The 8th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
will be held on 7-9 February, 2019 in Perth, Western Australia.
READ MORE

Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
Some of the Buddhist Illustrations created by Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
FREE for everyone to use

We would also appreciate your feedback on Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia. Please write feedback here
Here you can read media articles about the Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia which have been published all over the world.

Paypal-logo.jpg
Articles by alphabetic order
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 Ā Ī Ñ Ś Ū Ö Ō
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0


Jam-yang-shay-ba’s (1648-1721) Great Exposition of Tenets

From Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Please consider making little donation to help us expand the encyclopedia    Donate Paypal-logo.jpg    Enjoy your readings here and have a wonderful day  


ShenrabM.jpg
Ng Monk.jpg
Naga44rjuna2.jpg
Pawo-tsuglak-trengwa.jpg
Shakyam.jpg
BfhD0df.jpg
2nnge.jpg
Buddhist Nuns Myanma.jpg
Buddfg.jpg
Hbig.jpg
TSM.jpg
Atta.jpg
Little monk.jpg
3406.jpg
255379.jpg
Kuh0110.JPG
D34ilbc.JPG
E-lifeways.jpg
Furmanpic1.jpg
Stupa-rainbow.jpg
KalacakraConsort-T-T43.jpg
Pensamiento.jpg
48244.jpg
84972 top.jpg
SuurTempliKatus.jpg
Vesakha buja-thousands monks.JPG
Pa7sel-hele.jpg
Kundalini47.jpg
MG 5813.JPG
Siddhartha-birth.jpg
Bicge.jpg
Buddhas.jpg
Buddha (2).jpg
513 1 bnun.jpg
Unna12472med.JPG
Ksitigarbha-es23.jpg
Image002.JPG
Bhutan.jpg
IMG 0996 Lhasa Barkhor.jpg
Vairochana16.jpg
Naga161705.jpg
P1060088.jpg
B h2o-lily.jpg
Teps one bow.jpg
Jokhang09.jpg
Ksitigarbha St.jpeg
Bacge.jpg
DSC 2335.JPG
Medi234.jpg
1greentara.jpg
H839674.jpg
Url-fd.JPG
160bn000.jpg
Dignaga006.JPG
10fdf73 n.jpg
090720.jpg
74hj1e08.jpg
Vesak in Uttaradit (Thailand) 1.jpg
Mara71.png
10cxc80 n.jpg
AtSzA.jpg
Shantideva2.JPG
DSC0c0133.JPG
Freefall.jpg
18er53 n.jpg
Valge-Tara--thanka.jpg
2bnpng.jpg
India-HemisFestival.jpg
St-monks.jpg
Nk life 011.jpg
Buddha Samadhi.jpg
22-shantideva.jpg
Bfgge.jpg
Raha1.jpg
Bud4.jpeg
Keha.jpg
20101107-img 5290.jpg
Aiyofi.jpg
Spacegaller.jpg
GURU PADMASAM.jpg
P1050297.jpg
Hans to33-15.jpg
5c7f1 20b5.jpg
Nge.jpg
Akshobya-detail-006.jpg
8g7830 o.jpg
Bhikkhuni Sanghamitta.jpg
Kuh0190.JPG
Bhava.jpg
Castle.jpg
1c96 n.jpg
Scape 13.jpg
Vaishravana-4k09.jpg
F5b6171ed.jpg
6NDYgUE0=.jpg
11 re-0.jpg
Young Thai Buddhist monks.jpg
Ksitigarbha-es33.jpg
Na-us-4-20111129.jpg
65853 sml.jpg
Irthday1.jpg
On-2 itzybitzi.j.jpg
Novice monk with teapot.jpg
Daakini.jpg
KalacakraConsort-93.jpg
Ist+ej.jpg
BeoD7vghjk.jpg
45a031.jpg
Urljh.jpg
9 Buddhaghosa.jpg
2hjwNcaJ.jpg
Dorjemetal2.jpg
Vajradara45.jpg
Dokan 1.jpg
Kurukulla798465.jpg
Bbbaa.jpg
601786 n.jpg
BeNgfhrge.jpg
Dharma-ratas.JPG
Btw-W.jpg
Yeshetsogyel45.jpg
Vimāna46.jpg
BkOl -hs.jpg
6a0zz20wi.JPG
Reutcx583.jpg
One-300.jpg
Kuh0203.JPG
Temfdple.gif
Imagesg56.jpg
Vaish001.jpg
628x471.jpg
Tumblr lxwjfk.jpg
G422che b.jpg
Shri Singha0.jpg
Gyalwa Janchub.jpg
Guru-L77ooni.jpg
15bn7 n.jpg
3d- und-3.jpg
1cxxc2 n.jpg
Ent-3ee77.jpg
Shenlaodkar.jpg
8-65pg.jpg
Pasang.jpg
Bud5.jpg
Ic 024.jpg
Mbhava.jpg
Guru-Mong.JPG
Imajfdcjges.jpg
465ita.jpg
429px-Buddha flag.jpg
Buddhist nuns(1).jpg
India-07081.jpg
Utpala pune.jpg
Buddha-po.jpg
Gold-buddha-3.jpg
Da45irror.jpg
AAA444dala-alus.jpg
65.jpg716.jpg
M22ads.jpg
Alvinhew deep-m.jpg
Vajrayogini Temple of Samkhu162.JPG
0fe.jpg
485.jpg
03fgBKK.jpg
H1qh.jpg
Tsangpo-gorge.jpg
Inter-faith.JPG
1urlnb.jpg
Nag1gas2.JPG
0aail.jpg
Z p-36.jpg
4000 0 1 0.jpg
Imagescawwh4cd.jpg
Aaah-02.jpg
Xinsk227635.jpg
DhGaya 468.jpg
365-800.jpg
Sukhavati 6.jpg
Mahakala.jpg
Nagaraja 2.JPG
Daitokuji-Zuihoin-Zuihotei-M1827.jpg
Bj-zHxxc.jpg
3d-gf679.jpg
Castles Made of sand.jpg
Ing-Sleeves.jpg
Amit7ooni.jpg
Me 02.jpg
4-ele .jpg
Ment1of1.jpg
Jaxtudying.jpg
Deity58.jpg
Anahata2.jpg
00-1.jpg
Mp1 2218.jpg
43-The-E.jpg
628x4x71.jpg
Budd Gyuto.jpg
Oldmonk.jpg
1054 edium.jpg
Nagarjuna5210.jpg
Kuh0064.JPG
Cyraqo1 400.jpg
45la-alus02.jpg
Win ound.jpg
Prajnaparamita td29.jpg
Girffe.jpg
Baxrge.jpg
5k67 n.jpg
Imagdsfg.jpg
Kurukulla-3487.JPG
BfguOWf.jpg
Vak02.jpg
Milarepa1gf2.jpg
8Palai.jpg
Ghjg large.jpg
Imhe53.jpg
14 - 1v.jpg
Amido-body.jpg
AvalokitesvaraFace.jpeg
Monkey-tribal.jpg
Sb83.jpg
Mount tai rock inscriptions.jpg
Scape 13.jpg
11v0 n.jpg
Re ture.jpg
Budd Gyuto.jpg
C629d8.jpg
HistMonk 1.JPG
95 200.jpg
Nag4arjuna.jpg
Leinxcv228.jpg
6 038cb4.jpg
Edu1h.jpg
09rdtas.jpg
Vietnam.jpg
Myanmxks09.jpg
Ca bg.jpg
8-mandarava-.jpg
Buryatia 63.jpg
News-b032a.jpg
B dha.jpg
49jpeg.jpg
Bhikk.jpg
858319 n.jpg
1EnUWpjl.jpg
Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche.jpg
Ksitigarbha 12.jpg
BbynvnMJ8.jpg
15827965-stat stery.jpg
65121.Mila.jpg
Stsellers1.jpg
Kri0001.JPG
Urlbn.jpg
Xc7fd4f.jpg
Tiger.JPG
Mvx918b057c.jpg
Onk220.jpg
P1060190.jpg
Furmanpic1.jpg
Imaczcges.jpg
Padma a2.jpg
Kri0009.JPG
Ur24.jpg
Ordination 31.jpg
Pensamiento.jpg
Prie45res.jpg
Dscn1235.jpg
Myanmar 3.jpg
Ava kumbum.jpg
Prayer-drum.jpg
Cha5dhist.jpg
Cint d.jpg
6a00dxz500wi.jpg
Yamantaka45.jpg
Ing India 61.jpg
Lord-krishna-4.jpg
Con1.jpg
10cv97 n.jpg
Gold-buddha-3.jpg
Daki bvell.jpg
1101.jpg
Buddha-zen-flowers thumb.jpg
Bvbarge.jpg
Ksitigarbha St.jpeg
Baevrge.jpg
Utpala pune.jpg
7-the.jpg
Guru purn.jpg
320wi.jpg
Arfazil..jpg
82FV.JPG
Befrge.jpg
BZkYjjarge.jpg
Amit7am.jpg
0v87.jpg
Xnb08.jpg
Sukha45.jpg
Guru-nägu.JPG
Mind-stillness.jpg
4798124218.jpg
M2.jpg
Butrhves l.jpg
021x1024.jpg
202345 n.jpg
BkOl -hs.jpg
1hhh165 n.jpg
160bn000.jpg
BbtvbnvqF.jpg
4689424961.jpg
3d budd.jpg
Budd nks-05.jpg
Imfghs.jpg
8 800x600.jpg
BodhnathEyes.jpg
0058768 n.jpg
392139491.jpg
Kri0014.JPG
800 nlightenment.jpg
1bn21 n.jpg
Budgfj4.jpg
476565xddhist.jpg
Meditation 2.jpg
04rg08f1.jpg
Kuh0062.JPG
Mzals61gl1s.jpg
142 39gh.jpg
2gfgin5.jpg
30b380ae357.jpg
Wat Phra.jpg
55828 n.jpg
BfhD0df.jpg
BdT6frge.jpg
Pal ry tibet.jpg
Parampara-top.jpg
Mplu-zu-lai.jpg
Robotf.jpg
Chod ngakphangchodpa.jpg
Buddha-115.jpg
250 60.jpeg
Myanmcl-copy.jpg
Ing-Sleeves.jpg
High41-tech.jpeg
BeoFXd.jpg
Bu a-2.jpg
03-jina-budha.JPG
Daakini.jpg
Alvinhew deep-m.jpg
32572 d.jpg
Ordination 27.jpg
Tenny-d36t68o.jpg
316 ium.jpg
Sukhasiddhi.jpg
Nagarjuna0147.JPG
Bcvarge.jpg
1dd.jpg
Hua-hin 9.jpg
Meditation-tou234.jpg
Alms thai.jpg
Jodo monk.JPG
Mind-Power.jpg
15rlizm.jpg
Vesak in Uttaradit (Thailand) 1.jpg
Uj80017.jpg
Guru 42order.jpg
9zgseo1 500.jpg
Pb-12xcog900.jpg
Tso Pema.jpg
4969.jpg
3cx.jpg
Buddha 2sw.jpg
5u8907.jpg
Mind-suc.jpg
Gold-buddha-3.jpg
Ksitigarbha eb171.jpg
07x512.jpg
Nun n WQ.jpg
Kri0007.JPG
Dhist8.jpg
IMG 2882.JPG
179kh.jpg
Moon ker.jpg
Mulian Saves his Mother.jpg
Gur7ad.JPG
Nag4arjuna.jpg
Kore14an-monk.jpg
0609monk01.jpg
5ghh78 n.jpg
041t-brain.jpg
19749 31.jpg
Dana - fgg.jpg
Buddha2424.jpg
Butta-troonilKollane2.jpg
Bvnnnment.jpg
Ngagpa-35.jpg
Nun Bhxxwani.JPG
21 17-AFP1.jpg
Guru-Mong.jpg
Vaishravana-608.jpg
100fd159 n.jpg
Stupa-001.jpg
Mulets.JPG
Portland Japanese gardens zen garden.jpg
Konchog-.jpeg
11h078.jpg
Monk begging2.jpg
Supe 6gsx3c.jpg
1ratnadakini.jpg
Themission.jpg
4328 n.jpg
Jagan madhi.jpg
Imag7763es.jpg
Art-ds-sd.jpg
3838 n.jpg
Kurukulla798465.jpg
Shmeiki-.jpg
Ima.jpg
Buddha wallp.jpg
Moonf4a9z.jpg
Ering-In-Laos.jpg
Shtuni.jpg
Kri0011.JPG
Budd 90-228.jpg
Babfall2006b.jpg
Bfgge.jpg
RedGoldVajra.jpg
AmazinvArt 2.jpg
6DalaiLama.jpg
2hjwNcaJ.jpg
Ak-day1-520.jpg
Emerald Buddha.jpg
Aval nous.jpg
Kurukulla8478.jpg
IMG c5607.jpg
211120.jpg
Templemonk.jpg
06sd.jpg
Ya21.jpg
Ekajati th 2 500 720.jpg
Gelugi-mungad.JPG
30-Beb-5.jpg
2gf27.57.jpg
628x471.jpg
Ghjg large.jpg
Babbrge.jpg
Ing-Sleeves.jpg
Bardoo14 3.jpg
3D Wb321.jpg
Efault.jpg
Debaters.jpg
Stupa 9 8 10.jpg
Story 819b.jpg
Urlhjj.jpg
Ge017.jpg
DSC02164.JPG
447s.jpg
Alsar.jpg
Imagescawwh4cd.jpg
3vcx.jpeg
Buddhist-stupa1.jpg
Ptg01372900.jpg
Monks.jpg
55828 n.jpg
A1-23.jpg
Kurukulla-1.jpg
Bfgit NCdf.jpg
Guru-Mosaic.JPG
Tam-bud.jpg
Budfgtion.jpg
189ghjgk.jpg
008.jpg73.jpg
Vajra fly.jpg
Bbvbbnz3G.jpg
Guru Rinpoc.jpg
10fdf73 n.jpg
R ge570.jpg
Unna422med.jpg
Padma kumbum.jpg
Be-pray-in-te.jpg
Whiteumbrella l.jpg
Daoism-1.jpg
Kri0023.JPG
1-lanjee-chee.jpg
Alvinhew deep-m.jpg
Babgge.jpg
Dakvni31.jpg
13653-1.jpg
Veltsa talvel .JPG
Ak78ryy.jpg
Guru-Naistega.jpg
Ts758nöu-.jpg
0sde.jpg
Wenchengt.jpg
Smokesignals.jpg
Imhe53.jpg
38.jpg
Manju3-12.jpg
Kri0008.JPG
17686 n.jpg
Uluru1.jpg
356011.jpg
090720.jpg
Ws 2560.jpg
Simhamukha dakini147.jpg
485x728.jpg
BcggJT.jpg
AA4r4lus.jpg
325414-1.jpg
I57oges.jpg
Dsc 0363.jpg
Imacjfgjges.jpg
444.jpg
C.jpga6e7114e.jpg
485.jpg
115.jpg
Urlnb.jpg
B yvr 512.jpg
Aaassion.jpg
Sangamittha.jpg
God2a10.jpg
142256 n.jpg
Img 17181.jpg
2gg4346.jpg
Guru-l nil.jpg
Ordaixchism.jpg
Cham dance.jpg
0-4.jpg
Vajra5.jpg
Yogi.jpg
Thai Buddhist monk blesses.jpg
Ist monk 3.jpg
Mara Daughters.JPG
Buxc-7954.jpg
Immgages.jpg
Buddism 14172.jpg
Wang.jpg
Spir-1.jpg
325783.jpg
Bhhge.jpg
A Asanga.jpg
Amitabha-Buddaa-0.jpg
Buhghddhists.jpg
Artscene.jpg
F7d8a.jpg
2b73.jpg
1-1 4048.jpg
733xc77 n.jpg
Niguma457.jpg
DhGaya 468.jpg
28.jpg
Stupa KarmaDorje-2.JPG
70d-800wi.jpg
LoB10.jpg
Mbhava.jpg
Chakras14.jpg
Monk begging2.jpg
Buddha-po.jpg
Supernova.jpg
Igff202.jpg
Imag47es.jpg
142.jpg
Everest Peace Project - Everest rongbuk 3.jpg
Kundal.jpg
47.JPG
00xcv.jpeg
Tures 1.jpg
0-4.jpg
Gold-buddha-3.jpg
Kohj4a.jpg
Myanmar 3.jpg
Url733.jpg
Nagarju1na-43ab5.jpg
20hh0964.jpg
Japvbdha.jpg
Golden Rock.JPG
96 screen.jpg
06sd.jpg
Buddhist-monk500.jpg
Water prayer wheel.jpg
12333 Fr.jpg
Vajra1321.png
Ysics.jpg
Ch uare.jpg
B yvr 512.jpg
00buddha513.jpg
Nagarjuna.jpg
3D-brh68k.jpg
Oldmonk.jpg
0aail.jpg
BkRUb.jpg
Compu ES (9).jpg
Guru-aed-mandala04.jpg
11h078.jpg
Tushita22.jpg
Imjhggges.jpg
D-Lad48.jpg
Shantideva-4cbd5.JPG
Guru213.jpg
No ning.jpg
6dfc1c z.jpg
485846.jpg
100yy9 n.jpg
GukkjeLing.jpg
40bb160fa.jpg
6d365bef4.jpg
Figficro.jpg
Jokh y (10).jpg
Ksitigarbha-es23.jpg
Kuh0203.JPG
11 re-0.jpg
Url57.jpg
21b7uc6.jpg
Am14ooni.jpg
ShantidevaWoo.jpg
250xze1347.jpg
508x0219.jpg
9 fit512.jpg
30b380ae357.jpg
Buddha20i.jpg
1247c3 z.jpg
426623.jpg
Ksitigarbha-es20.jpg
Bhcvrge.jpg
Er-air.jpg
Vimana-37h8vc.jpg
Drenpa Namkha.jpg
Forty m.jpg
Mvcxages.jpg
Imagnve020.jpg
1fg23 n.jpg
201212zc008.jpg
336-1-0.jpg
Simhamukah365.jpg
Beiaahj.jpg
49905651.jpg
87250-84352.jpg
Animals1.jpg
5-Dhyani-B1uddhas.jpg
Quan-the-a.jpg
Mind-of-all-beings.JPG
9bnm2849.jpg
Annetus-01.jpg
Ph rain.jpg
Mount kailash 7.jpg
36ges.jpg
Seadmuse11.JPG
Bghjjjrge.jpg
Ddfgdhist.jpg
DharmaRatas-lootosega.jpg
Padampa Sangye.jpg
Budgfj4.jpg
A -aks4me.jpg
D Koh Yo Bu.JPG
2gfgin5.jpg
BeNFfgrge.jpg
R ge570.jpg
Url-88.jpg
Shaman789123.jpg
ActiveNeurone.jpg
IMG c5607.jpg
Goddess ganga ee18.jpg
Vaishravana-o5.jpg
Cnn-yogi.jpg
Kri0019.JPG
03fgBKK.jpg
Akshobya-002.jpg
Ksitigarbha-es1.jpg
Vaishravana-103.jpg
Buddhist-monks25.jpg
Pema Rigdzin.JPG
Nun Bhxxwani.JPG
Toufuku-ji hojyo4.JPG
Beau shore.jpg
1017gf9 n.jpg
Sukhasiddhi21.jpg
Wsbcstration.jpeg
Pa 09.jpg
Imjuages.jpg
$(KG 0 35.JPG
Buddhism-in-ryss.jpg
Ies4peace3.jpg
P1060125.jpg
Mounta.jpg
Urlvss.jpg
Kalidance.jpg
Space.2.650.jpg
A-mgfon-.jpg
9zgseo1 500.jpg
16ghj8 n.jpg
Kri0023.JPG
Padmasambhava-014.jpg
Ation-1.jpg
Novicce-004.jpg
White-elephant.jpg
BZkfOjarge.jpg
419B Wer.jpg
Kuh0188.JPG
Termal04.jpg
Japanmonks.jpg
4bv.jpg
Rechungpa-45oi.jpg
Nichiren-in-exile.jpg
IstMonk.jpg
DSCF2386.jpg
435.jpg
Gold.jpg
RyoanJi-Dry garden.jpg
Garab dorje00.jpg
Con1.jpg
Shantideva2.JPG
U-500x697.jpg
1(6)x.jpg
Mandala-kalachakra1.jpg
Budfgma-25.jpg
Lakvbakara.jpg
Vairochana41.jpg
Ordin tion2.JPG
Jajhmple.jpg
Mita th44.jpg
Pening the mind.jpg
Kuh0041.JPG
1r9zgseo1 500.jpg
Parampara FIN.jpg
Sthonks.jpg
Braindsa.jpg
B&b co.JPG
03 Todai-ji.jpg
Varahi drikung.jpg
CG hjhjpers.jpg
God4d.jpg
Dha malaysia.jpg
Bud 3847.jpg
130c60023.jpg
Atecheo.jpg
Adibuddha.jpg
DSC03376.JPG
Gb.buddha.moon.jpg
Manjushri 00.jpg
Bbmа11.jpg
Home2.jpg
4689424961.jpg
Ies4peace3.jpg
Chakras258.jpg
Ddhist mon.jpg
Myth2-13-4.JPG
43-The-E.jpg
Enhaxc03-7.jpg
Tenzin 3.jpg
6405cc2af3.jpg
011 iddhi.jpg
BD0tyHEEL.jpg
Nce-thailand.jpg
Ima25ges.jpg
Pure land of.jpg
Mind-Map.jpg
Urlmn.jpg
Mzals61gl1s.jpg
Nds-999.jpg
6fhG8a.jpg
04-amitayus.jpg
Ur24.jpg
Mandala3-buddhists-doing-sand-art.jpg
Niguma457.jpg
Daboba-Natha.jpg
Medihh.png
Lg.vajra det1.jpg
Na-us-4-20111129.jpg
6-dalai-Käed.jpg
Zwrqrqwr47.JPG
Shaman672312.jpg
Maitripa-25ge.jpg
2-Draakonit-alus.jpg
0107.jpg
Buddhist Nuns Myanma.jpg
2655414 n.jpg
Dra e.net.jpg
Hell.niraya.n8.jpg
G-30 74.JPG
Bud1l.jpg
Saffon2.JPG
Budd as.jpg
65x300.jpg
DSC 1796 2.JPG
Bfhge.jpg
Padampa Sangye.jpg
Imagesg56.jpg
Monk-Myanmar.jpg
D57n-lg.JPG
Begfrge.jpg
Mountains-clouds 00428445.jpg
07x512.jpg
B 1254279910268.jpg
805 030.jpg
014.jpg
Imagesfds.jpg
Ksitigarbha 19.jpg
B h2o-lily.jpg
Compyjy018.jpg
1296 he-hill.jpg
A1-23.jpg
21b7uc6.jpg
Venerabletzuchuang-cropped.JPG
AA78AIN.jpg
A-Seadmuse-Ratas-.jpg
9zgseo1 500.jpg
Scan24a.jpg
BeisRILCh.jpg
Ihgjges.jpg
BaXcarge.jpg
White-Tara-detail-003.jpg
Tled-1.jpg
P1060189.jpg
Thailan.jpg
Ak11rth-02.jpg
Bcvarge.jpg
139236 m.jpg
Kuanyin-St.jpg
Nagarjuna at Samye Ling Monastery.JPG
Budccastery.jpg
Vaishravana1mbala.jpg
3sacx216.jpg
P1080342.JPG
Ing India 61.jpg
2445ggo.jpg
Golden-sand-stupa-3.jpg
Nce-story-top.jpg
72p.jpg
Dampa Deshek.jpg
Padma-Guru Drakpo.jpg
A-Buddhist-nun-waits-for-the-arrihjgaing.jpg
P1060190.jpg
628x471.jpg
A-prostrations.jpg
7JWsqJ.jpg
BrJQTv.jpg
Ercise-300x245.jpg
Shakyam.jpg
Meditation-enl.jpg
21hgonk.jpg
0aail.jpg
1243lo.jpg
Image-78.jpg
Kuh0061.JPG
Th emory.jpg
P50gh084.jpg
Vajrasattva l.jpg
Alsar.jpg
338267d.jpg
Npoche.jpg
1cvcv015 n.jpg
Thailand0012.JPG

Jam-yang-shay-ba’s (1648-1721)
Rajagaha.jpg
46ita.jpg
JCMAAVh.jpg
Akshobya-klassilakine.jpg
Kuh0103.JPG
Hhnj.JPG
LaoGod.jpg
Zhang Zhung Meri.jpg
93 45jg02 n.jpg
Img065.jpg
9A17B8E8.jpg
Sm 44ow.jpg
Parampara-Deities.JPG
6732 n.jpg
Paramita.jpeg
Tilopa.jpg
521314.jpg
Lord gau.jpg
4969.jpg
Tibgbhala.jpg
Mountain 7.jpg
GuruNägu.JPG
T1084M97.272.jpeg
Kurukulla.jpg
Tibet 004.jpg
Leinxcv228.jpg
Anccinal1.jpg
65853 sml.jpg
Monk-Myanmar.jpg
Kuh0152.JPG
2266893987.jpg
Vairocana w4.jpg
Guru-.jpg
Ennintendai.jpg
00x200as.jpg
Achine001 front.jpg
KwanYin sno.jpg
225050.jpg
Buddha8light.jpg
2606037 o.jpg
Bbvbbnz3G.jpg
Buhj0px.jpg
Manjushri-detail.-003.jpg
Niguma457.jpg
N87ru.jpg
Niguma2hg.jpg
Hīnayāna-1es.jpg
RyoanJi-Dry garden.jpg
Bodhgy023.jpg
Guru Padmasambhava.jpg
327 edium.jpg
47a-alus.jpg
1020.jpg
Muzeum-239.jpg
Dzogchen-monastery.jpg
Agic.jpg
Bgjkge.jpg
Bghjjjrge.jpg
Beghjje.jpg
Fr per-19.jpg
3ddc-hd.jpg
Dharmakaya mudra.jpg
Cliningbuddha.jpg
Shakyamunibuddha012.jpeg
Cccd.jpg
A9ed4a7 M.jpg
Cha5dhist.jpg
Urlxdf.jpg
Nuns416ap.jpg
Kurukulla012.55.jpg
Dakini47o.jpg
CIMc2560.JPG
An13 975.jpg
Buddha15.gif
Breath-o.jpg
Budelter.jpg
Avalokita014.jpg
BivpLbb.jpg
001 5782c.jpg
00-Dhyani Buddhas.jpg
Bodh-keha.jpg
Vajrayogini54.jpg
Ch uare.jpg
65hh851 n.jpg
43-The-E.jpg
Kuh0111.JPG
File.jpg
Buciples.jpg
Golden-sand-stupa-3.jpg
Dongbin.jpeg
Img237.jpg
14ditator.jpg
Kri0001.JPG
Mam4aki-124.jpg
Buddha life 28.jpg
Disciples.jpg
338267d.jpg
Borobudur012.JPG
Optical-illusion.jpg
A-mgfon-.jpg
Abhairava.jpg
Bghjjge.jpg
Go55ra-c.jpg
Ordaixchism.jpg
-640wi.jpg
Wanbder.jpg
KsatBodhGaya 468.jpg
G-technology.jpg
Yamantakav44.jpg
Vajra symbol.jpg
144gination.jpg
Tb ryokai3.jpg
821c9d47 z.jpg
Anjali Mudra.jpg
Laudfmme5.jpg
GukkjeLing.jpg
Pa hava.jpg
Young Thai Buddhist monks.jpg
TSM.jpg
Ma1ma.jpg
IMG 0235.jpg
IMG 3386.JPG
Bodhi-tree medi.jpg
Nment 4.jpg
Arahath mahinda.jpg
30 ium.jpg
Ima5421ges.jpg
Mandala tm12.jpg
A-prostrations.jpg
Nce-story-top.jpg
BgyuaY.jpg
Bo pa.jpg
9051734.jpg
800px-Rongbuk Monastery Everest 1.jpg
BeoJlePCfd.jpg
62.Kalacakra.jpg
Novice monk with teapot.jpg
Wenchengss.jpeg
A-mandala401.jpg
S n4.jpg
13653-1.jpg
Va Close Up.jpg
Chakras14.jpg
Enhaxcv38-5.jpg
4798124218.jpg
Dignaga15w.jpg
Komuso-ShingonPriest.jpg
Art work by Frank Kliewer;
http://artandzen.com
Wogism 04.jpg
T-effects.jpg
Guru-nägu-.JPG
Incense.jpg
Ksitigarbha-W.jpg
Bhikkuni.jpg
Ostume-large.jpg
A-788öös.jpg
Tsangpo-gorge.jpg
Padmasambhava012.jpg
1iop1 n.jpg
Goldjngdha.jpg
Guru-a11E.jpg
Mind-heart.jpg
BeNFfgrge.jpg
Df301.JPG
Myanmar0926a.jpg
Bodhgy023.jpg
Jokh y (10).jpg
Lord-krishna-4.jpg
Origvgantra3.jpg
1777.jpg
Vadjra-Guru.jpg
Maitreya58.jpg
MindBluepic.jpg
159.jpg
Ksitigarbha eb171.jpg
Meditation.png
Art work by Frank Kliewer;
http://artandzen.com
EU-CHINA -3.jpg
11cv13 n.jpg
Ava-0011.jpg
Prajna paramita42k.jpg
0069.JPG
0rgg.jpg
In-brazil-2006.jpg
Borobudur012.JPG
Banner.jpg
Vajrapani 00.jpg
Beghge.jpg
5221.jpg
Cha5dhist.jpg
Grand-palace-bangkok.jpg
N3z.jpg
Ho321.jpg
Monks at Kumbum Monastery.jpg
402 edium.jpg
Choddreaming.jpg
Compddmes.jpg
28 - 1.jpg
Shiwa Okar.jpg
72980b.jpg
Imag457866es.jpg
G53.jpg
15g3 n.jpg
Shakyam.jpg
280.jpg
320 g.jpg
Padmasamrainbow.jpg
2gf27.57.jpg
Url57.jpg
Buddhasky.jpg
Buddha1.JPG
Milarepa0178.JPG
316 ium.jpg
D34ilbc.JPG
Va Close Up.jpg
Ha1r.jpg
Te14buddha.jpg
BodhnathEyes.jpg
Bddge.jpg
BhavaA31.jpg
Lotusmeditat.jpg
Hht45.jpg
Aa34.jpg
200kj32621.jpg
Buddha El.JPG
23-nichiren.jpg
Tushita heaven.jpg
6Oq2RZVl.jpg
Med25.jpg
Sb83.jpg
2859 n.jpg
Inwirathuhtz1.jpg
India-07081.jpg
Bp7fg5med.jpg
Buddha zg70.jpg
6903 57.jpg
Ksitigarbha-8-1.jpg
Buddxate-12.jpg
28.jpg
Lighte.jpg
Uluru1.jpg
001 5782c.jpg
Andmade.jpg
Guru-naistega-.JPG
Chakras3a.jpg
Ksitigarbha-es49.jpg
Budxc420.jpg
Vaishravana1mbala.jpg
Damaaru001.jpg
Comput 600x480.jpg
95 200.jpg
Kuh0118.JPG
Jvno1 500.jpg
Lg.vajra det1.jpg
Url-88.jpg
Shakti2.jpg
Mple-profile.jpg
Cnn-yogi.jpg
TvyacTM27V.jpg
Japvbdha.jpg
BXc6EAYCU.png
Quan-the-a.jpg
Ruwanwelisaya cent. 140 BC.JPG
WrathfulShugden04.jpg
65853 sml.jpg
Gyalwa Janchub.jpg
KalacakraConsort-93.jpg
Ima5421ges.jpg
Akshobhja-samad.jpg
Nce-story-top.jpg
Monk and elephant.jpg
BuddhaghosaLK.jpg
4423es.jpg
Imjhages.jpg
397 433bba.jpeg
Monk-nest-final whiteBG2-212x300.jpg
W 76343.jpg
Veltsa stuupa ja tuletempe.jpg
932 b.jpg
Imagesgfd.jpg
Ns-192.jpg
Heng Shan Summit View.jpg
Daitokuji-Zuihoin-M1836.jpg
115.jpg
Bk9Lqc.jpg
Bubita11.jpg
Suk dhi 01.jpg
CFI-GhostPudu.jpg
64a8bf8.jpg
7-the.jpg
Kuh0003.JPG
Nun Bhxxwani.JPG
Buddha8light.jpg
20100903-6.jpg
33578.jpg
12 3STnL69.jpg
325px-Lungta.jpg
Mbhava1.jpg
16787828-lg.jpg
Bhxrge.jpg

Great Exposition of Tenets
.
PART 6 of 6 parts
.
[see other files for the other sections)
.
 [About: the five reasonings establishing the two selflessnesses in the context of the five stages of meditation leading to the union of calm abiding and insight; the inseparability of the two truths; and the refutation of all the various Buddhist and non-buddhist systems]
.
Sub-section titles are in the form: L#: […].
These can be used to regenerate the structure using a Word Processor.
.
Paragraph starting with '¢(i.e. ...' are usually added comments by me.

L1: [CONTENTS] :L1
.
L1: [CONTENTS] :L1
L1: [Short Table of Contents / Résumé]
L1: [Short Table of Contents / Résumé] :L1
L1: [Introduction] :L1
[see other files for this section]
L1: [Technical Note] :L1
[see other files for this section]
L1: [List of Abbreviations] :L1
[see other files for this section]
L1: [Acknowledgements] :L1
[see other files for this section]
L1: [Part I – Meditation) :L1
[see other files for this section]

L1: [PRESENTATION OF THE TWO TRUTHS: EMPTINESS (part 2) AND THE CONVENTIONAL TRUTHS (part 3)] :L1

L1: [PART II — REASONING INTO REALITY -- Details about the Five Reasonings proving the Emptiness of all dharmas) :L1
[see other files for this section]
L1: [Part Three – The Buddhist World [Details about the useful conventional truths) :L1
[see other files for this section]
L1: [Part Four – Presentation and refutation of various systems / views) :L1
[see other files for this section]
L1: [Part Five – Prasangika-Madhyamika [Details about the refutation of the Svatantrika system) :L1
[see other files for this section]
L1: [PART SIX – Translation of “Emptiness in the prasangika system” by Jam-yang-shay-ba (P.561)] :L1
L2: [0. Introduction] :L2

L3: [About the author] :L3
L3: [About the editions of the text used] :L3
L3: [Jam-yang-shay-ba’s sources] :L3
L4: [The distinctions between Nagarjuna, Chandrakirti and Tsong Khapa’s contributions] :L4
L4: [The usefulness of debates) :L4
L3: [Collaborators for the translation] :L3
L2: [1. Background] :L2
L3: (Definition and etymology of 'Prasangika'] :L3
L3: [Synonyms of Prasangika'] :L3
L3: [Divisions of Prasangika) :L3
L3: [[[Wikipedia:Literature|Literature]] on which the Prasangikas rely (Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Chandrakirti, Shantideva, Buddhapalita, Atisha, Maitreya, Asanga, Tsong Khapa, Gyeltsap and Kaydrup …] :L3
L2: [2. Interpretation of Scripture) :L2
L2: [3. The Object of Negation] :L2
L3: [The object of negation in the view of selflessness) :L3
L4: (Measure of what is negated in the view of selflessness) :L4
L4: [Correctness of the measure of what is negated] :L4
L3: [Reasonings refuting inherent existence) :L3
L4: [Brief indication of the reasonings refuting inherent existence) :L4
L2: [4. Refuting Inherently Existent Production] :L2

L3: [REFUTING A SELF OF PHENOMENA] :L3

L3: [DIAMOND SLIVERS (#1 : refuting production from self, other, both, neither – cause & effect cannot be the same, different, both, or neither – they cannot be simultaneous, separate in time, both, neither – no 100% sure cause inside, outside, both, neither – no continuity, no discontinuity – nothing exist and change)] :L3
L4: [Statement of the reasons) :L4
L4: [Proofs for the modes of the reasons) :L4
L5: [Non-production FROM SELF] :L5

L5: [Non-production FROM OTHER] :L5
L6: [Actual exposition of non-production from other.] :L6
L6: [Elimination of error concerning the refutation of production from other] :L6
L5: [Non-production FROM BOTH SELF AND OTHER] :L5
L5: [Non-production WITHOUT CAUSES) :L5
L2: [5. Other Types of Production] :L2
L3: [Simultaneous refutation of production of the four extremes and OF THE EXISTENT, NON-EXISTENT, BOTH, AND NEITHER (reasoning #4 : Analysing the nature of the effect; refuting an effect/product that is existent, non-existent, both, neither // cause & effect cannot be simultaneous, nor separate in time)] :L3
L3: [Refutation of production OF THE FOUR ALTERNATIVES (reasoning #5 : refuting that one or many causes can inherently produce one or many effects)] :L3
L4: [Actual exposition of the reasoning refuting production of the four alternatives) :L4
L4: [Elimination of error concerning the refutation of the four alternatives) :L4
L2: [6. Dependent-Arising] :L2

L3: [Actual exposition of dependent-arising (reasoning #3 : THE KING OF REASONING; refuting that anything dependently arisen can be inherently existing)] :L3
L4: [Correct way of interpreting dependent-arising) :L4
L5: [Formation of pratityasamutpada) :L5
L5: [Explanation of the meaning of dependent-arising) :L5
L4: [Refutation of error concerning the etymology of pratityasamutpada) :L4
L5: [Refutation of the formation of pratityasamutpada by other commentators] :L5
L6: [Statement of other commentators' assertion on the formation of pratityasamutpada) :L6
L6: [Refutation of these other commentators' way of forming pratityasamutpada) :L6
L5: [Refutation of Bhavaviveka's way of interpreting pratityasamutpada) :L5
L6: [Incorrectness of Bhavaviveka's refutation of another] :L6
L6: [Incompleteness of Bhavaviveka's own etymology and meaning of pratityasamutpada) :L6
L3: [Elimination of error concerning dependent-arising) :L3
L2: [7. Refuting a Self of Persons] :L2
L3: [Actual exposition of the reasoning refuting a self of persons (reasoning #2 : THE SEVENFOLD REASONING; refuting that a self can be the same (one) or different (many) than the aggregates, or that one depends on the other, or that the self possess the aggregates, or is the mere aggregation, or the mere shape)] :L3
L3: [Elimination of error concerning the refutation of a self of persons] :L3
L1: [Appendices] :L1
L2: [1. Types of Awareness) :L2
L2: [2. Other Interpretations of Dependent Arising) :L2
L2: [3. Modes of Division of the Vaibhashika Schools] :L2
L2: [4. Negatives] :L2
L2: [5. Proof Statements ] :L2
L1: [Notes] :L1
 
L1: [Short Table of Contents / Résumé]
0. Introduction / Technical Note / List of Abbreviations / Acknowledgements
[FIRST, A PRESENTATION OF THE FIVE REASONINGS ESTABLISHING THE TWO SELFLESSNESSES]
PART ONE – MEDITATION [Two selflessnesses, five reasonings, five stages, five paths)
1. Purpose and Motivation [We need to realize both selflessnesses: person and phenomena)
2. Self: The Opposite of Selflessness [The Middle Way between the two extremes: empty, but still not completely non-existent]
3. Meditation: Identifying Self [ex. Meditation of the selflessness of person)

[RÉSUMÉ OF THE FIVE REASONINGS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE FIVE STAGES OF MEDITATION: ]

First stage of meditation on emptiness: How a beginner develops experience with respect to the view of emptiness
Identifying the object negated in the theory of selflessness
4. Meditative Investigation [ex. Using the sevenfold reasoning (#2) to establish the selflessness of person)
5. [ex. Using the reasoning of] Dependent-Arising [to establish the selflessness of person)
5b. [ex. Using the reasoning of Dependent-Arising (#3) to establish the selflessness of phenomena)
5c. [ex. Using the sevenfold reasoning to establish the selflessness of phenomena)
6. [ex. Using the reasoning of the] diamond slivers (#1) [to establish the selflessness of phenomena)
7. Realization [of three more types of reasoning to establish the selflessness of phenomena)
7a. The refutation of the four extreme types of production (#4) [product is not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither]
7b. The refutation of the four alternative of production (#5) [one or many causes ? one or many effects]
7c. The reasoning establishing the lack of being one or many (the two first of reasoning #2)
[Conclusion about the first stage of meditation: non-duality of subject vs. object / emptiness of emptiness)
8. Calm Abiding [Prerequisites, the object of calm abiding, faults & antidotes, nine states, five paths)
Second stage of meditation on emptiness: How to cultivate a similitude of special insight based on a similitude of calm abiding
9. Special Insight [the path of preparation)
Third stage of meditation on emptiness: How to cultivate actual special insight based on actual calm abiding
Fourth stage of meditation on emptiness: How to cultivate direct cognition of emptiness [the paths of seeing & meditation, ten bhumis)
10. Tantra
Fifth stage of meditation on emptiness: How to meditate on emptiness during the second stage of Highest Yoga Tantra
11. Buddhahood [the resulting ground; the Buddha kayas)
 
[SECOND, A PRESENTATION OF THE TWO TRUTHS: EMPTINESS AND THE CONVENTIONAL TRUTHS]

PART TWO — REASONING INTO REALITY [Details about the Five Reasonings implying Emptiness)
0. Introduction [The two selflessnesses and the two sets of reasonings]
1. The Diamond Slivers (#1 : refuting production from self, other, both, neither – cause & effect cannot be the same, different, both, or neither – they cannot be simultaneous, separate in time, both, neither – no 100% sure cause inside, outside, both, neither – no continuity, no discontinuity in change)
The ten samenesses (It is easy to realize the other nine samenesses after aving realized the sameness of production)
Statement of the reasons
1. Non-production from self (cause&effect cannot be the same/one; the cause cannot be inside; Vaibhashika ?? & Samkhyas)
2. Non-production from other (cause&effect cannot be inherently different/two/unrelated otherwise anything would produce anything else; the cause cannot be outside; the junction is unexplainable: cause&effect cannot be simultaneous or separate in time; there is no continuity, no discontinuity; but conventional production from other must be accepted as conventionally valid because the other three are much less logical/practical)
3. Non-production from both self and other (the causes cannot be both the same&different, inside&outside; Nirgranthas(Jainas) & theistic Samkhyas)
4. Non-production causelessly (the effect cannot be causeless; Charvakas / nihilists)
Conclusion
2. The Four Extremes (#4 : Analysing the nature of the effect; refuting an effect/product that is existent, non-existent, both, neither // also: because cause & effect cannot be simultaneous, nor separate in time)
3. The Four Alternatives (#5 : refuting that one or many causes can inherently produce one or many effects)
4. Dependent-Arising (#3 : the King of reasoning: refuting that anything dependently arisen can be inherently existing)
5. Refuting a Self of Persons (#2 : the sevenfold reasoning: refuting that a self can be the same (one) or different (many) than the aggregates, or that one depends on the other, or that the self possess the aggregates, or is the mere aggregation, or the mere shape)
The mine (refuting the “mine”)
[Particularities of Prasangikas: the existent person is not any or all of the mental and physical aggregates)

PART THREE – THE BUDDHIST WORLD [Enumerating some useful conventional truths)

0. Introduction [all empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen, functional, and useful conventional truths)
The fifty-three phenomena of the afflicted class
The fifty-five phenomena of the pure class
1. The Selfless
Classifications of phenomena (the selfless) in terms of non-existents and existents (permanent, things (forms, consciousness (mind, mental factors …))
Classifications of phenomena (the selfless) in terms of the five aggregates
2. Dependent-Arising of Cyclic Existence
Details about the 12 members of the Wheel of Life, and their interpretation acrross three lives
3. The Four Noble Truths
Details about the Four Noble Truths
Details about the coarse and subtle selfless – that realizing only the selflessness of the person is not enough
 
PART FOUR – PRESENTATION AND REFUTATION OF SPECIFIC SYSTEMS / VIEWS (one at a time)

REFUTING NON-BUDDISTS VIEWS:

1. Refutation of various views about the Self
? The assertion of self (various non-buddhist reasonings to be refuted: like inherent existence or complete non-existence of a self)
? Buddhist refutation of self (résumé of the refutations of those non-buddhist positions) : but “the fact that a substantially existent agent cannot be found does not mean that person or agent do not exist at all; they exist imputedly and effectively”.
2. Non-Buddhist Systems: (oscillating between the two extremes of permanence and annihilation)
Samkhyas / Enumerators / Proponent of the nature of the cause / Kapilas
? Samkhyas production from self, (the Samkhya’s permanent self, effect existing at the time of the cause, production from itself (non-theistic) or from both self and others together (theistic), that the world was part of the creator's being -- to be refuted)
? Buddhist refutation of Samkhya (résumé of the refutations of the Samkhya’s positions: permanent self, effect existing at the time of the cause, …)
Charvakas / Hedonists / Nihilists
? Charvakas (Hedonists, Proponent of Annihilation, Nihilists) (the Charvaka’s position on the production from no cause -- to be refuted)
? Buddhist refutation of nihilism (résumé of the refutations of the Nihilists’s positions: production from no cause, a mind that is emerging from matter, annihilation at death, no rebirth, no karma …)

REFUTING HINAYANA BUDDHIST VIEWS:

3. Hinayana (the two schools of the Vehicle of the Hearers)
(1st school) Vaibhashika (18 subschools) [production from self, the Abhidharmists rejecting the authority of the sutras, asserting no self-consciousness but real dharmas (partless particles and partless moments of consciousness) and simultaneous cause & effect -- to be refuted] [résumé of the refutations of the Vaibhashika View)
(2nd school) Sautrantika [Followers of scripture or Reasoning, not accepting the Abhidharma, asserting a real self-consciousness and real dharmas, everything is momentary, accept absolute perception and inference -- to be refuted] [Refutation of the Sautantrika View)
REFUTING MAHAYANA BUDDHIST VIEWS:
4. History of the Mahayana (a cosmology of many Buddhas, a 500 years old Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Buddhapalita, Chandrakirti, Shantideva, …)
5. (3rd school) Chittamatra (Mind-Only tradition, Followers of scripture or Reasoning, asserting true consciousness, that all phenomena are of the nature or entity of the mind, eight consciousnesses, … -- to be refuted] [Refutation of the Chittamatra’s positions]
6. (4th school) Madhyamika (Prasangika vs. Svatantrika, (to be refuted – for this refutation see Part 5 bellow]
? The Middle Way // The Two Truths // Definitive sutras and those requiring interpretation
PART FIVE – PRASANGIKA-MADHYAMIKA [Details about the refutation of the Svatantrika system)
1. The Prasangika School
2. Debate (Prasangika (Buddhapalita + Chandrakirti) vs. Svatantrika (Bhavaviveka)]
3. Bhavaviveka’s Criticism of Buddhapalita
4. Chandrakirti ‘s Defense of Buddhapalita 5. Chandrakirti’s Refutation of Bhavaviveka
6. Prasangika in Tibet (mostly Prasangikas)
7. Validation of Phenomena (why talking about valid cognition?)
8. Meditative Reasoning (not accepting, not rejecting conceptualization)
PART SIX – The root text: “Emptiness in the prasangika system” by Jam-yang-shay-ba (1648-1721)
0. Introduction
? About the author // About the editions of the text used // Jam-yang-shay-ba’s sources // Collaborators for the translation
1. Background
? Definition and etymology of 'Prasangika' // Synonyms of Prasangika' // Divisions of Prasangika
? Literature on which the Prasangikas rely (Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Chandrakirti, Shantideva, Buddhapalita, Atisha, Maitreya, Asanga, Tsong Khapa)
2. Interpretation of Scripture
3. The Object of Negation
THE FIVE REASONINGS REFUTING INHERENT EXISTENCE OF ALL DHARMA
4. Refuting Inherently Existent Production
REASONINGS REFUTING A SELF OF PHENOMENA
? Diamond Slivers (reasoning #1 : refuting production from self, other, both, neither – cause & effect cannot be the same, different, both, or neither – they cannot be simultaneous, separate in time, both, neither – no 100% sure cause inside, outside, both, neither – no continuity, no discontinuity in change)
5. Other types of production
? Simultaneous refutation of production of the four extremes and of the existent, non-existent, both, and neither (reasoning #4 : Analysing the nature of the effect; refuting an effect/product that is existent, non-existent, both, neither // also: because cause & effect cannot be simultaneous, nor separate in time)
? Refutation of production of the four alternatives (reasoning #5 : refuting that one or many causes can inherently produce one or many effects)
6. Dependent-Arising
? Actual exposition of dependent-arising (reasoning #3 : the King of reasoning; refuting that anything dependently arisen can be inherently existing)
? Elimination of error concerning dependent-arising
REASONINGS REFUTING A SELF OF PERSONS
7. Refuting A Self Of Persons
? Actual exposition of the reasoning refuting a self of persons (reasoning #2 : the sevenfold reasoning; refuting that a self can be the same (one) or different (many) than the aggregates, or that one depends on the other, or that the self possess the aggregates, or is the mere aggregation, or the mere shape)
? Elimination of error concerning the refutation of a self of persons

  
L1: [Short Table of Contents / Résumé] :L1
.
[Ignore this section – it is the same as above]
.
N2: [FIRST, A PRESENTATION OF THE FIVE REASONINGS ESTABLISHING THE TWO SELFLESSNESSES] :N2
.
N3: [PART ONE – MEDITATION [Two selflessnesses, five reasonings, five stages, five paths) :N3
.
-- Chapter 1. Purpose and Motivation [We need to realize both selflessnesses: person and phenomena)
-- Chapter 2. Self: The Opposite of Selflessness [The Middle Way between the two extremes: empty, but still not completely non-existent]
-- Chapter 3. Meditation: Identifying Self [ex. Meditation of the selflessness of person)
.
N4: [RÉSUMÉ OF THE FIVE REASONINGS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE FIVE STAGES OF MEDITATION:] :N4
N5: [First stage of meditation on emptiness: How a beginner develops experience with respect to the view of emptiness) :N5
.
-- Identifying THE OBJECT NEGATED in the theory of selflessness
-- Chapter 4. Meditative Investigation [ex. Using the sevenfold reasoning (#2) to establish THE SELFLESSNESS OF PERSON]
-- Chapter 5. [ex. Using the reasoning of] Dependent-Arising [to establish the selflessness of person)
-- 5b. [ex. Using the reasoning of Dependent-Arising (#3) to establish THE SELFLESSNESS OF PHENOMENA]
-- 5c. [ex. Using the sevenfold reasoning to establish the selflessness of phenomena)
-- Chapter 6. [ex. Using the reasoning of the] diamond slivers (#1) [to establish the selflessness of phenomena)
-- Chapter 7. Realization [of three more types of reasoning to establish the selflessness of phenomena)
-- 7a. The refutation of the four extreme types of production (#4) [product is not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither]
-- 7b. The refutation of the four alternative of production (#5) [one or many causes ? one or many effects]
-- 7c. The reasoning establishing the lack of being one or many (the two first of reasoning #2)
-- [Conclusion about the first stage of meditation: non-duality of subject vs. object / emptiness of emptiness)
-- Chapter 8. CALM ABIDING [Prerequisites, the object of calm abiding, faults & antidotes, nine states, five paths)
.
N5: (Second stage of meditation on emptiness: How to cultivate a similitude of special insight based on a similitude of calm abiding) :N5
.
-- Chapter 9. Special Insight [the path of preparation)
.
N5: (Third stage of meditation on emptiness: How to cultivate actual special insight based on actual calm abiding) :N5
N5: (Fourth stage of meditation on emptiness: How to cultivate direct cognition of emptiness [the paths of seeing & meditation, ten bhumis) :N5
.
-- Chapter 10. Tantra
.
N5: [Fifth stage of meditation on emptiness: How to meditate on emptiness during the second stage of Highest Yoga Tantra) :N5
.
-- Chapter 11. Buddhahood [the resulting ground; the Buddha kayas)
.
N2: [SECOND, A PRESENTATION OF THE TWO TRUTHS: EMPTINESS AND THE CONVENTIONAL TRUTHS] :N2
N3: [PART TWO — REASONING INTO REALITY [Details about the Five Reasonings implying Emptiness) :N3
N5: [Chapter 0. Introduction [The two selflessnesses and the two sets of reasonings]] :N5
N5: [Chapter 1. The Diamond Slivers] :N5
.
 (#1 : refuting production from self, other, both, neither – cause & effect cannot be the same, different, both, or neither – they cannot be simultaneous, separate in time, both, neither – no 100% sure cause inside, outside, both, neither – no continuity, no discontinuity in change)
.
-- THE TEN SAMENESSES (It is easy to realize the other nine samenesses after aving realized the sameness of production)
Statement of the reasons
-- 1. NON-PRODUCTION FROM SELF (cause&effect cannot be the same/one; the cause cannot be inside; Vaibhashika ?? & Samkhyas)
-- 2. NON-PRODUCTION FROM OTHER (cause&effect cannot be inherently different/two/unrelated otherwise anything would produce anything else; the cause cannot be outside; the junction is unexplainable: cause&effect cannot be simultaneous or separate in time; there is no continuity, no discontinuity; but conventional production from other must be accepted as conventionally valid because the other three are much less logical/practical)
-- 3. NON-PRODUCTION FROM BOTH SELF AND OTHER (the causes cannot be both the same&different, inside&outside; Nirgranthas(Jainas) & theistic Samkhyas)
-- 4. NON-PRODUCTION CAUSELESSLY (the effect cannot be causeless; Charvakas / nihilists)
-- CONCLUSION
.
N5: [Chapter 2. The Four Extremes) :N5
.
 (#4 : Analysing the nature of the effect; refuting an effect/product that is existent, non-existent, both, neither // also: because cause & effect cannot be simultaneous, nor separate in time)
.
N5: [Chapter 3. The Four Alternatives) :N5
.
 (#5 : refuting that ONE OR MANY causes can inherently produce one or many effects)
.
N5: [Chapter 4. Dependent-Arising] :N5
.
 (#3 : THE KING OF REASONING: refuting that anything dependently arisen can be inherently existing)
.
N5: [Chapter 5. Refuting a Self of Persons] :N5
.
 (#2 : THE SEVENFOLD REASONING: refuting that a self can be the same (one) or different (many) than the aggregates, or that one depends on the other, or that the self possess the aggregates, or is the mere aggregation, or the mere shape)
.
-- The mine (refuting the “mine”)
-- [Particularities of Prasangikas: the existent person is not any or all of the mental and physical aggregates)
.
N3: [PART THREE – THE BUDDHIST WORLD [Enumerating some useful conventional truths) :N3
.
N5: [Chapter 0. Introduction] :N5
.
 [all empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen, functional, and useful conventional truths)
.
-- The fifty-three phenomena of the afflicted class
-- The fifty-five phenomena of the pure class
.
N5: [Chapter 1. The Selfless) :N5
.
-- Classifications of phenomena (the selfless) in terms of non-existents and existents (permanent, things (forms, consciousness (mind, mental factors …))
-- Classifications of phenomena (the selfless) in terms of the five aggregates
.
N5: [Chapter 2. Dependent-Arising of Cyclic Existence) :N5
.
-- Details about the 12 members of the Wheel of Life, and their interpretation acrross three lives
.
N5: [Chapter 3. The Four Noble Truths) :N5
.
-- Details about the Four Noble Truths
-- Details about the coarse and subtle selfless – that realizing only the selflessness of the person is not enough
.
N3: [PART FOUR – PRESENTATION AND REFUTATION OF SPECIFIC SYSTEMS / VIEWS (one at a time)] :N3
N4: [REFUTING NON-BUDDISTS VIEWS] :N4
N5: [Chapter 1. Refutation of various views about the Self) :N5
.
-- The assertion of self (various non-buddhist reasonings to be refuted: like inherent existence or complete non-existence of a self)
-- Buddhist refutation of self (résumé of the refutations of those non-buddhist positions) : but “the fact that a substantially existent agent cannot be found does not mean that person or agent do not exist at all; they exist imputedly and effectively”.
.
N5: [Chapter 2. Non-Buddhist Systems] :N5
.
 (oscillating between the two extremes of permanence and annihilation)
.
N6: (Samkhyas / Enumerators / Proponent of the nature of the cause / Kapilas
.
-- Samkhyas production from self, (the Samkhya’s permanent self, effect existing at the time of the cause, production from itself (non-theistic) or from both self and others together (theistic), that the world was part of the creator's being -- to be refuted)
-- Buddhist refutation of Samkhya (résumé of the refutations of the Samkhya’s positions: permanent self, effect existing at the time of the cause, …)
.
N6: [Charvakas / Hedonists / Nihilists
.
-- Charvakas (Hedonists, Proponent of Annihilation, Nihilists) (the Charvaka’s position on the production from no cause -- to be refuted)
-- Buddhist refutation of nihilism (résumé of the refutations of the Nihilists’s positions: production from no cause, a mind that is emerging from matter, annihilation at death, no rebirth, no karma …)
.
N4: [REFUTING HINAYANA BUDDHIST VIEWS] :N4
N5: [Chapter 3. Hinayana (the two schools of the Vehicle of the Hearers) ] :N5
N6: [ (1st school) Vaibhashika (18 subschools)
.
 [production from self, the Abhidharmists rejecting the authority of the sutras, asserting no self-consciousness but real dharmas (partless particles and partless moments of consciousness) and simultaneous cause & effect -- to be refuted] [résumé of the refutations of the Vaibhashika View)
.
N6: [ (2nd school) Sautrantika
.
 [Followers of scripture or Reasoning, not accepting the Abhidharma, asserting a real self-consciousness and real dharmas, everything is momentary, accept absolute perception and inference -- to be refuted] [Refutation of the Sautantrika View)
.
N4: [REFUTING MAHAYANA BUDDHIST VIEWS] :N4
N5: [Chapter 4. History of the Mahayana) :N5
.
 (a cosmology of many Buddhas, a 500 years old Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Buddhapalita, Chandrakirti, Shantideva, …)
.
N5: [Chapter 5. (3rd school) Chittamatra) :N5
.
 (Mind-Only tradition, Followers of scripture or Reasoning, asserting true consciousness, that all phenomena are of the nature or entity of the mind, eight consciousnesses, … -- to be refuted] [Refutation of the Chittamatra’s positions]
.
N5: [Chapter 6. (4th school) Madhyamika) :N5
.
 (Prasangika vs. Svatantrika, (to be refuted – for this refutation see Part 5 bellow]
.
-- The Middle Way // The Two Truths // Definitive sutras and those requiring interpretation
.
N3: [PART FIVE – PRASANGIKA-MADHYAMIKA [Details about the refutation of the Svatantrika system) :N3
.
N5: [Chapter 1. The Prasangika School) :N5
N5: [Chapter 2. Debate (Prasangika (Buddhapalita + Chandrakirti) vs. Svatantrika (Bhavaviveka)]] :N5
N5: [Chapter 3. Bhavaviveka’s Criticism of Buddhapalita) :N5
N5: [Chapter 4. Chandrakirti ‘s Defense of Buddhapalita) :N5
N5: [Chapter 5. Chandrakirti’s Refutation of Bhavaviveka) :N5
N5: [Chapter Chapter Chapter 6. Prasangika in Tibet (mostly Prasangikas)] :N5
N5: [Chapter 7. Validation of Phenomena (why talking about valid cognition?)] :N5
N5: [Chapter 8. Meditative Reasoning (not accepting, not rejecting conceptualization)] :N5
.
N3: [PART SIX – The root text: “Emptiness in the prasangika system” by Jam-yang-shay-ba (1648-1721)] :N3
N5: [Chapter 0. Introduction] :N5
.
-- About the author // About the editions of the text used // Jam-yang-shay-ba’s sources // Collaborators for the translation
N5: [Chapter 1. Background] :N5
.
-- Definition and etymology of 'Prasangika' // Synonyms of Prasangika' // Divisions of Prasangika
-- Literature on which the Prasangikas rely (Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Chandrakirti, Shantideva, Buddhapalita, Atisha, Maitreya, Asanga, Tsong Khapa)
.
N5: [Chapter 2. Interpretation of Scripture) :N5
N5: [Chapter 3. The Object of Negation] :N5
N4: [THE FIVE REASONINGS REFUTING INHERENT EXISTENCE OF ALL DHARMA) :N4
.
N5: [Chapter 4. Refuting Inherently Existent Production] :N5
N4: [REASONINGS REFUTING A SELF OF PHENOMENA] :N4
.
-- DIAMOND SLIVERS (reasoning #1 : refuting production from self, other, both, neither – cause & effect cannot be the same, different, both, or neither – they cannot be simultaneous, separate in time, both, neither – no 100% sure cause inside, outside, both, neither – no continuity, no discontinuity in change)
.
N5: [Chapter 5. Other types of production] :N5
.
-- Simultaneous refutation of production of THE FOUR EXTREMES and of the existent, non-existent, both, and neither (reasoning #4 : Analysing the nature of the effect; refuting an effect/product that is existent, non-existent, both, neither // also: because cause & effect cannot be simultaneous, nor separate in time)
-- Refutation of production of THE FOUR ALTERNATIVES (reasoning #5 : refuting that one or many causes can inherently produce one or many effects)
.
N5: [Chapter 6. Dependent-Arising] :N5
.
-- ACTUAL EXPOSITION OF DEPENDENT-ARISING (reasoning #3 : the King of reasoning; refuting that anything dependently arisen can be inherently existing)
-- Elimination of error concerning dependent-arising
.
N4: [REASONINGS REFUTING A SELF OF PERSONS] :N4
N5: [Chapter 7. Refuting A Self Of Persons] :N5
.
-- ACTUAL EXPOSITION OF THE REASONING REFUTING A SELF OF PERSONS (reasoning #2 : the sevenfold reasoning; refuting that a self can be the same (one) or different (many) than the aggregates, or that one depends on the other, or that the self possess the aggregates, or is the mere aggregation, or the mere shape)
-- Elimination of error concerning the refutation of a self of persons
 
L1: [Introduction] :L1
 [see other files for this section]
.
L1: [Technical Note] :L1
[see other files for this section]
.
L1: [List of Abbreviations] :L1
[see other files for this section]
.
L1: [Acknowledgements] :L1
[see other files for this section]
.
L1: [Part I – Meditation) :L1
 [see other files for this section]
.
L1: [PRESENTATION OF THE TWO TRUTHS: EMPTINESS (part 2) AND THE CONVENTIONAL TRUTHS (part 3)] :L1
L1: [PART II — REASONING INTO REALITY -- Details about the Five Reasonings proving the Emptiness of all dharmas) :L1
[see other files for this section]
.
L1: [Part Three – The Buddhist World [Details about the useful conventional truths) :L1
[see other files for this section]
.
L1: [Part Four – Presentation and refutation of various systems / views) :L1
[see other files for this section]
.
L1: [Part Five – Prasangika-Madhyamika [Details about the refutation of the Svatantrika system) :L1
[see other files for this section]

L1: [PART SIX – Translation of “Emptiness in the prasangika system” by Jam-yang-shay-ba (P.561)] :L1
.
From the twelfth chapter of Jam-yang-shay-ba’s Explanation of 'Tenets', Sun of the Land of Samantabhadra Brilliantly Illuminating All of Our Own and Others' Tenets And the Meaning of the Profound (Emptiness), Ocean of Scripture and Reasoning Fulfilling All Hopes of All Beings
.
L2: [0. Introduction] :L2
.
JAM-YANG-SHAY-BA’S GREAT EXPOSITION OF TENETS, published in 1699, is one of only several books of its kind, two of the others being
-- Jang-gya's Presentation of Tenets (Grub mtha'i rnam bzhag), which is based on Jam-yang-shay-ba’s text,
-- and Daktsang's Understanding All Tenets (Grub mtha' kun shes) which Jam-yang-shay-ba takes as his main object of refutation.
.
There are many other short books which present the basic tenets of the various non-Buddhist and Buddhist systems; however, there is none of the length and breadth of the Great Exposition of Tenets. Replete with quotations from Indian sources, it presents the tenets of the philosophical culture of India in three hundred and ten folios (Dalama edition). A translation into English in the manner of the section done here, with all quotes restored to full length, would take 2500 pages.
.
According to Kensur Lekden, a master of the Great Exposition of Tenets would have the many sources for the work around his room and refer to them as quoted. Daily the students in Gomang (sGomang, meaning 'many doors' because Buddha's teaching has many doors or approaches and because those who have realized emptiness can walk through walls), the college of Drebung ('Bras-spung) monastery that uses Jam-yang-shay-ba’s textbooks, would have to present back to the teacher from memory the teacher's previous commentary on the Great Exposition of Tenets. The students would take sides and debate the many points, becoming clever at upholding and demolishing various positions and developing their intelligence and memory. The basic text would be memorized; the master would teach the whole work twice, and at the conclusion the students would have a map of the whole field of Buddhist philosophical literature. They would then be able to differentiate the systems and avoid confusing the works of authors of conflicting systems. They would be ready for the specialized texts on the path structure, Prasangika-Madhyamika, logic and epistemology, phenomenology, and discipline.
.
Jam-yang-shay-ba also wrote a textbook just on Prasangika-Madhyamika, a commentary to Chandrakirti’s Supplement., which is in some ways far more extensive than his chapter on Prasangika in the Great Exposition of Tenets, such as in the discussion of autonomous syllogisms.
.
Still, in other respects, the Great Exposition of Tenets is more extensive than the former, as in presenting the Prasangika theory of interpretation and formation of the Sanskrit of 'dependent-arising', pratityasamutpada. Thus, each is studied for a fuller appreciation of the other. These two form the basis of the knowledge of Madhyamika in the Gomang College of Drebung which, within the sphere of the dominant Geluk order, was also influential—along with other colleges—in the Am-do province of Tibet as well as in Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, the Buryat area of Siberia, and the Kalmuk areas of Russia.
.
Jam-yang-shay-ba’s Great Exposition of Tenets has thirteen chapters:
-- Discussion of tenets in general
-- Refutation of the extreme of nihilism: Charvaka
-- Refutation of an extreme of permanence: Samkhya and Kapila
-- Refutation of an extreme of permanence: Brahmana, Vyakarana, Vedanta, and Guhyaka
-- Refutation of an extreme of permanence: Vaishnava and Mimamsaka
-- Refutation of an extreme of permanence: Shaiva, Naiyayika, and Vaisesika
-- Refutation of an extreme of permanence: Nirgrantha (Jaina)
-- Introduction to Buddhist tenets in general and presentation of Vaibhashika
-- Sautrantika
-- Introduction to the Mahayana and presentation of Chittamatra
-- Introduction to Madhyamika, its history, refutation of wrong views about Madhyamika, and presentation of Svatantrika
-- Prasangika
-- Elimination of doubts about the Vajrayana.
.
JAM-YANG-SHAY-BA’S ROOT TEXT,

written in verse mainly with nine syllables per line, consists of sixteen folios; his commentary is three hundred and ten folios (Dalama edition).
-- The basic text is called (see bibliography for Tibetan titles): Presentation of Tenets, Roar of the Five-Faced (Lion) Eradicating Error, Precious Lamp Illuminating the Good Path to Omniscience.
-- His commentary is called: Explanation of 'Tenets', Sun of the Land of Samantabhadra Brilliantly Illuminating All of Our Own and Others' Tenets and the Meaning of the Profound (Emptiness), Ocean of Scripture and Reasoning Fulfilling All Hopes of All Beings.
    The word 'tenets' in the title of the commentary refers to the root text; his commentary on it is like the light of the land of Samantabhadra, which is not lit by a sun that rises and sets but shines continuously through the power of meditative stabilization. This book of tenets fulfils the hopes of all beings seeking the ability to gain the wanted and avoid the unwanted since it explains what the wanted and unwanted are and how to achieve and avoid them. Through delineating the profound meaning of emptiness, it shows the path to liberation from cyclic existence and the eventual attainment of omniscience.
-- The great Outer Mongolian scholar, Nga-wang-bel-den (Ngag-dbang-dpal-ldan, born 1779), known more commonly as Bel-den-cho-jay (dPal-ldan-chos-rje), wrote an extensive commentary of annotations (four hundred and sixteen folios, Sarnath edition) on Jam-yang-shay-ba’s autocommentary (three hundred and ten folios, Dalama edition). It is called: Annotations for (Jam-yang-shay-ba’s) 'Great Exposition of Tenets', Freeing the Knots of the Difficult Points, Precious Jewel of Clear Thought. Nga-wang-bel-den's annotations do indeed untie the knots of many difficult points in Jam-yang-shay-ba’s text especially by elaborating the meaning of quotations, and thus it has been used extensively in the translation for both interpretation and addition of bracketed material.
.
Jam-yang-shay-ba is famous for his lengthy works replete with citations of Indian sources. Whereas his followers often point to his frequent citation of sources as a great advantage, the followers of the textbook literature by Pan-chen So-nam-drak-ba (1478-1554), used in the Lo-sel-ling College of Drebung and the Shardzay College of Ganden, conversely point to their writer's ability to condense important topics into easily readable prose, highly accessible to beginners. In the middle is Jay-dzun Cho-gyi-gyel-tsen (1469-1546), whose textbooks, used by the Sera Jay and Ganden Jangdzay Colleges, tend to fall between those two in terms of length.
.
Here in the Great Exposition of Tenets Jam-yang-shay-ba’s devotion to the source literature is particularly helpful as it makes his presentation of Prasangika an anthology of the basic literature in both sutra and the commentarial treatises. In order to reduce the bulk of the text, Jam-yang-shay-ba condensed many quotations. However, since, as Kensur Lekden reported, a master of the Great Exposition of Tenets would have the cited texts available and make use of them during instruction, this translator has sought out those texts and filled in the ellipses, with the result that thirty percent of the translation is comprised of these reconstructions.
.
The full, edited Tibetan text, with the reconstructions clearly marked, is given at the end of this book; the page numbers in brackets [###] throughout the translation refer to it. (note: le [1] seems missing, all the other ones up to [154] are there.)

L3: [About the author] :L3
.
According to Lokesh Chandra's account given in his Materials for a History of Tibetan Literature, 492 Jam-yang-shay-ba Nga-wang-dzon-dru was born in the Am-do province of Tibet in 1648. Having studied the alphabet at age seven with his uncle, who was a monk, he mastered reading and writing and six years later became a novice monk. He went to Hla-sa at age twenty-one to pursue his studies at the Gomang College of Drebung Monastic University; six years later he received full ordination and at age twenty-nine entered the Tantric College of Lower Hla-sa. He spent two years in meditative retreat in a cave near Drebung from age thirty-three. (Perhaps it was at this time that Manjushri, also called Manjughosha, appeared to him and smiled, due to which, according to Kensur Lekden, he came to be called 'One On Whom Manjughosha Smiled', Jam-yang-shay-ba.)
.
At age fifty-three he became abbot of Gomang and at sixty-two returned to Am-do province where he founded a monastery at Dra-shi-kyil (bKra-shis-'khyil), this being 1710. Seven years later he founded a tantric college at the same place. He wrote prolifically on the full range of topics of a typical Tibetan polymath and, having received honors from the central Tibetan government and the Chinese Emperor, died at the age of seventy-three or four in 1721/2.
.
Partly because of the close connection between Gomang College and the Mongolian peoples stretching from the Caspian Sea through Siberia, who were predominantly Gelugpa by this time, Jam-yang-shay-ba’s influence on the Gelugpa order has been considerable. Like the other textbook authors, he was seeking to explicate the thought of the founder of the Gelugpa order, Tsong Khapa (1357-1419), and perhaps it was because he was the last of the great textbook authors and thus had the others' works before him and could speak from a fully developed tradition of such study that he could put such great emphasis on the Indian sources of Tsong Khapa's thought.

L3: [About the editions of the text used] :L3
.
FIVE EDITIONS OF JAM-YANG-SHAY-BA’S GREAT EXPOSITION OF TENETS were gathered over several years. Four of them turned out to have the same basis:
-- the Dalama edition published in Musoorie in 1962
-- photographs (of the part translated here) of the text in the possession of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The photography was kindly done by Sherpa Tulku and Khamlung Tulku. Unfortunately, the final pages were not included, and thus publishing data is not available. The margin of every page reads 'grub 'grel', as do the other three in this class.
-- a hand-written copy (of the part translated here) of the edition held in the library of Gomang College in Mundgod, Karnataka State. This was graciously provided through the efforts of Kensur Lekden, by way of the then abbot of Gomang Den-ba-den-dzin. Again, the pages with publication data were not copied.
-- a hand-written copy (of the twelfth and thirteenth chapters) of an edition, surreptitiously procured—from a library in a country that shall remain unnamed—by Mr. Gyatso Tsering, Director of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharmsala. The colophon states that it was commissioned by 'gam bear mkhan po chos 'byor rgya mtsho'.
    The first, third, and fourth contain variations due to scribes' and print-setters' inaccuracies, but they share basic inaccuracies with the second; thus we can posit that they stem from a common edition. These basic inaccuracies do not appear in the other edition obtained:
-- a photographic reprint of the Dra-shi-kyil edition published in 1972 in New Delhi by Ngawang Gelek Demo in Volume 14 of the Collected Works of 'Jam-dbyahs-bzad-pa'i-rdo-rje.
.
The last is by far the best edition due to not having some major errors, which all the other four have, and due to using the virama extensively in the section on forming the Sanskrit term pratityasamutpada under renderings of Sanskrit groups of letters in Tibetan. (A copy of this edition has recently been made by Gomang College; it contains no publication information above and beyond what is in the Dra-shi-kyil edition.) According to Kensur Lekden, Jam-yang-shay-ba’s works have suffered from poor printing from the start due to the fact that the author wrote quickly in his old age, with little attention to the details of publication. The annotator, Nga-wang-bel-den, frequently points out printing errors, which appear in the edition represented by one through four in the list above. It can be deduced from his commentary (dbu 67b.8 note ca, for instance) that he did not have the Dra-shi-kyil edition at his disposal since he challenges readings that are clearly not in the Dra-shi-kyil edition but are in the other.
.
Both editions are replete with error; nevertheless, due to Jam-yang-shay-ba’s proclivity for quotation, it was possible to compare a great portion of the text with the Peking edition as found in the Tibetan Tripitaka published under the auspices of the Tibetan Tripitaka Foundation (Tokyo-Kyoto, 1956). Thus, in counsel with the Gomang scholars mentioned below, it was possible to edit the text; a list of a hundred and ninety-one emendations of the Gomang hand-copy is given after the reconstructed text.

L3: [Jam-yang-shay-ba’s sources] :L3
.
THE PORTION OF THE GREAT EXPOSITION OF TENETS TRANSLATED HERE has two hundred and nine quotations, counting a few quotes within quotes.
.
The sources in order of frequency of quotation are:
-- 1 Chandrakirti’s Supplement to (Nagarjuna’s) ‘Treatise on the Middle Way’ (Madhyamakavatara) and his own commentary, thirty-eight quotations
-- 2 Chandrakirti’s Clear Words, a Commentary on (Nagarjuna’s) 'Treatise on the Middle Way' (Madhyamakavrtti-prasannapada), twenty-eight quotations
-- 3 Chandragomin's (Sanskrit) Grammar (Chandravydkarana), eleven quotations
-- 4 Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Middle Way (Madhyamakashastra), eight quotations
-- 5 Nagarjuna’s Compendium of Sutra (Sutrasamuchchaya), seven quotations
-- 5 Nagarjuna’s Precious Garland of Advice for the King (Ratnavali), seven quotations
-- 5 Buddhapalita's Commentary on (Nagarjuna 's) 'Treatise on the Middle Way' (Buddhapalitamulamadhyamakavrtti), seven quotations
-- 6 Perfection of Wisdom Sutra (Prajnaparamita, in twenty-five thousand or eighteen thousand stanzas), five quotations
-- 6 Descent into Lanka Sutra (Lankavatara), five quotations
-- 6 Aryadeva's Four Hundred (Chatuhshataka), five quotations
-- 6 Chandrakirti’s Commentary on (Aryadeva's) 'Four Hundred' (Chatuhshatakanka), five quotations
-- 6 Jnanagarbha's Discrimination of the Two Truths (Satyadvayavibhahga), five quotations
-- 7 Shantideva's Engaging in the Bodhisattva Deeds (Bodhisattvacharydvatara), four quotations
-- 7 Tsong Khapa's Essence of the Good Explanations (Legs bshad snying po), four quotations
-- 7 Tsong Khapa's Explanation of (Nagarjuna’s) 'Treatise on the Middle Way' (rTsa shes tik chen), four quotations
-- 7 Kalapa's Aphorisms (Kalapasutra), four quotations
-- 8 Sutra Unravelling the Thought (Samdhinirmochana), three quotations
-- 8 Sutra on the Ten Grounds (Dashabhumika), three quotations
-- 8 Rice Seedling Sutra (Shalistamba), three quotations
-- 8 Nagarjuna’s Sixty Stanzas of Reasoning (Yuktishashtika), three quotations
-- 8 Bhavaviveka's Lamp for (Nagarjuna 's) 'Wisdom' (Prajnapradipa), three quotations
-- 9 Ashvaghosha's Cultivation of the Ultimate Mind of Enlightenment (Paramarthabodhichittabhavandkramavarnasamgraha), two quotations
-- 9 Teaching of Akshayamati Sutra (Akshayamatinirdesha), two quotations
-- 9 King of Meditative Stabilizations Sutra (Samadhiraja), two quotations
-- 9 Nagarjuna’s Seventy Stanzas on Emptiness (Shunyatasaptati) and his own commentary, two quotations
-- 9 Mahamati's Commentary on (Nagarjuna’s) 'Friendly Letter' (Suhrllekhanka), two quotations
-- 9 Kamalashila's Illumination of the Middle Way (Madhyamakaloka), two quotations
-- 9 Bhavaviveka's Blaze of Reasoning (Tarkajvala), two quotations
-- 9 Fifth Dalai Lama's Sacred Word of Manjushri, two quotations
-- 9 Atisha's Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment (Bodhipathapradipa), two quotations
-- 9 Tsong Khapa's Praise of Dependent-Arising, two quotations
-- 9 Kaydrup's Opening the Eyes of the Fortunate, two quotations
-- 10 one quotation each:
    -- Nagarjuna’s Refutation of Objections (Vigrahavydvartani)
    -- Nagarjuna’s Essay on the Mind of Enlightenment (Bodhichittavivarana)
    -- Nagarjuna’s Friendly Letter (Suhrllekha)
    -- Chandrakirti’s Commentary on (Nagarjuna’s) 'Sixty Stanzas of Reasoning' (Yuktisastikdvrtti)
    -- Avalokitavrata's Commentary on (Bhavaviveka's) 'Lamp for (Nagarjuna’s) "Wisdom "' (Prajnapradipavrtti)
    -- Dharmakirti's Commentary on (Dignaga's) 'Compendium of Valid Cognition'(Pramanavarttika)
    -- Tsong Khapa's Explanation of (Chandrakirti's) 'Supplement'
    -- Extensive Sport Sutra (Lalitavistara)
    -- Heart of Wisdom Sutra (Prajnahrdaya)
    -- White Lotus of the Excellent Doctrine Sutra (Saddharmapundanka)
    -- Chapter of the True One Sutra (Satyakaparivarta)
    -- Questions of King Dharanishvara Sutra (Dharanishvararajapariprccha)
    -- Irreversible Wheel Sutra (Avaivartachakra)
    -- Lion's Roar of Shrimaladevi Sutra (Shrimaladevisimhanada)
    -- Sutra on the Heavily Adorned (Ghanavyuha)
    -- Questions of the King of Nagas, Sagara, Sutra (Sagaranagarajapariprchchha)
    -- Kashyapa Chapter Sutra (Kasyapaparivana)
    -- Meeting of Father and Son Sutra (Pitaputrasamagamana)
    -- Compendium of Doctrine Sutra (Dharmasamgiti)
    -- Six unidentified sutra quotations.
.
The authors in order of frequency of quotation are:
-- 1 Chandrakirti, seventy-three quotations
-- 2 Buddha (sutra), forty quotations
-- 3 Nagarjuna, thirty quotations
-- 4 Tsong Khapa, eleven quotations
-- 4 Chandragomin, eleven quotations
-- 5 Buddhapalita, seven quotations
-- 6 Aryadeva, five quotations
-- 6 Bhavaviveka, five quotations
-- 6 Jnanagarbha, five quotations
-- 7 Kalapa, four quotations
-- 8 Ashvaghosha, Mahamati, Kamalashila, Atisha, Kaydrup, and the Fifth Dalai Lama, two quotations each
-- 9 Avalokitavrata and Dharmakirti, one quotation each.
.
The above tally is JUST FOR THE PARTS OF JAM-YANG-SHAY-BA’S CHAPTER ON PRASANGIKA TRANSLATED HERE on the definition, synonyms, divisions, literature, and emptiness of the Prasangika system. It is obvious from the two lists that at least for Jam-yang-shay-ba Chandrakirti is by far the principal source for the Prasangika position on emptiness and its relation to the other schools. (The last part of Jam-yang-shay-ba’s presentation of the Prasangika system deals with the attributes of a Buddha and relies heavily on Maitreya's Sublime Continuum of the Great Vehicle (Uttaratantra). Thus, the tally should be taken as applying not to Jam-yang-shay-ba’s entire presentation of the Prasangika system but mainly to his presentation of emptiness.)
.
 
L4: [The distinctions between Nagarjuna, Chandrakirti and Tsong Khapa’s contributions] :L4
.
When Madhyamika is studied in the Gelugpa monastic colleges, it is Chandrakirti’s Supplement that is memorized and that serves as the basis for the entire study of Madhyamika. Tsong Khapa's commentary and the individual monastic textbooks are used as aids for illuminating the meaning of Chandrakirti’s text.
.
These books by Chandrakirti which are so often quoted are all explanations, directly or indirectly, of Nagarjuna’s philosophy. Even the sutras quoted by Jam-yang-shay-ba are mostly those which Nagarjuna quoted in his Compendium of Sutra or made reference to in his Treatise or Chandrakirti quoted in his books. It is, of course, not surprising, since Nagarjuna was the founder of Madhyamika, to find that almost all of the philosophical quotes for Madhyamika derive from him either directly or through his chief commentator, Chandrakirti. WHAT IS NOTEWORTHY IS THAT CHANDRAKIRTI’S WORKS OF CLARIFICATION ARE HEAVILY RELIED UPON TO DETERMINE NAGARJUNA’S MEANING.
.
As Jam-yang-shay-ba says at the end of his section on Prasangika literature, the main source for the content of his presentation is Tsong Khapa. It seems that almost all of Jam-yang-shay-ba’s quotes from Indian philosophical commentaries—Nagarjuna through Atisha—are cited by Tsong Khapa; JAM-YANG-SHAY-BA IS NOT GIVING A NEW PRESENTATION BUT ARRANGING TSONG KHAPA'S PRESENTATION IN A MORE CONVENIENT FORM FOR COMPARATIVE STUDY.
.
That most of the forty sutra quotations are also to be found in Tsong Khapa is not coincidence; JAM-YANG-SHAY-BA WAS SEEKING TO CLARIFY TSONG KHAPA'S TEACHING especially in contradistinction to Daktsang (born 1405), a scholar of the Sagya (Sa-skya) order who indicted Tsong Khapa for self-contradiction. Jam-yang-shay-ba defended the founder of his order and indicted Daktsang for self-contradiction in return. Jam-yang-shay-ba’s genius and importance lies not in innovation in Madhyamika philosophy but in his defense of Tsong Khapa's interpretation and in his thorough presentation of the non-Buddhist and Buddhist philosophical systems. Jam-yang-shay-ba’s work came almost three hundred years after both Tsong Khapa and Daktsang and at a time when Gelugpa influence was on the rise under the leadership of the Fifth Dalai Lama; thus, he by no means saved Tsong Khapa's teaching. It is more that his particular style of vast and thorough presentation, coupled with what at times is partisan fire, was suitable for developing the kind of sharp intellect that the monastic colleges of Tibet value.
.
Nagarjuna was clarifying the thought of Buddha;
Chandrakirti was clarifying the thought of Nagarjuna;
Tsong Khapa was clarifying the thought of Chandrakirti; and
Jam-yang-shay-ba was clarifying the thought of Tsong Khapa.
.
A measure of how important each clarification was is how often the clarifier is subsequently quoted as opposed to how often what is clarified is cited; still, though Chandrakirti is quoted most frequently and though his works finally drew more study and attention in Tibet than Nagarjuna’s, Chandrakirti is definitely secondary to Nagarjuna. Nagarjuna was the master and Chandrakirti the commentator; Chandrakirti did not write a book like the Treatise on the Middle Way which set a whole new trend in Buddhist philosophy and practice.
.
A study of Chandrakirti is viewed as a study of Nagarjuna.
.
Though it could also be said that a study of Nagarjuna is a study of Buddha, the sutras are far too vast and varied to lend the sense that a study of Nagarjuna is a study of Buddha in general. NAGARJUNA’S TREATISE IS AN EPITOME OF THE PERFECTION OF WISDOM SUTRAS, and without the Treatise, as Chandrakirti says (commenting on VI.3 of his Supplement), it would be extremely difficult to understand what these sutras mean. The difference between Nagarjuna’s and Chandrakirti’s clarifications is that Nagarjuna’s is far more basic. It sets an order where order seemed not to exist.
.
Chandrakirti shed additional light on the order revealed by Nagarjuna.
.
According to all the various Gelugpa interpretations, Chandrakirti showed that phenomena do not exist by way of their own character even conventionally whereas Bhavaviveka at least implies that phenomena conventionally exist by way of their own character. This means that for Chandrakirti even conventionally phenomena are not the composite of their parts or their bases of imputation. In relation to the other commentaries this was his 'innovation'.
.
TSONG KHAPA'S 'INNOVATION' was to present the conventional valid existence of all phenomena, detailing the acceptability of the certification of the conventional existence of all phenomena by valid cognizers. Tsong Khapa showed that Madhyamikas do have a system of their own and that it is supported by valid cognition despite the utter unfindability of phenomena among their bases of imputation.