The 9th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
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Gampopa Sonam Rinchen (Tibetan: སྒམ་པོ་པ་བསོད་ནམས་རིན་ཆེན, Wylie: sgam po pa bsod nams rin chen) (1079–1153) "Sonam Rinchen from Gampo" — who was equally well known in Tibet as Dagpo Lhaje (Tibetan: དྭགས་པོ་ལྷ་རྗེ, Wylie: dwags po lha rje) ("the Physician from Dagpo"), Nyamed Dakpo Rinpoche ("Incomparible Precious One from Dagpo"), and Da'od Zhonnu (Tibetan: ཟླ་འོད་ཞུན་ནུ, Wylie: zla 'od gzhon nu), (the Tibetan for Candraprabhakumara) — established the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism today, as an institution.
Gampopa (1079 - 1153) was the main disciple of the Tibetan yogi Milarepa. In his Jewel Ornament of Liberation, Gampopa combined the mind training methods of the Kadampa tradition with mahamudra teachings on the nature of the mind. The 12 Dagpo Kagyu schools trace from him and his disciple Pagmodrupa.
Gampopa, a physician from Dagpo region in S. Tibet, was the foremost student of the Tibetan Buddhist teacher Milarepa. Gampopa was renowned for the clarity of his perception and his knowledge of both Kadampa and, later, Mahamudra methods.
- Tilopa (988-1069), the Indian yogi who experienced the original transmission of the Mahamudra
- Naropa (1016–1100), who perfected the methods of accelerated Enlightenment, described in his Six Yogas of Naropa.
- Marpa (1012–1097), the first Tibetan in the lineage, who translated the Vajrayana and Mahamudra texts into Old Tibetan
- Milarepa (1052–1135), poet and master who overcame Marpa's reluctance to teach but nonetheless attained Enlightenment in a single lifetime
- Gampopa, Milarepa's most important student, who integrated Atisha's Kadampa teaching and Tilopa's Mahamudra teaching to establish the Kagyu school
Prior to studying under Milarepa, Gampopa had studied the Kadampa traditions, which is a gradual path based on the Lamrim teachings. He searched for, and eventually met Milarepa, and attained realization of ultimate reality under his guidance.
Gampopa wrote The Jewel Ornament of Liberation and founded the Dagpo Kagyud school in 1125. It was the integrative teaching of Gampopa which unified Kadampa and Mahamudra teachings into the distinctive Kagyu approach.
- Barom Kagyu founded by Barompa Darma Wangchug
- Phagdru Kagyu founded by Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo
- Karma Kagyu, also known as the Kamtsang Kagyu School, founded by Düsum Khyenpa the 1st Karmapa
- Tsalpa Kagyu founded by Zhang Yudragpa Tsondru Drag