five turbidities (pañca-kaṣāya, 五濁). The five kinds of degeneracy which begin, in a decreasing kalpa, when human lifespan has decreased from 80,000 years to 20,000 years, and become more severe as human lifespan decreases to 10 years.
(1) the turbidity of a kalpa in decay, which is characterized by the next four turbidities;
(2) the turbidity of views, such as the five wrong views;
(3) the turbidity of afflictions, including greed, anger, delusion, arrogance, and doubt;
(4) the turbidity of sentient beings that live a wicked life and are in increasing suffering;
(5) the turbidity of human lifespan as it decreases to 10 years.
The wrong views in
(2) and the afflictions in
(3) are turbidity itself,
which leads to the results in (4) and (5).