The 9th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
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Gacchati Vedic gacchati, a desiderative (future) formation from *gṷem "I am intent upon going," i. e. I go, with the foll. bases. --
(1) Future -- present *gṷemskéti> *gaścati>Sk. gacchati=Gr. ba/skw (to bainw). In meaning cp. i, Sk. emi, Gr. ei)=mi "I shall go" & in form also Sk. pṛcchati=Lat. porsco "I want to know," Vedic icchati "to desire." --
(2) Present *gṷemi̯o=Sk. gamati=Gr. bai/nw, Lat. venio, Goth. qiman, Ohg. koman, E. come; and non -- present formations as Osk. kúmbened, Sk. gata=Lat. ventus; gantu=(ad) ventus. --
(3) *gṷā, which is correlated to *stā, in Pret. Sk. ágām, Gr. e)/bhn, cp. bh_ma]. These three formations are represented in Pāli as follows (1) gacch˚, in pres. gacchati; imper. gaccha & gacchāhi; pot. gacche (Dh 46, 224) & gaccheyya; p.pres. gacchanto, med. gacchamāna; fut (2nd) gacchissati; aor. agacchi (VvA 307; v. l. agañchi). -- (
2) gam˚ in three variations; viz. (a) gam˚, in pres. caus. gameti; fut. gamissati; aor. 3 sg. agamā (Sn 408, 976; Vv 797; Mhvs vii.9), agamāsi & gami (Pv ii.86) 1. pl. agamiŋhase (Pv ii.310), pl. agamuŋ (Sn 290), agamaŋsu & gamiŋsu; prohib. mā gami; ger. gamya (J v.31); grd. gamanīya (KhA 223).
See also der. gama, gamana, gāmika, gāmin. -- (b) gan˚, in aor. agañchi (on this form see Trenckner, Notes, p. 71 sq. -- In n'āgañchi J iii.190 it belongs to ā+gam); pres. -- aor gañchisi (Sn 665); inf. gantuŋ; ger. gantvā; grd. gantabba. See also der. gantar. <-> (c) ga˚, in pp. gata. See also ga, gati, gatta. -- 3. gā˚, in pret. agā (Pv ii.322), 3rd pl. aor. agū (=Sk. ˚uḥ), in ajjhagū, anvagū (q. v.).
Meanings and Use: 1. to go, to be in motion, to move, to go on (opp. to stand still, tiṭṭhati). Freq. in combn with tiṭṭhati nisīdati seyyaŋ kappeti "to go, to stand, sit down & lie down," to denote all positions and every kind of behaviour; Nd2 s. v. gacchati. <-> evaŋ kāle gacchante, as time went on J iii.52, or evaŋ g˚ kāle (PvA 54, 75) or gacchante gacchante kāle DhA i.319; gacchati=paleti PvA 56; vemakoṭi gantvā pahari (whilst moving) DhA iii.176. -- 2. to go, to walk (opp. to run, dhāvati) DhA i.389. --
3. to go away, to go out, to go forth (opp. to stay, or to come, āgacchati): agamāsi he went Pv ii.86; yo maŋ icchati anvetu yo vā n' icchati gacchatu "who wants me may come, who does not may go" Sn 564; āgacchantānañ ca gacchantānañ ca pamāṇaŋ n' atthi "there was no end of all who came & went" J ii.133; gacchāma "let us go" J i.263; gaccha dāni go away now! J ii.160; gaccha re muṇḍaka Vism 343;
gacchāhi go then! J i.151, 222; mā gami do not go away! J iv.2; pl. mā gamittha J i.263; gacchanto on his way J i.255, 278; agamaŋsu they went away J iv.3; gantukāma anxious to go J i.222, 292; kattha gamissasi where are you going? (opp. agacchasi) DhA iii.173; kahaŋ gacchissatha id. J ii.128; kuhiŋ gamissati where is he going? Sn 411, 412. --
4. with acc. or substitute: to go to, to have access to, to arrive or get at (with the aim of the movement or the object of the intention); hence fig. to come to know, to experience, to realize. -- (a) with acc. of direction: Rājagahaŋ gami he went to R. Pv ii.86; Devadaha -- nagaraŋ gantuŋ J i.52; gacchām' ahaŋ Kusināraŋ I shall go to K. D ii.128; S
uvaṇṇabhūmiŋ gacchanti they intended to go ("were going") to S. J iii.188; migavaŋ g. to go hunting J i.149; janapadaŋ gamissāma J ii.129; paradāraŋ g. to approach another man's wife Dh 246. -- (b) with adverbs of direction or purpose (atthāya): santikaŋ (or santike) gacchati to go near a person (in gen.), pitu s. gacchāma DhA iii.172; devāna santike gacche Dh 224 santikaŋ also J i.152: ii.159, etc.
Kathaŋ tattha gamissāmi how shall I get there? J i.159; ii.159; tattha agamāsi he went there J ii.160. dukkhānubhavanatthāya gacchamānā "going away for the purpose of undergoing suffering" J iv.3; vohāratthāya gacchāmi I am going out (=fut.) on business J ii.133. -- Similarly (fig.) in foll.
expressions (op. "to go to Heaven," etc.=to live or experience a heavenly life, op. next); Nirayaŋ gamissati J vi.368; saggaŋ lokaŋ g. J i.152; gacche pāram apārato Sn 1129, in this sense interpreted at Nd2 223 as adhigacchati phusati sacchikaroti, to experience. -- Sometimes with double acc.: Bhagavantaŋ saraṇaŋ gacchāmi "
I entrust myself to Bh." Vin i.16. -- Cp. also phrases as atthangacchati to go home, to set, to disappear; antarā -- gacchati to come between, to obstruct. -- 5. to go as a stronger expression for to be, i. e. to behave, to have existence, to fare (cp. Ger. es geht gut, Fr. cela va bien=it is good).
Here belongs gati "existence," as mode of existing, element, sphere of being, and out of this use is developed the periphrastic use of gam˚, which places it on the same level with the verb "to be" (see b). -- (a) sugatiŋ gamissasi you will go to the state of well -- being, i. e. Heaven Vin ii.195; It 77; opp. duggatiŋ gacchanti Dh 317 -- 319; maggaŋ na jānanti yena gacchanti subbatā (which will fall to their share) Sn 441;
gamissanti yattha gantvā na socare "they will go where one sorrows not" Sn 445; Vv 514; yan ca karoti . . . tañ ca ādāya gacchati "whatever a man does that he will take with him" S i.93. -- (b) periphrastic (w. ger. of governing verb): nagaraŋ pattharitvā gaccheyya "would spread through the town" J i.62; pariṇāmaŋ gaccheyya "could be digested" D ii.127; sīhacammaŋ ādāya agamaŋsu
"they took the lion's skin away with them" J ii.110; itthiŋ pahāya gamissati shall leave the woman alone J vi.348; sve gahetvā gamissāmi "I shall come for it tomorrow" Miln 48.