Heaven of the Thirty-Three
Heaven of the Thirty-Three (Skt. Trāyastriṃśa; Tib. Sumchu Tsasum; Wyl. sum cu rtsa gsum) — second heaven of the desire realm, situated on the summit of Mount Meru and presided over by thirty-three gods of whom Indra is the chief. The gods of the Heaven of the Thirty-Three regularly wage war against the demi-gods. A heaven in the Realm of Desire, with thirty-two god-kings presided over by Indra, thus totaling thirty-three, located at the summit of Mt. Sumeru
- Jamgön Kongtrul Lodrö Tayé, Myriad Worlds (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 1995), pages 116-118.
"The Heaven of the 33 Gods (S. Trayastrimsas) is the heaven that rules over the secular world we live in. It is the realm of the gods that watches over the affairs of humanity. Its lord is Sakra Devendra, wielder of the thunderbolt (vajra) who personifies the will and power of heaven and mastery over the self. As lord of the secular world, he resides in his palace in the City of Beautiful Vision (Sudarsana) atop Mt. Sumeru, the highest point as well as the center of the world. His name means Almighty (Sakra) Divine (Deva) Conqueror (Indra). The name probably originated from the leader of the Aryans who led them in conquering the peoples of southerm Asia in the period prior to the appearance of the Vedas (c. 1000 BCE)."