The 8th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
|Articles by alphabetic order|
Formula for Paying Homage to the Three Ratana
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Okasa Okasa Okasa - So as to be free from all my offences, accumulated from evil deeds done physically, verbally and mentally, I pay homage to the Three Gems:
the Dhamma and
once, twice, thrice with my joined-palms on my forehead very respectfully and humbly. Owing to my deeds of merit, may I always be free from the four Apayas, the three Kappas, the eight Atthakkhanas, the five Veras, the four Vipattis, the five Byasanas; and at the final existence may I attain Magga, Phala and Nibbana!
(Three Ratana = Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha; Okasa = asking for permission)
===The Four Apayas (Nether Worlds)===
1. The Realm of intense continuous suffering/ Hell (Niraya);
2. The Realm of animals (Tiracchana)
3. The Realm of ever hungry beings (Peta)
4. The Realm of miserable petas (Asurakaya).
The Three Kappas (Disasters)
1. Being born in the Hell/ Niraya
2. Being born as animals
3. Being born as petas
4. Being born as Asaannatta-brahamas and Arupa-brahamas.
5. Being born as a human being in the remote part of a country which can not be reached by Buddha and his disciples
6. Being born as a human being having the wrong view during the time of the Buddha and his Teachings
7. Being born as a human being with no intellingence to understand the teachings of the Buddha
8. Being born as a human being with adequate intellingence to understand the teachings of the Buddha but not in the time of the Buddha.
The Five Veras (Enemies)
Four Vipattis (Deficiencies)
(Impairment; destruction; misfortune)
1. Living during the time of bad rulers (Kalavipatti)
2. Being reborn in four miserable existences (Gativipatti)
3. Having physical deformities and disfigurements (Upadhivipatti) and
4. Being deficient in intelligence, knowledge, mindfulness, right effort and diligence (Payogavipatti)
Nibbana (The Extinction of Lust, Hatred and Delusion)