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- one-pointedness (Tib. རྩེ་གཅིག་, tsé chik; Wyl. rtse gcig), which establishes the state of shamatha
- simplicity (Tib. སྤྲོས་བྲལ་, Wyl. spros bral), which is reached through the clear seeing of vipashyana
- one taste (Tib. རོ་གཅིག་, ro chik; Wyl. ro gcig), when shamatha and vipashyana become one
- non-meditation (Tib. སྒོམ་མེད་, gom mé; Wyl. sgom med) is reached when one goes beyond the mind, and beyond the concept of a meditator meditating, the level of Dzogchen.
- Kalu Rinpoche, The Union of Mahamudra and Dzogchen, Khyentse Özer, Rigpa, London, 1990.
- Herbert V. Guenther, Meditation Differently, The Māhamudrā Approach: The Four Tuning-in Phases, 1992.