of the two truths is analyzed and resolved by the nonerroneous analyzer, the four correct reasonings, whose well-contemplated action is the four reliances. By having this supreme cause that is undefiled by faults, when the fruition blossoms whose uttermost depths are
very hard to penetrate, there is profound appearance of wisdom, as limitless as space. this is the fundamental space of primordial insight that is not realized by ordinary people. It is will be liberated by the eight great treasures of confidence, as if that was what made it blossom. What are these eight? The rgya cher rol pa says: will not be broken. This is the treasure of relative bodhicitta.
These eight great treasures are attained. How is this done? These treasures of memory, intellect, realization, and grasping are the cause of confidence. The treasure of Dharma and so forth are the fruition of confidence. That is why these eight have the common name of treasures of confidence: From having
the treasure of memory and so forth, irreversible confidence arises. From confidence the treasures of protecting the Dharma and so forth arise. Thus confidence is the chief of them, and they are known as the great treasures of confidence. Having joined these eight great treasures of confidence to our
own powers, every word and meaning become the wealth and power of the inseparable, inexhaustible, limitless eight great treasures. Holy persons who do this are supreme children of the victorious ones. They are praised as such by the victorious ones together with their sons. They will be lords of the three worlds of the nagas below the earth, human beings on the earth, and gods above the earth.
To gain pramana is the teaching of the Buddha. If true authentic pramana has fully been established, Through the certainty produced by the path of pramana, By the teaching of pramana, we see the truth of fruition.
Bhagavat, is the conventional pramana that is not in contradiction with the path of correct reasoning, and the pramana that analyzes for the absolute. These are established as much higher than the doctrines of outsiders and so forth. Therefore, glorious Chandrakirti, glorious lord Nagarjuna, and so forth taught the path of correct reasoning in their texts, teaching the analysis of the two truths and so forth. The path that they taught, the teachings of
pramana, has produced the certainty of supreme faith. Therefore, those who are famed for learning in the world together with its gods, as well as the noble ones of the shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and so forth, who do not know things as they are, by this pure Dharma amrita, will see the
highest true fruition. Having the renunciation/ realization that completely perfects the five paths and ten bhumis, they will therefore produce mastery over the four bodies of a buddha and the five wisdoms. Finally, there are the two sections of the meaning of entering into the merit of this,
1) the manner of composition 2) the dedication of merit.
As for the FIRST, the manner of composition:
As a result of vision that is completely pure One will reach the ultimate goal, the great compassion. The Sugata said, after this path had been taught by him, "As for the taste of amrita of that which I attained
Those who are possessors of these four proper reasonings Experienced by the means of the four reliances, Produce by that the fortune of sharing that amrita." Corrupted nowadays, by the power of the dark age, Due to its way of reversing the four reliances, The excellent taste of the teachings is hard to experience.
In itself, the vision that sees the way all dharmas are as it is is very pure. Because of that, we reach the final goal, the great compassion, which in its kindness protects all other sentient beings as limitless as space, with their causes of suffering. The supreme being of the shakyas, the Sugata, the son of king Zetsangpa, for those to be tamed established the three or the nine vehicles, appropriate for the respective powers of each being. Because he has taught those paths, the tastes of holy Dharma amrita which the teacher, the perfect Buddha himself attained, is also genuinely experienced by those who
have the four correct reasonings, by means of the four reliances. So both the sutras and tantras truly teach. When the portion of amrita attained by oneself has been produced within this world, many beings of the good kalpa will experience this taste of holy Dharma. But by the 5 denigrating
corruptions, and in particular in this present time by the power of defilements of the view, understanding of what is explained above is reversed. The certainty of the path of the four correct reasonings is not produced. The non-erroneous way of the four reliances is the supreme taste of the supreme
leader Gautama's teachings of scripture and realization. After its perfect abundance, so difficult to experience, was genuinely seen,484 there were only excellent wishes to benefit others. Having realized this precious teaching that is difficult to meet with, the great reason of certainty unequalled by others, was realized, by supreme devotion to the faith that desires the radiant essence, this treatise was composed. SECOND, the dedication of merit:
Producing undefiled prajña from contemplating this, By the merit embodied within this brief expression My all beings come to abide in the state of Mañjushri The above mentioned intention is a special ultimate or quintessential purpose. For such a reason, the manner or means of producing within the
continuua of sentient beings the prajña without the faults of defilement that arises from contemplating the three prajñas is discussed just a little in a few texts. Since the subject is naturally vast, by the limitless merit of composing this, reaching to the limits of space, may all these beings not be kept far away from inseparable space and wisdom, the jnanasattva level of Mañjushri, but quickly attain it.
In the direction manifesting the sun of Mañjushri, If the lotus of the essence blooms because of faith, By the red honey droplets of good explanation having arisen May celebration increase for the bees of the excellent kalpa.
According to previous advice to write this, and recently exhorted by the victory banner of the excellent thoughts of learned ones, in the Sakyong year, third month, twenty-ninth day, this was written by Jampel gyes pa, Mipham]. Mangalam. There are a hundred and four verses. Dge'o.
Here is the identifying scepter485 of the colophon
When these, my good explanations, have been contemplated, May various great and subtle doubts unwind themselves. May total certainty rise by supremely clear intellect, Bestowing the treasures of inexhaustible confidence.
fire horse year, fourth month, fourth day.
Jetsun Mipham, the sun of exponents of Mañjushri, made his mind one-pointed by the great force of longing. Drawn by the three faiths in the direction he was looking, the lotus of the essence, drawn upward by the three faiths, was opened by the penetrating solar rays of blessing. When anything was
explained, the good explanation rose from the hundred petals of intellect, like tiny red droplets of honey. For the host of bees of the good kalpa who want to taste the supreme flavor of this sage's speech, together with the commentary on its intention, may the celebration of realizing the intention as it is not only put an end to samsara, but increase ever more and more.
Again this is said:
By the excellent teacher, the chief of two legged beings, As for the natural state of knowing things without mixing, The great knowledge mandala of the nature and extent Seemingly emanating a hundred thousand rays, The all-pervading light of the objectless compassion, According with the powers and
thoughts of those to be tamed, Proclaiming the eighty-four thousands heaps of dharmas as one. From the thick darkness of ignorance that makes them fall asleep May the beings of the three worlds instantly be exalted.
Good in beginning, middle, and end, this excellent teaching, Has the two-fold goodness and the four pure actions. In the great ocean of amrita of this auspicious teaching, There is seen the play of 10 million naga lords, The learned accomplished ones of India and Tibet, A country of valleys wreathed
by surrounding snowy mountains. Led by the three ancestral leaders, and khenpo, loppön, and Dharma The golden chariot of arousing bodhicitta Is full of ten million rigdzins of the two accomplishments.
From now on possessors of the special six Dharmas As the legacy of the ten million former rigdzins Learned and accomplished, who have now passed on, The difficult pith of the sutras, tantras, and oral instructions,486 The vajra vidya mantra tradition of joyful teachers Is the play of the dance of the saffron lion of all teachers.
From the welcome single circle the wheel488 of the deepest sense, With its day-producing power like the sun, On the non-deceptive path of freedom and omniscience May there gleam white parasol of pramana.489
Within the circle of the two truths of the nine-fold vehicles, May the retinue, the eighty-four thousand teachings, Free from stain, amidst the great thousand petalled lotus The explanation of teachings of the Victorious One, Satisfy with the anthers of the four proper reasonings.
By interdependent arising, the essence of knowables, Having the great vase of well-described analysis Of the two pramanas, in the ocean of excellent teaching, With the analysis of the two conventional pramanas, Their insight flashing490 auspiciously like the golden fish, The nine-fold lineage precepts, coiled to the right, May the dharma conch of the four reliances pleasantly sound.
From the pure and equal wisdom of the net of miracles, Eight treasures of confidence gather into a knot of eternity, The completely certain meaning of the sutras and tantras May this victory banner the Sword of Prajña fly in samsara. Within the vast and extensive ocean of all dharmas, May those who
want to sever at once the hundred nets, The snares of non-realization, wrong realization, and doubt, Grasp this thought-arisen razor-sharp sword of prajña. Thus while staying in the great place of Varanasi, In the Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Being well-supplied with the needed Tibetan texts, Since this is my own tradition, to benefit some new minds
By the kind teacher Jamgon Mipham Rinpoche Quickly written, by the guru's oral dictation, With ornamentation by learned treatises of pramana, He followed the early translation, a knower of ancient haughtiness
Great prajña whose vision is the suchness of knowables. Here within the extent of the limits of Jambudvipa, The rain-clouds of the true view are gathering. May rains of the benefits of loving-kindness fall, May there be the perfect auspiciousness of the new young sun.
By this well-performed appearance of the sun When the darkness of the dark age has finally been expelled, The grove of young utpala lotuses of the truth of mind Blossoms to the very limits of the directions. May beings taste the joy of the celebration of this
I and all beings who open the treasure, the Sugata's teachings, Are rendered wealthy by the appearance of his mind. Without all pride, but with the highest aspirations, May the realm of benefits for those to be taught increase.
May the prophesied dharmaraja, the coming Dharma lord, Victorious in all directions, just like Dharmakirti, Discover the highest dharma, attaining the dharma-eye. Eliminating adharma, may the way of Dharma flourish. May the shining sun of Mañjushri with its blazing heart, Scatter huge petals of explanation everywhere.492 May red honey droplets of benefit for other beings Expand to the limits of space throughout the ten directions. So may they be grasped by every sentient being.
The eye of prajña the seer of knowables in themselves, Clears away the darkness of the mist of views. By its producing that brilliant daylight in this world, May all beings thereafter always glow with beauty. The lotus feet of the Jamgon guru, lion of teachers, Having touched my head, may the vase examining eye The path of proper reason, limitless as space, Beautify all this world with the sound of the lion's roar.
This commentary was written in 1986 In the great Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, to explain my own Nyingma tradition. It was delivered orally and was not originally intended to be published. Having consideration for my students, strongly urged by their pure requests again and again, very moved, after the direct rain of the auspicious benefits of Nyingma was assembled on thirteen occasions, the chief Khenpo rigdzin dorje, the great leader, urged very strongly, further requests were made at the Nepali stupa, and the teachers Ugyen Tendzin and Tsering tendzin having written an important/ kind auspicious letter hardly
needed to do so again. This occurred in the year of the teachers passing 2530 in the eighth month on the tenth day, when I the holder of the name of Nyingma khenpo Palden Sherab was in Varanasi, in the place where the rishis had been in the Deer Park, and this was the cause of the good fortune of the
place and time of composition being so perfectly auspicious. Sarva mangalam. Thus in Varanasi at the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies after thirteen presentations of the glorious happy sense of the former Nyingma, in the fire tiger year on the seventh month, tenth day (BE 2530) this was printed. ge'o ge'o.
Translating this text had the general purpose of presenting Buddhist logic in English. In particular it is a rare presentation of a uniquely Nyingma approach to reasoning, and the particular views of the subject of the great Mipham Rinpoche. There is no greater authority on Mipham than Khenchen Palden Sherab Rinpoche, who is also one of the most learned Nyingma Khenpos in his own right.
This project was begun by members of the Nalanda translation committee. Later the committee members in Boulder, Colorado continued working on it with commentary by Khenpo Palden Sherab. Khenpo Tsewang Dongyal gave a running translation. The members most active in this were myself, Ann Helm, Gary Wiener, Nelson Dudley, and Tony Duff. This process covered only about 1/5 of the text. Ann especially did some further work, but for the most part I was on my own after that. I was able to ask some questions due to the kindness of Khen Rinpoche's colleague Khenpo Tsewang Gyatso California, which made it possible to finish the text. rime lodrö Waldo, Guy Fawkes Day 1997. May it be auspicious.
abhi.sheka: dbang abhidharma: mngon chos absolute truth absolute: don dam accept and reject: blang 'dor act and effort: bya rtsol action: spyod adding and taking away: 'du bral affirmation and negation: dgag sgrub affirmation: sgrub negation: dgag Akanishta: 'og min alaya: kun gzhi alayavijñana: kun gzhi rnam par shes pa all at once: cig char all-pervading, all-encompassing: phyam gdal all-sufficient: gcig chod alpha-pure: ka dag
amrita: bdud rtsi analysis: dpyod pa antidotes: gnyen po anu: a nu appearance: snang ba artificial: bcos Aryan riches, 7,: 'phags pa nor bdun as it is: rang babs, rang sar, rang mal asura: lha min ati: a ti: rdzogs pa chen po authentic: yang dag Avalokiteshvara: spyan ras gzigs Avici Hell: mnyal ba mnar med pa awakened: sangs awareness: shes pa ayatanas, 12: skye mched bcu gnyis bardo: bar do bhagava[-t][-an]: bcom ldan 'das Bhrama: tshangs pa: Hindu creator god bhramin bram ze bhuta: byung po bhuumi: sa bias: ris bindu: thig le bodhicitta: byang chub sems
bodhisattva vehicle/yana bodhisattva: byang chub sems dpa' buddha activity: phrin las buddha qualities: yon tan Buddha qualities: sangs rgyas kyi yon tan buddhadharmakaya: sangs rgyas chos kyi sku: = dharmakaya. buddha[hood]: sangs rgyas
reasoning: rigs pa: see text cause and condition: rgyu rkyen ceaseless: ma 'gags, 'gag med. certain: nges characteristics: mtshan charya yana: see theg pa dgu co-emergent: lhan cig skyes pa coarse: rags collection of oral instructions: man ngag sde compassion: thugs rje complexity: spros pa concept: rtog pa conceptions: dmigs pa confusion: 'khrul pa Conquerer: rgyal ba. consciousness 5/6: rnam shes lnga/drug consider: ltos contrived: bcos
conventional: tha snyad coronation vase: spyi blugs created: bcos crystal: shel [[[gong]]] cutting through: khregs gcod dakini: mkha' 'gro dedicating the merit: bsod nams bsngo defilements: dri ma deity: lha detail: rim pa developing [stage]: bskyed [rim] dharmakaya: chos sku dharmata: chos nyid dharma[s]: chos Dharmdhatu: chos dbyings dharmin: chos can dhatu: dbyings, khams dhatus, 18: khams bco brgyad dhyana[s, 4]: bsam gtan bzhi difference of different manifestations of a single essence: ngo bo gcig la ldog pa tha dad difference that refutes one: gcig pa bkag pa tha dad direct liberation: cer grol discontinuity: rgyun chad
discriminating awareness wisdom: so so rtags pa'i ye shes discriminating awareness: so so rang rig; so sor rtag pa discursive thought: rnam rtog display: bstan, bkod disturbed: rnyog doer of all: kun byed dön: gdon drowsiness and discursiveness [wildness]: bying rgod ego: bdag eight consciousnesses: tshogs brgyad eight examples of illusion: sgyu ma dpe brgyad eight extremes: mtha' brgyad eight kinds of suffering: sdug bsngal brgyad eight ordinary siddhis: dngos grub thun mong brgyad eighteen dhatus: khams bco brgyad element: khams, rigs eliminate or establish: dgag sgrub eliminate:
log emanation: sprul pa embodiment: 'du ba empowerment: lung, dbang emptiness with all the supreme aspects: rnam mchog kun ldan stong nyid emptiness: stong nyid empty: stong pa enlightenment: byang chub ennailment: gzer [bu] environment and inhabitants: snod bcud, rten dang brten pa equality: mnyam nyid equanimity: mnyam nyid essence: ngo bo [[[snying po]]] establish: sgrub eternal: ye eternalism: rtag [lta] etherial: sang seng even: phyal ba
examination: brtags pa examine: brtags pa examin[e][ation]: dpyod pa exhaustion: zad pa, rdzogs pa exist: yod pa experience: rang snang experiences: nyams extremes: [mu] mtha' fabrication: bcos false conception: kun btags family: rigs father tantra: pha rgyud fine and coarse: rags phra five aspects of sadhana: cho ga rnam pa lnga
five buddha activities: phrin las lnga five buddhas: bcom ldan 'das lnga: five certainties: nges pa lnga five colors: kha dog lnga five desirables: a'dod pa lnga five elements: 'byung ba lnga five enlightenments [[[manifestations]] of...]: byang chub lnga five eyes: spyan lnga five families: rigs lnga
five kayas: sku lnga five paths: lam lnga five perfections: phun sum tshogs pa lnga five qualities: yon tan lnga five root kleshas/ poisons: rtsa ba'i nyon mongs lnga five skandhas: phung po lnga five wisdoms: ye shes lnga Five buddha families: see five buddhas, five families. fixation and
grasping: gzung 'dzin fixation, fixated object: gzung ba. fixator, fixating subject: 'dzin fixed: nges flickering [[[emanation]] etc]: 'gyu ba four extremes: mtha' bzhi four fearlessnesses: see text four individual true apprehensions: meanings, words dharmas, powers. four kayas: sku bzhi four kinds of
birth: skye ba bzhi four legs of miracle: cho 'phrul rkang pa bzhi four manners of birth: skye tshul bzhi four maras: bdud bzhi four mudras: phyag rgya bzhi four noble truths: 'phags pa bden bzhi four purities: see ch. 6 four reliances: see text four seals: phyag rgya bzhi four, the, propitiation
and so on: bsnyen sgrub bzhi. four times: dus bzhi four ultimate realizations: rtogs pa bzhi Four elements: khams/ 'byung ba bzhi Four immesurables: tshad med bzhi freedom: grol ba freedoms and favors, 18: dal 'byor bcu brgyad: Ch. 1. fresh and relaxed: lhang nge lhan ne from all eternity: ye
gandharva: dri za garbha: snying po garuda: khyung gather: 'du ba. gelong: dge slong genuine: yang dag exaggeration: sgro 'dogs good and evil: bzang ngan gotra: rigs grasper & grasped: gzung 'dzin grasper/grasping [[[subject]]]: 'dzin pa great full ocean: gang chen mtsho great perfection: rdzogs pa chen po ground: gzhi groundless: gzhi med guard samaya: dam tshig srung ba Guru Rinpoche: Second Buddha of Uddiyana = Padmasambhava guru: bla ma heart-
[[[essence]]]: snying po higher perceptions: mngon shes higher realms: mtho ris highest yoga: shin tu rnal 'byor hinayana: theg dman hungry ghosts: yi dwags ignorance: ma rig pa Immense ocean: gang chen tsho: AKA rnam snang incidental: glo bur included: 'du ba, 'dril ba, 'ub chub individual insight:
so so rang rig individuating characteristics: rang mtshan Indra: brgya byin insight: rig pa instantly: skad gcig par, cig car intellect: yid [special cases] intellect-consciousness: yid kyi rnam shes intention: dgongs pa interdependent arising: rten 'brel 'byung ba intrinsic-: rang-, rang bzhin
gyis- Ishvara: "the Lord,"a Hindu creator god. jetsün: rje btsun jewel: in context of three jewels dkon mchog jñana: ye shes jñanasattva: ye shes sems dpa' kagyü: bka' brgyud kalpa: bskal pa kama: desire karma: las kaya: sku khen[po]: Buddhist scholar
kinnara: mi'am ci klesha: nyon mongs knowledge: shes pa kriya: kri ya, bya rgyud liberation: grol ba limit: rgya chad limitless as the sky: mkha' mnyam loka: sems can rigs drug lokayata: rgyang phan Longchenpa: klong chen [rab 'byams] pa Longdé: klong sde Lord of death: shin rje lord: mgon pa,
['od] gsal madhamaka: dbu ma madhyamaka madhyamaka: dbu ma magic wand: sgrib shing mahamudra: phyag rgya chen po mahasandhi: rdzogs pa chen po mahasattva: sems dpa' chen po mahasukha: bde ba chen mahasukhakaya: bde ba chen po'i sku mahatma: bdag pa chen po mahayana: theg chen Maheshvara: dbang po chen po maintain: skyong Maitreya: byams pa major and minor marks: mtshan dpe Major and minor marks of a buddha: mtshan dang dpe byad mandala: dkyil 'khor manifest: mngon gsum Manjushri: a'jam dpal mantra: sngags mantrayana: sngags kyi theg pa Mañjushri mara: bdud marks: mtshan measure: tshad meditation: bsgom pa, mnyam bshag, bsam gtan memory: dran pa prasangika: thal a'gyur: see text mental contents: sems las 'byung ba middle: bar mind: sems, yid Mind: [itself][-nature of] sems nyid
nadi: rtsa nadis, three: rtsa gsum naga: klu natural state: gnas lugs, rnal ma natural: rang byung, rang bzhin gyis etc. nature: rang bzhin, gzhis negation: dgag neither established nor cleared away: sgrub bsal med net: rgya, dra ba neutral: lung ma bstan nihilism: chad [lta] nine yanas: theg pa dgu nirmanakaya: sprul sku Nirvana: mya ngan las 'das pa, zhi noble ones: 'phags pa non-dual: gnyis med non-men: mi ma yin non-obstruction: 'gags
med: zang ka non-thought: mi rtog pa not adding and subtracting (taking away): 'du bral med Nyingma: rnying ma Kagyu: bka'a brgyud Gelugpa: dge lugs pa nyingthig: snying thig object, kaya: yul sku: the object of enlightened perception is the kayas, having the essence emptiness and the nature of
luminosity. object: yul obscuration: sgrib offering substance: rdzas omniscience: kun mkhyen, thams cad mkhyen pa['i ye shes] one taste: ro gcig one's own insight: rang gi rig pa one's own seat: rang mal opposite: ltos oral instructions: man ngag: ornament: rgyan overturned: ru log pandit: scholar paramita: pha rol tu phyin pa paratantra: gzhan dbang parikalpita: kun btags
parinishpanna: yongs grub partiality: phyogs particularizing characteristics: rang mtshan pass the pass: la bzla ba path of splendor of vivid rainbow colors: khra lam lam path: lam perceiver, wisdom: yul can ye shes perception: dmigs pa perfect: rdzogs perfecting stage: rdzogs rim perfect[ing] yoga:
yongs su rnal 'byor pervasion, backward pervasion. phenomena: rnam pa phenomenal world: snang srid pith: gnad play: rol post-meditation: rjes thob power: rtsal powers [of mind]: dbang po prajña: shes rab prajñaparamita: shes rab pha rol tu phyin pa pramana: tshad ma prana: rlung prasangika:
thal 'gyur pa pratyekabuddha: rang rgyal preta: yi dwags primordial purity of wakefulness: ye sangs primordial space: gdod ma'i dbyings primordial: gdod nas, thog nas, ye projection: [rang] snang, kun btags, rang gzugs provisional meaning: drang don puja: mchod pa, cho ga pure appearance: dag snang
pure bhuumis: dag pa sa purified: dag, sangs, sbyangs qualities: mtshan, mtshon rakshasas: srin po real: don du, dgnos realization: rtogs pa, dgongs pa recognize: ngos bzung reference point: gtad [so] relative truth: kun rdzob bden pa relative: kun rdzob renunciation and realization: spangs rtogs. resolve: gtan la 'bebs pa rich display: 'byor ba'i bkod rigdzin: (enlightened)awareness holder royal treasures, 7: rin chen sna bdun rupakaya: gzugs sku
pure appearance: dag snang sadhana: sgrub thabs, cho ga Sage: thub pa, the Buddha Saha: This world called the realm of endurance. Sakyong: sa skyong: earth preotecting (king) samadhi: ting nge 'dzin, Samantabhadra [i]: kun tu bzang po [mo] samapatti: snyoms 'jug samaya: dam tshig samayasattva: dam tshig sems dpa' sambhogakaya: longs [[[spyod]] rdzogs pa'i] sku sampannakrama: rdzogs rim Samsara: 'khor ba: srid pa Sangha: dge 'dun Saraha: Sa ra ha Sarasvati: consort of Shiva sattva: sems dp'a sautrantika school: mdo sde pa sautrantika: mdo sde pa sealing: rgyas thebs: phyag rgya Second Buddha of
Uddiyana: Padmasambhava = Guru Rinpoche Self existing equanimity: lhun [grub] mnyam [pa nyid] self-existing: lhun grub, rang gnas self-insight: rang rig self-liberation: rang grol self-luminosity: rang gsal: self-nature: rang ngo self-subsiding: rang yal Semdé: sems sde separation of clearing away:
dbye bsal seven fold service: prostration, offering, confession, rejoicing, requesting to teach, asking the teacher to remain, dedicating the merit. seventeen tantras: man ngag sde rgyud bcu bdun. Shakyamuni: sha kya'i thub pa Shamatha: gzhi gnas Shastra: bstan bcos shentong: gzhan stong Shiva:
drag po, dbang po shloka: sho lo ka shravaka: nyan thos shunyata: stong nyid siddhi: dgnos grub sign: rtags: tshad simple: spros bral simplicity: spros bral single dot: nyag gcig six ayatanas: ske mched drug six higher perceptions: see mngon shes six lokas: rigs drug
six perfections/ paramitas: pha rol tu phyin pa drug six realms of beings: rigs drug six senses: tshogs drug, dbang drug skandhas: phung po sky: nam mkha' solid: dgnos space of the dhatu: dbyings space: dbyings, go, [nam] mkha', bar snang Space: [[[Spaciousness]]] klong spheres of activity: spyod yul
straying: gol [sa] Subhuti: rab 'byor subject: yul can substance: rdzas subtle: phra ba subtlest: shin tu phra ba suchness: [de][ji] bzhin nyid sugata: bde gshegs pa sugatagarbha: bde [bar] gshegs [pa'i] snying po suitable establishing, and nature support and supported: rten dang brten pa
Surya: the Hindu sun god. sutra: A discourse of the Buddha in the mahayana sutra: mdo svatantrika: rang rgyud svatantrika: rang rgyud: see text taking and leaving: btang bshag taming: 'dul ba tantra: A discourse of the Buddha in the vajrayana tantra: rgyud Tara: taa ra, sgrol ma tathagata: de bzhin
shegs pa ten bhuumis: sa bcu ten dharmic activities: chos spyod bcu ten directions: phyogs bcu the 5 pranas: rlung lnga the dhatu: khams: = dharmadhatu the four abhishekas/ empowerments: dbang bzhi the four reasonings: those of dependence, productive action, three jewels the Nature: ngo bo thing: dgnos po things as they are: gnas lugs [tshul] three gates: sgo gsum three jewels: dkon mchog gsum three kinds of suffering: sdug bsngal gsum
poisons/kleshas: dug gsum three pramanas: scripture, perception, and inference three purities: dag pa gsum three samadhis: ting nge 'dzin gsum three times: dus gsum three worlds [[[realms]]]: srid gsum, khams gsum Three levels: sa gsum tirthika: mu stegs: Hindu, extremist. tonglen: gtong len training on
the bhumis: sa sbyang transmission: ngo sprod transparent: zang thal trikaya: sku gsum true meaning: nges don tummo: gtum mo turning the wheel of dharma: chos kyi 'khor lo 'khor. twelve ayatanas: skye mched bcu gnyis twelve divisions of the Buddha's sutra teachings: bstan pa'i dbye ba bcu gnyis
twelve links of interdependent origination: see ch. 8 rten a'brel two accumulations: tshogs gnyis: accumulation of merit and wisdom. two benefits: don gnyis two bodhicitta: byang chub sems gnyi two cessations: 'gogs pa gnyis two kayas: sku gnyis: dharmakaya and rupakaya, chos sku and gzugs sku. two obscurations: kleshas and knowables. twofold purity: dag pa gnyis ultimate point: 'gag bsdam unborn: skye ba med uncompounded: 'du ma byas universal: [rab] 'byams unmixed: ma 'dres unobstructed: 'gag med, thogs med, zang ka upa/ charya: u pa, spyod rgyud upaya: thabs upayayoga: = upa utpattikrama:
bskyed rim vaibhashika: bye brag pa vajra holder: rdo rje 'dzin pa vajra master: rdo rje slob dpon vajra: rdo rje Vajradhara: rdo rje chang vajradhatu: rdo rje dbyings vajrakaya: rdo rje sku Vajrapani: lag na rdo rje Vajrasattva: rdo rje sems dpa' vajrayana: rdo rje theg pa
visualize: bskyed vividness: sal le ba wisdom of equality: mnyam nyid ye shes wisdom of extent: ji snyed pa'i ye shes wisdom of nature: ji lta ba'i ye shes wisdom: ye shes wish-fulfilling gem: yid bzhin nor bu without support: rten med without transition and change: pho 'gyur med. two truths: bden
gnyis yana: theg pa yanas of cause and characteristics: rgyu mtshan theg pa ye: primordial There is no creation or creator in Buddhism. The nature is beginningless and eternal, much as God is described. yidam: yi dam yoga tantra: yo ga: rnal 'byor [rgyud] yogachara: sems tsam, rnal 'byor spyod
Tibetan glossary 'phags pa nor bdun, faith discipline, generosity, learning, decency, modesty, prajna. 'bras bu: Effect, result, fruition (the kayas and wisdoms etc.) —lam du byed pa: Making the fruition one's path. — theg: The last three of the nine yanas in which the fruition itself becomes the working
basis. Vs. rgyu mtshan theg pa in which the result is produced causally by purification, practice, etc. 'bud: See bud. 'byed pa med pa: Without distinction, of dualistic conceptions etc. —thugs rje, impartial, distinction less compassion. It is there for all beings equally, regardless of their
state of virtue, understanding etc, as rain falls on the just and unjust alike. 'byor ba'i bkod: Rich display. 'byung ba lnga: sa, chu, rlung, me, nam mkha'; earth, water, air, fire, and space. In their coarse form as substantial existents, they are obstacles to enlightenment. In their subtle form, they
are phenomenal principles that respond to the will of the yogin. Thus they are known as the consorts of the five bhagavan's. In their subtlest form, they are not different from insight-bodhicitta itself. 'dre ba: mix. Eg. things are seen clearly without being mixed up in ji snyed ye shes, qv. 'du ba: 1
Gather, assemble, accumulate, collect, join, meet. (active sense). 2 Be united or included (of changeless entities). 3 To embody (of deities etc). 'du bral med: Without gathering or separation, without adding or taking away. 'du byed: the fourth skandha, formations, habitual tendencies, karmic formations.
'du ma byas: Uncompounded, unconditioned. Not produced by combining dharmas through cause and effect. 'du shes: Perception, [[[Wikipedia:conception|conception]]] discernment, ideation, inclination, the third skandha. 'dul ba: the teachings of monastic discipline, such as the 250 rules for monks and 350 for nuns. One of the 3 pitakas or baskets of the teachings, sde gsum. Vinaya, [[[monastic]]] discipline, conversion, cultivation, taming. 'dul byed, is the tamer or teacher and 'dul bya, the tamed or disciple. 'dus pa: See 'du ba. 'dzin: See gzung 'dzin. 'gag med: 1 Unobstructed, unlimited by or free from..., able to manifest.
2 Unceasing. 'gag: 1 Pith, crucial or principle point. Cf. gnad. 2 To cease. 'gogs pa gnyis of discriminating awareness 1 without complexity resting in natureless meaning in which defilements are like the sky. 'gro ba: 1 Sentient being = sems can. 2 Animal. 3 To go. 'gro ba'i lam: Path of one's
travels, path of beings. 'gyu ba: movement, moving thoughts, discursive [vibration], thinking. Has the connotation of unsteady flickering like lightning, tongues of flame, or reflections on water. All distracting mental activities including perceptions, feelings, and the undercurrent of subconscious gossip
are included. 'phro: Flickering emanations of the moving, more or less equal to, rnam rtog, discursive thoughts; erratic, mental activity. 'jam dpal: Mañjushri bodhisattva of knowledge. 'jog pa: 1 Put, place. 2 Leave, abandon. 3 Postulate, assert. 4 Classify, pigeonhole. 5 Rest the mind in
meditation. 'khor ba: Sa.msara; confused, cyclic, transmigratory existence; to whirl or spin; rotate. 'khrul pa: Confusion, deception, mistake, frenzy, madness, bewilderment. 'od gsal: Luminosity, luminous clarity. The glory of the vision of the pure bhumis from the eighth upward, in which the two obscurations are removed. non-objectivized manifestation within the great emptiness. Its full blown form is the buddhas' vision of things as they are, corresponding to ji snyed ye shes or kun mkhyen ye shes. All schools of the mahayana accept its existence. Therefore, it is a mistake to understand
emptiness in a way that excludes such vision. 'od: Light, radiance. 'og min: Akanishtha, = gandavyuha, the highest realm, pure land, or buddha field, that of the vision of enlightenment. It is on the level of sambhogakaya, and said to be inhabited by mahasattvas, (who alone can apprehend it.) It was at
first the name for the highest of the realms of the gods. 'phags pa bden bzhi: Four noble truths. 1 All is suffering, sdug bsngal. 2 The origin, kun 'byung, of suffering, ego grasping etc. 3 'gag pa, Cessation of suffering. 4 The path, lam, leading to the end of suffering. 'phags pa nor bdun, faith
discipline, generosity, learning, decency, modesty, prajna. 'phags pa: Arya: Changeless, without transition or change. Cf. pho ba, the yoga of transference of consciousness. a nu: Anu yoga, the eighth yana. See theg pa dgu. a ti: Ati yoga, the great perfection, the ninth yana. See theg pa dgu.
a'dod pa lnga: desirable qualities of the 5 senses. a'jigs chen bzhi: old age, illness, death, deterioration. a'khor lo bsgyur ba'i rgyal po. Universal monarch, especially Dharma kings. bag chags: vasanas Habitual tendency or pattern, karmic propensity or seed. In yogacara philosophy karma is stored as
bag chags, in kun gzhi, alaya, a formless and neutral basic consciousness. These mature into such manifestations as being born in a physical body, having particular mental propensities or character, seeing the world in terms of samsaric confusion, experiencing the karmic result of previous good and evil
deeds, etc. bar do: Intermediate state in cyclical existence, especially those experienced between death and rebirth, according to texts like the bar do thos grol, the Tibetan Book of the Dead. These are the 'chi ka'i bardo, the bardo of the moment of death, where the radiance of dharmata is experienced;
bar snang: Space. (The literal words could mean appearance in the middle but seldom do.) bar: The middle, middle way between opposites, eg. inner mind and external appearance. It may become an object of fixation, and it is said that the wise do not dwell in the middle either. bcom ldan 'das lnga: the
five bhagavans, peaceful deities or sambhogakaya buddhas, Akshobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha, Amoghasiddhi, Vairochana. They are said to appear in the visions of the chos nyid bardo, and also figure in many tantric visualization practices. They represent the enlightened forms of the five skandhas, form, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness and five kleshas anger, pride, desire, jealousy, and ignoring. They manifest as the five wisdoms,
mirror-like, equality, discriminating, all-accomplishing, and dharmadhatu wisdoms. Locana, Mamaki, Pandaravasini, Tara, and Akashadhatvishvari are their consorts, representing the pure form of water, earth, fire, air, and space. bcom ldan 'das: bhagava[n][t], blessed one, the Buddha. bcos ma (n) pa (v):
Fabricated, artificial, created, cranked up, created purposely, fake, unnatural, pretended. bdag pa chen po: great being bdag: Self, ego, atman (false and delusive) master, sovereign. —nyid = bdag or sometimes = essence, ngo bo or similar words. — pa chen po : great being, mahatma, universal mind of enlightenment or buddhahood, as symbolized by Samantabhadra etc. By becoming enlightened one attains this. There is no conflict with emptiness. This self is empty in essence like any other. bde ba chen [po'i sku]: Mahasukha[[[kaya]]], the body of great bliss, referring to the intrinsic and inseparable
bliss of enlightenment, bde ba, which is closer to well-being and equanimity than physical pleasure. bde bar gshegs pa: Sugata, epithet of buddha, the blissfully gone one, due to experience of mahasukha. bde gshegs snying po: Sugatagarbha, sugata essence, buddha nature, the ultimate, changeless reality
from which temporary phenomena arise and to which they return. v. Uttaratantra etc. Because of its existence as our real nature we are of the “enlightened family” and can attain enlightenment. Sometimes sugata garbha refers to that potential or Buddha nature. bden gnyis: the relative and
absolute, kun rdzob and don dam: The two truths are usually said to be emptiness and appearance, in the third turning they are also presented as appearances being or not being like things as they are. bdud rtsi: amrita. The intoxicating nectar of the gods, which conveys long life, bliss, and
spiritual accomplishment. The literal words mean "devil juice." bkod pa, (n or v): Arrange[ment], display, order, setup, array. bdud: Mara, demonic or obstructing forces, either personified or seen as psychological or karmic propensities. Mara is the king of such demons or forces, as the Devil is in the
west. There are many divisions (see text), especially the four maras: The klesha and skandha maras (personifications of those); mrityu mara, personifying death, rigidity, darkness, depression and such life-destroying forces; and the deva putra (son of deity) mara concerned with the seductions of pleasure,
power, and various ego-building experiences. bla ma: guru. Teacher who embodies, displays, and transmits the sacred reality of enlightenment, also teaching the path by which it may be obtained and so forth. In tantric teachings like ati it is generally held that even though enlightenment is our true nature, it would be extremely difficult to realize this without the guru. Therefore great respect is in order for those rare persons who can properly perform this function. At the same time one must transcend devotional conceptions about the guru as separate to attain realization. Over-conceptualized
devotion can actually be a hinderance. blang 'dor: Accepting and rejecting, receiving and abandoning, taking and discarding. blo: (Conceptual) mind, intellect, cognition, awareness, plan; —zangs, good intelligence —'das, beyond conceptual or sa.msaric mind, beyond thought or intellect. bram ze: brahman,
hindu priestly caste. brgya byin: king of the 33 gods in Hinduism brtag pa: Vitarka. Investigate, inquire, examine; —s: Pf. of rtog: Think conceptualize. Applied and focused thought approaching and determining the nature of its object. Cf. dpyod pa. brtags pa gnyis pa: Condensed text from the cycle of the Hevajra Tantra. bsam gtan bzhi: the dhyana "trances" have five factors concets, analysis/scruitiny, joy, well-being and equanimity
[[[rtog pa]], dpyod pa, dga'a ba, bde ba, btang snyoms). Accounts vary. In each successive dhyana one drops out until the 4th has equanimity alone. These states also correspond to heaven realms where the gods have correspondiong realizations.
In particular, the nine dhyanas, four with form and five formless concentrations. See snyom 'jug. bsgom pa: Meditate, action of meditation. See text for divisions. V. shamatha, vipashyana. bshugs: That which has been entered into and within which one dwells. What presents itself. To consist of,
constitute. bskal pa: In Hindu-Buddhist cosmology a great kalpa consists of 4 to 80 (depending on the source) small kalpas of about eight million years. During this period the world evolves, develops, deteriorates and finally is completely destroyed in fire. It is said we live in a sub-period called the
good kalpa because many buddhas appear in it. bskyang: p. of skyong: Protect, guard, maintain, preserve, care for, nurture, govern, enjoy. Dharma protector deities are chos skyong. bskyed rim: Developing stage. One performs various liturgies involving visualization of deities, making praises and
offerings to them, reciting their essence mantras, and so forth. The deities are more aspects of enlightened mind than disembodied, personal entities external to and more powerful than oneself. But they are sometimes experienced as personlike beings. Eventually one hopes to see the phenomenal world as
embodying various aspects of the pure environment and inhabitants of the mandalas of deities. bskyed: Generate, cultivate, create, produce, visualize, develop. bsod nams bsngo: all good deeds including practice accumulate merit or good karma. When ego thinks it owns good karma it is easily defiled, so
it is best to give or dedicate it to beings and the path. bstan pa'i dbye ba bcu gnyis: General/sutras, verse summaries, prophecies, verse teachings, exhortations, biographical tales, narratives of former examples, conditional declarations, extensive teachings, narratives of former births, resolutions,
narratives of miracles. btang bshag med: Without taking or leaving: Intransitive or participle of 'bud, revealed, occurred. It just happens. bud pa, dispense with. 'bud, transitive: strip, lay bare, reveal, set free, expel, slander, blow (conch, on fire etc.), endeavor. bya ba grub pa'i ye shes: All-
accomplishing wisdom, the karma family wisdom. The speed, struggle, and poverty mentality of jealousy is transmuted by realization that real achievement is effortless and self-existing. As with Vajrakilaya (indestructible dagger) practice, the power of realization cuts through the confusion of obstacles.
3 One's speech manifests the seed syllables.
buddhas they are called noble ones or aryas, 'phags pa. There are usually said to be ten levels or bhumis of the bodhisattva path, on each of which a certain perfection or paramita is emphasized, though up to fifteen are sometimes mentioned. —theg pa: The bodhisattvayana practices the paramitas in the
context of the understanding, and later the vision, of emptiness. see theg pa dgu. byang chub sems gnyis: aspiring and entering smon 'jug. byang chub sems: Bodhicitta, enlightened mind. In the mahayana there are the bodhicitta of aspiring to enlightenment, and that of actually entering into it. There
are relative bodhicitta, concerned with compassion and the details of practicing the paramitas etc. and absolute bodhicitta, the ultimate nature of things. Bodhicitta is presented in ati as the absolute mind of enlightenment. It is more or less equivalent to rig pa, insight, and sugatagarbha, when they are used to refer to the fruition. byang chub: Bodhi, enlightenment. byang: purified of obscurations and chub = perfected in enlightenment. bye brag pa: Either the vaisheshikas among the six hindu schools, or the vaibhashikas among the shravaka schools. The eighteen schools more or less followed these tenets. Stcherbatsky's The Central Conception of Buddhism is
one of many sources. They define the relative as the composite, and hold that the absolute is physical atoms and the momentary dharmas of mind. They also hold that these absolutes are linked by various truly existing causes and conditions. They hold that the three times, space, etc. are established as
substances. They hold that partless atoms aggregate into gross objects, and that partless moments of consciousness directly perceive their objects. They hold that effects in some sense pre-exist in their causes bying rgod: Drowsiness and wildness, sinking into dullness and the arising of uncontrollable
discursiveness, as obstacles experienced in meditation. They are said to be defenses of ego against fundamental space in which it does not exist. byis pa: 1 Immature persons, children. 2 Disparaging: childish fools. byung po: Ghost, generic name for 'dre, gdon (döns) and bgegs (geks) etc. Demon, evil spirit, esp. of the preta realm of the six lokas. cha med: Nothing whatsoever, partless, without aspects. cha phra: Infinitesimal, subtle [parts]. chad lta: Nihilistic view. Those who hold that nothing truly exists or who are skeptics holding that we cannot know what exists are nihilists. But this fault
is most often ascribed to those who hold that there is no moral order of karmic cause and effect, so that the various good and bad events in the world arise only by chance. Thus many scientists would be nihilists from the buddhist viewpoint. cho 'phrul: Magical display, apparition, illusion, trick,
creation, power, miracle, magical attack. cho ga rnam pa lnga: The five aspects of sadhana: Visualization, recitation, offering, praise, and blessing. chos can: That which possesses the various qualities of individual dharmas as opposed to the single nature of dharmas, emptiness, dharmata. The subject
of a logical reasoning. Sometimes the phenomenal in general. chos dbyings: Dharmadhatu. Space, source, or realm of phenomena. Absolute reality, the Dharma = enlightened mind, bodhicitta etc.. In the eighteen dhatus of hinayana, as presented by the Abhidharmakosa, dharmadhatu is the object, vi.shaya,
yul, of the mental sense. In this sense there are as many dharmadhatu as there are sentient beings. chos kyi 'khor lo 'khor: The three turnings of the wheel of Dharma. The first was at the deer park in Varanasi with hinayana teachings of truly existing dharmas, the four noble truths, and eightfold path;
the second at the vulture peak taught emptiness of true existence; the third in the indefinite realms taught the changeless, eternal, ultimate nature, absolute bodhicitta or sugatagarbha. chos nyid: Used in the Abhidharmakosa etc to mean absolute reality or realities, the real nature of something. It
is sometimes used in this text in such a sense. The Tibetan schools all accept emptiness as the absolute reality, so the terms are more or less synonymous. In ati this is the great emptiness beyond emptiness and non-emptiness, things as they are beyond concept, their ultimate being or nature. chos sku: Dharmakaya. See sku gsum. chos skyongs: Dharma protector, dharmapalas, various generally wrathful deities, who protect the teachings, attack those who pervert them for reasons of ego etc. In general when basic sanity begins to slip, the phenomenal world gives gentle messages, like you can't find your
3 Religion in general.
4 quality, property.
7 Truth, order, law.
8 Principle, topic.
9 Meaning, value.
If the guru transmits this vision to someone, it is called “giving the Dharma.” dag pa gnyis: rang bzhin dag, glo bur dag. Purity of nature and purity of pure experience from the incidental. The two purities result from removing the veils of conflicting emotions, the kleshas, and of
primitive beliefs about reality that obscure omniscient wisdom. dag pa gsum: There are various lists of three purities. In the bodhisattva path there is threefold purity (=emptiness) of actor, action, and object. In mahayoga there are purity of the outer world, inner contents, and the continuity of the mind stream snod, bcud, rgyud. The list referred to in the text, during a discussion of kriya is
probably this: 1 lha dag dkyil 'khor, the mandala of the pure deity 2 rdzas dang longs spyod dag, pure substance = longs spyod, enjoyment or abundance 3 sangs rgyas don dag ting nge 'dzin the samadhi of the pure meaning of buddhahood. [ES lists sngags dang ting nge 'dzin, purity of mantra and samadhi for 3] It is worth noting that ES's source specifically refers to kriya and ours is more a mahayoga feast commentary. dag pa'i sa: The three pure
bodhisattva bhuumis, the eighth, ninth, and tenth. They are so called because only on these levels do luminosity, pure appearance, wisdom, the ornament, gandavyuha, Akanishta, etc. manifest. Bodhisattvas of these levels are to some extent like the buddhas in seeing things as they are. Those on a lower level have direct cognition of emptiness in meditation. But they have not yet removed the obscurations of primitive beliefs about reality that veil pure appearance. dag snang: Pure appearance, sacred outlook (VCTR, who wanted to that here everything appears has a sense of overwhelming sacred value). Enlightened vision of the relative = luminosity possessing the two purities etc. Ultimately = the kayas and wisdoms. dam bca': Thesis, promise, oath, claim, idea. "Dam" here = firm, stable. dam tshig srung ba: To keep, guard, or maintain samaya. It is sometimes said that this is almost impossible for
someone who is not enlightened. For buddhas it is self-existing and effortless. dbang bzhi vase (5 buddha families, water, crown, vajra, bell, and name), secret (inner feelings and phenomena are the mandala), prajna jnana (bliss of union), suchness (the nature). dbang drug: The six indriyas, or sense organs, the six senses, the five usual senses plus the mental sense; ES:
1 The five senses.
2 The five powers:
dbang po chen po"the great Lord,"a Hindu creator god. dbang po: Hindu god, of the three Bhrama, Vishnu, and Shiva he is associated with destruction and ascetic yoga, and with the dance of existence. He is also much associated with Hindu tantra. dbang: 1 Empowerment (= dbang bskur, abhi.sheka) Typically a ceremony introducing students the ritual and mandala of a
particular deity. One can also be empowered as a teacher or with a certain state of being. 2 Power. 3 Senses or their faculties (= dbang po, usually as conditioned experiences to be transcended. 4 Mental acuity or capacity. 5 Ruler. dbu ma: 1 The middle way. 2 The central channel visualized in tantric yoga. 3 The madhyamaka philosophy of emptiness established by Nagarjuna. Nagarjuna claimed to establish logically the teachings of the
prajñaparamita suutras that absolute reality is empty of true existence of what conventional concepts impute to it, of any real nature and so forth. Interdependent arising of all conventional things is one way of establishing this. The prasangika school dbu ma thal 'gyur, emphasizes that reality transcends concepts, even that of emptiness. Therefore, insofar as possible, it makes no attempt to establish doctrines of its own, but limits itself to
showing the inadequacies in the doctrines of others. Ati is highly influenced by the prasangika viewpoint, which it presupposes. Reasoned arguments do not appear in this text, because they have been resolved previously. Therefore, one who wishes to study ati should first have personally resolved the meaning of emptiness as presented by madhyamaka. Then it is possible to go on to realize how emptiness manifests in experience as nondual
emptiness/luminosity. Ati to some degree also accepts the notion of svatantrika madhyamaka: without distinction, division, classification, or exclusion. dbyings kyi snying po: Garbha of space = sugatagarbha. Sometimes = dharmadhatu, sometimes the seed, potentiality, or “genes” of dharmadhatu, which makes it possible for sentient beings to attain it, as in the Uttaratantra. dbyings las mi g.yo: Not departing from space, going beyond it in the
sense of becoming something with a