The 9th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
will be held on 6-8 February, 2020 in Perth, Western Australia.
READ MORE

Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
Some of the Buddhist Illustrations created by Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
FREE for everyone to use

We would also appreciate your feedback on Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia. Please write feedback here
Here you can read media articles about the Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia which have been published all over the world.

Paypal-logo.jpg
Articles by alphabetic order
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 Ā Ī Ñ Ś Ū Ö Ō
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0


Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra Full By Nagarjuna

From Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Please consider making little donation to help us expand the encyclopedia    Donate Paypal-logo.jpg    Enjoy your readings here and have a wonderful day  


H1qh.jpg
Garab dorje00.jpg
40 Adpg 18.jpg
Youkihi-Kannon.jpg
22fcv.jpg
High41-tech.jpeg
ShenrabM.jpg
I45es.jpg
20hh0964.jpg
MyoshinjiTaizoin2.jpg
Mo r8r.jpg
Bru.JPG
465841g.JPG
Ocmage.jpg
Stiliseeritdud-Guru.jpg
-dechen.jpg
Kuh0042.JPG
Monk-Myanmar.jpg
Gr 1002253.jpg
Forest.monk.jpg
5054AiIs.jpg
Pema Rigdzin.JPG
Buddha-23r.jpg
21 17-AFP1.jpg
1258102.jpg
1aSD.JPG
Pirarhher.jpg
Dhism.jpg
Bhhge.jpg
MArtDetail.jpg
Bajrayogini-temple.jpg
Ahamunhi.jpg
Guru-Man010.JPG
Buddh on Flicrk.jpg
Sm 44ow.jpg
Labad003.jpg
Kri0022.JPG
Befrge.jpg
Imag41.jpg
8 5278303 n.jpg
14ayy.jpg
10.jpg
F8saw.jpg
4v174as.jpg
Dc1a grande.jpg
N670404.jpeg
Guru-LihtTrooni--Col.jpg
Bildeh.jpg
26bn0.jpg
An13 975.jpg
Valge-Tara-small.jpg
0001tyypassion.jpeg
Guru-Lootosel-65.jpg
1lomj.jpg
7 099.jpg
Vajrakila46.jpg
A55s.jpg
Ad65.jpg
7rge.JPG
Amritakundali.jpg
10bnm43 n.jpg
88-126.jpg
Weuiy.jpg
2llG.JPG
14aG.JPG
CG hjhjpers.jpg
Mzals61gl1s.jpg
DS Tashilunpo01.jpg
Thhj2010.jpg
Mara Daughters.JPG
1fkRf.jpg
-in-you-e1332658113995.jpg
Portland Japanese gardens zen garden.jpg
Labd024.jpg
Wp 600.jpg
1KMtxEydJr.jpg
Mo4nada.jpg
Laugh.jpg
1250asd.JPG
Urden1.jpg
Mandarava457.jpg
30-1280x800.jpg
360904799.jpg
Ks-Clothes.jpg
25dd04.jpg
Saraswati-sar-23.jpg
A 1456721c.jpg
Dc7.JPG
Cundi Bodhisattva.jpg
2606037 o.jpg
IMG 0235.jpg
Honen01478.jpg
BkOl -hs.jpg
14ditator.jpg
Ekajati th 2 500 720.jpg
D72a71.jpg
Alien-13-en.jpg
Be 08.jpg
Sd14v.jpg
Mo nd.jpg
BcEbv3zv.jpg
Buddhist-stupa1.jpg
Image285.jpg
A578eg.jpg
Url-456.jpg
Guru-tigeduse0.jpg
Url h1.jpg
Hutagt2.jpg
Bodhi Ajanta.jpg
Buddbccha.jpg
3402 n.jpg
65x300.jpg
5w7.JPG
14jhc.jpg
Url242.jpg
Padmasambhava-015.jpg
Minthalawa.jpg
Buddha-a.jp.jpg
Bhut-Paro-festival.jpg
A-Buddhist-nun-waits-for-the-arrihjgaing.jpg
C1DF02.jpg
3xcc69 n.jpg
Sakya-Muni-treoonil.jpg
A60bcaui.jpg
Manju3-12.jpg
MPP71.jpg
3117120729.jpg
1000uio.jpg
Url222.jpg
OB.jpg
HistMonk 1.JPG
Babfall2006b.jpg
Jvno1 500.jpg
Ruwanwelisaya cent. 140 BC.JPG
1tif-4a.jpg
187-Haridasa500w159h.jpg
1380449 6165fghf.jpg
Da45irror.jpg
Mak4ek1.jpg
Fifth dalai lama21.jpg
14 - 1v.jpg
Images 8.jpg
Pindola.jpg
The-mind-m.jpg
5rrsw1.JPG
Cosmos000.jpg
Ma44ek1.jpg
The-tunnel-of-trees.jpg
Nd=136h.jpg
EarLobes.jpg
Padma-Guru Drakpo.jpg
8v17ghh n.jpg
Kri0013.JPG
2.jpgc9.jpg
Teps one bow.jpg
Buddhist preies.jpg
2018.jpg
Simhamukha dakini147.jpg
Img237.jpg
17. Nohher 0.JPG
3d- und-3.jpg
D-625x468.jpg
Awesa 024.jpg
90 9LfruxLb.jpg
2d3buddha.jpg
Incense.jpg
Monk.jpg
250xze1347.jpg
9f04ss.jpeg
Saffon2.JPG
325414-1.jpg
161c99def2.jpg
Laffht.jpg
Oda-h.grid-6x2.jpg
155g89 n.jpg
Nichiren Chosho 2.jpg
BeoHAz CMd.jpg
Ty -2.jpg
Gns.jpg
Ca c8b5.jpg
DSCf19.JPG
Bud hamma.jpg
BodhnathEyes.jpg
Uys.JPG
Kuh0036.JPG
7866.JPG
Milarepa statue.jpg
Ddhist Priest.JPG
Moonf4a9z.jpg
11c1 8.jpg
Unna422med.jpg
Donation markers.jpg
-panchami vishnu.jpg
Lorffha.jpg
Ngagpa-35.jpg
Le-bodh-ga.jpg
54bn325 n.jpg
Dhammacari.jpg
Ima4272es.jpg
Kuh0064.JPG
Buddha en.jpg
Gf956as.jpg
Taiwanese Buddhist Nun Black Robes.jpeg
Img-nara-04.jpg
Ekesamonks.jpg
Jakucho.jpg
2707.jpg
Shery809403y.jpg
09868 n.jpg
O2-147.jpg
4.png
D monnik.jpg
Shtuni.jpg
1318.JPG
00mita.jpg
3061ZCCVc.jpg
Dorje sempa44.jpg
Siddhielix.jpg
1028mn.jpg
Milarepa888.jpg
DC4KD00Z.jpg
9718gjhgf.jpg
Vajra015.jpg
15g3 n.jpg
Nag4arjuna.jpg
Atman.jpg
Vajrayogini54.jpg
10qPG.JPG
Ordin tion2.JPG
1247yuiyi.jpg
7f235x.jpg
29e.jpg
6aty00wi.jpg
Hiaon.JPG
Urlhhj.jpg
10xz G.JPG
Img 9272.jpg
BbYrGss.jpg
101uiouio.jpg
Su 06A.jpg
Sdkl.jpg
Dana - fgg.jpg
102hj.jpg
Siddhartha-birth.jpg
Sdfjcv.jpg
D5e9d406-ca1f-11e3-9348-12313d318c38-large.jpeg
BeoD7vghjk.jpg
VP8 b.jpg
JCMAAVh.jpg
Nucxx1024.jpg
Perccus2.jpg
1iop1 n.jpg
800px.JPG
1447mj.jpg
BUDDHA hotei02 l.jpg
Offebbnsink.jpg
W6x5fg-crop.jpg
MG d420.jpg
Stuupa-aiast-vaadatuna.jpg
485.jpg
4bacfd.jpg
BZxrge.jpg
81253.jpg
Ima45kges.jpg
DfJ4.JPG
Clip-image0021.jpg
Pain4ting21.jpg
Snhv.jpg
Eyes.jpg
6404598.jpg
Chamtrul Rinpoche.jpg
Ns-192.jpg
124efault.jpg
Smokesignals.jpg
Meditation14.jpg
G422che b.jpg
Img 17181.jpg
Amido-body.jpg
Kuh0069.JPG
Ke bo 738.JPG
Daoism156.jpg
85 eg.jpg
Images575gh.jpg
KURUKULLA0lg.jpg
Spir-1.jpg
GURU PADMASAM.jpg
BfhCmS7CMAdf.jpg
Ksitigarbha-es32.jpg
Dcas.JPG
Mountains-clouds 00428445.jpg
Nks.jpg
422tyuu.jpg
Original25.jpg
Magu41.jpg
42cx5 n.jpg
Red tara kurukulla.jpg
Begging monk 01.jpg
196uioo.jpg
5236jhg.jpg
Uary (1).jpg
-lent-.jpg
X296616 n.jpg
Shantideva7.jpg
Milarepa-05.jpeg
Heaven asce.jpg
Uj80017.jpg
14 - 1.jpg
201cvx.jpg
14s469.jpg
Globe-Fire14k.jpg
AviVisit cli.jpg
Myanmcl-copy.jpg
Raha1.jpg
702fghhg.jpg
Krish.jpg
151cvgf.jpg
46cc81e.jpg
Bty.JPG
3215 m.jpg
Stsellers1.jpg
White-Tara-detail-003.jpg
Wanbder.jpg
0df80xz.jpg
W0y34001.jpg
1905h.jpg
Va Close Up.jpg
B urces.jpg
Urlbbn.jpg
Faith Buddhism Vajra.png
Golden-sand-stupa-3.jpg
Don021.jpeg
11v0 n.jpg
Url-uyt.jpg
Buddha-es.jpg
Bcbbp3s.jpg
2gfgin5.jpg
Imjuages.jpg
16 Pur.jpg
Stup h.jpg
Conc 1408-1.jpg
Buddha Vietnamese.jpg
Seadmuse11.JPG
Vajra Dou.jpg
45la-alus.jpg
Transcendental-Medit1.jpg
Vishva-Vajra-04.jpg
Guru-L77ooni.jpg
Monk-reads24.jpg
Ing monk.JPEG
49x9b9bb2.jpg
Prayi Old Nun.jpg
7-the.jpg
Ima5421ges.jpg
Rainbow guru.jpg
Df728 m.jpg
2nn.jpg
17ghh n.jpg
102as.jpg
5ti1.jpg
16vv3jkl.jpg
Thailand0012.JPG
2541 n.jpg
222 soms.jpg
2011..jpg
Bud4.jpeg
Stu impu.jpg
P7181674.JPG
Bicge.jpg
Bk9Lqc.jpg
Na gi.JPG
Keha.jpg
3cx.jpg
Hell.niraya.n3.jpg
Japanmonks.jpg

THE TREATISE ON THE GREAT VIRTUE OF WISDOM OF NAGARJUNA (MAHAPRAJNAPARAMITASASTRA) ETIENNE LAMOTTE

VOL. II CHAPTERS XVI-XXX

Composed by the Bodhisattva Nagarjuna and translated by the Tripitakadharmacarya Kumarajiva

Translated from the French By Gelongma Karma Migme Chodron

INTRODUCTION 490 SUPPLEMENT TO ABBREVIATIONS VOL.11 496 CHAPTER XVI: THE STORY OF SARIPUTRA 499 I. SARIPUTRA AT THE FESTIVAL OF GIRY AG RAM AS AJ A (p. 62 IF) 499 II. SARIPUTRA AND MAUDGALYAYANA AT SANJAYA (p. 623F) 500 III. CONVERSION OF SARIPUTRA AND MAUDGALYAYANA (630F) 505 IV. ORIGIN OF SARIPUTRA' S NAME (63 6F) 510 V. SARVAKARA (p. 640F) 513 VI. SARVADHARMA (p. 642F) 514 VII. WHY DOES SARIPUTRA QUESTION? (p. 646F) 517 CHAPTER XVII: THE VIRTUE OF GENEROSITY (p. 650F) 520 I. DEFINITIONS OF PRAJNAPARAMITA 520 II. THE METHOD OF NON-DWELLING (p. 656F) 525 CHAPTER XVIII: PRAISE OF THE VIRTUE OF GENEROSITY (p. 65HF) 526 CHAPTER XIX: THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GENEROSITY (p. 662F) 529 I. DEFINITION OF GENEROSITY 529 II. VARIOUS KINDS OF GENEROSITY 530 1. Gifts belonging to the three realms 530 2. Pure generosity and impure generosity 530 3. Other kinds of generosity 539 4. Inner generosity 548 CHAPTER XX: THE VIRTUE OF GENEROSITY AND GENEROSITY OF THE DHARMA (p. 692F) 552 I. GENEROSITY OF THE DHARMA 552 II. VIRTUE OF GENEROSITY 559 III. PERFECTION OF GENEROSITY 564 IV. NON-EXISTENCE OF THE THING GIVEN 574 NON-EXISTENCE OF THE OUTER OBJECT 575 1. Debate with the Realist 575 2. Debate with the Atomist 578 3. The object, subjective creation and emptiness 579 V. NON-EXISTENCE OF THE DONOR 581 NON-EXISTENCE OF THE ATMAN 582 1. The atman is not an object of consciousness 582 2. Debate with the Personalist 583 VI. GENEROSITY AND THE OTHER VIRTUES 593 1. Generosity and the virtue of generosity 593 2. Generosity and the virtue of morality 594 3. Generosity and the virtue of patience 596 4. Generosity and the virtue of exertion 596 5. Generosity and the virtue of meditation 601 6. Generosity and the virtue of wisdom 604 CHAPTER XXI: DISCIPLINE OR MORALITY (p. 770F) 607 I. DEFINITION OF DISCIPLINE 607 II. VARIOUS KINDS OF MORALITY 608 III. BENEFITS OF MORALITY 608 IV. DISADVANTAGES OF IMMORALITY 613 CHAPTER XXII: THE NATURE OF MORALITY(p. 782F) 615 FIRST PART: GENERAL MORALITY 616 I. Abstaining from murder 616 II. Abstaining from theft 624 III. Abstention from illicit love 627 IV. Abstention from falsehood 631 V. Abstention from liquor 640 SECOND PART: THE MORALITY OF PLEDGE (SAMADANASILA) 643

I. Morality of the lay person or avadatavasana 643 II. Morality of the monastic or pravrajita 658 CHAPTER XXIII: THE VIRTUE OF MORALITY (p. 853F) 668 CHAPTER XXIV: THE VIRTUE OF PATIENCE (p. 865F) 676 I. DEFINITION AND DIVISION OF PATIENCE 676 II. PATIENCE TOWARD BEINGS 677 1. Indifference toward sycophants 677 2. Indifference toward benefactors 686 3. Indifference toward women 687 4. Withstanding persecutors 694 CHAPTER XXV: PATIENCE TOWARD THE DHARMA (p. 902F) 703 I. GENERAL DEFINITION 703 II. ENDURING OUTER AND INNER SUFFERINGS AND THE AFFLICTIONS 704 [A. Enduring outer sufferings). - 704 [B. Enduring inner sufferings.] - 705 III. PATIENCE IN REGARD TO THE BUDDHADHARMA 710 CHAPTER XXVI: EXERTION (p. 927F) 721 I. EXERTION, FOURTH VIRTUE 721 II. THE BENEFITS OF EXERTION 725 III. PROGRESS IN EXERTION 727 CHAPTER XXVII: THE VIRTUE OF EXERTION (p. 946F) 736 I. THE NATURE OF EXERTION 736 II. THE VIRTUE OF EXERTION 737 III. EXERTION AND THE OTHER VIRTUES 750 IV. BODILY AND MENTAL EXERTION 751 CHAPTER XXVIII: THE VIRTUE OF MEDITATION (DHYANA) (p. 984F) 762 I. NECESSITY FOR MEDITATION 762 II. MEANS OF ACQUIRING MEDITATION 765 A. First Method: Eliminating the sensual desires 765 B. Second method: removing the obstacles 782 C. Third method: Practicing the five dharmas 791 III. DEFINITION OF THE VARIOUS DHYANAS AND SAVlAPATTIS 793 IV. QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE DHYANAS 802 V. DHYANAPARAMITA 809 CHAPTER XXIX: THE VIRTUE OF WISDOM (p. 1058F) 819 CHAPTER XXX: THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PRAJNA (p. 1066F) 827 I. 'GREAT' PRAJNA 827 II. PRAJNA AND THE PRAJNAS 827 1. Prajna of the sravakas 827 2. Prajna of the pratyekabuddhas 829 3. Prajna of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas 830 4. Prajnaof the_ heretics 830 III. THE PRAJNA AND THE TEACHING OF THE DHARMA 833 1. The teaching of the Pitaka 833 2. The Teaching of the Abhidharma 835 3. The teaching of emptiness 836 IV. UNDERSTANDING IDENTICAL AND MULTIPLE NATURES 848 1. Identical characteristics in every dharma 848 2. Multiple natures 852 3. Characteristics and emptiness of self nature 854 V. WAYS OF ACQUIRING PRAJNAPMARAMITA 856 1. By the successive practice of the five virtues 856 2. By practicing just one virtue 857 3. By abstaining from any practice 859

INTRODUCTION In Volume II, the reader will find an attempted translation of chapters XVI to XXX of the MahaprajnaparamitasaOtra. These fifteen chapters, which make up a consistent whole, comment at great length on a short paragraph of the Prajndpdramitadsutra (Pancavimsati, p. 17-18; Satasahasrika, p. 55-56), of which the following is a translation: "Then the Blessed One addressed the venerable Sariputra: 'O Sariputra, the Bodhisattva-mahasattva who wishes to know all dharmas in all their aspects completely should exert himself in the Prajnaparamita.' Then the venerable Sariputra asked the Blessed One: 'O Blessed One, how should the Bodhisattva- mahasattva who wishes to know all dharmas in all their aspects exert himself in the Prajnaparamita?' At these words, the Blessed One said to the venerable Sariputra:

'The Bodhisattva-mahasattva who abides in the Prajnaparamita by the method of non-abiding should fulfill the virtue of generosity by the method of refraining, by abstaining from distinguishing the thing given, the donor and the recipient; he should fulfill the virtue of morality by being based on the non-existence of evil deeds and their contrary; he should fulfill the virtue of patience by being based on non-agitation [of the mind); he should fulfill the virtue of exertion by being based on the non-slackening of physical and mental energy; he should fulfill the virtue of rapture by being based on the non-existence of distraction and rapture; he should fulfill the virtue of wisdom by being based on the non-existence of good and bad knowledges (variant: by not adhering to any system)."

1 The main interlocutors of the Buddha in the Prajnaparamitasutra are Sariputra and Subhuti; chapter XVI of the Treatise is dedicated to their story: it contains a detailed biography of Sariputra and a short note on Subhuti (p. 634F). But it may seem strange that the Prajnaparamitasutra, which belongs to the literature of the Greater Vehicle, should be preached, not by the bodhisattvas affiliated with the Mahayana, but by sravakas, adepts of the Lesser Vehicle.

The reason for this is simple, as the Treatise explains (p. 636F): the bodhisattvas, called upon to dwell among beings whose conversion is their mission, have not entirely eliminated their passions and do not enjoy indisputable authority among men;

if they were responsible for teaching the Prajna, their word could be open to doubt. On the contrary, sravakas like Sariputra and Subhuti who have attained arhathood and destroyed every impurity (ksindsrava) are assured of an unequalled prestige and their testimony cannot be disputed: therefore it is to them that the Buddha entrusted the task of

1 Tatra khalu Bhagavdn dyusmantam Sariputram dmantrayam dsa: Sarvdkdram Sariputra sarvddharmdn i i i ii null E\ am ukta dyusmdn Sdriputro Bhagavantam etad avocat: i avail hodiiisatn \ i arvadhaniiaii abhisamboddluil ' ' van ayusi anputram etad avocat: Iha Sdripuitra bodhisattvena mahdsattvena prajndparainitayani stliitvastlianayogena ddnapdramitd parpurayitawap i ' i dhitdm updddya, silapdramitd paripurayituwa, i > inatdm updddya, \ it/ / natdm updddya, dhydnaparainita i i mirainita paripurayitarya prajuadauspi hit mi (\ in ml: sarvadharmdnahliiiiivesam) upadaya.

preaching the Prajna. Among all the sravakas, the Buddhas chose Sariputra and Subhuti who excelled over all the others, the first by the extent of his wisdom, the second by his acute vision of universal emptiness.

The religious ideal of the sravaka is the destruction of the passions, the arrival at arhathood and the attainment of nirvana; to this end, he practices the Noble Path in its threefold aspect: morality (Ma) which keeps him from any wrong-doing, concentration (samadhi) which purifies his mind, wisdom (prajna) by means of which he understands the general characteristics (sdmdnyalaksana) of dharmas, impermanence, suffering, emptiness and lack of self.

The practice of the virtues occupies only a subsidiary place in the career of the sravaka; his excellent qualities are, however, contaminated at the base by the essentially individualistic and egocentric character of his effort.

The religious ideal of the bodhisattva is quite different: renouncing entry into nirvana for the moment, he seeks to obtain the supreme and perfect enlightenment (anuttarasamyaksambodhi) which characterizes the Buddhas, to conquer the knowledge of all things in all their aspects (sarvadharmdndm sarvdkdrajndnam), knowledge that permits him to dedicate himself entirely to the benefit and welfare of all creatures.

In order to attain this omniscience, the bodhisattva must exert himself throughout his career in the six perfect virtues (pdramitd) which liken him to the Buddha. Among the heretics and sravakas, the practice of the natural virtues is marred by errors and egotism; among the bodhisattvas, on the other hand, the practice of the virtues attains perfection because it is disinterested and based on Prajnaparamita. Chapter XVII explains what this Prajnaparamita means and how to use it.

The Prajnaparamita is not an entity of metaphysical order, an absolute existent to which one could become attached; rather, it is a state of mind, a mental turning of mind which assures a radical neutrality to the person who adopts it. Transcending the categories of existence and non-existence, lacking any characteristic, the Prajnaparamita can be neither affirmed nor denied: it is faultless excellence.

bodhisattva adheres to it by not grasping it or, to use the time-honored expression, "he adheres to it by not adhering to it" (tistaty asthauayogeiia ). Confident in this point of view which is equally distant from affirmation and negation, he suspends judgment on everything and says nothing whatsoever.

Practiced in this spirit, the virtues which, among the religious heretics and sravakas, are of ordinary and mundane (laukika) order, become supramundane perfections (lokottaraparamita) in the bodhisattva.

Besides, since the bodhisattva refuses to conceive of the said virtues and to establish distinctions amongst them, to practice one paramita is to practice them all; not to practice them is also to practice them.

However, as the bodhisattva resides of choice in the world where he daily rubs shoulders with beings intoxicated by the three poisons of passion, hatred and ignorance, it is important to explain to people what distinguishes the paramitas from the profane virtues.

This is the subject of chapters XVIII to XXX. Chapter XVIII-XX. - Generosity (dana), for which great rewards are promised, consists of giving, in a spirit of faith, a material object or a spiritual advice to 'a field of merit', i.e., to a beneficiary worthy of receiving it.

The paramita of generosity makes no distinction between donor, recipient and gift because, from the point of view of the Prajna, there is no person to give or to receive, there is nothing that is given. To understand that is "to give everything at all times and in every way."

Chapters XXI-XXIII. - Morality (sila) makes one avoid the wrong-doings of body and speech that are capable of harming others.

Apart from the general morality making up the rules of innate honesty essential to everyone, it is appropriate to distinguish the morality of commitment by means of which lay people and monastics of all classes solemnly undertake to follow a certain number of rules proper to their condition.

The paramita of morality singularly surpasses this restricted framework: is it based on the non-existence of wrong-doing and its opposite.

The sinner not existing, the sin does not exist either; in the absence of all sins, the prohibitions forbidding it have no meaning. The sinner does not incur our contempt; the saint has no right to our esteem. Chapters XXIV-XXV. - Although early Buddhism condemned anger, it did not attach great importance to patience (ksdnti). On the other hand, the bodhisattva raises it to the rank of paramita.

Nothing moves him, neither people nor things: he keeps a cool indifference towards the people who flatter him, the benefactors who cover him with their gifts, the women who seek to seduce him, the enemies who persecute him. He endures with equal facility the external sufferings caused by cold or heat, wind or rain, and the internal sufferings coming from old age, sickness and death.

It is the same insofar as his own passions are concerned: although he does not give himself up to them unreservedly, he avoids cutting them so as not to be hemmed in like an arhat in an egotistic complete quietude; whatever the case, his mind stays open to movements of great pity and great compassion.

But it is by means of dharmaksdnti that he attains the pinnacle of patience: he tirelessly investigates the Buddhadharma which teaches him not to adopt any definite philosophical position, which shows him universal emptiness but forbids him to conceptualize it. Chapter XXVI-XXVII. -

Throughout the entire Buddhist Path, the adept of the Lesser Vehicle displays a growing exertion (yiryci) in order to ensure himself the conquest of the 'good dharmas' or, if you wish, spiritual benefits.

But the bodhisattva is much less preoccupied with the paths of salvation; in his paramita of exertion, he ceaselessly travels the world of transmigration in order to bring help to beings plunged in the unfortunate destinies. As long as he has not assured the safety of an infinite number of unfortunate beings, he will never relax his bodily and mental exertion. Chapter XXVIII. -

For the purification of the mind, the sravaka had built up a discipline of rapture (dhydna), a grandiose but complicated monument of religious psychology in which India excelled.

The de-intoxication]] of the mind is a long-winded job: the candidate for sainthood must resolutely turn away from the five sense pleasures and triumph over the five faults which constitute an obstacle to concentrating the mind by means of an appropriate method.

Then he must ascend one after the other the nine successive absorptions (navdnupurvasamdpatti) which lead to the destruction of consciousness and sensation (samjndvedayltLinirodhii), a state which constitutes nirvana on earth.

In addition, a large number of secondary absorptions become grafted onto these main concentrations.

In the paramita of dhyana, the bodhisattva manifests a virtuosity much superior to that of the sravaka; he enters at will and whenever he wishes into the concentration of his choice, but his complete disinterestedness prevents him from enjoying its flavor.

The principal aim of his mental form of asceticism is to introduce ignorant and unfortunate beings to the purity of mystical states. Personally, he is disinterested because, from the point of view of the Prajna, distraction and concentration of the mind are equal; the sole motive that guides him is his great pity and great compassion for beings.


Chapter XXIX-XXX. - Religious heretics, sravakas and pratyekabuddhas all boast of possessing wisdom and they actually hold bits and pieces of it, but their wisdoms contradict one another and their partisans accuse one another of madness. If the wisdom of the sravakas and the pratyekabuddhas has an advantage over that of the heretics - the advantage of being free of false views - nevertheless it has the error of defining the general characteristics of dharmas and thus laying itself open to debate and criticism.

In his Prajnaparamita, the bodhisattva knows these wisdoms fully but adopts none of them; his own wisdom is the knowledge of the true nature of dharmas which is indestructible, unchangeable and uncreated. Seen from this angle, the dharmas are revealed as unborn (anutpanna), unceasing (aniruddha), like nirvana; or more precisely, they do not appear at all. Not seeing any dharma, the bodhisattva thinks nothing of them and says nothing of them.

Not recognizing any evidence, not adopting any system, he makes no distinction between truth and falsehood; he does not debate with anyone. The Buddha's teaching presents no obstacle, no difficulty, to the bodhisattva. And yet, what forms this teaching has taken over the course of time!

The Abhidharma sets out to define the dharmas and to specify their characteristics; the teaching on emptiness insists on the inconsistency of the atman and dharmas; the Pitaka defends a point of view sometimes realistic and sometimes nihilistic. Pursued into successive retrenchments, the sravaka no longer knows what to believe and goes from one contradiction to another.

Penetrating deeply into the threefold teaching of the Pitaka, the Abhidharma and emptiness, the bodhisattva, free of opinions (abhinivesa), knows that the Buddha's word never contradicts itself. Cognizing the identical and multiple characteristics of all dharmas, he confronts them with the emptiness of their self nature, but this very emptiness he refuses to consider. In order to acquire this Prajnaparamita, the bodhisattva is not bound to any practice.

The noble practice consists of practicing all the paramitas together or separately, provided that this is done with a detached mind; better yet, the noble practice is the absence of any practice, for to acquire the Prajnaparamita is to acquire nothing.

This brief summary far from exhausts the doctrinal and religious wealth contained in this second volume, but that would go beyond the framework of this introduction which merely summarizes it. It is sufficient to draw the reader's attention to several particularly interesting passages: the attempts to define the Prajnaparamita (p. 650-656F), a well-conducted refutation of the realist doctrine (p. 724-733F) and of the personalist doctrine (p. 734-750F), a comparison of the different prajnas of the sravaka, the pratyekabuddha, the bodhisattva and the heretics (p. 1066-1074F), a very thorough analysis of the threefold teaching of the Buddhadharma (p. 1074-1095F), a detailed description of the transmigratory world and, in particular, the Buddhist hells (p. 952-968F).

Although the Treatise comes under the literature of the Greater Vehicle, the reader will see all the major individuals of early Buddhism pass in front of him. In unedited detail, the Treatise tells the twofold assault against Sakyamuni by Mara and his daughters (p. 880-884F); 986-987F),

the return of the Buddha to Kapilavastu and the efforts of Yasodhara to win him back (p. 1001-1008F), the Devavatara and the culmination at Samkasya (p. 634-636F), the schism of Kausambl (p. 896-898F) and the various attempts perpetrated by Devadatta to supplant the Buddha and to take his life (p. 868-878F). The Treatise dedicates a whole chapter to the story of Sariputra and Maudgalyayana (p. 621-633F); it tells the slander of which these two great disciples were the victims on the part of Kokalika (p. 806-8 13F); it gives the reasons that determined Sariputra to renounce the Greater Vehicle (p. 701F). It narrates several episodes marking the life of the disciples and contemporaries of Sakyamuni; the temptation of Aniruddha by the goddesses of charming body

(p. 651-653F), the involuntary dance of Kasyapa (p. 654F, 1046-1047F), the ostentatious charity of Velama (p. 677-688F), the punishment of Devadatta and Udraka (p. 693-694F), Rahula's lies (p. 813-815F), the trickery of the nun Utpalavarna, the strange propaganda she carried out for the order of bhiksunis and her cruel death (p. 634F, 844-846F, 875F; the inquisitive and futile questions of Malunkyaputra (p. 913-915F0, the fabulous wealth of Mendaka and of king Mandhatar (p. 930-931F), the misadventures of the arhat Losaka-tisya (p. 931-932F), the laziness and frivolousness of the bhiksu Asvaka and Punarvasuka (p. 937F), the visit of king Bimbisara to the courtesan Amrapali (p. 990-992F), the cruelty of king Udayana towards the five hundred rsis (p. 993F), the punishment incurred by Udraka Ramaputra, immoderately attached to his absorption (p. 1050-1052F), the anxieties of the Sakya Mahanaman (p. 1082- 1083F), the humiliating defeat of the brahmacarin Vivadabala reduced to silence by the Buddha (p. 1084- 1090F), the entry into the religious life of the brahmacarin Mrgasiras (p. 1085-1088). By contrast, the present volume is strangely reticent on the lofty individuals of the Mahayana:

it mentions only in passing the name of the bodhisattvas Sarvasattvapriyadarsana (p. 75 IF), Manjusri (p. 754, 903F), Vajrapani (p. 882F), Vimalakirti (p. 902, 1044F), Dharmasthiti (p. 902F) and Maitreya (p. 930F); it is to the latter and to Manjusri that it attributes, without firmly believing it, the compilation of the Mahayanasutras (p. 940F).

The Treatise cites, at length or in extracts, about a hundred sutras of the Lesser Vehicle; the majority are borrowed from the Agama collections; when the Sanskrit version departs from the Pali version, it is always the former that is adopted; furthermore, the Treatise often refers to unknown Pali sutras, such as the Nandikasutra (p. 792-793F, 798F, 803F, 815-816F, 817-818F) and the sutra on Cosmogony (p. 835-837F). Several sutras are cited in the elaborated form which they have received in the post-canonical scriptures: this is notably the case for the Velamasutra (p. 677-688F) taken from a certain Avadanasutra, for the AsTvisopamasutra (p. 702-707F) taken from the Ta pan nie p'an king (see note, p. 705F), and for the Kosambaka (p. 896-898F), probably borrowed from the versified account in the Ta tchouang yen louen king

Although it abundantly cites the sutras of the Lesser Vehicle, the Treatise occasionally calls upon the ppMahayanasutras[[ of which it is the interpreter. We will note only a loan from the Saddharmapundarika (p. 752F), two quotations from the Vimalakfrtinirdesasutra (p. 902, 1044F) and a few vague references to the Pancavimsati (p. 1060F, 1091F, 1112F). However, the Treatise reproduces fully (p. 1060-1065F) the well- known Prajnaparamitastotra of Rahulabhadra, teacher or disciple of Nagarjuna. As P. Demieville has noted, the original Sanskrit of this stotra is reproduced at the head of many manuscripts of the Prajna. Otherwise, the author of the Treatise is by no means sectarian: he understands that many fragments of truth may be found outside works properly Buddhist; free of contradicting them, he does not hesitate to cite the Upanisads (p. 744F, 1073F) and other sutras of the heretics (p. 1073F). In the course of Volume I (see, for example, p. 104F, n. 1), we have noted that the Treatise uses the Sarvastivadin and Mulasarvastivadin Vinayas in preference over all the others. The present volume has frequent recourse to the second; it borrows from it the essence of the teachings on Sariputra (p. 621-633F), Devadarta (p. 868-878F) and Yasodhara (p. 1001-1012F). On the other hand, the author of the Treatise undoubtedly has never had the Pali Vinaya in his own hands.

This volume also contains a good sixty jatakas, avadanas, fables and apologues. The author has drawn heavily from collections such as the Kalpanamanditika, the Asokavadana, the Vibhasa, the Tsa p'i yu king, the Tchong king, etc. Although most of these stories are already familiar to us from the works of Chavannes, the version of the Treatise claims the reader's attention by means of important variants.

Among the tales which, under various titles, are most interesting, we may mention the story of the painter of Puskaravati (p. 672-675F), the Velamavadana (p. 678-688F), the Tittiryitam brahmacariyam (p. 718-721F), the successive lives of Mahatyagavat (p. 755-762F), the Utpalavarnajataka (p. 844-846F), the jataka of the flayed Naga (p. 853-855F), the ruse of the Kasmir arhat (p. 879F) and the story of the impostor brahmcarin confounded by the bodhisattva (p. 980-98 IF).

To facilitate references, the pagination of Volume I has been continued here. The division into chapters adopted by Kumarajiva in his Chinese translation has been retained despite their arbitrary nature.

To keep track of the content of the chapters, the reader is advised to refer to the table of contents.

The present volume has been greatly benefited by help and support which, as a result of circumstances, was cruelly missing from the previous volume.

New tools of research have been used; the list may be found in the supplement to the abbreviations. P. Demieville has been kind enough to review several passages that gave me difficulty and has given me precious references; my colleagues, Professor

A. Monin and J. Mogenet, have corrected the proofs; the Fondation Universitaire of Belgium has generously continued its financial support. To all my devoted friends I give my deepest thanks.

Louvain, 25 January, 1949.

SUPPLEMENT TO ABBREVIATIONS VOL. II AKANUMA = C. AKANUMA, Dictionnaire des noms propres du bouddhisme indien, Nagoya, 1931. Ancient India = Ancient India, Bulletin of the Archaeological Survey of India. Calcutta, from 1946. Arthaviniscaya = Arthaviniscaya, ed. A. FERRARI (Atti d. Reale Accademia d'ltalia, Vol. IV, fasc. 13, p. 535-625), Roma, 1944. BACOT, Documents de Touen-Houang = J. BACOT, F. W. THOMAS, C. TOUSSAINT, Documents de Touen-Houang relatifs a I'Histoire du Tibet (AMG, T. LI), Paris, 1940-46. BARUA, Barhut = B. BARUA, Barhut, 2 vol. (Fine Art Series No 1-2), Calcutta, 1934. BARUA, Gayd = B. BARUA, Gayd and Buddha-Gayd (Indian History Series, no. 1), Calcutta, 1934. Bhiksunikarmavacana = A fragment of the Sanskrit Vinaya (Bhiksunikarma-Vacana) ed. by C. M. RIDDING and L. de LA VALLEE POUSSIN, BSOS, I, 1920, p. 123-143. CODRINGTON, Hist, of Ceylon = H. W. CODRINGTON, A Short History of Ceylon, rev. ed., London, 1947. COEDES, Etats hindouises = G. COEDES, Histoire ancienne des Etats hindouises dExtrlme-Orient, Hanoi, 1944. [See id., Les Etats hindouises d'lndochine el d'lndonesie (Histoire du Monde, T. VIII 2), Paris, 1948]. CUMMING, India's Past = Revealing India's Past. A Co-operative Record of Archaeological Conservation and Exploration in India ami Beyond, ed. By Sir J. CUMMING, London. 1939. Dasakus. = Dasakusalakarmapathah, in S. Levi, Autour d'Asvaghosa, JA, Oct.-Dec. 1929, p. 268-871. Dharmasamuccaya = Dluuinasamuecaya, Compendium de la Loi, ed. by LIN LI-KOUANG (Publ. du Musee Guimet, T. LIII), Paris, 1946. DUTT, Mon. Buddhism = N. DUTT, Early Monastic Buddhism, 2 vol. (Calcutta Or. Series, no. 30), Calcutta. 1941-45. ELIADE, Techniques du Yoga = M. ELIADE, Techniques du Yoga, Paris, 1948. FATONE, Budismo Nihilista = V. FATONE, El Budismo « Nihilista» (Biblioteca Humanidades, T. XXVIII), La Plata, 1941. FILLIOZAT, Magie et Medecine = J. FILLIOZAT, Magie et Medecine (Mythes et Religions), Paris, 1943.

FILLIOZAT, Textes kouteheens = J. FILLIOZAT. Fragments de textes kouteheens de Medecine et de Magie, Paris, 1948.

FOUCHER, La route de I'lnde = A. FOUCHER, La vieille route de I'lnde de Bactres a Taxila, 2 vol. (Mem. de la Delegation arch, franc, en Afghanistan, T. I), Paris, 1942-47. FRENCH, Artpala = J. C. FRENCH, The Art of the Pal Empire of Bengal, Oxford, 1928. GHIRSHMAN, Begram = E. GHIRSHMAN, Begram. Recherches archeologiques et historiques sur les Kouchans (Mem. d. 1. Delegation arch, franc, en Afghanistan, T. XII), Cairo, 1946. Gilgit Manuscripts = Gilgit Manuscripts ed. by N. DUTT, vol. I, II, III (part 2 and 3), Srinagar, 1939-43. GLASENAPP, Indische Welt = H. v. GLASENAPP, Die indische Welt, Baden-Baden, 1948. GLASENAPP, Weisheit d. Buddha = H. v. GLASENAPP, Die Weisheit des Buddha, Baden-Baden, 1946. HOFINGER, Concile de Vaisali, = M. HOFINGEB, Etude sur le concile de Vaisali (BM, du Museon, vol. 20), Louvain, 1946. India Antiqua = India Antiqua. A volume of Oriental Studies presented to J. PH. VOGEL, Leyden, 1947. JENNINGS, Vedantic Buddhism = J. G. JENNINGS, The Vedantic Buddhism of the Buddha, London, 1947. KONOW, CII II = Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, vol. II, part. 1, ed. By STEN KONOW, Calcutta, 1929. Kosakarika = The text of the Abitlluirmakosaktirikti of lasuhandhu, ed. By V. V. GOKHALE. Reprint from the Journ. of the Bombay Branch, RAS, N. S., vol. 22, 1946, p. 73-102. [edition of the manuscript of the Abhidharma- kosakarika discovered in 1935 in the Tibetan monastery of Ngor by RAHULA SAMKRTYAYANA] . KROM, Life of Buddha = N. J. KROM, The Life of Buddha on the Stupa ofBarabudur, The Hague, 1926. LAW, India in Early Texts = B. ('. LAW, India as described in Early lexis of Buddhism and Jainism, London, 1941. LAW, Magadhas = B. C. LAW, The Magadhas in Ancient India (RAS Monographs, Vol. XXIV), London, 1946. LAW, Panchalas = B. C. LAW, Panchalas and their Capital Ahichchatra (MASI, no. 67), Delhi, 1942. LAW, Rajagrha = B. C. LAW, Rajagriha in Ancient Literature (MASI, No 58), Delhi, 1938. LAW, Sravasu = B. C. LAW, Sravastiin Indian Literature (MASI, No 50), Delhi, 1935. LONGHURST, Ndgdrjunakonda = A. H. LONGHURST, The Buddhist Antiquities of Nagarfi (MASI, no. 54), Delhi, 1938.

MAJUMDAR, Advanced Hist, of India = R. C. MAJUMDAR, H. C. RAYCHAUDHURI, K. DATTA, Advanced History of India, London, 1946. MAJUMDAR, Guide to Sarnath = B. MAJUMDAR, A Guide to Sarnath, Delhi, 1937. MARSHALL, Guide to Sanchi = Sir J. MARSHALL, A Guide to Sanchi, sec. ed., Delhi, 1936. MARSHALL, Guide to Taxila = Sir J. MARSHALL, A Guide to Taxila, 3th ed., Delhi, 1936. MARHALL-FOUCHER, Mon. of Sanchi = Sir J. MARSHALL, A. FOUCHER, Monuments of Sanchi, 3 vol., Delhi, no date (1938?). MASC = Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of Ceylon, Colombo, from 1924. MENDIS, Early Hist, of Ceylon = G. C. MENDIS, The Early History of Ceylon, 7th ed., Calcutta, 1946. Oriental Art- Oriental Art, London, from 1948. P. P. hrdaya = E. CONZE, Text, Sources and Bibliography of the Prajhaparamitdhrdaya., JRAS, 1948, p. 38-51. P. P. pindartha = G. TUCCI. Minor Sanskrit Texts on the Prajhaparamita. ). Prajnapciramitci-pindcirtha, JRAS, 1947, p. 53-75. Paramitasamasa = A. FERRARI, II Compendia delle Perfezioni di Aryasura (Annali Lateranensi, vol. X), Citta del Vaticano, 1946. RAMACHANDRAN, Sculptures from Goli = T. N. RAMACHANDRAN, Buddhist Sculptures from a Stupa near Goli I Wage, Guntur District (Bull, of the Madras Govern. Museum, vol. I), Madras, 1929. RAY, Maury a and Suhga Art = N. R. RAY, Maury a and Suhga Art, Calcutta, 1945. SASTRI, Ndlanda = H SASTRI, Nalanda and its Epigraphic Material (MASI, no. 66), Delhi. 1942. SIVARAMAMURTI, AmaravatT = C. SIVARAMAMURTI, Amaravati Sculptures in the Madras Government Museum (Bull, of the Madras Govern. Museum, vol. IV), Madras, 1942. Suvarnaprabhasa tib. = Suvarnaprabhasottamasutra, Die tibetischen Ubersetzungen hrsg. von J. NOBEL, Leiden-Stuttgart, 1944. TAKAKUSU, Buddhist Philosophy = J. TAKAKUSU, The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy, Honolulu, 1947. THOMAS, Tib. lit. Texts = F. W. THOMAS, Tibetan literary Texts and Documents concerning Chinese Turkestan, Part I (Or. transl. Fund, vol. XXXII), London, 1935. Traite, I = Vol. I of the present work. VOGEL, Buddh. Art = J. PH. VOGEL, Buddhist Art in India, Ceylon and Java, Oxford, 1936, WALDSCHM1DT, Lebensende des B. = E. WALDSCHMIDT, Die Uberlieferung vom Lebensende des Buddha, 2 Teile (Abhandl. d. Akad. d. Wissens. in Gottingen, Dritte Folge, no. 30), Gottingen, 1944-48. WINSTEDT, Indian Art = SIR B. WINSTEDT, Indian Art. Essays by H. G. Rawlinson, K de B. Codrington, J. V. S. Wilkinson and John Irwin, London, 1947.

CHAPTER XVI: THE STORY OF SARIPUTRA

Sutra: The Buddha said lo Sariputra (Tatra klicilu Bhagavan ayiisinanatain Saripiitram cinum travel m asa). Sastra: Question. - The Prajnaparamita is the system (dharma) of the bodhisattva-mahasattvas. Why does the Buddha address himself here to Sariputra and not to the bodhisattvas? Answer. - Of all the disciples of the Buddha, Sariputra is by far the foremost in wisdom (prajna 1 ). A stanza of the Buddha says: "Except for the Buddha Bhagavat, the knowledge (jnana) of all beings would not equal a sixteenth part compared with the wisdom (prajna) and learning {bahusruta) of Sariputra," 3

I. SARIPUTRA AT THE FESTIVAL OF GIRYAGRAMASAJA ( P 621F)

Furthermore, by his wisdom (prajna) and his learning (bahusruta), Sariputra possessed great qualities (guna). In his youth, at the age of eight, he recited the eighteen kinds of sacred books and understood the meaning of all the treatises. At that time, there were two nay i ! inu (/ d>. a ja) n \lo k'ie t'o (Magadha): the first was called Ki li (Giri) and the second A k'ie lo (Agra). 5 They brought the rain at the proper time and the country did not experience the years of famine. The people were grateful to them and regularly, in the [second] month of spring (caitra), they went in a crowd to the nagas to hold a great festival (mahasamdja): they played music (yadyd) and palavered the whole day. From early times up until today,

Cf. Anguttara, I, p. 23 (= Tseng yi a han, T 125, k. 3, p. 557b): eta ihikklun una savakdnam bhikkhunamma,' , u \ hdam Sdriputto. 3 Cf. Divyavadana, p. 394: Sarvalokasya yd prajna sthapayitvd Tathdgatam, Sariputrasya prajfiaya kalani uarhati sodasun. 4 In this paragraph, the Mpps regards Sariputra as a child prodigy; but according to other sources, Sariputra was much older when he was present at the Giryagrasamaja; moreover, he was accompanied by his friend Ylaudgalyayana (ICoIita). During this festival, Ihc two friends exchanged disenchanted thoughts on the worlhlcssncss of human pleasures and decided with one mind to leave the world and embrace the religious life: cf. Mahavastu, 111. p. 57-59; Dhammapadattha, I, p. 89-90 (tr. Burlingame, Buddhist Legends, I, p. 198-199; Fo pen hing tai king, T 190, k. 48, p. 874a-c (tr. Beal, Romantic Legend, p. 325-327); Mulasarv. Vinaya in T 1444, k. 1, p. 1024 a-b, and Rockhill, ii/e, p. 44-45. 5 Misled by the Fan fan yu, T 2130, k. 7, p. 1030b, Akanuma (p. 321a, 7b) restores Ki li as Krimi and A k'ie lo as Agala. But it clearly concerns (he nagas Giri and Agra whose conversion and adventures arc told in Ken pen chouo... yao che, T 1448, k. 4, p. 17a seq. In this translation Yi tsing renders Giri as Chan (46) "Mountain", and Agra as Miao (38 and 6) "Admirable".

this assembly was never missed and to this reunion was given the same name as that of the nagas [namely, giryagrasaindja']. On that day, it was customary to set up four high seat:; (brsi), the first for the king, the second for the crown prince (kumara), the third for the prime minister (mahdmdtya) and the fourth for the scholar (yddin). One day, Sariputra, who was eight years of age, asked the crowd for whom were the high seats set up. They answered that they were for the king, the crown prince, the prime minister and the scholar. Then Sariputra reviewed (pariksate) the people of his time [and saw] that, among the brahmins, etc., nobody surpassed him in intelligence (abhijnd), charm (prasdda) and beauty of appearance; he therefore mounted the seat of the scholar and sat there cross-legged (paryankam baddhvd). The people were astounded; some said: "He is a young fool who does not know anything"; others said: "The measure of his wisdom surpasses that of men". While admiring his bravery, everyone felt uneasy and, out of regard for his young age, abstained from debating with him. Then they sent their young students to engage him in conversation and question him: Sariputra' s answers were perfect and his arguments conclusive, The scholars cried out at this wonder (adbhuta): "Fools [136b] and wise men, great and small, he confounds (abhibhavati) them all." The king quite happily conferred on him a command, the revenue of a village {grdmd) which was ceded to him in perpetuity. The king, mounted on an elephant, rang a bell (ghanta) and proclaimed [the news] everywhere; and in the six great cities of the sixteen great countries (janapada), there was nobody who did not congratulate him. II. SARIPUTRA AND MAUDGALYAYANA AT SANJAYA 8 (p. 623F) 6 According to this cxplan in >n < lip i <\ . 1111 1 1 ivould mean Festival in honor of the Nagas Giri and Agra: again, a false etymology has given rise to a myth. In reality, Giryagrasamaja (giriyagrasamaja in Mahavastu, III, p. 57; / in Avadanasataka, 11, p. 24: gii in in. II, p. 107, 150; IV, p. 85, 267; Jataka, III, p. 538; Dhammapadattha, I, p. 89) means simply a festival reunion on the summit of the mountain. Buddhaghosa was not deceived by it and ht< iK > , I " i < < > ti girimi < i < iamajjo. On the nature of this festival, see E. Hardy in Album Kern, p. 61-66. It was a great seasonal festival (Ta tsie houei) celebrated at Rajagrha and in turn (T 1444, k. 1, p. 1024al9) on each of the five great mountains surrounding the city (T 190, k. 48, p. 874a). The Mpps tells us that it lasted the entire day and took place 'in the second month of spring", i.e., the month of Caitra; this indication allows us to correct the reading of the Avadanasataka, II, p. 24, girivalgusamdgt U i mlgama "leunion [of the month] of Phalguna on the mountain". Like all reunions (sainaja) of this kind, the festival included spectacles, songs, dancing and music (Mahavastu, III, p. 57; Avadanasataka, II, p. 24-25; DIgha, III, p. 183); special seats were reserved for individuals (T 1444, k. 1, p. 1024a). 7 This is probably the natal village of Sariputra, situated a half-yojana from Rajagrha: it was called Nala or Nalanda (Mahavastu, III, p. 56, 1. 6; Fo pen hing tai king, T 190, k. 47, p. 273c; Ken pen chouo... tch'oukia che, T 1444, k. 1, p. 1022b; Fa hien, tr. Legge, p. 81); Kalapinaka (Si yu ki, T 2087, k. 9, p. 924cl4), or also Upatissa (Dhammapadattha, I, p. 99). 8 The conversion of Sariputra (= Upatisya and Maudgalyayana (= Kolita) is well-known in Buddhism; in search of the Immortal, the two friends began first at the school of Sanjaya who was not slow in making them his disciples; one day on th tskirts of Rajagrh riputra met the bhil * jit (= Upascna) vvh hi lin i one tanza, the Buddhist credo: ye dhani a ictt pn >lia ah 'incited to this new faith, Sanputia went immediately to find his

friend Maudgalyayana and they both went to the Buddha who preached his Dharma to them and conferred ordination on them. - This laic has been the object of a twofold tradition: In the old tradition, Saiijay a is presented in an unfavorable light, as an obstinate heretic; in the more recent tradition, to which the Mpps adheres, Sanjaya appears as a precursor of the Buddha. I. Old Tradition. - Pali sources: Vinaya, I, p. 39-44 (tr. Oldenberg, I, p. 144-151); Apadana, I, p. 24-25; Jataka, I, p. 85; Dhammapadattha, I, p. 90-95 (tr. Burlingame, Legends, I, p. 199-202); Suttanipata Comm.

I, p. 326 scq. Sanskrit sources: .Ylahavastu, III. p. 59-65. Chinese sources: Wen fen liu, T 1421, k. 16, p. HOb-c; Sseu fen liuT 1428, k. 33, p. 798c-799b; P'ou yao king, T 186, k. 8, p. 533c; Ta tchouang yen king, T 187, k. 12, p. 613c; Yin kouo king, T 189, k. 4, p. 652a; Fo pen hing tai king, T 190, k. 48, p. 875a seq. (tr. Beal, Romantic Legend, p. 27-331); Fo so hing tsan, T 192, k. 4, p. 33b (tr. I I li In h 'ii '/ h i. in la Orientalia W, 1937, p. 21-23); Fo pen hing king, T 193, k. 4, p. 81b; Tchong pen k'i king, T 196, k. 1, p. 153b; Ta tai king, T 397, k. 19, p. 129a; Si yu ki, T 2087, k. 9, p. 924c- 925a (tr. Beal, II, p. 177-179). According to various sources, Sanjaya, Sariputra's and Maudgalyayana's preceptor, is none other than SanjayT Vairahputra (.Ylahavastu, III, p. 59, 1. 9), Sanjaya Belaniiiputta in Pali, one of the six well-known heretic masters. The agnostic doctrines which he professed (cf. DIgha, I, p. 58) connect him closely with the Amaravikkhepika, crafty sophists who, in debate, 'thrash about like eels' (DIgha, I, p. 27).

Sariputra and Maudgalyayana soon surpassed their teacher and the latter entrusted some of his disciples to them (Dhammpadattha, I, p. 90). Informed about the Buddha by As\ i|i \ nil I il ina decided 1 i I he new faith and invited their former teacher to follow Ihcm: bul Sanjaya tried to hold them back (Vin. I, p. 42; Mahavastu, III, p. 63; Fo pen hing tsi king, T 190, k. 49, p. 877b), or at least refused to accompany them on the pretexl that a teacher such as he could no longer learn from anyone else (Dhammapadattha, I, p. 94).

Finding himself abandoned by Sariputra, MniJ I yana nJ u limn'i' d niln i |i ipl iijaya b n ick "hot blood spmted foith from his mouth" i ihitan t i I i J i i| mini liiil I ) Hi i pen hill i king (I 190. k. 48. p. 877b) adds thai this spitting of blood cost him his life; but according to she Dhammapadattha, I, p. 95, he recovered and those of the disciples who had abandoned him returned. Subsequently, he engaged in debate with the Buddha (DTvyavadana, p. 145). II.

More Recent tradition. It is represented by several late texts, such as the Mpps (k. II, p. 136b-c; k. 40, p. 350a; k. 42, p. 368b), the Mulasarvastivadin Vinaya (T 1444, k. 2, p. 1026a-c; Rockhill, Life, p. 44-45) and also perhaps the Tch'ou fen chouo king, T 498, k. 2, p. 768a-b. Sanjaya, the teacher of S. and .VI. , has nothing in common with the heretic of the same name. He did not belong to the clan of the Vairati, but to a wealthy family of the Kaundinya (cf. T 1444, k. 2, p. 1026b); far from professing agnostic views, he prepared the paths for Buddhism by preaching the ldigious lite, non-h i min i I, celibacy (h i md nin u i ii l\ ill Saii]aya is cared for with great devotion by S. and M.; in front of them, he maintains that he has found the Path, but he announces to them the birth of the Buddha at ICapilavastu. recommends thai they join him and enter his order. S. and M. conduct a spl ndid funeral foi i | i i 111 i I him laving di i 1 1 1 I J 'i ma but of having held it back for himself.

It is then that they take an oath to communicate to each other the seeiei of the Immortal as soon as they have discovered it. It is long after the death of Sanjaya that S. will meet Asvajit, who introduced the two friends to the Buddha. In summary, in this new tradition. Sanjaya appears as the Buddha's precursor, and we may wonder if the theme of precursor, foreign to early Buddhist hagiography. was not introduced at Kapisa Gandhara mid in Kasmir by

s of the Greco -Hadrians. Saka Pahlava and Yue-tche, with other stories - miracles or parables - which were current at the beginning of our era among circles devoted to oriental gnosis. For this subject, sec the significant writing of Fouchcr, Art grcco-houddhique, II. p. 561 -566. i .1 11 i I'ii ii n I ilion ol thi p i n ol tin vhil isar\ \ m i i itin ; to •> ni| iva. It i imilai in all details to the story of the Mpps.

Ken pen chouo... tch'ou kia che, T 1444, k. 2, p. 1026 a-c: At that time there w as a teacher called Chan che yi (Safijaya). Upatisya (= iri] rb i nil oli I (= <A ud l\ i ina) went to him and asked: "Where is the master resting?" They were told: "The master is in his room." Hearing this, they had this thought: "Wc have been here for a long time; we have not heard that he is resting." Then Kolita [and his companion] thought again: "This man is resting; we should not wake him suddenly; lei us wail near his bed and then we will see him." Having said that, they hid behind a screen.

Then Safijaya woke from his sleep and his senses were calmed {viprasanendriya). The two friends, seeing hi i i ipproach J aid I n Ji ou havi In I 'I inn ye (d/itn c )'? Vvh I doctrine do you profess? What u oiu benefits (v/.vi i ' h it i il mi >i di> t {Iva I on practice? What fruition (phala) have you received?" He answered: "This is what I see and this is what I say: Avoid falsehood (mrsavada): do no harm to beings {sattvesv avihimsd); do not be born (anutpddd), do not die (amarana), do not fall (apatana) and do not disappear (anirodhd); be reborn among the two [classes] of Brahmadevas." The two friends asked him the meaning of these words.

He answered: "To avoid falsehood is the religious iile (pravrajya); lo do no harm is the root (inula) of all the dharmas; the place where there is neither birth nor death, neither falling nor disappearance, etc., is nirvana; to be reborn among the two [classes] of Brahmas is the brahmic conduct (hralunacarya) practiced by the brahmins: all seek this place." Ha\ ing heard these words, the two friends said to him: "O Venerable One, we would like to embrace this religious life and practice brahmic conduct."

They entered the religious lile under him and at once the news spread everywhere thai Kolita and [his friend) had entered into religion with Safijaya. One day, Safijaya, who possessed great wealth (lahha), had (his thought: "I used to belong to the Kiao tchou (Kaundinya) family and still today, as a member of this family, I have great wealth. I should not forget these two virtuous companions.

That would not be good on my part." Having thought thus, Safijaya, who had five hundred disciples under his direction, gave them to the two friends: each of them received two hundred and fifty pupils and they agreed to teach them the doctrine. Then Safijaya became sick. Upatisya said to Kolita: "The master is sick. Would you go and look for medicines or do you want U> erne for him?" Kolita answered: "You have wisdom (prajnd); you should care for him; I will go to find medicines." Kolita left to look for herbs, roots, stems, flowers, etc.; he gave them to his teacher who ate them. But the illness grew worse. One day, the master laughed softly. Upatisya said to him: "Great men cannot laugh v, ithout reason; but our teacher has just laughed; what is the reason?" The master replied: "It is just as you said: I need to laugh.


In Kin tcheou (SuvarnadvTpa), there was a king called Kin tchou (Suvarnapati); he died and was going to be cremated; his grieving widow threw herself into the fire. People arc fools (miidlia) and lei themselves be led by desire (kdma). This sickness of dcsn i ( nyadlii) in ih in < uffci Upati i 1 d him n ha n * hat month and what day this event had taken place. Safijaya specified the ycai . (he month, the da\ and the hour.

The two friends took note of this revelation. Again they asked their teacher: "We have left the world {pravrajUa) in order to cut transmigration (sainsara) and the master has welcomed us. We would like him to tell us if he has succeeded in cutting samsara." Safijaya answered: "When I left the world, it was for the same purpose as you; but I have obtained nothing. However, during the posada of the fifteenth, a group of devas in the sky (dkdsa) spoke the following prediction: In

At that time, the master of the oracles had a son whose name was Kiu liu t 'o (Kolita) and the name of the family was Ta mou k'ien lien (Mahamaudgalyayana). Sariputra was his friend. Sariputra was outstanding for his talents and his intelligence, Maudgalyayana for his fearlessness and vivacity. These two children were equal in talent and wisdom and also in qualities and conduct. [They were inseparable]: when they went out, it was together; when they returned, it was together.

When they were a little older, they made an agreement of eternal friendship. Then, both of them experiencing disgust for the world (lokasamvega), they left home (pravrajitd) to practice the Path (mdrga), became disciples of a brahmacarin and diligently sought entry into the Path (margadvara). For a long time this had no result. They questioned their teacher, Chan choye (Sanjaya) by name, who answered: "I myself have spent long years seeking the Path and I do the family of tin. ( / i ik; i i \ mi ; prim (kun has been 1 on l.i I In i> i< i il Mi I lim il i i < In i i i called I'cn Ion (Bhagirathi): on Ihc bank of this river Micro is the hermitage of the rsi Kia pi lo (ICapila).

Brahmins expert in divine signs and omens have predicted that the young prince would become a cakravartin king, but, if he leaves the world, he will become a I ith il ,ih il rmj iksambuddha lenowned foi his ten powers. You should enter into the rel i iou lifi in hi ird I ndpra ti i acarya there. Do not rely on the nobility of your family; practice brahmacarya; tame your senses. With him you will find the marvelous fruition and escape samsara." l-'ollowin Mil pi imbl th c ichci pol lln thai i mskril I d inn nil- J hakra uti,p 4; Nettip. P. 146;

Mahavastu, III, p. 152, 153; Divya, p. 27, 100, 486; JA, Jan-Mar. 1932, p. 29): Sarve ksaydnta nit yah , ktnatdh samucchrayah, i 'prayogat am nam hi jivitam "All that is compounded ends up in destruction: all elevations end up in falling; all unions end up in separation: life ends up in death." Shortly afterward, the teacher died and his disciples. Inning wrapped him with blue (inla), yellow (pita), red (lohita) and white (avadata) wrappings, carried, him into the forest where lhc\ proceeded, to cremate him. Oi d \ brahmin from i n Ivrpa i ncd i fa ( .m il l m I | ha and met U] i i The latter asked him where he came from and he responded that he came from SuvarnadvTpa. "Have you seen something wonderful there'?" asked Upatisya. The brahmin answered: "Nothing but this: when king SuvarnadvTpa died and was cremated, his mourning widow followed him to the pyre." Upatisya asked in what year, what month and what day [that had happened], and the brahmin replied: "It was such and such a year, such and such a month and such and such a day."

Upatisya then examined the secret [w hich Sanjaya had told him]: the words of the master were verified. Then Kolita said to Upatisya: "Our teacher had discovered the Holy Dharma but he held it secret and did not reveal it to us. If the teacher had not realized the divine eye (diryacaksus) and the divine car (divyasrota), he at least knew whal > i h ppenin in foreign r< nci I olita then lid to him 11 Upati li inl lligcnt (medhavin) and wise (prajhavat). He will have found the Hols Dharma with our teacher, but he has not communicated ii to me." Having had this thought, he said: "Let us take an oath that the first [of us] who finds the Holy Dharma will communicate it to the other." Having taken this oath, they left together.

At that time, the Bodhisattva was twenty- nine years old.... 9 Kolita is also the name of the village where he was born (Mahavastu, III, p. 56; Dhammapadattha, 1, p. 88): ii was located a half-yojana from Rajagrha. The leading Kolika is found in the l-'o pen hing iai king, T 190, k. 47, p. 874a5; and the Si yu ki, T 2087, k. 9, p. 924M7; Lin yuan "Forest garden" in the Ken pen chouo... tch'ou kia che, T 1444, k. l,p. 1023cl8.

not even know whether the fruit of the path (margaphala) exists or not. I am not the man you need; I have found nothing." One day their master fell ill.

Sariputra stood at his head and Maudgalyayana at his feet; the teacher gasped for breath and his life reached its end. Suddenly he smiled with pity. The two friends, with one accord, asked him why he smiled. The teacher replied: "The customs of the world (lokasamvrti) are blind and affected by the emotions (anunaya). I see that the king of Kin ti (Suvarnabhumi) has just died and his main wife has thrown herself on the funeral pyre to join him; but for these two spouses, the retribution for actions (karmavipdka) is different and the places where they will be reborn (janmasthana) will be different (visista)."

Then the two disciples put down their teacher's words in writing in order to verify their accuracy [later]. Some time later, when a merchant from Suvarnabhumi came to Magadha, the two friends questioned him discretely; the things their teacher had said had actually occurred. 10 They uttered a sigh of 10 If this story is correct, it proves that the practice of suttee, the w idow offering her life in the flames of the funeral pyre consuming lh< i up ofhcrhn mJ i cm nl in uvarnad tpa h I'i nine of the Buddha.

This is of interest because, in all the Vcdic literature and even in the siitras, this cruel practice is rarely mentioned, and the epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata mention it only exceptionally (cf. J. Jolh Ret lit in • Situ , p. 67-69). The oldest and most important evidence is that of the classical writers: Aristotle, contemporary of Alexander the Great, cited by Strabo, XV, 1, 63; Cicero, De nat. deorum, V, 77-78; Valerius Maximus, II, 6, 14.

The Mpps reproduces here almost word-for -word the story in the Mulasarvasth adin Vinaya (see below, p. 626F as note); but, while Kumarajiva, translator of the Mpps, locates the fact in Kin ti, "Land of Gold" (Suvarnabhumi), Yi tsing, translator of the Mulasarvastivadin Vinaya. locates ii in Kin tchcou "Golden Island" (Suvarnadvlpa). As it is a matter of the same story, we must conclude - and this is suspected - that Suvarnabhumi is synonymous with Suvarnadvlpa. We know exactly what Yi tsing means by Suvarnadvlpa: in two passages of his Ta fang si yu k'ieou fa kao seng tchouan, T 2066, k. 2, p. lie, lines 5 and 7, lines 5 and 11, he identifies it as the land of Fo che (cf. Chavannes, Religieux eminents, p. 181 and 182; p. 186 and 187). But at the time of Yi tsing (635-713), the state of Fo che or Che Ufa che (SrTvijaya), as evidenced by the three inscriptions in old Malax dating from 683 to 685 and found at I'alcmbang, Djambi and Bangka, "extended its domination over I'alcmbang (Sumatra).

Bangka and the hinterland of Djambi, conquered Malayou (Djambi) about the same time and in 775 left evidence of its domination over the west coast of the Malay peninsula (Ligur)" (G. Coedes, A propos d'une nouvelle theorie sur le site de SrTvijaya, J. Mai. Br. R.A.S., XIV, 1936, pt. 3, p. 1-9; Etats hindouises, p. 102-105).

It must be left to the historians to explain why the Mulasarv. Vin. and the Mpps insist on establishing a connection between Sahjaya, the preceptor ofS. and M , and u irnad Ppa \ m y recall thai fi tsin mentioi thi pi en ifthi hit usastnada, in the 7th and 8th centuries, in the kingdoms of Sriksetra and SrTvijaya (cf. Coedes, Etats hindouises, p. 94, 105, 109), and that the name of Sanjaya was made famous in the 8th century by the founder of the Javanese dynasty in Mataram (Id., ibid, p. 109 seq.).

However that may be, the Hindu writers have left only a vague idea of the location of Suvarnabhumi (see R. C. Mammd u ' I ! ' Kangacharya i / Ivvpa Aiyangar Comm. Vol, p. 462-482). Gavampati, one of the heroes of the first council (cf. Treatise, I, p. 98-99F), before settling permanently in the \ imana o\ the Sinsa, w cut to the pratyaiitajanapwla or frontier countries, i.e., Suvarnabhumi, by the Buddha's order (Ken pen chouo... tsache, T 1451, k. 5, p. 228a), and to believe the ICarmavibhahga, p, 62, which claims that, in the Land of Gold, the saint Gavampati converted the population for a hundred leagues iji ii iii lually, according to the Burmese tradition: "King Thiri-.Ylatauka had been informed that, after the death of Gaudama, a Rahan named Gambawatti

relief and said: "Perhaps the master hid his secret because we were not worthy." The two friends exchanged the following oath: "The first to find the Immortal (amrta) must communicate its flavor (rasa) to his friend." 11


CONVERSION OF SARIPUTRA AND MAUDGALYAYANA

At that time the Buddha, having converted the Kasyapa brothers and their thousand disciples, was traveling about in various countries and came to the city of Rajagrha where he stayed at the Venuvana. The two brahmacarin masters (Sariputra and Maudgalyayana), hearing that a Buddha had appeared in the world, (Gavampati) had brought thirty-two teeth of the Buddha and placed them in a dzedi (caitya) on Mount Ind-Danou north-west of Thatum (in Pali, capital of Burma, between the mouths of the Siltang and the Saloucn)." (Bigandet, Gaudama, p. 371).

Even today, Gavampati, under iha name Gavompade, is one of the favorite saints of the Vlons and the Taking sof Burma (cf. Duroiselle, cited in Przyluski. Concile, p. 241). - After the third council at Pataliputra, Sona (the Prakrit word for gold) and Uttara went to Suvarnabhumi, rid the land of the pisacas and converted man\ | " pl< ihci (cl I >ip ini \ ill 12 VI a ha im \II, v. 6, 44 seq.; Samantapasadika, I, p. 64. - In the first century of our era, Pomponius Mela (III, 70, Pliny the Elder (VI, 55, 80); the Periple of the Erythrean Sea (§ 56, 60, 63) and losephus (Ant. Jud., VIII, 6, 4) were only vaguely aware of the Chryse Chersonesos.

Whereas Ihc Periple (>j 60) places at ICamara (IChabari of Ptolemy = ICavari-paUinam at the month of the Kaveri), at Podouke (Pondichery) and Sopatma, the three great ports, close to one another, from which the big ships called kolandia (kola in Buddhist Sanskrit texts) set sail for Chryse, Ptolemy (VII, 1, 5) locates further north, near Chicacole, the port of departure (aphtcrioii) of travelers destined for Ihc Golden Chersonesos. It is at Tamralipti (Tamluk at the mouths of the Ganges) that the Chinese pilgrims, fa hicn ai the beginning of the 5th century and Yi- tsing at the end of the 7th century embarked in Ihc return voyages from India to C hina. \\ ithout a doubt, it is also at Tamralipti that, at the time of the compilation of Ihc Jatakas. Ihc merchants [Samkha and Vlaha Janaka) left Benares or Campa, in the Ganges valley, took to sea destined for Suvarnabhumi, the land of gold (lataka, IV, p. 15; VI, p. 34). Finally it is certain thai (he meed ports of the western coast: Bharakaccha (Greek Barygaza, modern Broach), Surparaka (Souppara, Sopara) were connected with the Golden Chersonesos" G. Cocdes, Ltats liindoiiixeex,p. 35).

This is the case notably for the musician Sagga in his search for the beautiful Sussondi, who embarked at Barukaccha destined for Suvannabhumi (.lataka. 111, p. 188). Ihc merchants of (he .Ylahakarmavibhahga" went down to the great ocean, sailed for the Land of Gold and other countries, visited (he Archipelago and made their fortunes (p. 51: mahasamudram avatuya Suvarnahhuiniprahlirtiiii desaiitarani gtitva dvipaiitaraui ca pasyanti dravyopdrjanam ca kurvanti); or also "They visited the Land of Gold, the island of Ceylon, and the rest of the rchipclago" (] ii'in Siniliahuh i vanti).

But the voyage i dangerous: when the sailors have traveled seven hundred leagues in seven days", it is not rare that the ships take on water every vv here and sink in mid-ocean. 11 This covenant between the two friends is also noted in the other sources: cf. Vinaya, I, p. 39: yo pathamam ainatam adhigaccchati so arocetu: .Vlahavastu, 111, p ^ l > vo in J u sval n irmavinayan ... tena aparasya dkhydtavyam. 12 Cf. the parallel sources noted above, p. 623F, n.2

went to Rljagrha together to welcome the news. At this time, a bhiksu named A chouo che (Asvajit), 13 [one of the first five disciples), wearing his robes (civara) and carrying his begging bowl (patra), entered the city to beg for his food. Sariputra, noting his fine manner and his meditative faculties, came to him and asked:

"Whose disciple are you? Who is your teacher?" Asvajit answered: "The crown prince (kumara) of the Sakya clan, disgusted by the sufferings of old age {jam), sickness (vyddhi) and death (marana), has left the world (pravrajita), exerted himself on the Path and has attained complete perfect enlightenment (anuttarasamyaksambodhi). He is my teacher." Sariputra said: "Tell me what is your teacher's doctrine?"

He replied with this stanza: I am still young, My instruction in it is still at its beginning [136c] How could I speak truthfully And explain the mind of the Tathagata? Sariputra said to him: "Tell me its essence in summary (samksiptena)r Then the bhiksu Asvajit spoke this stanza: All dharmas arise from causes; He has taught the cause of these dharmas. Dharmas cease due to causes; The great teacher has taught the truth of them. 14 When Sariputra heard this stanza, he attained the first fruit of the Path [the state of srotaapanna].

He went back to Maudgalyayana who, noticing the color of his complexion and his cheerfulness, asked him: "Have you found the taste of the Immortal (amrtcirasa)! Share it with me." Sariputra communicated to him the stanza he had just heard. Maudgalyayana said to him: "Repeat it again", and when he had heard it again he also attained the first fruit of the Path.

This bhiksu is named isvajit (in Pali, Assaji) in mosl of '.he Chinese and Pali sources, whereas the Mahavastu (III, p. 60) calls him Upasena. He was one of the five Pancavargiyabhiksu, who were the first to embrace the Buddhadharma (Vinaya, I, p. 13). 14 Free translation of the famous stanza of Pratitj asamutpada, the original Pali of which is in Vinaya, I, p. 40: re (iluanina lietiippahliava tesain lietuin tatliagato aha tesan cayo nirodi < vaim 'in asan <

The Sanskrit is in Mahavastu, III, p. 62: re dharina hetiiprahhava lietun tesain tatliagato alia tesdm cayo nirodho evainvadi inahasrainaiiah. In this form, which goes against the meter, the stanza means: The Tathagata, the truly great ascetic, has proclaimed the cause as well as the cessation of dharmas Shad arise from a cause. - For the interpretation, see Kern, Histoire, I, p. 299-300.


The two teachers, [each] accompanied by 250 disciples went together to the Buddha. Seeing these two men coming with their disciples, the Buddha said to the bhiksus: "Do you see these two men at the head of these brahmacarins?" The bhiksus answered that they saw them. The Buddha continued: "These two men will be foremost among my disciples by their wisdom (prajnd) and by the bases of miraculous powers (rddhipada)." 15 Arriving in the crowd, the disciples approached the Buddha, bowed their head and stood to one side.

Together they asked the Buddha: "We wish to receive, in the Buddhadharma, the leaving of the world (tchou kia = pravrajyd) and higher ordination (cheou kiai = upsampada)." 16 The Buddha said to them: "Come, O bhiksu (eta, bhiksavah)." 11 At once their beards and hair fell off, they were clothed in monks' robes, furnished with the robe (civara) and begging bowl (pdtra), and they received ordination. 18 A fortnight later, when the Buddha had preached the Dharma to the brahmacarin Tch'ang tchao


Here the Mpps follows the version of the Mahavastu, III, p. 63, which h lh< \i nMI) i saying: P hipeti hluksavah asauaiii etc Sariputramaudgalyiiyana parivrajaka paincasataparivara agacchanti tidhagatasyantike brahmacaryam caritum yo me bhavi rut i si ivaaijain ign \ ig > >li uh yugo •/ > igro n ih ipi planum aparo agro inaliarddliikdnam. Tr. - "Set out seats, O monks. Here come the an lori iputi ncl .Ylaudgal i\ ana surrounded by five hundred disciples who are coming to the Tathagata to practice brahmic conduct.

For me they will be an excellent pair of disciples. The first will be the foremost of the great sages; the second will be the foremost of those who have great miraculous powers." This last detail which the Mpps has taken care to note, is absent in the canonical version ( I | which simpl l< ivtikti a i 'no Upatisso ca, etamme savukin in Nun < "< >li \ 16 As did all the first disciples, S. and M. asked for lower ordination (pravrajyd) and higher ordination (upasampadd) al the same time. Later, a period of lour months general!} separated these two ordinations (cf. Kern, Manual, p. 77; Oldcnbcrg, Bouddlia, p. 387 -391 ).

Hie request for ordination is formulated differently in the texts. In Pali: Lahheyyal i ivato si m i (el Pali Vin., I, p. 12, 13, 17, 19, 43, etc.): - in Sanskrit hlieyaln i vakliyate d ivraj) upasampadam < i i i ireyain i igavato " rai (cf. Divya, p. 4 1 J 1 ' ul .1 w h III p i 17 The Buddha ordained the two candidates I / i tda or < iln, ition I in n i -ning: "Come, O bhiksu" (cf Kosa, IV, p. 60). Bui here again the formula varies; in Pali, there is Liu hlukkliu 'ti, wakkluiro illiaiiiino, cara brahmacai i kl i kiriyaya 7i (cf. Pali Vin., I, p. 12, 13, 17, 19, 43, etc.); in Sanskrit, Hi' re is Ehi iku rti hraliinat van 18 Ordination by "Ehi bhiksu" is usually accompanied by the putting on of miraculous robes, of which the Pali Vinaya says nothing, but which is described in stereotyped terms in all the Sanskrit texts:

"The Buddha had no sooner uttered these words than the candidate found himself shaved (munda), clothed in the upper robe i j i i 1 1 \i him ih o I Hid i i / mi i i in In hand etc " (cf. DTvya, p. 48, 281, 341). Here the Mpps is in agreement with the Mahavastu, III, p. 65, and the Molasarv. Vin. (T 1444, k. 2, p. 1028a) in mentioning such a miracle; it also reveals its dependence on the Sanskrit sources. However, although the Pali Vin. says nothing about this taking of the miraculous robes, it is noted in the Dhammapadattha, I, p. 95; but recent research has established that the Ccyloncsc commentaries are also themselves largely derivative from the Sanskrit


(DIrghanakha), Sariputra attained arhathood. 19 Now he who finds the Path at the end of a fortnight should, following the Buddha, turn the wheel of the Dharma (dharmacakra), 20 and in the stage of aspirant (saiksabhumi), penetrate directly (abhimukham) all dharmas and cognize them in all their various aspects (nanakaram).

This is why Sariputra attained arhathood at the end of a fortnight. His qualities (guna) of all kinds were very numerous. And so, although Sariputra was an arhat [and not a bodhisattva], it is to him that that the Buddha preached the profound doctrine (gambhiradharma) of the Prajnaparamita. Question. - If that is so, why does the Buddha preach a little to Sariputra and then a lot to Siu p'ou t'i (Subhuti)? 21 If Sariputra is foremost in wisdom, it is to him he should have mainly preached. Why does he also address himself to Subhuti? Answer. - 1)

Among the Buddha's disciples, Sariputra is the first of the sages {aggo mahapannanam), and Subhuti is the first of those who have attained the concentration of tranquility {aggo aranasamadhivihdrinam). 27 By this practice of tranquility, he ceaselessly considers (samanupasyati) beings in order to prevent them from experiencing any passion whatsoever [for him], and he always practices great compassion (karuna).

This compassion is like that of the bodhisattvas who take the great vow (mahapranidhand) to save beings. This is why the Buddha directs him to teach. [137a] 2) [Suhhuli and Utpalavauid at Sdmkasya]. - Furthermore, Subhuti excels in practicing the concentration of emptiness (sunyatdsamddhi). Having spent the summer retreat (varsa) among the Tao li (Trayastrinsa) gods, the Buddha came down into JambudvTpa. 23 Subhuti, who was then in a rock cave

19 Sariputra had become srotaapanna al the time of his meeting « ilh Asvajit; he became ai hal fifteen days after his ordi lion (ardluan iptisa npaima), at the same time as his uncle DIrghanakha entered the Holy Dharma: cf. Avadanasataka, li. p. 104, treatise, I, p. 51. 20 Sariputra, the second master after the Buddha, the greal leader of the Dharma, turned the \\ heel of the Dharma for the second time; cf. DTvyavadla, p. 394: sa hi dvitiyasasta dhannasciiadlupatir dhannacakrapravartanah prajnavatam agro nirdisto Bliagavata: sec also Sutralamkara, lr. Hibcr, p. 190. 21 In the Prajna literature, Sariputra is the first to question the Buddha, but Subhuti is She main interlocutor. 22

For Subhuti, the foremost of tin vi) i e above, Treatise, I, p. 4F, n. 1 23 After having preached the Abhidharma for three months to his mother, the Buddha "came down from the Trayastrimsa heaven to JambudvTpa in the city of Samkasya, into the Apajjura enclosure at the foot of the Udumbara (a\ van de\ liyah sain I I ihai amule).The Devavatara is often represented on the monuments: Cunningham, Barlnit. p: 17: Marshal! -toucher, Man. ofSanchi, II, pi. 34c);

Majumdar, G. to Sarnath, pi. 13e; Vogel, Mathurd, pi 51a I < n hut i / ; ' |>l II d: Griffiths, Ajanta, pi. 54. According to one version, welcomed on his descent from the heaven by a great assembly, the Buddha was first greeted by Sariputra (Dhammapadattha, 111. p. 226), immediately followed by the nun Utpalavarna (Suttanipata Comm. II, p. 570). According to the Tibetische Lebensbescreibung, tr. Schicfncr, p. 272, Udayana, king of KausambI, received him ceremonially. An apparitional (upapaduka) bhiksu invited the Buddha along with the assembly of bhiksus and devas to a splendid repasl (Tsa a han, T 99, k. 19, p. 134c; Avadanasataka, II, p. 94-95; Po yuan king, T 200, k. 9, p. 247a-b). According to some sources, the nun (Jtpalavarna, in order to be the first to greet the Buddha, magically transformed herself into a cakravariin king surrounded bj his thousand sons: Cf. Divyavadana, p. 401: yaddpi,


(sailaguhd), said to himself: "The Buddha is descending from the Trayastrimsa heaven; should I or should I not go to him?" Again he said to himself: "The Buddha has always said: 'If someone contemplates the dharmakaya of the Buddha with the eye of wisdom (prajndcaksus), that is the best way of seeing the Buddha.'"

Then when the Buddha descended from the Trayastrimsa heaven, the four assemblies of JambudvTpa had gathered; the gods saw the people and the people saw the gods; on the platform were the Buddha, a noble cakravartin king and the great assembly of the gods: the gathering (samaja) was more embellished (alamkrta) than ever before. But Subhuti said to himself: "Even though today's great assembly is quite special (visista), its power (prabhava) will not last for a long time.

Perishable dharmas (nirodhadharma) all return to impermanence (anityata) ." Thanks to this consideration of impermanence (anityatdpanksd), he understood that all dharmas are empty {sunya) and without reality (asadbhiita). Having made this consideration, he at once obtained the realization of the Path (mdrgasdksdtkdra). At that moment, everyone wanted to be the first to see the Buddha and to pay their respect (satkdrd) and homage ipujd) to him. In order to disguise her disreputable sex, the bhiksunl Houa so (Utpalavarna) transformed herself into a noble cakravartin king with his seven jewels and his thousand sons. When people saw him, they left their

inaharaja, Bhagarata dcrcsu trayastriiiiscsa varsa usitvd inatur jaiuiyitrya dhannam dcsayitva dcraganaparivrtah Sdmkdsye naga i \ i Utj ilavarnayd ca nirmita cakravi I Sec also the Legend of Asoka (Tsa a han, T 99, k. 23, p. 169c; T 2042, k. 2, p. 105b; T 2043, k. 3, p. 140b), the Dulwa (Rockhill, Life, p. 81) and the comment of Fa hien (tr. Legge, p. 49). A panel of the Loriyan-Tangai rcprodti iny ill D ivatara sho\ i ki rtii I mi nonnl d on an elephant, "a disguise assumed by the nun Utpalavarna for the occasion" (Toucher, Art Grcco-hoaddhique, I, p. 539, fig. 265). -

The commentary of the Karmavibhahga, p. 159-160, adds that the Buddha reproached her for her excessive zeal, for, said he, "It is not by means of homage rendered to my body that was born from my parents that I am truly honored": i i, ' i i < iii^i i Bliagava valokavatii prathainam va i a tustd mayd Bhagavdn prat, i , i yds ca tarn jnatva si or , u etad darsayati. na t taut vaiidito hhavdmi. vena phalam praptani tc nclham vanditah. tad irtliam va c, tatra gitthi ta ttiaiiu vapratil thlieiia svarganani gamanaia ca prthivydm ekardjyaiti ca -.<otapattiphala.mpa.ram. anaiapi karijata dliar/ita era Bliagavatalj sanraiii. Yet other texts - and the Mpps is among them - establish a parallel bctw ecu Utpahn arna and Subhuti.

This bhiksu, instead of going to greet the Buddha on his descent from the heaven, remained quietly in his retreat at Rajagrha where he was meditating on impermanence and the futility of things. He was thus paying homage to the dharmakaya. As this meditation greatly overshadowed the salutations addressed by Utpalavarna to the Buddha's birth-body (janmakdya), it was said that Subhuti and not Utpalavarna had been the first to greet him. Cf. Tseng yi a han, T 125, k. 28, p. 707cl5-708a20; Yi tsou king, T 198, k. 2, p. 185c; T tch'eng tsao siang kong to king, T 694, k. 1, p. 792c-793a; Fen pie kong to louen, T 1507, k. 3, p. 37c-38a; Si yu ki, T 2087, k. 4, p. 893b (tr. Beal, I, p. 205; Walters, I, p. 334). 24 This rock cave, adorned with jewels, is on the Gidhi I i ip n ita n u Rajagrha cf. Tseng yi a han, T 125, k. 6, p. 575bl-2;k. 29, p. 707cl2.


seats and moved away [to give him place]. When this Active king came near the Buddha, he resumed his former shape and became the bhiksunl again. She was the first to greet the Buddha. However, the Buddha said to the bhiksunl: "It is not you who has greeted me first; it is Subhuti. How is that? By contemplating the emptiness of all dharmas, Subhuti has seen the dharmakaya of the Buddha; he has paid the true homage (puja), the excellent homage. To come to salute my birth-body (janmakaya) is not to pay homage to me." 25 This is why we said that Subhuti, who ceaselessly practices the concentration on emptiness, is associated (samprayukta) with the Prajnaparamita, empty by nature.

For this reason, the Buddha entrusted Subhuti to preach the Prajnaparamita. 3) Finally, the Buddha entrusted him to preach it because beings have faith in the arhats who have destroyed the impurities (ksTnasrava): [thanks to them], they obtain pure faith (prasada). The bodhisattvas have not destroyed the impurities and if they were taken as evidence (sdksiri), people would not believe them. This is why the Buddha conversed about the Prajnaparamita with Sariputra and Subhuti. IV. ORIGIN OF SARIPUTRA' S NAME (636F) 26

Question. - Where does the name Sariputra come from? Is it a name given [to Sariputra] by his father and mother, or is it a name coming from some meritorious action that he had accomplished? Answer. - It is a name given to him by his father and mother.

In JambudvTpa, in the very fortunate [region], there is the kingdom of Mo k'ie t'o (Magadha); there is a great city there called Rajagrha; there was a king there named P'inp'o so lo (Bimbisara) and a brahmin, master of teaching (upadesd) [137b] named Mo t'o lo (Mathara). Because this man was very skillful in debate, the king had given him as a privilege a large village situated not far from the capital. This Mathara married and his wife bore a daughter; because the eyes of this young girl resembled those of the Cho li (sari, the heron) bird, she was called Sari; later the mother bore a son whose knee-bones were very big, and for that reason he was called Kiu hi lo (Kausthila).

After this brahmin married, he was busy raising his son and daughter; he forgot all the holy books he had studied and he did not put his mind to acquiring new knowledge. At that time, there was in southern India, a brahmin, a great master of teaching, named T'i cho (Tisya); he had penetrated deeply into the eighteen kinds of great holy books. This man came to the city of Rajagrha; on his head he was carrying a torch 27 and his belly was covered with copper sheets; when he was asked the

This is also what the Buddha said to Vakkali (Samyutta, 111, p. 120): "What is the use of seeing this body of rottenness {putikaydfl He who sees the Dharma sees me..." 26 This paragraph has been translated b\ Cha\ amies, Contes, III, p. 290-294, (he translation of which is reproduced here. - Sariputra, also called Upatisya, was the son of Tisya and Sari. The latter's father was Mathara, a brahmin I) ii i I aid md her broth i vlahakausthila urnamed Dirghanakha. CI vlulasan in. I I Hilt, digit Us of the Vinaya Pitaka, IHQ, SIV, 1938, p. 422-423; Ken pen chou... tch'ou kia che, T 1444, k. 1, p. 1022b seq.; Rockhill, Life, p. 44): Avadanasataka, II, p. 186; Po yuan king, T 200, k. 10, p. 255a; Treatise, I, p. 47-51F. 27 On the theme of the brahmin w ho earrics a torch in full daylight, see Chavanncs, Contes, I, p. 392-393.

reason for the second peculiarity, he answered: "The holy books which I have studies are extremely numerous; thus I fear lest my belly will burst and that is why I have covered it with metal." When he was asked why he carried a torch in the daytime on his head, he answered that it was because of the great darkness. "But", the crowd answered him,"the sun has appeared and illumines us; why are you talking about darkness?" He replied: "There are two kinds of darkness: one is produced when the light of the sun does not illumine us; the other is the evil that comes from the shadows of stupidity (moha). Now, although there is the brightness of the sun, the shadows of stupidity are still profound." The crowd continued: "Have you then not seen the brahmin Mathara? If you see him, your belly will be constricted and your torch will be obscured." When this brahmin heard these words, he went to the drum (dundubhi) that calls to debate and sounded it. When the king heard this sound, he asked who had caused it. His ministers said to him: "It is a brahmin from the south of India named Tisya; he is a great master of teaching; he wishes to ask for a subject of debate and that is why he has sounded the drum." The king was delighted; he gathered the people together at once and said to them: "Let whoever is capable of confounding him debate with him" When Mathara was informed of this, he mistrusted his power, for he said: "I have forgotten everything and I have not busied myself with acquiring new knowledge. I do not know if I am capable of undertaking a debate with this man." However, he forced himself to go to meet him; on the road there were two bulls that were fighting using their horns; he had this reflection: "This bull here is me; that bull over there is this other man. I shall have a portent of who will be the winner." It was the first bull that was the winner and Mathara felt very sad, for he said to himself: "According to this portent, it is I who will lose." When he was about to join he crowd, he saw a woman directly in front of him who was carrying a pitcher of water; she stumbled on the ground and broke her pitcher; he thought once again: "That too is not a good omen", and he was very displeased. When he was in the crowd, he saw the master of teaching whose face and aspect had all the marks of triumph. He recognized then that he was defeated, but as he could not do otherwise, he agreed to debate with him. As soon as the discussion had begun, he fell into contradictions (ranasthana). The king, who was very happy, thought: "An intelligent man endowed with great wisdom has come from afar to my kingdom." He wanted to give him a privilege; but his ministers reprimanded him, saying: "If, because an intelligent man has come, you at once give him as privilege a large village whereas you do not reward your ministers who have served you well and if you reserve all your favors for those who debate, we are afraid that that is not appropriate behavior to ensure the peace of the kingdom and the welfare of your family. Now Mathara has been defeated in the debate; you must remove his privilege and give it to the person who has triumphed over him. If another man comes and in turn is victorious, the same privilege should again be given to him." The king followed this advice and took away Mathara's privilege to give it to the man who had come lately. Then Mathura said to Tisya: "You are an intelligent man; I give you my daughter in marriage; my son will be your assistant. As for me, I wish to retire afar in a foreign land to pursue my own projects." Tisya then took this girl as his wife.

Having become pregnant, this woman saw in a dream a man who, wearing a breastplate and a helmet and carrying a thunderbolt (vajra) in his hand, crushed the ordinary mountains and stood upright at the side of a very high mountain. When she awoke, she told her husband the dream she had had. Tisya said to her: "It is a sign that you will give birth to a son who will crush all the masters in the art of debate; there will be only one man whom he will not be able to overcome and he will become his disciple." During her pregnancy, because of the son she was carrying, Sari herself became very intelligent and very skillful in debate. 28 Each time that her younger brother Kausthila debated with her, he was defeated; he said to himself: "The son whom my sister is bearing is certainly of high intelligence; if he shows himself in this way even before he is born, what will he be like when he is born?" Then Kausthila left his family, gave himself up to study and went to the south of India; he did not cut his fingernails until he had read the eighteen kinds of holy books and had completely mastered them; this is why the people of that time surnamed him the Brahmin with Long Nails (DIrghanakha). 29 Seven days after he was born, the baby boy was wrapped in white cotton to be shown to his father who thought: "I am called Tisya; [this child] will drive out my name; therefore I will call him Yeou po t'i cho (Upatisya), he who casts out Tisya." Such was the name given to this child by his parents. But other people, considering that it was Sari who had given him birth, with one accord agreed to call him Cho lifou (Sariputra), the son of Sari. Later, thanks to the previous vows he had made in many successive lifetimes, Sariputra became foremost of Sakyamuni's disciples in his wisdom; his name was Sariputra; this name thus came to him from the causes and conditions that consist of his previous vows. That is why he is called San puna. Question. - Why not say Upatisya and why limit oneself to saying Sariputra? Answer. - People then highly honored his mother (Sari) who was the most intelligent of all women, and that is why they called this man Sariputra.

Sutra: The bodhisattva who wants to cognize all dharmas in all aspects must exert himself in practicing the ij i i i i i i / Irip sarvatlharman ahhisamhotlclhukamena bodhisattvattvena mahasattvena prajnaparcimiiayain yogah karamyah). Sdstra: See what has been said above on the bodhisattva-mahasattva in the chapter dedicated to the praise of the bodhisattva (Chap. VIII).

On the theme of the woman intelligent because she is pregnant with a sage, see Chavanncs, Contcs, 1, p. 241 244: Treatise, I, p. 47-48F. 29 The story ot K u m'nl. lia Du Inn 1 h 'i I leen told above: Treatise, I, p. 47-5 IF.

Question. - What is it that is called 'all aspects' (sarvakara) and what is it that is called 'all dharmas' (sarvadharmdf!

V. SARVAKARA (p. 640F)

Answer. - The doors of wisdom {prajnamukha) are called aspects (akara). [138a] There are people who contemplate dharmas under a single prajnamukha; others contemplate it under two, three, ten, a hundred, a thousand, ten thousand prajnamukhas, even under a number of prajnamukhas as incalculable (asamkhyeya) as the number of sands of the Ganges (ganganadivaluka). Mere, it is by entering by all the prajnamukhas in all the aspects that we contemplate all the dharmas. This is what is called contemplating under all the aspects (sar\ akmaram). 1) Among ordinary people (prthagjana), there are three kinds of contemplations (anupasyana). To try to escape from desire (kama) and form (rupa), they contemplate the coarseness (parusya), deceitfulness ( vancana) and corruption (kasaya) of the desire realm (kdmadhdtu) and the form realm (rupadhdtu). 2) Among the Buddha's disciples, there are eight kinds of contemplations (anupasyana)'?^ [for them, everything is] impermanent (anitya), suffering (duhkha), empty (siinya), egoless (anatmaka), like a sickness (roga), an ulcer (ganda), like an arrow (salya) stuck in one's body, like an agony (agha). 3) These eight kinds of contemplations, applied to the four noble truths (dryasatya), make sixteen aspects (dkdra) grouped into fours. 32 These are: The four aspects of contemplation on suffering (duhkha): i) anitya, impermanent; ii) duhkha, suffering; Hi) siinya, empty; iv) anatmaka, egoless. The four aspects of the contemplation on the origin of suffering (duhkhasamudaya): i) samudaya, origin; if) hetu, cause; Hi) pratyaya, condition: iv) prahhava, process. The four aspects of the contemplation on the cessation of suffering (duhkhanirodha) : i) nirodha, cessation; ii) santa, tranquility: //'/') praiuta, excellence; iv) nihsarana, deliverance. The four aspects of the contemplation on the Path (mdrga): i) mdrga, Path: ii) nydya, rational; Hi) pratipad, attainment; iv) nairydnika, definitive release.

Actually, the aspects (akara) by nature constiUit the mental factoi ii il r di rnment: cl II. [ 39. 31 As the scnptmes lepeat ad nauseam Blul cato i > > ga to sallato aghato < i i , i ii ii i ii ii I i||niiii I, p. 4 136 00 Vhguttara, II, p. 128; IV, p. 422. 32 For the sixteen aspects of the four truths, cf. Kosa, VI, p. 163; VII, p. 30-34; Mahavyutpatti, no. 1190-1205; Obermiller, Doctrine of P. P., p. 18.

4. In the inbreath and the outbreath (dndpdna) there are also sixteen aspects: i) attention to the inbreath (dsvasdmiti prajanati); ii) attention to the outbreath {prasvasdmiti prajdndti); Hi) attention to the long breath and the short breath (dirgham hras\ im a vasdmi prasvasdmiti prajdndti); iv) [knowledge] that one is breathing in the entire body (sarval i itisamved isvasa \ vasdm Indti); v) [knowledge that one is breathing] while having eliminated the bodily factors (prasrabhya kdyasamskdrdn dsvasdmi prasvasdmiti prajdndti); vi) [knowledge that one is breathing] while experiencing joy (pritipratisamvedy dsvasdmi prasvasdmiti prajanati): vii) [knowing that one is breathing] while experiencing bliss (sukhapratiscmn dy dsvasdmi j < \ litipi ijdndti); viii) [knowledge that one is breathing while feeling the mental factors (c itta tmskd xvedy ds\ isvasa i ajdndti); ix) [knowledge that one is breathing] while gladdening the mind (read sin tso hi: ahliipramoclayan cittam dsvasdmi prasvasdmiti prajdndti); x) [knowledge that one is breathing while concentrating the mind (samddadhah cittam dsvasdmi prasvasdmiti prajdndti); xi) [knowledge that one is breathing] while liberating the mind (yimocayan cittam dsvasdmi prasvasdmiti prajanati); xii) [knowledge that one is breathing] while contemplating impcrmancncc (anitydniiclarsv dsvasmami prasvasdmiti prajdndti); xiii) knowledge that one is breathing] while contemplating disappearance (vyavdnusarsy dsvasdmi prasvasdmiti prajdndti): xiv) [[knowledge that one is breathing] while contemplating renunciation of desire (vairdgvdmiclarsv dsvasdmi prasvasdmiti prajdndti); xv) [knowledge that one is breathing] while contemplating cessation (nirodhdnudarsy dsvasdmi prasvasdmiti prajdndti); xvi) [knowledge that one is breathing]while contemplating renunciation i a ' i i '/I vasd i i i i i Hi) 5. Furthermore, there are six recollections (anusmrti). 34 The recollection of the Buddha (buddhdnusmrti): "The Buddha is arhat, samyaksambuddha ...": ten epithets of this kind [in all]. For the five other recollections, see below. 6. Mundane knowledge (laukikajndna), supramundane knowledge {lokottarajndna), the knowledge of the arhats, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, Buddhas and the other knowledges of this type cognize dharmas 'in all their aspects' (sarvdkdram):^

VI. SARVADHARMA (p. 642F)

1. The expression sarvadharma means all the dharmas that are the object (alambana) of the consciousnesses (yijnana): 33 The sixteen d , Is ol'tn iitisin in enumerated in many texts, e.g.. .Vlajjhima, I, p. 425; Samyutta, V, p.311- 312; Pancavimsati, p. 204-205; Tsa a han, T 99, no. 83, k. 29, p. 206a-b; Mahavyutpatti, no. 1173-1188: they fully commented on in Visuddhimagga, I, p. 266-293. For a modern adaptation, see G. C. Lounsbcry, La meditation bouddhique, Paris, 1935, p. 161-169. 34 The six recollections have as object, respectively, the Buddha, the Dharma, the Samgha, sila, tydga, and the devatas (cf. DIgha, III, p. 240, 280; Ahguttara, III, p. 284, 312 seq., 452; V, p. 329 seq.); Visuddhimagga, I, p. 197- 22S. dedicates a chapter to them, 35 Cf. Kosa, VI, p. 142.

The visual consciousness (caksurvijnana) concerns color (rupa); the auditory consciousness (srotravijnana) concerns sound (sabda); the olfactory consciousness (ghranavijnana), odor (gandha); the gustatory consciousness (jihvavijnana), taste {rasa); the tactile consciousness (kayavijnana), touch (sprastavya); the mental consciousness (manovijnana), dharmas. [This last one] concerns equally the eye (caksus), color (rupa) and the visual consciousness (caksurvijnana), the ear (srotra) and sound (sabda), the nose (ghrana) and smell (gandha), the tongue (jihva) and taste (rasa), the body (kaya) and touch (sprastavya), and so on up to: it concerns the Manas, dharmas and mental consciousness (manovijnana)? 6 This is what is meant by 'all dharmas': these are the dharmas that are the object of the consciousnesses. 2. Furthermore, 'all dharmas' means the dharmas that are the object of the knowledges (jnana); the knowledge of suffering (duhkhajnana) knows suffering; the knowledge of the origin (samudayajnana) knows the origin (samudaya); the knowledge of cessation (nirodhajnana) knows cessation (nirodha); the knowledge of the Path (margajnana) knows the Path (marga)?' the mundane knowledge (laukikajnana) knows suffering, the origin [of suffering], the cessation [of suffering] the Path, and also space (akasa) and the apratisamkhyanirodha. These are the dharmas that are the object of the knowledges. 38 3. Furthermore, the groups 39 of two dharmas include (samgrhnanti) 'all dharmas'. These are the dharmas having form (rupadharma) and the dharmas without form (arupidharma); the visible (sanidarsana) dharmas and the invisible (anidarsana) dharmas; the resistant (sapraiigha) dharmas and the non-resistant dharmas (apratigha); the impure (sasrava) dharmas and the pure (anasrava) dharmas; the conditioned (samskrta) dharmas and the unconditioned (asamskrta) dharmas; the dharmas associated with the mind (cittasamprayukta) and the dharmas not associated with the mind (cittaviprayukta); the dharmas associated with action (karmasamprayuktd) and dissociated from action [138b] (karmaviprayukta); near dharmas

36 Classical theory of consciousness frequently explained in Ihc scriptures, e.g., Majjhima. Ill, p. 221. There are six consciousnesses. The first five, viz., the visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory and tactile, each depends on a particular organ simultaneous with li (eye, ear, nose, tongue and body) and each bears upon a special object (color, sound, smell, ta i nul tangible). Ill i ill it iousm ill i i< m il .n i hi <t (; viji I, dcpci J u\ < the Manas, i.e., on whichever of the six consciousnesses that has just occurred and w liich immediately precedes it in time (cf. Kosa, I, p. 31 ) / i uiaiitarati main (In iiialfy. it has as object all dharma iz., th six consciousnesses, the six organs and the six objects, perceptible objects, color, etc., as well as non-perceptible objects (dharmas properly called the 46 caittas, the 14 cittaviprayuktas, the 3 asamskrtas and the avijnapti): cf. Stcherbatsky, Central Conception, p. 97. Thus, whereas the first five consciousnesses are strictly limited to their own object, the mental consciousness also bears upon the objects of the other five consciousnesses. This is expressed in an oft repeated canonical formula (Majjhima, I, p. 205: Samyutta, V, p. 217-218): "The five organs, each their own object and their own field, do not perceive the object-field of the others, whereas the Manas perceives the object-field of all ot tin u i < / / gocaravisayam paccanuhhonti ... inano c iravisaya i icigcr, Pali I) liinchen, 1926, p. 80). 37 On these four knowledges, see Kosa, VII, p. 5. 38 Obviously the mundane know k d e (laukit I acquired in cuti el I Ilia) to the supramundane knowledge (lokotl i l 11m I | I 39 The Treatise, I, p. 53-54F, has already enumerated these various groups of dharmas.

515

(antike dharmdh) and distant dharmas (dure dharmdh)]. These various groups of two dharmas include all dharmas [Note: close dharmas are present dharmas (pratyutpanna) and the Asamskrta; distant dharmas are future (andgata) and past (atTta) dharmas)]. 4. Furthermore, the groups of three dharmas include 'all dharmas'. These are good (kusala), bad (akusala) and indeterminate (avydkrta) dharmas; the dharmas of the saiksa, the asaiksa and the naivasaiksanasaiksa; the dharmas to be abandoned by seeing the truths (satyadarsanaheya), to be abandoned by meditation (bhdvandheya) and not to be abandoned (aheya). There are again three sorts of dharmas: the five aggregates (skandha), the twelve bases of consciousness (dyatana) and the eighteen elements (dhdtu). These various groups of three dharmas include all dharmas. 5. Furthermore, there are groups of four dharmas: past (affta), future (andgata), present {pratyutpannd) and neither past nor future nor present dharmas; dharmas belonging to the desire realm (kdmadhdtvavacara), to the Form realm (rupatlliutvavacara), to the formless realm (drupyadhdtvavacara), belonging to no realm (anavacara); dharmas resulting from a good cause, a bad cause, an indeterminate cause, a cause neither good nor bad nor indeterminate; dharmas that are object condition (dlambanapratyaya), that are not object condition, that are both object condition and not object condition, that are both neither object condition and not object condition. These groups of four dharmas include all dharmas. 6. There are groups of five dharmas: substance (rupa), mind (citta), dharmas associated with the mind (cittasamprayukta), dharmas dissociated from the mind (cittaviprayukta) and unconditioned (asamskrta) dharmas. These various groups of five dharmas include all dharmas. 7. There are groups of seven dharmas: dharmas to be abandoned by seeing suffering (duhkhadarsanaheya); dharmas to be abandoned, respectively, by seeing the origin | ami layi ) th ui ( irodha) and the Path (mdrga); dharmas to be abandoned by meditation (bhdvandheya) and dharmas not to be abandoned (aheya). These various groups of six dharmas and the innumerable other [groups] of dharmas include all dharmas. That is what is meant by sarvadharma Question. - The dharmas are very profound (gambhtra), subtle (suksma) and inconceivable (acintya). If all beings together do not succeed in cognizing them, how then could a single person claim to cognize them all? It is as though one wanted to measure the earth (prthivf), count the drops of water (bindu) in the ocean (samudra), weigh Mount Sumeru, know the limits of space (dkdsdnta) and other similar things, likewise unknowable. How can all dharmas be known in all their aspects? Answer. - The darkness of ignorance (mohatamas) is very painful (duhkha), and the brilliance of wisdom (prajndprakdsa) is very blissful (sukha). Now all beings try to avoid suffering and seek only happiness. This is why the bodhisattvas wish above all to have great wisdom (mahdprajnd) and wish to know all dharmas from every point of view. The bodhisattvas who have produced the great mind (mahdeittotpddika) seek great wisdom in the interest of all beings. This is why they wish to know all dharmas in all their aspects. If a physician (vaidya) takes care of one or two sick people, it is enough for him to use one or two remedies (bhaisajya); but if he wishes to cure all beings who are sick, he has to use all the types of

remedies. In the same way, the bodhisattva who wishes to save all beings wishes to know all dharmas in all their aspects and, since the dharmas are profound (gambhira), subtle (suksma) and innumerable (apramana), the wisdom of the bodhisattva, it too, will be profound, subtle and immense. Above, (Trade, I, p. 153F), in replying to attacks directed against the Omniscient One (sarvajna), we have already treated the subject fully: [there we commented] that if the letter is big, the envelope also will be big. [138c] Furthermore, if all dharmas are examined unsystematically (nydya), nothing will be found; but if the search is methodical, the results will be faultless. In the same way, if in order to produce fire by friction, arani is used, fire is the result; but if one tries to make fire with damp wood, the fire will not catch. Similarly also, the great earth (mahdprthivi) has limits (anta); but, if one is not omniscient {sarvajna) and one does not have great miraculous power (rddhibala), one will not know them. On the other hand, if the power of the superknowledges (abhijndbala) is great, one knows that the trisahasramahasahasralokadhatu is the limit of the earth, that this great earth rests on [the circle] of diamond (vajramandala) and that at the four sides of the trisahasramahasahasralokadhatu there is space (dkdsd). 40 This is knowing the limits of the earth. And it is the same when one wishes to weigh Mount Sumeru. As for wishing to measure space, that is out of the question [for the question does not come up] "Space not being a dharma, there can be no question of measuring it." VII. WHY DOES SARIPUTRA QUESTION? (p. 646F)

Sutra: Sariputra said to the Buddha: Bhagavat, how must the bodhisattva-mahasattva who wishes to know all the dharmas in all the aspects exert himself in practicing the Prajnaparamita? (Evam ukte ayusman Sariputra bhagavantam etad avocat: Katham bhagavan bodhisattvena mahasattvena sarvakaram sarvadharmdn cihhisainhochllnikdmena prajndpdramiiciydin yogah karcinFycih). Sdstra: Question. - The Buddha, who wanted to preach the Prajnaparamita, manifested all kinds of miracles (prdtihdrya). Having manifested them, he ought to speak. Why was he questioned by Sariputra first and then speaks? Answer. - 1) Because the answer comes after the question; it must be so in the Buddhist texts [as everywhere else]. 2) Furthermore, Sariputra knows that the Prajnaparamita is profound (gambhira) and subtle (suksma), and that this doctrine without characteristics (aluksunaclharma) is difficult to understand (durvigahya) and difficult to know (durjneya). By the power of his knowledge (jndnabala), he meditates on it (bhavayati) in various ways; he wonders if contemplating impermanence (anityata) of dharmas is indeed Prajnaparamita; but he is unable to decide by himself. This is why he asks. 3) Finally, Sariputra is not omniscient (sarvavjild); in wisdom he is but a little child compared to the Buddha.

" See Kosa, III, p. 138 seq.

[Avadana of the pigeon]. 41 - Thus it is told in the A p'o fan na king (Avadanasutra): The Buddha was in the Jetavana; towards evening (sdydhnasamayam), he started out with Sariputra walking behind him. At that moment a hawk (syena) was chasing a pigeon (kapota); the pigeon fell in front of the Buddha; when the Buddha, continuing his walk, came abreast of it and his shadow covered the pigeon, the bird became calm (santd), its fears disappeared and it stopped crying. Later, when Sariputra's shadow covered the pigeon, it began to cry and tremble again. Sariputra asked the Buddha: "The Buddha and myself are both free of the three poisons (trivisa). Why does the pigeon stop its fear and crying when the Buddha's shadow covers it and begin to tremble and cry when my shadow covers it?" The Buddha said: "In you the impregnations (vdsand) of the threefold poison (trivisa) are not yet destroyed (ksina); that is why, when your shadow covers it, the pigeon's fears do not disappear. Examine the avadanas of the pigeon in its previous existences (purvanivasa); for how many lifetimes has it been a pigeon?" Then Sariputra entered into the concentration of knowledge [which has as its object] previous existences (purvanivasajndnasamddhi) and saw that the pigeon had always been a pigeon for one, two, three lifetimes and so on, for 80,000 great kalpas; but beyond that, he stopped and could see no further. Having come out (vyutthaya) of the concentration, Sariputra said to the Buddha: "This pigeon has always been a pigeon for 80,000 great kalpas, but beyond that, I do not know." The Buddha continued: "If you cannot know to the very end of past existences (atitajanman), try then to see after how many future existences (anagatajanman) the pigeon will escape [from its animal destiny]." Sariputra then entered into the concentration of the knowledge [that has as its object] aspirations (pranidhdnajndnasamddhi) and he saw that this pigeon would not escape its destiny as a pigeon for one, two, three existences, and so on for 80,000 great kalpas; but beyond that, he stopped and could see no further. Having come out of the concentration, he said to the Buddha: "I see that this pigeon will not escape from its destiny as a pigeon for one, two, three existences, and so on for 80,000 great kalpas; but beyond that I know no further. I do not know the limits (maryada) of the past and the future, I do not know when this pigeon will escape [from its animal destiny]." The Buddha said to Sariputra: "The [existences] of this pigeon surpass the limits knowable by sravakas and pratyekabuddhas. This [pigeon will constantly have pigeon existences for great kalpas as numerous as the grains of sand of the Ganges (gangdnadivdlukopama). When its sin (dpatti) has been expiated, it will come out and will transmigrate (samsdrisyati) in the five destinies (pancagati); then it will be a human (manusya) and, at the end of five hundred [human] existences, it will acquire keen faculties (tiksnendriya). At that time there will be a Buddha who, having saved innumerable (apramand) and incalculable (asamkhyeya) beings, will enter into nirvana without residue (nirupadhisesanirvdna), but his spiritual legacy will remain in the world and our man will become a lay adherent observing the five precepts (pancasiksaparigrdhakopdsaka); hearing a bhiksu praise the qualities of the Buddha, he will first produce the mind of bodhicitta {prathamacittotpdda), then make the aspiration (pranidhdna) to become a Buddha; then for three incalculable periods (asamkhyayakalpa), he will practice the six virtues (satparamita); finally, when he has attained the tenth bhumi, he will become Buddha and, after having saved innumerable beings (apramanasattva), he will enter into nirvana without residue (nirupadhisesanirvdnd)." Then

The avadana of the pigeon is reproduced in the King Liu \ i siang, T 2121, k. 48, p. 254b-c; Kosa, VII, p. 72 makes a brief allusion to it.

Sariputra made his confession (desandkarana) before the Buddha and said: "If I do not succeed in understanding the avaddnas of a bird, how could I understand all the dharmas? Now I know how far the knowledge of the Buddha extends. In order to possess such knowledge, I would be willing to fall into the Avici hell and suffer torments for innumerable kalpas, and I would not consider that to be difficult." It is because he does not understand the dharmas of this kind that Sariputra asks questions.

CHAPTER XVII: THE VIRTUE OF GENEROSITY (p. 650F)

Sutra: The Buddha said to Sariputra: The bodhisattva-mahasattva who abides in the Prajnaparamita by the method of non-abiding (asthdnayogend) should fulfill the virtue of generosity by the method of refraining (aparityagayogena), by refraining from distinguishing the donor, the recipient and the gift given (Evam ukte Bhagavan clyusmantam Sdripuiram etad uvocat: Ilia Sariputra bodhisattvena mahasattvena prajnaparamitayam sthitvasthdiiayogeiia ddnapdmitd paripurayitavya aparityagayogena ddrakapratigrd/iakaderdiiiipalahdliitdni updddni).

. DEFINITIONS OF PRAJNAPARAMITA 42

Sastra: Question. - What is Prajnaparamita? Answer. - 1. Some say: The root (inula) of pure wisdom (andsravaprajm) is the distinctive characteristic of Prajnaparamita. Why? Because the foremost of all the wisdoms (prajna) is called Prajnaparamita. The root of pure wisdom is the [139b] foremost wisdom. This is why the root of pure wisdom is called Prajnaparamita. Question. - How can the bodhisattva who has not cut the bonds (bandhana) practice a pure wisdom (aiidsravaprajiid)'? Answer. - a. Although the bodhisattva has not cut the bonds, he practices a semblance of pure Prajnaparamita; this is why it is said that he practices pure Prajnaparamita. It is like the sravaka who practices [the four nirvedhabhaghlyas] called heat (usman), summit (murdhan), patience (ksanti) and supreme mundane dharma (laukikdgradharma): at the beginning, he practices a semblance of the pure dharmas (andsravadharma) and later it is easy for him to produce the acquiescence that gives rise to the knowledge relating to suffering (duhkhe darmajndnaksdnti). 43 b. Furthermore, some say that there are two kinds of bodhisattvas: the one who has cut the fetters (samyojana) and is pure (visuddha), and the one who has not cut the fetters and is impure. Only the bodhisattva who has cut the fetters and is pure can practice the pure Prajnaparamita. Question. - But if the bodhisattva has cut the bonds and is pure, why does he still practice the Prajnaparamita?

These definitions are continued and developed below in chaprters XXIX and XXX. 43 The four nirvedhabh gij /s are the preparatory path (prayogamdrga) leading to 'understanding of the truths' ii i I In and i 1,1 I'll i pin i i in ol in i I ,i liou h 111 lust is duhkhe dharmajnanaksanti by means of which the practitioner destroys any doubt thai may remain relative to the suffering of Kamadhatu. Cf. Kosa, V, p. iv-v; VI, p. 179; above, Treatise, I, p. 214F, 395F.

Answer. - a. Although he has cut the bonds, he has not yet perfected the ten bhumis (dasabhumi) [which constitute the great bodhisattva's career], nor has he adorned (visayana) the buddhafields (buddhaksetra), nor com cried ( vinayunu) beings; this is why he still practices the Prajnaparamita. b. Furthermore, there are two ways of cutting the bonds: 1) cutting the three poisons (trivisa) [of passion, aggression and ignorance] and detaching one's mind from the five objects of enjoyment (panca kamaguna) favored by men and gods; 2) while being detached from the five objects of enjoyment favored by men and gods, not being detached from the five objects of enjoyment that are the fruits of retribution (vipdkaphala) of the bodhisattva qualities (guna). This is why the bodhisattva must still practice the Prajnaparamita.

[The temptation of Anuruddha], - Thus, when the ayusmat A ni lou teou (Anuruddha) was sitting in

The visit of the Manap ■!. tyika d( Has to Anuruddha is told in a surra in the Ahguttara, IV, p. 262-266 which, errors excepted, has no correspondent in the Chinese likottaragama. Here is a condensed translation: One day, the Buddha was residing at ICosambi in the Ghosita park. At that time, the venerable Anuruddha had withdrawn and was resting; then mm i i >u Imiu with harmin; o li (in lakayi le\ a) came to him, greeted him and stood to one side, saying to the venerable Anuruddha: Venerable Anuruddha, we are the deities of charming body; our sovereignty and our power extend in three areas: We are able spontaneously (thanaso) to assume whatever color (varnd) we wish; we are able spontaneously to produce whatever sound ( vara) we wish; we are able to obtain whatever bliss (sukha) we wish. O venerable Anuruddha, we arc the deities of charming form and we extend our sovereignty and power in these three areas." Then the venerable Anuruddha said to himself: "May these goddesses become all blue (nila), with blue faces, blue garments and blue ornaments." And these goddesses, know ing his mind, became all blue, with blue faces, blue garments and blue ornaments. Then he thought: "May they become all yellow {pita) ..., all red (lohitd) ..., all white (odata), with white faces, white garments and white ornaments." Immediately, knowing his mind, they transformed them i l - 1 iccordin; to hi i li Then one of the goddesses sang (gdyi), another danced (nacci), yet another snapped her fingers (accharikam vadesi) ... But the venerable Anuruddha averted his senses {indriydni okkhipf) from them. At once, understanding that the \ cnerablc Anuruddha w as displeased, they disappeared. Other details may be found in the Anuruddhasutia of the Samyutta, I, p. 200 (cf. Tsa a han, T 99, no. 1336, k. 50, p. 368c; T 100, no. 356, k. 16, p. 490b), and in the commentary of Buddhaghosa in SaratthappakasinI, I, p. 293-294. Here, in italics is the translation of the sutta, and in roman letters, the translation of the commentary. Once the vein / ( I i i i alas in a forest. Then a certain deity, belonging to the Tavatiinsa gods, called Jamim, who was formerly, in the immediately pi u ling life! inn / liiurud > \ able Anuruddha. Having approached him. she spoke the following stanzas to him: Turn your mind to where you have formerly lived, Among the Tavatiinsa gods, whose every wish is fulfilled; Accompanied and (Anuruddha replied]: The daughters of the gods have an unfortunate destiny, established in a corporeal existence And those who ilc -i ■ tin dangh rsoftln gods have a had destiny. [Mini] answered]: Thost who do mn < tin Mandana /j irk/ fin bode of divine heroes, The glorious Thirty-three Gods, do not know bliss. [Anuruddha replied]: foolish one, you do not understand the meaning of the arhats ' saying: . ill formations are transitory, given up to arising and cessation: As soon as they arise, tin t c < use; to pacify them is bliss. [For me] now there is no further rebirth among the gods. When he had said this, the goddess JalinI felt a powerful attraction for the venerable one and she did not have the strength to separate from him. Endlessly returning, she swept his cell, brought water for him to rinse his mouth, a toothpick, food and drink. The venerable one did not spurn her but accepted her gifts. One day, the venerable one,

absorption (dhydna) in a forest, some goddesses (devata), the beautiful Nga\ (Tri ria) etc., with their beautiful and wonderful pure bodies, came to tempt him. Anuruddha said: "Let these sisters (bhagini) become blue (nilavarnd) and not show any mixed colors (misravarna)." He wanted to contemplate the impurities (asubha) [of their bodies] in this way, but he did not succeed in seeing any. And it was the same when, at his request, they took on a yellow (pita), red (lohita) and white (avaddta) color. Then Anuruddha closed his eyes and did not look at them. He said: "May these sisters go away." At that moment, the goddesses disappeared. - If their celestial shapes (divyasamsthdna), the reward of their merits (punyavipaka) intruded [on Anuruddha] in this way, what could be said about the five objects of enjoyment (panca kamaguna) that are the fruit of retribution (vipdkaphala) of the immense qualities (apramdnaguna) of the bodhisattvas, [except that they solicit the bodhisattva even more]? [The Dance ofMah q i] 4 " - When [Druma], king of the Kimnaras along with 84,000 Kimnaras came to the Buddha to play the lute, sing verses and pay homage to the Buddha, Sumeru, king of the mountains, all the trees on the mountains, the people and animals all started to dance. The assembly surrounding the Buddha, including Mahakasyapa, could not sit still on their seats. Then the bodhisattva T'ien siu asked the ayusmat Mahakasyapa: "Old man, previously you were foremost among those who observe the twelve dhutas; why can you not sit still on your seat?" Mahakasyapa answered: " The five objects of enjoyment of the threefold world (traidhdtuka) cannot make me agitated, but the superknowledges (abhijhd) of the bodhisattva [Druma], by virtue of the fruit of retribution of qualities (gunavipdkabatat), put me in such a state that I am no longer myself and I cannot stay still."

whose robe \\ is n onl i ing his 1 u nd: she laid I 1 I in i / i n i | ! i ubage and went away. Seeing this garment, the \ cncrablc one gathered ii up; examining it and recognizing that it was a garment that would suit him, he took it away. Out of it he made the threefold monastic robes: two disciples of high rank joined Anuruddha in making the robe; the teacher furnished the needle. The robe having been made, when the venerable one went on his begging round, the goddess procured alms for him. Sometimes alone, sometimes with another, she stayed close to the venerable one. Finally, with two companions, she went to the cell of Anuruddha and said to him: "We are the [goddesses] of charming body (maiuipakayika) and we lake every imaginable shape." Anuruddha said to himself: "They speak thus; I must lest that: may they become all blue (inlalai)." Knowing the vcncrablc's mind, they became all blue. Then they became yellow (pita), red (lohita) and while (odata). They thought: "The venerable one appreciates our beauty", and they began a show: the first one san | I ih ond d need I ci) and the third one snapped her lingers (accharam pahari). Bui the venerable one averted his senses (indriyani akkhipi). Then, understanding that the venerable one did not appreciate their beauty and. not receiving any affection or sweetness from him, they gave up and went away. Seeing them depart, the venerable one w ished that they would never return and, defining his arhathood, he spoke this stanza: The cycle of births is destroy ed; there now is no further rebirth. On this JalinI, see also Theragatha, v. 908; Dhammapadattha, II, p. 173-175 (tr, Burlingamc, Legends, 11, p. 201-202). 45 On Kasyapa's dance to the music of Druma, see above, Treatise, I, p. 615F, n. 2. - On Druma, ibid., p. 609F, n. 4.

[139c] The winds that arise from the four cardinal directions cannot shake mount Sumeru, but, at the end of the great kalpa, the P 'i Ian (Vairambha) winds 46 arise and blow on mount Sumeru like a pile of straw. This is why we know that [in the bodhisattva] one of the two categories of bonds has not been broken. The bodhisattva must therefore still practice the Prajnaparamita. This is what the A p'i Van (Abhidharma) explains. 2. Others also say: The Prajnaparamita is an impure wisdom (sasravaprajna). Why? Before the Bodhisattva cut his bonds under the bodhi tree, he already had great wisdom (mahdprajnd) and immense qualities (apramdnaguna), but his passions (klesa) were not yet cut. This is why they say that the Bodhisattva's Prajnaparamita is an impure wisdom (sasravaprajna). 3. Others also say: During the interval of time between the first production of the mind of bodhi (prathamacittotpdda) until his [enlightenment] under the bodhi tree, the wisdom possessed by the Bodhisattva is called Prajnaparamita; but once the Bodhisattva becomes Buddha, this Prajnaparamita changes its name and is called Sap'oja (sarvajna or omniscience). 4. Yet others say: Impure wisdom (sasravaprajna) and pure wisdom (anasravaprajna) are together called Prajnajnaramita. Why? The bodhisattva contemplates nirvana and travels the Path of the Buddhas; this is why his wisdom (prajna) is necessarily pure (anasravd). On the other hand, as he has not yet cut the fetters (samyojana) and thus has not yet done what has to be done (akrtakrtya), his wisdom must have the quality of being impure (sdsrava). 5. Others also say: The bodhisattva's Prajnaparamita is pure (anasaravd), unconditioned (asamskrta), invisible (anidarsana) and free of opposition (apratigha). 6. Others also say: This Prajnaparamita does not have a nature that is perceptible (anupalabhalaksana): [it cannot be said to be] existent (sat) or nonexistent (asat), eternal (nitya) or transitory (anitya), empty (sunya) or real (bhuta, satya). This Prajnaparamita is not included in the list of aggregates (skandha), elements (dhatu) and bases of consciousness (dyatana). It is neither conditioned (samskrta) nor unconditioned (asamskrta), neither a dharma nor a non-dharma; it is neither grasped (grhita) nor abandoned (hata), neither arisen (utpanna) nor ceased (niruddhd); it eludes the four alternatives (cdtuhkotika) of existence; it encounters no attachment. Just as the flame of a fire (agnijvala) cannot be touched (sprsta) anywhere because it burns the hand, so the Prajnaparamita cannot be touched because the fire of false views (mithyddrsti) would burn [the person who would want to grasp it]. Question. - Among all those who have just defined the Prajnaparamita, who are correct? Answer. - a. Some say that each of them is right and that they are all true. This is like in the surra where five hundred bhiksus are debating, each in turn, on the two extremes (antadvaya) and the Middle Way (madhyamd pratipad) and where the Buddha declares: "All are right." b. Others say that it is those who have answered last who are right. Why? Because they can be neither contradicted nor refuted. If it concerned some dharma, no matter how trifling, those who would admit its 46 These winds have already been mentioned above. Treatise, I, p. 5591', n. i .

existence would be making a mistake and could be contradicted; those who denied its existence could also be contradicted. But in this Prajna, there is neither existence nor nonexistence, neither nonexistence nor not-nonexistence. In this way, speech (vyavahdm) is no longer valid; it is called tranquility (santi), immensity (apramdna), dharma eluding vain proliferation (nisprapancd). This is why it can [140a] be neither contradicted nor refuted; it is called the true Prajnaparamita. It is faultless excellence (pravara). Just as a noble cakravartin king subdues his enemies without ever boasting, so the Prajnaparamita can contradict all speech (abhildpd) and vain proliferation (prapanca) without itself ever being contradicted. c. Finally, in the following chapters, all kinds of explanations (arthamukha) will deal with the Prajnaparamita and its true nature. II. THE METHOD OF NON-DWELLING (p. 656F)

"Abiding in the Prajnaparamita by the method of non-dwelling (asthdnayogena), the bodhisattva is able to perfect (paripuri) the six virtues (satpdramitd)." Question. - What does this phrase mean? Answer. - The bodhisattva who sees (samanupasyati) that all dharmas are neither eternal (nitya) nor transitory (anitya), neither painful (duhkha) nor pleasant (sukha), neither empty (sunya) nor real (bhuta), neither with self (dtmari) nor selfless (andtman), neither arising-ceasing (utpannaniruddha) nor unborn- unceasing (ciinitpcinndniriiddha), dwells in the profound Prajnaparamita without grasping at its characteristics (uimittoclgrahana). This is called residing in it by the method of non-dwelling (asthdnayoga); if one grasped the characteristics of Prajnaparamila, that would be residing in it by the method of dwelling (sthdnayoga). Question. - If one does not grasp the charaUen- . i i ita the mind is without attachment (dsakti, adhyavasdna). Thus the Buddha has said: "All dharmas have desire (kdma) as their root." How can the person who does not grasp [the characteristics] perfect (paripuri) the six virtues? Answer. - Out of compassion (karund) for beings, the bodhisattva first makes the vow (pranidhdna) to liberate all beings. By the virtue of exertion (viryapdramitd), and even though he knows that all dharmas are unborn (anutpanna), unceasing (aniruddha), like nirvana (nirvdnaiama), he continues to exert his qualities (guna) and he fulfills the six virtues. Why? Because he abides in the Prajnaparamita by the method of non-dwelling. This is what is called abiding in the Prajnaparamita by the method of non- dwelling.

CHAPTER XVIII: PRAISE OF THE VIRTUE OF GENEROSITY (p. 658F)

Question. - What are the benefits i , irnsa) oi tierosity I land) that make the bodhisattva dwelling in the Prajnaparamita perfect the virtue of generosity (ddnapdramitdp. Answer. - Generosity presents all kinds of benefits. Generosity is a precious treasure (ratnakosd) that always follows its originator; generosity destroys suffering and brings happiness to people; generosity is the kind tutor who shows the path to heaven (svargamarga); generosity is the good prefect who seduces (samgrhnati) honest people [note: generosity captivates honest people, that is why it is said to seduce them]; generosity is a safe haven (yogaksema): when the end of life approaches, the mind [of the donor] is free of fear (visarada); generosity is a mark of loving-kindness (maUrmimitta), capable of saving all beings; generosity is an accumulation of happiness (sukhasamuccaya), capable of destroying suffering; generosity is a great general (sendpati), able to vanquish avarice (mdtsarya); generosity is a wonderful fruit. Loved by gods and [140b] men, generosity is a pure path (visuddhimdrga) traveled by the noble aryas; generosity is an accumulation of good (kusalasamuccaya), the entryway to the qualities (gunadvara); generosity is a good action (kusalacarya), the seed of a marvelous fruit; generosity is a meritorious action (punyakarmd), the mark of an honest man; generosity destroys poverty (daridya) and suppresses the three lower destinies (durgati); generosity protects the fruit of merit; generosity is the prime condition (prathamapratyayd) for nirvana. Generosity is the rule for entering into a group of honest people; it is a reservoir of praise (stud) and eulogy (varnana); it is the virtue that permits easy entry into assemblies; it is the house where the mind is without regret (vipratisara); it is the root of good dharmas and of practicing the Path (margacarya); it is the jungle of many joys (nandana); it is the field of merit (punyaksetra) that assure wealth, nobility and safety (yogaksema); it is the bridge (setu) for obtaining the Path (mdrgalabha) and nirvana; it is the favorite practice of the aryas, of great men (mahapurusa) and sages (jnanin); it is a model proposed for men of little virtue and little intelligence.

The five bciun I rosily ( I been pointed out by the Buddha in Ih (Ahguttai III, p. 38-41); Tseng yi a han, T 125, k. 24, p. 680c; k. 51,p. 826a); the first four concern the present life (saditthika), the fifth, the future life (sainparayika): the generous teacher of generosity (diiyu/ai daiuipati) is cherished and appreciated by many people bahuno janassa piyo hoti manapo), good honest people love him (santo sappurisd hhajaiiti) mi ii in repute is attached to his name (kal\ < cci hatcver a nil 1 lie enters, he enters fearlessly and without worry (yan nad eu/ p \ ainai'ikuhhuto): after the destruction of his body after death, he is reborn in a blessed heavenly realm (kayassa bhedd parammarana su lokam upapajjati). This chapter of the Mpps develops these five points somewhat; this is one of the homilies on generosity so often encountered; cf. Siksasamuccaya, p. 19-34; Bodhicaryavatara, chap. II, v. 2-23; Divyavadana, chap. XXXIV, p. 481-483; sermons on generosity, morality, heaven, preached to lay people, Kosa, IV, p. 70, n. - Modern works: Oltramare, Theosophie, p. 408; Dutt, Aspects, p. 297; Lav., Morale bouddhique, p. 50-51.

[The sage and the fool in the firef* - When a house is burning, the sharp-witted man perceives clearly under what conditions the blaze is developing and, before the fire reaches him, he hastens to retrieve his wealth; although his dwelling is completely consumed, he has saved all his precious belongings; he can then rebuild a new home. In the same way, the generous man knows that his body is perishable and fragile and that his wealth is not eternal; he profits from the right moment to cultivate merit (punyabhavana), just like the man who saves his wealth from the fire; in his future existences he will enjoy happiness, just like this man who rebuilds his home, resumes his business and quite naturally enjoys happiness and profit. As for the stupid man, he knows only how to hold greedily onto his house; in his haste to make plans to save it, he panics, loses all acuteness and, under the action of the violent wind and inaccessible flames, the earth and bricks of his house are completely burned; in the space of a murmur, the destruction is complete. As he has saved nothing in his house, his wealth also is destroyed; suffering from hunger and stiff with cold, he is unhappy and attacked by suffering until the end of his life. This is likewise the miserly man (matsarin); he ignores the fact that his body and his life are not eternal and that, in the space of a moment, it becomes impossible for him to save them; instead of (busying himself) with that, he amasses (riches) and guards them jealously; but death overtakes him unexpectedly and suddenly he dies; his physical shape melts away into the earth; his wealth with all its appurtenances leave him; he is like the fool who is unhappy and crushed by suffering for having lacked foresight. The man with clear intelligence, on the other hand, is able to understand; he knows that the body is like a magic show (maya), that wealth cannot be kept, that everything is impermanent (anitya) and that only meritorious action (punya) offers stable support; therefore he works to draw men from the ford of suffering and he penetrates into the great Path. Furthermore, the great man who, with his great mind, practices great generosity, serves himself; but the mediocre man who, out of weakness, serves nobody does not even assure his own interest. 49 And just as a hei I i ) eing his enemy, is inevitably drawn to destroy him, so the wise man who, in his prudence, has understood his duty well, no matter how violent his enemy greed (matsaryd) is, he is capable of subduing it and will inevitably bend it to his wishes. Finding a field of merit (punyaksetra) and meeting the propitious occasion [note: i.e., the time when it is proper to give; when one encounters it and does not give, one 'misses the opportunity'], and he understands what has to be done and with the right mind (samyakcitta), he practices great generosity. Finally, the man who practices sublime generosity is venerated (satkrtd) by people; like the newly arisen moon that everyone admires, his good renown [140c] and fame spread throughout the world; he is trusted by everyone. The person who practices sublime generosity is esteemed by the noble ones and respected by the lowly; when the end of his life approaches, his heart has no fear. These are the fruits of reward {vipdkaphala) obtained in the present existence (ihajanma): like the flowers and fruits of the trees, they innumerable (aprameya). Likewise in the future existence (pararajanma), the 48 Here the Mpps reproduces the text of the first page of the Tchong king siuan tsa p'i yu, T 208, no. 1, k. 1, p. 531 (cf. Chavannes, Contes, II, p. 68-69, the translation of which is used here). This compilation is the work of the Indian (?) monk Tao li; It was translated by Kumarajiva in 405. the same year as the Treatise. 49 Kosa, IV, p. 234, explains in w hat conditions generosity is of benefit to oneself, to others, to both, to none.

merit [will be rewarded]. When the wheel of samsara turns, one is led to the five destinies (pancagati); there are no relatives to support one; there is only generosity that counts. If one is reborn among gods (deva) or men (manusya) and one obtains a pure fruit (visuddliapluila), it is due to generosity; if, as an animal (tiryagyoni) - elephant or horse - one is well-stabled and well-fed, that too is a result of generosity. The virtue of generosity (ddna) is [to procure] wealth, nobility and joy. The person who keeps the precepts (sila) is reborn among the gods; trance (dhydnd), knowledge (jndna), purity of mind (cittavisuddhi) assure nirvana. The merit inherent in generosity is the equipment (sambhdra) for the Path of nirvana: indeed, by thinking of the gifts [which one has made], one rejoices; by rejoicing, one settles one's mind (ekacitta); by settling the mind, one contemplates impermanence (anityatd) of birth and death (utpddanirodha); by contemplating the impermanence of birth and death, one obtains the Path (mdrga). When one wants to have shade (chdya), flowers (puspd) or fruit (phala), one plants a tree. It is the same when one is looking for reward (vipdka) by means of generosity: happiness in the present lifetime (ihajanma) and future lifetime (aparajanmci) is like the shade; the state of sravaka and pratyekabuddha is like the flower; the state of Buddha is like the fruit. These are the various qualities (guna) of generosity.

CHAPTER XIX: THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GENEROSITY (p. 662F) I. DEFINITION OF GENEROSITY Question. - What is ddnal Answer. - Dana means generosity; it is a good volition associated with the mind (cittasamprayuktakusalacciana). Some say that a physical or vocal action (kdyavdkkarmari) that comes from this good volition is also called dana. 50 According to others, when there is a person endowed with faith (sraddhavat), a field of merit (punyaksetra) and a material object (dmisadravyd), and when these three things are brought together, the mind (citta) produces a thought of renunciation (paritydgadharma) capable of destroying avarice (mdtsarya), which is called dana. Just as by means of the dharma of loving-kindness (maitridharma), the mind conceives loving-kindness (maitri) by considering the happiness of others (sattvasukha), so by means of the mental event (caitta or caitasikadharma) called generosity, when the three things come together, the mind produces a dharma of renunciation (purityuguclluuinu) that is able to destroy greed (mdtsarya). 51

Generosity is an action consisting essentially of 'the volition to give'; from this volition there can follow a physical action, the gesture of giving a gift, or a vocal action, e.g.. She preaching of the holy Dharma. It is in this way that the volition of giving, which constitutes the properly called generosity, can be completed by an effective action, the gift or the preaching. This is in agreement with the definition given by the Buddha in Ahguttara, III, p. 45: i kkliavc / i 1,1 1 kamm ri vacaya ma 1 say, O m< n' lh i action is volition: having wished, one acts with body, speech or mind." The correct interpretation of this text is in Madh. karika, XVII, v, 2-3: Cetana cetayitva ca karmaktarn paramarsind ... tatra vac cetanety iiktam karma tan mdnasam smrtam, cetayitva ca yat tuktam tat tu kdyikavdcikam: "Volition and action-after-having-willed, the supreme Sage has said ... On the one hand, the action called volition is called menial (mdnasd); on the other hand, the action-after-having-willed is physical (kayika) or vocal (vacika)." And the Madh. vrlli explains (p. 306-307): "Because it is achieved by the mind (manas) alone, because it does not depend on the activity of the body and the voice, volition (cetana) associated with just the mental consciousness (manovijnana) is called 'mental action' (manasam karman). However, the second, called 'action-after-having-willed' (cetayitva /airman) is, for its part, physical (kayika) and vocal (vacika). I he action that one carries out after having mentally said to oneself I will act in such and such a way with body and speech". Shis action is called 'action-after-having-willed'. The latter is twofold, physical and vocal, because it is related to the body and to the speech and because it is achieved thanks to them. Thus, action is threefold: bodily, vocal and mental." - On this subject, see also Kathavatthu, II, p. 393; AthasalinI, p. 88; Karmasiddhiprakarana, p. 8, 63; Madh. avatara, p. 190 (tr. Museon, 1 9 1 1 ,p. 245; Panjika, p. 472; Kosa, IV, p. 1-2. - Modern works: Lav. Morale bouddhique, p. 122-126. 51 In other words, when there is a donor (dayaka), a thing to give (deya) and a recipienl (pratigrdhaka), in the donoi's mind theie is pioduced a dharma ot renuncial in f, va rmd), i \ Ihi n to give which

II. VARIOUS KINDS OF GENEROSITY

1. Gifts belonging to the three realms. There are three types of gifts: those that belong to the desire realm {kdmadhdtvavacara), those that belong to the form realm (rupadhatvavacard) and those that do not belong to any realm (anavucuru).

Generosity, a dharma associated with mind {cittasamprayuktadharma), functions with the mind (cittaparivartin) and arises with it (cittasahaja). This is not a substantial dharma (rupadharma) playing the role of condition (pratyayd); it is not an action (karman) or an associate of action (karmasamprayukta) functioning with the action and arising with it; it does not come from retribution of previous actions. This is all explained fully in the Abhidharma. 2. Pure generosity and impure generosity There are two other kinds of generosity, pure generosity (visuddhaddna) and impure generosity (avisuddhaddna). Impure generosity is generosity [141a] improperly carried out. Generosity that has as its motivation interest, arrogance, aversion, fear, desire to seduce someone, fear of death, teasing, the wish to claim equality with wealthy people, rivalry, jealousy, pride (abhimdna) and the desire to elevate oneself (dtmotkarsa), desire for fame, spells, the anxiety to avoid misfortune and to gain benefit, the wish to influence an assembly, or again generosity carried out in a trifling and disrespectful way, all these are also called impure generosity. 52

•s the gift propci h pi 1 m IV in ril prodn J I' in >n ol il t i nit >iii ij (tya mvin ipn mi) results from this willingness to give, a merit which results from the sole fact of abandoning. To the latter, may be added another: the in i i i i I II i i in i ii ih in i ill ii i ii li in ili nf • ii nl by the person who receives, of the object given (cf. Kosa, IV, p. 244). But it is not indispensable and often will be absent, e.g., in the gift given to a caitya, where no one is favored by the gift. Nevertheless, because of the devotion of the faithful one who is giving to the caitya, the gift to the caitya keeps the fundamental merit resulting from the fact of renunciation. This is similar to the meditation on lo\ ing-kindness (maitri) where no one receives and yet a merit is born for the benevolent one by means of the very power of his mind of loving-1 indn ii o i, IV, p. 244-245). 52 The various motivations that can inspire the giver are listed in a list of eighl danavastus that may be found, with some variations, in Digha, III, p. 258; Ahguttara, IV, p. 236-237; Kosa, IV, p. 239. According to the latter source, the following should be distinguished: /) the asadya gift (the gift between persons close to one another; ii) the gift given out of fear (what a person does who sees that the object is about to cease); Hi) the gift given "because he has given to me" (tidini me daiiain iii daiiain): iv) the gift given "so that he will give to me" (dasyati); v) the gift given "because mv 1 nh id my grandfathci t / in I I il i given to attain heaven (svargdrtham); vii) the gift given with an eye to repute (kirtyartliain); viii) the gift given to adorn the mind i l dan mi i of the / // to rip n <\\ mil J l i i i of m nbcis of the Path; to equip with the view of practice (n unh in un) lo all hi i' npi m oal (i \inartlia va priiptaye).

Pure generosity is that which shows characteristics opposite to those just mentioned. Furthermore, pure generosity is the gift made in view of the Path (mdrga); having arisen from a pure mind, (visuddhacittotpanna), free of the fetters (samyojanarahita), not looking for happiness here below or up above (ihaparatrasukha), a gift made with respect (satkdra) and out of compassion (karuna). 53 This pure gift is a provision (sambhara) for the Path and for nirvana; this is why we said that it is made in view of the path. Although one has not attained nirvana, generosity is the cause of a happy retribution (sukhavipdka) [in the world of men (manusya) and of gods (deva)]. The perfume (ydsand) of the fruit of retribution (vipdkaphala) obtained by pure generosity, made in view of nirvana, is comparable in its purity and its freshness to the fragrance of a garland of flowers (puspamukuta) barely opened and not yet faded. The Buddha said: "In the world, there are two men hard to find (durabhisambhava): i) among the mendicants (pravrajita), a definitively liberated (asamayavimukta) bhiksu; ii) among the householders (grhasthdvaddtavasana), a man who knows how to practice pure generosity." 54 This pure generosity extends over innumerable lifetimes (aprameyajanman); it does not disappear from lifetime to lifetime; it is like a contract that never expires. 55 This generosity bears its fruit [when it meets] the complex of conditions (pratyayasdmagri) and favorable time (kdla); 56 it is like the tree (vrksa) that, in season, produces leaves i.e., to attain the quality of arhat or nirvana. - See also Ahguttara, IV, p. 61. - Only the gift made in view of the Path incl of nin .ii i trul; pun n I n i p I in J crib d in Bodh bhiimi p ! I . 53 The excellence of a gift is partially due to the excellence of the donor; the good donor is the one who gives with faith i Idliaya) uli respect l rtya) ith In hand i i I at the ri ui linn (k i i \ ithout harming i ii f / / ' i i ! ii II i ii in u III [i I I i> ha IV, p. 235. 54 Ahguttara, I, p. 49: Dit main ' isanihl i mi dve? Yan ca gihfnam agaram ajjhavasatam avarcq licsaj japan t padhanam yan t i pahhajitanani sahhi \ Two kinds of efforts, O monks, are hard to realize in the world: the exertion of householders to provide clothing, food, seats, medicines and provisions; the exertion of those who have left home and embraced the w andcring life to escape from all the conditionings of existence." 55 The comparison of action to a contract, a debt, is used by the Sammitlyas to illustrate their doctrine on the 'non- cessation' (avipranasa) of actions; cf. Madh. vrtti, p. 317-318: " "When action arises, it engenders a non-cessation (avipranasa) of itself in the series of the agent, an entity dissociated from the mind and comparable to the page on which debts (rnapattra) are recorded. Therefore we know thai the avipranasa is like the page and the action giving rise to this entit\ till d aviprai < like the debt. And just as a rich man does not lose his money when he lends it because the debt is written down on the page, just as he will recover his money fivefold at the desired time, so the action that has ceased, being recorded in the avipranasa entity, brings the proper fruit io the agent. Just as the page on which the debts are inscribed expires when the money is repaid to the lender and is no longer able - whether it exists or no longer exists - to cause the money to be repaid again, so the avipranasa - whether it exists or no longer exists is incapable of causing a new retribution, like an expired debt." On this theory, which almost all the Buddhist schools reject, see also Madh. avatara, p. 126, 1. 12 (tr. Museon, 1910, p. 318); Karmasiddhiprakarana, p. 86 seq.; above, Treatise, I, p. 347F. :e of the well-known stanza of the Vinayas, She Divyavadana and She Avadanasataka: na pranasyanti karmani kalpakotisatair api, ■iamagnm prapya kalain ca plialanti kiialu deiiinam.

(parna), flowers (puspa) and fruit (phala); even though the season has not come, the cause (hetu) remains, but there is no fruit. This dharma of generosity favors the adept (read Tao Jen) if he seeks the Path. Why is that? Nirvana is called the cessation of the fetters ( samyojananirodha). Now, when generosity is practiced, the afflictions (Mesa) diminish. 57 Thus generosity favors nirvana. Actually, ;') by sacrificing the thing to be given (deyadravya), greed (mdtsarya) is opposed; ii) by honoring the receiver of the gift (pratigrdhaka), envy (Trya) is opposed; in) by giving with the right mind, hypocrisy (mraksa) is opposed; iv) by giving resolutely (ekacitta), discursiveness (read Tiao, 64 and 8 = auddhatya) is opposed; v) by giving after deeply reflecting (gambhiramanasikdra), regret (kaukrtya) is opposed; vi) by appreciating the qualities of the receiver, lack of respect (anarcand) is opposed; vii) by concentrating the mind, shamelessness (dhrikya) is opposed; viii) by knowing the fine qualities (guna) of people, impudence (anapatrdpya) is opposed; ix) by being detached from material goods (amisadravya), craving (trsna) is opposed; x) by having compassion (karund) for the receiver, anger (krodha) is opposed; xi) by paying respect to the receiver, pride (abhimana) is opposed; xii) by knowing how to practice the good dharmas, ignorance (avidyd) is opposed; xiii) by believing in the fruit of retribution (vipdkaphala), wrong \ iew (mithyadrsti) is opposed; xiv) by knowing the inevitability (niyama) of retribution (vipdka), doubt (vicikitscl) is opposed. All these kinds of bad afflictions are decreased when generosity is practiced and all kinds of good dharmas are acquired. [141b] When generosity is practiced, the six sense organs (sadindriya) are purified (prasanna) and a good mind of desire (kusalakdmacitta) is produced. When this is produced, the inner mind (adhydtmacitta) is purified. When the virtues (guna) of the fruit of retribution (vipdkaphala) are considered, a mind of faith (sraddhacitta) is produced. The body (kdya) and the mind (citta) become softened (mrdutaruna), joy (dnanda) arises. Joy having arisen, a 'single-mindedness' (ekacitta) is obtained, thanks to which real wisdom (bhutaprajnd) is produced: these are the good dharmas that are acquired. Furthermore, when generosity is practiced, the mind realizes a type of eightfold noble Path (dstdngikamdrga): 5S i) by believing in the fruit of generosity (ddnaphala), right view (samyagdrsti) is obtained; ii) because the thinking (manasikara) inherent in this right view is not disturbed, right concept (samyaksamkalpa) is obtained; Hi) because physical activities are purified (kdyacaryd), right action is obtained (stimytikktirnmuima); v) because reward (vipdka) is not sought after, right livelihood (samyagdjiva) is obtained; vi) because one gives with diligence, right effort (samyagvyayama) is obtained; "Actions do not perish even after millions of cosmic periods. Meeting with the complex of conditions and the favorable time, they hear fruit for the possessor of the body." 57 Great fruits are promised for the generosity accomplished by a person endowed with morality (silavaf) who, according to the Anguttara, is free of the five faults and provided with five qualities. The five faults, viz., sensual desire (kiinui) and (he desire of action (cliuiidii): maliciousness (vytiptidti): laziness (styaiui) and languor (niiddliu): agitation (auddhatya) and regret (kaukrtya) and finally, doubt (viciMtsa) arc borrowed from the list of paryavasthanas w hicli the practice of gencrosih helps to eliminate. I he .Ylpps has already given a complete list of the (cf. Treatise, I, p. 424F). 58 This astahgikamarga is frequently mentioned and explained in the canonical scriptures; sec Rhys Davids-Stede, s.v. magga.

vii) because one is not scattered in thinking about generosity, right attention (samyaksmrti) is obtained; viii) because the settling of the mind (cittasthiti) is not disturbed, right concentration (samyaksamddhi) is obtained. - In the same way, when generosity is practiced, something similar to the thirty-seven good dharmas (kusaladharma) 59 are produced in the mind. Furthermore, some say that generosity is the cause and condition {hetupratyaya) for obtaining the thirty- two marks (clvcltrimsallaksana)." 1 ' Why is that? 1) When one gives, it is with a firm mind (drdhacitta) and one obtains the mark consisting of having the (bet well-planlcd (siipratistliitapticltitaki). 2) When one gives, one provides five things to the receiver 61 and, as a result of these provisions (parivdra), one obtains the mark consisting of having wheels on the soles of the feci (uclhustdt puclutaluyos cakrejdte). 3) By giving with heroic strength (mahdsurabala), one obtains the mark consisting of having a broad heel (dycitcipdchipdrsni). 4) Because generosity wins people over (samgrhnatf), one obtains the mark consisting of having webbed hands and feet (jdldngulihustupuclu). 5-6) Because one gives tasty food {madhurasdhdra), one obtains the marks consisting of having soft and delicate hands and feet (mrdutai unapdnipdda) and the seven parts of the body well-rounded (saptotsada). 7-8) Because the gift serves to maintain life, one obtains the marks consisting of having long fingers (dfrghdnguli) and the body tall and straight (brhadrjukdya). 9-10) When one gives, one says: "May I be useful", and the generous disposition (ddnacitta) increases; this is why one obtains the marks consisting of having a high instep (utsarigacarana) and hair standing up (urdhvdgraroma) . 11) Before giving, one listens attentively (ekacittena) to what the supplicant is asking and, as one takes care that he acquires it quickly, one obtains the mark consisting of having limbs like an antelope (aineyajangha). 12) As one does not become irritated and one does not treat the supplicant lightly, one obtains the mark consisting of having the arms come down to the knees {jdnupralambabd.hu).

59 These are the I'lii l\ even hodhipal ikudh i w,, listed and discussed in, e.g., Visuddhimagga, p. 678 seq. 60 The thirty-two marks of the Grcai Man have already been described in detail in the Mpps (cf. Treatise, I, p. 272- 279F). That generosity favors their attainment has been noted by the Lakkluauisutta of the Digha, III, p. 145, 146, which note thu by dislri uti n i i l, one obtains the marl isisting of having th I i th feet well-planted on the ground; that by making gifts with 11 thcii rics ( i I one obtains the mark of having wheels on the soles of the feet, etc. But we should not forget thai other virtues also contribute to the production of the thirty two marks: see among other texts. Abhisamayalamkaraloka, cd. Wogihara, p. 918-919. 61 "The generous donor, by giving food, gives five things: life, color, strength, pleasure and intelligence"; passage from Anguttara, III, p. 42, already cited by the Mpps (c. Treatise, I, p. 218F).

13) As one gives according to the wishes of the supplicant and without waiting for him to speak, one obtains the mark consisting of having [one's privy parts] enclosed in a sheath (kosagatavastiguhya). 14-15) As one gives fine garments (vastra), scats (sayandsana), gold and silver (suvarnarajata), pearls and jewels (maniratna), one obtains the marks consisting of having a golden-colored {suvarnavarna) body and fine skin (suksmacchavi). 16-17) As one gives in such a way that the recipient (pratigrdhakd) alone enjoys full ownership (aisvarya), one obtains the marks consisting of having a hair growing from each of one's pores (ekaikaroma) and a tuft of white hair between the eyebrows (urnd bhruvor madhyejdta). 18-19) One finds out what the supplicant wants and gives it to him. For this act, one obtains the marks consisting of having a chest like a lion {simhapurvdrdhakdyd) and perfectly rounded shoulders (susamvrttaskcindha). 20-21. Because one has given medicines (bhaisajya) to the sick {gland) and food (ahara) to those who are hungry and thirsty, one obtains the marks consisting of having the bottom of the armpits plump (citdntardma) and obtaining the best of tastes (rasarasdgraprdpta). 22-23) When one is giving, one encourages people to take comfort by practicing generosity. Thus preparing the way for generosity, one obtains the marks consisting of having the head crowned by a protuberance {u$nTsdsTrsa) and the body rounded like the nyagrodha tree (nyagrodhaparimandala). 24-26) When one agrees to give what the supplicant wants and if one expresses oneself delicately with gentleness in true words (satyavddd), without resorting to lying (mrsdvada), one obtains the marks consisting of having a broad tongue (prabhutajihvd), a brahmic voice (brahmasvard) and a voice pleasant like that of the sparrow (kalavinkabhdna). [141c] 27) While giving, when one expresses oneself in words in harmony with the truth and loving-kindly speech, one obtains the mark consisting of having the jaw of a lion (simhahanu). 28-29) When one gives, one honors the recipient and, as the mind is pure (yisuddha), one obtains the marks consisting of having white teeth (sukladanta) set very close together (aviraladanta). 30) When giving, if one expresses oneself truthfully (sutyuvuclu) in coherent speech (samghdtvdda), one obtains the mystical mark of having forty teeth (catvdrimsaddanta). 31-32) While giving, if one is not irritated, is detached, has an even mind (samacitta) while thinking about one's neighbor, one obtains the marks consisting of having blue eyes (abhimlanetra) with eyelashes like those of the king of the oxen (gopaksmanet) a). Thus generosity plants the causes and conditions (hetupratyaya) for the thirty-two marks.

Finally, by means of the generosity of the seven jewels (saptaratna): people (jana), vehicles (ydna), gold and Iti! \ i i i i /i In i ( clFpa), hou ( / i icrfi /) and flowers (puspa), one becomes a cakravartin king furnished with the seven jewels. 62

Furthermore, the reward ( vipaka ) attributed to generosity increases (vardhate) in the following cases: 63 1) When the gift is made at the appropriate time (kdladana). The Buddha said: "Giving to the one who is going afar (gamika), giving to the one who gas come from afar (dgantukd), giving to the sick {gland), giving to the care -giver (gldnopasthdyaka), giving during difficult times of wind (vdtalikd) or cold (sitalika): these are gifts given at the desired time (kdladana). 64

The seven jewels of the cakravartin are the wheel (cakra), the elephant (liastin), the horse (asra), the treasure (mani), the queen (stri), the majordomo (grliapati) and the minister (pariiiaraka). They aie listed in DIgha, II, p. 16 seq.; II, p. 172 seq., Ill, p. 59; Majjhima, III, p. 172; Samyutta, V, p. 99; Lalitavistara, p. 14-18; Mahavastu, I, p. 108. 63 The question ifth increa if merit (y < rrddhi)\ ludicd in Ah uiciii , hich ha no, hing in common with the Mahacuiidasiitta of the Ahguttara, III, p. 355 seq, nor with the Cundasutta of the Suttanipata, verse 83-90, but has been preserved for us in the Kosavyakhya, p. 353-354, and in two Chinese translations: Tchong a han, T 26, no. 7, k. 2, p. 427c; Tseng yi a han, T 125, k. 35, p. 741c. Here is a summary: "There are seven meritorious material actions (aupadh / ) hen a faithful person ' ) son or daughter ot noble lamily, is invested with them, whctl u I) i liking < mdi.i" lecping or waking, the merit incn i i hliirardliatc) with unceasing intensity (satatasainita): (lie m i M i] l ra pi i "• n I th i i i n ' I The son or daughter of noble family: /. gives a garden to the Assembly of monks of the four directions (cdturdisaya ' ddayati); 2. builds a monastery in this garden (tasminn svdrdme vihdram pratisfhapayati); 3. provides seats for this monastery (tasminn eva vihdre sayandsanam prayacchati); 4. provides generous alms for thi monastery l i in vati) 5. gives gifts to strangers and travelers (agaiitukara gainikara va daman dadati); 6. gives gifts to the sick and to the care-taker (gldndya i ' i / hen it is cold ( indy (ratal iki) or i ursi i , \ In pi in i l> and gives food, sweets or boiled rice (bhaktani va tarpanani va yavdgdpdndni va tdni samghava bhinirl irtr n, tpnn icci iti) to the Assembly." In the explanation that follows, the Vlpps will mention more of these material virtuous acts. 64 In this definition of ka/adana, the Vlpps mentions the fifth, sixth and seventh materia! meritorious actions listed in the preceding note. - Another definition occurs in Ahguttara, III, p. 41: Pain \ i iiiavii Katamdiii i i i i i i i i ,' i i i * i i i i nii narapliala i i there arc, ( mo I ill it ' ippropri im \ n it are these five? One gives to the one who is arriving, one gives to the one who is departing, one gives to the sick, one gives at time of famine, the first fruits of field and orchard one gives first of all to virtuous people." - The same phrase in Tseng yi a han, T 125, k. 24, p. 6811' \ nti Ih follow in lo th in in u mi' Id and oi hard ai pi entcd first of all to is and vigorous (viryavaf) people: only afterwards does one eat them oneself."

2) When one is directed, in one's gifts, by the needs of the region.

3) When one gi 4) When one gi 5) When one gi 6) When one 7) When one 8) When one

ves on a desert trail. ves ceaselessly and uninterruptedly. ves according to the desires of the requester. ves things of value. ves gardens (annua), pools (hrada), etc., to the good people of the monasteries (vihara). ves to the Community (sa"gha).

9) When the giver (dayaka) and the receiver (pratigrdhaka) are both virtuous. [Note: if these are the buddhas and bodhisattvas who give out of loving-kindness (maitricitta), they are the 'donors'; but if it is to the buddhas and bodhisattvas, the arhats and pratyekabuddhas that one is giving, they are the 'recipients'.] 10) When one honors the recipient in all manners of ways. 11) When one gives rare (durlabha) things. 12) When one gives absolutely all that one has.

65 In MajjhimaJII, p. 257, it is said thai the gift given by a detached person to a detached person is the best of material gifts (yo vitarago < i ii i ilso Kosa, IV, p. 25H.

[The complete gift of the painter Karna]. 66 - Thus in the city of Fou kai lo (Puskaravati) 67 of the Ta Yue tche, there was a painter (citrakard) named Ts 'ten na (read Kie na - Kama) 68 who went to the kingdom of To tch 'a che lo (Taksasila) 69 of the eastern region {purvadesa). Having painted there abroad for thirty years,

The story of Kama is told in the following sources: A very mutilated fragment of the Kalpanamanditika, ed. Luders, p. 148-149; Ta tchouang yen louen king, T 201, no. 21, k. 4, p. 279a-280a (tr. Huber, Sutralamkara, p. 1 17- 119); Tsapao tsang king, T 203, no. 4A k. 4. p. 468a b (tr. summarized in Cha\ amies, Contes, III, p. 40); Ling liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 44, p. 228c (reproducing the present passage of the Vlpps). 67 Kama was a native of Puskaravati (T 201), "of the country of Gandhara and the city of Puskaravati" (T 203). Here the Mpps is more precise: Kama is a native of the city of Puskaravati 'of the Ta Yue-tche'; he came to the kingdom of Taksasila 'in the eastern direction'; there, 'abroad', he painted for twelve years. This passage sheds some light on the place of origin and the date of the Mpps. A text thai situates Taksasila in the eastern direction can hardly have been composed anywhere but in Kapisa or in Gandhara. According io '.lie Chinese custom, KumarajTva, the translator of the Mpps, here means, by Ta Yuen-tchc. the ICusana monarch. Actually, w hcrcas "various countries all call [this land] the country of the king of Kouci chouang (ICusana), (he Chinese, departing from the old name, [continue to] say the Ta Yue-tche" (Heou-Han chou, , tr. P. Pelliot, Tokharien et Koutcheen, JA, Jan. -Mar. 1934, p. 38). The story of Kama takes place at a time when the Kusana ahead) reigned in Gandhara but did not yet extend their sovereignty over Taksasila. Thus we are in the reign of the Kusana monarch Kujula Kadphises. Actually, K'ieou tsieou A > (Knjnl ICadphisi ii il>> ovcrcigi ho in iA d h ■ m-s (1'arthia) cized the territory of Kao-fou (Kapisa) and conquered P'ou-ta and Ki-pin (ICasmir)" (cf. A Chavanncs, Les pays (/'Occident d'apres le Heou-Han chou, T'oung pao, series II, VIII, p. 190 scq.). A little later, the same monarch added Gandhara and probably also Taksasila to his crown; the inscription of Panjtar (south of Mahaban, in eastern Gandhara) tells us that: "In the year 122, the first day of the month of Sra\ ana, under tin i i n of tin r< it kin Gti in 'hi > istcrn n ion of [Ka ?]sua was made propitious ground by Moika, son of Urumuja" (Stcn Konow, CII, II, p. 70). Although this inscription uses the era of Azes I (57 B.C.), it establishes that in the year 122-57, i.e., the year 65 A.D., Gandhara belonged to the l "1m n ! mi ICujul 1 idphisi (i K Ghirshman, B it,,' liro 1946, p loo 1 h 68 The name of the painter was indeed Kama, as the fragment of the Kalpanamanditika, p. 148 (aham Karna iti) and the transcriptions Kina (122 and 12; 163 and 4) and fie na (123 and 9; 163 and 4) of the T 203 and 201 say, I.e. 69 The Tsa pao tsang king (I.e.) does not mention Taksasila; it says only that Karna worked abroad for three years. According to the Ta tchouang yen louen king (I.e.), Kama had decorated a vihara in the kingdom of Che che (112; 40 and 6); in these two characters which mean 'House of stones', Hubcr {Sutralamkara, index, p. 473) sees Asmaka or Asmaparanta; others see Tashkent (Foucher, Ait G/k > it II qt II p o J L ihii hman '> am, p. 149), but comparison with the Fa tch'a che lo transcription of the Mpps indicates thai Che che. the first character of which means 'stone' (in Sanskrit, ■iila) conceals an original Taksasila. Here Kumarajrva lenders taksasila by To ich'a else lo (36 and 3; 18 and 6; 70 and 5; 122 and 14), whereas in his translations of other works (e.g., T 201, k. 5, p. 282c 1 9 20), he uses (he more usual transcription I d ich'a che lo (60 and 8; 20 and 1; 44; 122 and 14) which also occurs in the Chinese Ekottara (T 99, k. 23, p. 162c29) and in the legend of Asoka (T 2042, k. 1, p. 100c2; T 2043, k. 1, p. 133a6). Hiuan tsang (T 2087, k. 3, p. 884b28) uses the characters Ta tch 'a ch lo (30 and 5; 29 and 1; 38 and 5; 122 and 14). Besides these transcriptions, there are also Tso che (167 and 19; 112) 'Dressed stone' in T 2043, k. 10, p. 166c7; Tou che (32, 112) 'Earth and stone', i.e., construction materials (taksana) in T 2043, k. 10, p. 166cl2; Sio che (18 and 7; 112) 'Cut stone' in T 190, k. 38, p. 831M1.

he received thirty ounces of gold. Returning with it to his own native land, Puskaravaff, he heard the drum being beaten to announce a great gathering (mahaparisad). He went to see the assembly (samgha) and in the purity of his faith (sraddhdcittavisuddhi) he asked the karnuidclnci:' "What is needed to feed this assembly for a day?" The karmadana answered: "Thirty ounces of gold is enough to feed them for a day." Then the painter gave his thirty ounces of gold to the karmadana, saying: "Furnish the assembly with food for me for one day; as for myself, I will go away tomorrow." And he went home empty-handed. His wife asked: "During these twelve years, what did you earn?" He replied: "I earned thirty ounces of gold." His wife said: "Where is this gold?" He answered: "I have planted it in a field of merit (punyaksetra)." His wife asked what was this field of merit. He replied: "I gave it to the Assembly (samgha)." Then his wife bound him in chains and brought him before the judge to punish him [142a] and decide the matter. The great judge asked what was the problem. The woman said: "My husband is a madman: in twelve years abroad he earned thirty ounces of gold and, having no compassion for his wife and children, he gave it all away to strangers. Basing myself on the law, I immediately bound him up and brought him here." The judge asked the husband: "Why did you give to strangers instead of bringing it back to your wife and children?" He answered: "During my previous lifetimes (purvajanman), I had never practiced virtue (guna) and that is why, in the present lifetime (ihajanman), I am poor (daridra) and suffer all the hardships (arta). In the course of this lifetime, I have come across a field of merit (punyaksetra): if I had planted nothing in it, I would still be poor during my future lifetimes and my successive poverty (ddridryapruhandlui) would never come to an end. Wanting to escape poverty, I have given all my gold to the Assembly." The great judge was an upasaka and his faith in the Buddha was pure; having heard the painter's reply, he congratulated him: "That was the deed of a hero: the small sum that you so painfully earned, you have given it all to the Assembly, You are an honest man." Then the judge removed his necklace (mukuta) and gave it to the poor man along with the horse that he rode and a village {grama). Then he said to him: "You have just made a gift to the Assembly; the Assembly has not yet eaten; the seeds have not yet been sown; but when the shoots come forth, you will have a great fruition in future lifetimes." 71

Taksasila (the Greek Taxila, the actual Sarai'kala, 26 miles northwest of Rawalpindi), was the capital of eastern Punjab. Its long history is mixed up with that of all of India. Sir John Marshall who excavated there for about thirty years, has recorded his results in a work of three volumes (cf. JRAS, 1947, p. 3). See also Marshall's Guide to Taxila, Delhi 1936; Gumming, India's past, p. 142-146. 70 The karmadana is the monk who 'assigns the jobs'. The Pali sources do not mention him, but the Sanskrit sources do so (cf. Vial utapatti, no. 9362) i>ul I > ih ( him mrci hi iln >rd is transcribed by i < / or translated by Tche che (1 1 1 and 3; 6 and 7) 'director of business'. Here the Mpps designates him by the characters Wei na (120 and 8; 163 and 4), a hybrid expression consisting of wei which means 'law, rule', and the Sanskrit ending na CI t'i I in in Cha inn / | 9 mil I'akakiisn ord of Budd Kthgion,v. 148; S. Levi, Quelqucs titres euiginatiques dans la hierarchic ecclesiastique. J A, 1915, p. 202, 204, 210. 71 According to the Mpps and the Tsa pao tsang king, Kama was acquitted by the judge and richly rewarded; the ICalpanamanditika and the Ta tchouang yen louen king (I.e.) add that he went home clothed in rich garments and riding a horse. His wife and his relatives did not recognize him, but he explained thai his generosity had borne fruit in this life, and thai the wealth the judge had bestowed on him was the reward of his generosity towards the

This is why it is said that to dedicate completely the goods that one has earned with hardship constitutes very great merit. 3. Other kinds of generosity There is also mundane generosity (laukikaddna) and supramundane generosity (lokottaraddna), the generosity approved of by the aryas (dryavarnitaddna) and the generosity disapproved of by the aryas (dryavarnitaddna), the generosity of the buddhas and bodhisattvas (buddhabodhisattvaddna) and the generosity of the sravakas (srdvakaddna). 1) What is mundane generosity {laukikaddnajl Mundane generosity is the generosity of ordinary people (prthagjanaddna) and also the generosity used by the aryas with an impure mind (sdsravacitta). Some say that [only] the generosity of worldly people constitutes mundane generosity, whereas the generosity of the aryas, even though carried out with impure mind, is supramundane because their fetters (samyojand) are cut (chinnd). Why? Because these aryas have obtained the concentration of non-thought (apranihitasamddhi). 12 Furthermore, mundane generosity is impure (avisuddha), whereas supramundane generosity is pure (visuddha). 13 There are two kinds of letters (samyojanci): i) those that depend on craving (trsndpeksa); ii) those that depend on wrong views (drstyapeksa). 14 When these two kinds of fetters are present, the generosity is mundane; when they are absent, the generosity is supramundane. When the three obstacles (dvarana) 5 fetter the mind, the generosity is mundane. Why? Dharmas, resulting from causes and conditions (hetupratyaya) are truly without substantial self (andtmaka); nevertheless, we say: "I am giving and someone is receiving"; this is what is called mundane generosity. Besides, [the notion] of self (atman) has no precise attribution (aniyatasthdna): sometimes it is the self that is taken as

Assembly. His wife was won over and she acknow lodged that "as soon as one has decided to give alms, the reward is already imminent." 72 See above, Treatise, I, p. 322-323F. 73 Impure generosity, practiced by worldly people, rests on belief in the atman and in dharmas, for the donor says to himself: "It is /who am giving something. Actually, there is no atman and no dharmas, for everything is transitory (anitya) lmpun i ihlia) cmpl ( / mcl ithoul til iind If I mal I i upramundan cnei il which the Mpps has described above (Treatise, I, p. 297F), the 'higher gift', is based essentially on knowledge i h mi concept ( i ' i i i liii h mal it triply pure (ti daliij I ai d In 1 insist of making no distinction between giver (dayaka), the thing given (deya) and the recipient (pratigrahaka). Cf. i in .miii .ii i 64 ii , i'i n] i p 9 Bodhii iryavatar, I I l( P mjika, p. 604; Uttaratantra, p. 120, 254; Samgraha, p. 185, 225; Siddhi, p. 629 as note. 74 See above, Treatise, I, p. 424F. 75 The three obstacles that render the gift mundane consist of the belief in the atman and dharmas which makes the donor say: "It is /who am giving something to someone." The supramundane gift makes no distinction between donor, recipient and gift, is free from these three obstacles and is "triply pure' (triinandalaparisuddha). See also below, p. 724F.

atman and not as other; sometimes it is other that is taken as atman and not as self. ' As a result of this imprecision, there is no true atman. Moreover, the thing given (deyadravya) exists solely as a result of the complex of causes and conditions (hetupratyayasdmagrT) and all the dharmas are in themselves nonexistent (anupalabdha). They are like a cloth (pata) that results from a collection of causes and conditions but which ceases to exist as soon as one pulls out the silken thread or threads of which it is composed. In the same way the dharmas have as sole characteristic the absence of own-characteristic [142b] (animittalaksana); they are eternally empty of self nature (svabhdvalaksana). But people have hallucinations (abhiprdya) and take them to be existent. This mistake (viparydsa) and this error characterize the mundane generosity. - But when the mind is free of the three obstacles (avarana), the characteristic of dharmas (laksanadharma) is truly cognized and the mind is free of error {viparydsa): then generosity is supramundane. 2) Supramundane generosity is the generosity approved of by the aryas (dryavarnitaddnd); mundane generosity is the generosity disapproved of by the aryas (dryavarnitaddnd). Moreover, pure (visuddha) generosity free of stains (yimala) and conforming to the true nature (bhutalaksana) of dharmas is the generosity approved of by the aryas; the impure (avisuddha) generosity, mixed with fetters (samyojana), errors (viparydsa) and obstinacy (cittasangha) is the generosity disapproved of by the aryas. Finally, the generosity associated with the knowledge of the true nature (bhutalaksanaprajnd) is the generosity approved of by the aryas; in the contrary case, it is disapproved of by the aryas. 3) When one gives without seeking [the welfare] of beings or without wanting to know the true nature (hliutulaksana) of dharmas, but only for the purpose of escaping from birth (jdti), old age (jara), sickness (vyadhi) and death (marana), this is the generosity of the sravakas. When one gives for all beings or again in order to know the true nature of dharmas, this is the generosity of the Buddhas or bodhisattvas. When one is incapable of fulfilling (paripurna) all the qualities (guna) [required for true generosity] but one is seeking to obtain a small portion of them, this is generosity of the sravakas. When one wishes to fulfill all the qualities, this is generosity of the Buddhas or bodhisattvas. When one gives out of fear of old age, sickness and death, this is generosity of the sravakas; when one gives to acquire buddhahood, to convert beings and without fear of old age, sickness and death, this is generosity of the Buddhas or bodhisattvas. 77 At this point, the story of the P'ou sa pen cheng king (Bodhisattvajatakasutra) should be told.

On i i ih> l'( in i 'i i ;, i ) .n i i precisely of I ikin ' , ell ih il In li i i ol iiii II i >' ti vipallaso); cf. Anguttara, II, p. 52; Kosa,V, p. 2 1 ; Siksasamuccaya, p. 198, 1. 11. 77 Generosity of the bodhisattvas has as its aim the welfare of all beings and perfect buddhahood; cf. Kosa, IV, p. :>3x.

[The sumptuous alms of Velama]. - The A p'o t'o na king (Avadanasutra) tells the following: Once in JambudvTpa, there was a king named P'o sa p'o (Vasava); at the same time, there was a brahmin-

The sumptuous alms of Velama to which the Mpps will return later (k. 33, p. 304c22-24) are described in the Velamasutta of the Ahguttara, IV, p. 392-396 (tr. Hare, Gradual Sayings, IV, p. 262-265), of which there are five Chinese versions: two of these versions have been incorporated into the collections of the Tchong a han, T 26, no. 155, k. 39, p. 677a-678a, and the Tseng yi a han, T 125, k. 19, p. 644b-645a respectively; the other three have been the object of separate translations, entitled San konci wonkiai is cu sin yen li king ( T 72), Siu taking (T 73) and Tchang tcho chc pao king (I 74) respectively. The same sutra, scarcely modified, has been incorporated into the Lieou tou tsi king, T 152, no. 17, k. 3, p. 12a-b (tr. Chavannes, Contes, I, p. 65-68). - The story of Velama is told in detail in the Vlanoratha, IV, p. 180-183: son of a chaplain (puroliita) of Benares, be accompanied the crown prince to the university of Taksasila, where he pursued the course of a famous master. Having in turn become teacher, he had 84,000 crown princes among his students. Having returned to Benares, he became the king's chaplain. Each year, the 84,000 princes went to Benares to greet the king. The people grumbled about their expensive visits and, ai the king's request, Velama assigned a province to each of the 84,000 princes, who then lived each off their own domain. The Manoratha does not mention the name of the king of whom Velama was the chaplain; according to the Mpps, he was called Vasava, a name well known in early legends (cf. Divyavadana, p. 62 seq.; T 152, k. 8, p. 48a; T 184, k. 1, p. 461; T 190, k. 3, p. 664a; T 1428, k. 31, p. 782a; T 1448, k. 6, p. 25b). - References to Velama or to the Velamasutra occur in the texts: Jataka, I. p. 228: Saiimahgala, I, p. 234; Papanca, I, p. 135; Manoratha, I, p. 56; Khuddhakapata Comm., p. 222: Vibhahga Comm. p. -114: ICarmavibhahga Comm., ed. Levi, p. 163; P'i p'o cha, T 1545, k. 32, p. 165a4; k. 130, p. 678a23. Finally, there are also the Vailamikadanas in the ins ii|n n i huh 1 'id i i i 1 I i i i/mnda, EI, XX, l,p. 33. The Velamasutta is cas\ to interpret In ii> of hi i irlicr < i It n il imiini i tin biahmin Velama (aham tena sail ' i i) he made sumptuous gifts, but when he gave alms, there was nobody worthy of receiving this gift: there was nobody to sanctify this girt (tasmiiii na koci dakkiuneyyo ahosi, na tarn koci dakl Im I ). N lli n n id i di merit inherent in the gift depends not only on the qualities of the donor or the importance of the object given but also on the excellence of the 'Tick! of merit", i.e., the recipient (cf. Kosa, IV, p. 234). The alms of Velama were not very fruitful because there was nobody worthy to receive them. And the Buddha himself, in the Velamasutta, established the conditions which would have made Velama's alms fruitful: "If Velama had fed a single person endowed with right view, his generosity would have been fruitful", etc.; the best gift would have been to nourish a tathagata-arhat samyaksambuddha raid to take refuge in him. We must interpret the story of Velama, such as it is told by the Mpps, differently. Hie bodhisattva Velama, who was one day to become the Buddha Sakyamuni, in order to accomplish generosity truly worthy of a bodhisattva, would have to fulfill two conditions: i) he would have to give for the benefit of beings and from compassion for them; if) he would have to give in view of attaining buddhahood one day. From the start, he fulfilled the second condition for, as he will explain to a brahmin magicall) created by the Suddhavasika gods, it is not in order to become acakrakravartin king, an India or a Brahma that he made gifts, but in order to attain buddhahood some day. As for the first condition, Velama did not fulfill it immediately: when he had prepai d li' gifts, he wanted to distribute them to an assembly of brahmins because, he thought, "they were worthy of receiving his respects." Now, only a Buddha or a future Buddha was worthy to receive them. Velama understood when he tried to transfer the ownership of all his goods to the brahmins by a symbolic act customary in India which consists of emptying water from a golden b in ( injti 'igii l held in th ri hi h nd of the donor onto the hands of the recipient. Velama

bodhisattva named Wei lo ma (Velama): he was the king's teacher (sastri) and he taught him to follow the rule of the noble chakravartin kings. Velama, who was immensely rich (dhana) and whose treasury was full, thought one day: "People call me noble, my wealth is immense; for the benefit of beings (sattvarthakriya) now is the time to make great gifts. Wealth and nobility are pleasant things, but everything is impermanent (anitya). The common [victim] of the five classes 79 causes the human mind to be scattered, to run wild, without ever staying steady, like a monkey (markatd) thai cannot be still in one place for an instant 80 ; a person's life passes and disappears like a flash of lightning; the human body is perishable (anitya); it is the reservoir of all the sufferings. This is why it is necessary to practice generosity." Having thought thus, he opened his hands and proclaimed everywhere, to all the brahmins and all the monks (pravrajita) in JambudvTpa: "I would like all of you to condescend to come to my house; I would like to spread out fine gifts." For twelve years, he distributed floods of cream (dadhi), mountains of grain (yava) and waves of oil (taila); garments (vastra), food (dhdra), seats (sayandsana) and medicines (bhaisajya), all of which were excellent. At the end of twelve years, he set out to make great gifts: 84,000 white elephants (pdndarahastiri) with [142c] armor of rhinoceros skin (gandavarman) and golden ornaments (suvarndlamkdrd), with great golden banners (suvarnadvaja) covered with jewels and a necklace made of the four jewels (ratnacatuskdlamkdra); 84,000 horses (asva), also with armor of rhinoceros skin, golden ornaments and a necklace made of the four jewels; 84,000 chariots (ratha) adorned with gold (suvarna), silver (rupya), beryl (vaidurya) and crystal (sphutika), covered with lion skins, tiger skins and leopard skins (simhavydghradvipicarmaparivdra), provided with magnificent hangings was unable to do it; first, the water held back by the Suddhavasika gods refused to flow; then, when Velama had thrown it up in the air, instead of falling down onto the hands of the brahmins, it poured down into Velama' s own left hand, thus proving he alone was worthy of recening uch umptuou ill ,'i-i ill i 1/ mnoiin ing that he would one day become Buddha. The water ha\ ing thus given him a sort of prediction | vydkarana), Velama understood that the brahmin assembly "was incapable of receiving his gifts." Thus it was no longer out of esteem for this assembly but "out of compassion thai he made the gifts that he had prepared." Velama thus fulfilled the first condition of the generosity of the bodhisattva, namely, giving out of compassion, with the view of the welfare of beings. 79 The characters Won Ida so kong, which literally mean 'the entire five classes', probably translate the Sanskrit compound pancasddhdrana 'the community of the five'. The expression indicates the collection of wealth of the world envied by the five classes of beings which she Mpps \\ ill mention below at k. 13, p. 156c2-3: the king (rdjan), thieves (caura), iiie (ugiii) . water (udaka) and the prodigal heir (apriyudayiidu). this may be compared with a text in i mil i III , ) lich h ii o [Mi! nt in tin in u I'anc'im \ hogasu. Katame i liisaa >ga, udakasad, >ga, i orasaddhwai. hhoga, appiyehi i, i , nja hlioi there arc, O monl live dra i i ! I • calth. What ai lln fivc'.M ,lili i exposed to fire, to water, to the king, to robbers and to bad heirs." Sec also the Aputtakasutta of the Samyutta, I, p. 90, where i i id >li ii [lh i not u J II 'ni i ii ii n /) 'h |i i v i ; / unti), fire burns it (aggi vd dahati), water carries it away (udakam vd vahati) or bad heirs waste it (appiyd vd ddydddd haranti). - lh ! dhi in ,i humi | i 10 pi ik ol in pi >ii clion assured to bcin igainsl irious dangci i / 'in/ "' 'gin irajacorodal i.gii) ulikehhyo vi itrchliyo hlun than :",< ",,', <,/; /; il ■ 80 The distractions of the mind are often compared to the gamboling of a monkey; cf. Treatise, I, p. 489F.

(parivara) of white linen (pdndukambala) and other varied ornaments; 84,000 palanquins (paryanka) with ribbons of various colors (misravarnajdla) and all kinds of rugs (astarana), soft and fine, as ornaments; cushions of red silk {lohitapadhdna) were placed at both ends of the palanquins, cloths and precious garments were also piled there; 84,000 golden vases filled with silver (suvarnapdtrarupyapurna); 84,000 silver vases filled with gold (rupyapatra suvarnapurna); 84,000 vases of beryl filled with crystal (yaiduryapdtra sphatikapurna); 84,000 crystal vases filled with beryl (sphatikapdtra vaiduryapurna); 84,000 cows (dhenu) giving a bucketful of milk at one milking (kclmsyopadohana), their horns and hooves adorned with gold and dressed in white cotton; 84,000 young maidens (kanyd), beautiful and virtuous, their bodies decorated with rings set with pearls and precious stones (ui inuiijira I i ' 1 1 i a summary of [the great gifts made by Velama]; the details could not be described. Simultaneously, king

81 Part of this description is directly taken from the Veldm i i oi th ' n uttara, IV, p. 393-394: So evarupam :iui adasi suvannpurdni, caturasiti kamsapdtisahassani addsihiraitnnpurdni, caturasiti hatthisahassani adasi sovaiinalanikaraui sovaiiiiadhajaiii lieniajalasancliaiiiiaiii, caturasiti ratliasahassaiii adasi siliacainniapariv vyagghacammaparivarani dipica iniaparivaraiii / inhala iraui si danikai i i ija ificliaiiua i i i : ii d iii i i i i i i ii i ( to be corrected to i mill i ill the Chinese versions;, caturasiti i ' pallafikasahassani adasi gonakatthatdni patikatthatani patalikattliatani kadaliinigapavarapaccattliaraijani sa-uttaraccliadaui uhhatolohitakupadliaiiaiii, caturasiti vattliakotisaliassaiii adasi khomasui i i i i i > pan cade annassa pdnassa kliajjassa Icyyassa pcyyassa iiajjo marine vissandati. "He made the following great gifts: 84,000 golden vases filled with silver, 84,000 silver vases filled with gold; 84,000 bronze vases filled wilh precious metal: 84,000 elephants with golden ornaments, golden banners and covered with golden ribbons; 84,000 chariots with coverings of lion, tiger and leopard skins, with coverings of white wool, with golden ornaments, golden banners and hangings of gold thread: 84,000 cows wilh tethers (?) of jute fiber, giving a full bronze bucket of milk; 84,000 young maidens adorned with rings of precious pearls; 84,000 palanquins laden with long fleecy covers of white wool embroidered with flowers, with carpets and magnificent antelope skins, screened at the top and with red cushions at each end of the palanquin: 84,000 measures of fine linen, fine silk, fine wool and fine cotton, to say nothing of the food and drink, snacks and candies, solid and liquid, which flowed like [Note: In the translation oi' the epithet kainsupadliarcna, applied to (lie milk-cows, I (Lamotte) have departed from Buddhagho i intcrpi lation: rajata yak ipatict itikt lu m null Itmkcts made of silver" and the translations proposed by T. W. Rhys-Davids (Dialogues, II, p. 221): "with horns tipped with bronze", Nyanatiloka (Kcdcn do Buddha, V. p. 201 : "mil Bronzcglocken bchangt", and E. M. Hare (Gradual Sayings, TV, p. 263): "with milkpails of silver". The correct interpretation of katnsupadohana giving a full bucket of milk at one time", proposed by H. Kern, Tocrocgsclenop ',< IVoordchock van C/iildcrs Amsterdam, 1916, p. 142, should be adopted. Chinese versions of the Velamasutta have understood the text. - As for this description of Velama's fabled generosity, it is made up of borrowed pieces anil fragments that may be found throughout the texts; cf. DIgha, II, p. 187-188; Samyutta, III, p. 144-145; Ahguttara, IV, p. 94. The description of the palanquins occurs even in the Sanskrit Sukhavati\ yuha, 5 41, bul in a very corrupted form.]

Vasava (read P'o sa p o) and the 84,000 minor kings, together with the ministers (amatya), the people, soldiers and merchants, each offered a hundred thousand gold pieces. When Velama had made the usual offering (dharmayajnaf 1 and prepared these gifts, Che t'i p'o na min (Sakra devanam indra), spoke this stanza to the bodhisattva Velama: The wealth of the universe, so difficult to acquire, Can make the whole world rejoice. Today, all that you have acquired, You have given to attain buddhahood. At the same time, the gods of the pure abodes (suddhdvasadeva), appearing in corporeal form, praised him and spoke this stanza: You have opened the gate to the great gifts. That which you have done Is out of compassion (anukampa) for beings, And in view of attaining buddhahood. Then the gods had this thought: "We will block up his golden vase (suvarnabhrngara) in such a way that the water cannot flow out of it. Why? Although there is a donor (dayakd) here [namely, Velama], there is no field of merit (punyaksetra) [i.e., an individual worthy of receiving his gifts]." 83 Then king Mo (Mara) said to the Suddhavasika gods: "But all the brahmins [invited here by Velama to receive his gifts] have all gone forth from home (pravrajita), observe the pure precepts (silasuddhi) and have entered the Path (marga). How can you say that they are not a field of merit?" The Suddhavasika gods said: " The bodhisattva [Velama] is giving gifts with the view of obtaining buddhahood, whereas all these men are [blinded] by wrong views (mithyadrsti). This is why we say that there is no field of merit." King Mara replied: "How do you know that Velama is making these gifts in view of obtaining buddhahood?" Then the Suddhavasika gods created, by metamorphosis (nirmana), a brahmin carrying a golden vase (suvarnabhrngara) and holding a golden rod (suvarnadandd) who approached the bodhisattva Velama and said: "What benefits do you hope to obtain by means of these great gifts, by renouncing [143a] things that are difficult to give up? Do you want to become a noble cakravartin king, possessing seven jewels, a thousand sons and ruling the four continents (cdturdvipakafl" The bodhisattva answered that he was not seeking that. - "Are you seeking to become Che t'i p 'o na min (Sakra devanam indra), the husband of eight 82 Velama's alms arc often designated b\ (he nami ill l il icrifi < >i v lama (Vcluniumin triria) 83 The brahmins to whom Velama's generosity was addressed were a bad field of merit because they did not practice the eightfold Path il up in i i hguttara IV.] ; kluive sainaii i honti micchasa • nice vacci licchai taut inicchavMayama iniccl < niccl nadhino Evam i / ' lanisamsam na inaliajutikain no inohovipplioroin.

thousand nayuta of goddesses {devif!" Velama answered no. - "Do you want to become king of the six classes of gods of the desire realm (kdmadhdtudeva)? ,,M - Velama replied no. -"Do you want to become Brahmadevaraja who rules the trisahasramahasahasralokadhatu and who is the grandfather of beings (sattvapitamaha)l" Velama again answered no. - "Then what do you want to become?" Then the bodhisattva spoke this stanza: I seek the place free of desire, Escaping from birth, old age, sickness and death. I want to save all beings; Therefore I seek buddhahood. The fictive brahmin {nirmitabhrdmana) answered: "Master of generosity (ddnapati), buddhahood is difficult (durlabha) to attain and demands great hardships (drtd). Your mind is soft (mrdukd), accustomed to pleasure, and is certainly not capable pf aspiring to that state. As I said before, the states of noble cakravartin king, of Sakradevanam indra, of king of the six classes of Kamadhatudeva and of Brahmadevaraja are easy to obtain. It's not necessary to seek buddhahood." The bodhisattva answered: "Listen then to my fully considered oath (ekacittapranidhi): Even if a wheel of burning iron (usnayascakrcif~ Was spinning on top of my head, I would seek buddhahood resolutely (ekacittend) With no regret. Even if I had to undergo immense sufferings In the three bad destinies (durgati) or among men, I would resolutely seek buddhahood And never depart from this resolve.

84 Mara is king of the Paranirmitavasavartins and consequently the head of the six classes of gods of the desire realm; cf. above, Treatise, I, p. 340F, 695F. V wcll-kno n punishment which .Vlaitrakan ika ( laitrayajha) onc< , in front of him hi in < II becoming the victim of it; cf. DTvyavadla, p. 604; Avadanasataka, I, p. 202; Karmavibhanga, p. 53. Here is the description of the punishment in the A\adn laka I c: purusani inaliapraiiiauaiii inurdliiii casyayoinayain cakram bhramaty adiptam pradiptam un \ mtam, tasyasiraso yat puyasonitam pragharati so 'syaharah: "Maitrakanyaka saw a tali man on whose head a red-hot iron wheel, all afl inn i pinnin th pus and blood flowing onto this man's head constituted his food." - See also Chavannes, Contes, I, p. 135; III, p. 11. The punishment is represented on the frescos ot Chin. 1 mi t i ,n i i M linn !■ Guild ;/..., pi. 32b, 33b.

Then the Active brahmin said: "Master of generosity [patron] (danapati), it is good (sadhu), it is very good; then seek to become Buddha." And he added this stanza of praise: The power of your exertion (virya) is great, Your have compassion for all beings. Your wisdom (prajna) is free of hindrances (dvarana) You will become Buddha before long. Then the gods rained down flowers to worship the bodhisattva. As for the Suddhavasika gods who had blocked up Velama's vase so that the water did not flow out, they had hidden themselves and disappeared. Then the bodhisattva went to the brahmin who was the oldest (brdhmanasthavira) [of all those who had been invited] and, with his golden vase (suvarnabhrngdra), wanted to pour the water over him [meaning to transfer full ownership over all the benefits that he was distributing to the brahmin by means of this libation,] 86 ; but the water was blocked and did not flow out. The crowd was astonished: "All kinds of great gifts have been prepared and the virtues of the patron {danapati) are also great. Then why does not the water flow out?" The bodhisattva said: "It is not their fault. Was not my mind impure {avisuddhaj! Have I not kept something back that I should have given? Why is this happening to me?" He consulted the treatises on sacrifice (yajnasutra) and the sixteen volumes [and he saw] that his purity (visuddhi) was faultless. Then the gods said to the bodhisattva: " Don't worry: there is nothing that you have [143b] not planned for. The fault is with these bad impure brahmins [whom you wished to gratify]." Then the gods spoke this stanza: In men, the net of wrong views (mithyddrstijdld) And passions (klesha) have destroyed right knowledge (samyagjndna). Having wandered away from pure morality These wretches will fall into various [bad] destinies. "This is why," they added, "the water [that you wanted to pour over their hands] is blocked and does not flow." Having said this, they suddenly disappeared.

86 In order to make the transfer ine\ ocable, the donor pours a little water over the hands of the receiver (cf. Jolly, Recht und Sitte, p. 112). See, e.g., the gift of the Jetavana in Nidanakatha, p. 93: Andthapindiko... in ihliiinkai i i i i i it lakaiii patch i etarana haram dgatdndgatassa catuddisassu In i Unit last - the gift of the Venuvana in Vinaya, I, p. 39: Atha kho raja Magado Biinhisaro sovaniiaiiia) ' i taliani hhante Veluvanam uwa i * >ua painukliassa il i i damnuti"; - the gift of his wife by Ugra in Ahguttara, IV, p. 210 / / kko i hinena hatthena hliii'igaraiu <j-alietva his-.ii purissassa onojesim. Lacking (he golden vase, Visvamtara used a gourd to give his two children to a brahmin, cf Jatak imal 62: li > i i avar/jayani asa > in doh - The vase that serves to accomplish the ritual of aspersion is often represented on Buddhist monuments; cf. Foucher, . in Give o-houddliique, I, p. 474, 475, 487, 491 .

At that moment, the six classes of gods of the realm of desire (kamadhatudeva) shone rays of light (rasmi) of all kinds and lit up the assembly; addressing themselves to the bodhisattva, they spoke this stanza: Wandering in the ocean of evil They are not following your straight path. Of those who receive your gifts There is no one like you. Having said this, they suddenly disappeared. Hearing this stanza, the bodhisattva had this thought: "In this assembly is there really nobody who is my equal, and is that why the water is blocked and does not flow?" And he spoke this stanza: In the universes of the ten directions, If there are marvelous pure beings, I take refuge (sarana) in them and I bow down to them Holding the vase in my right hand, I pour the water into my left hand And I take the vow (pranidhi) to be the only man Who is worthy to receive such great gifts. At once the water in the vase rose up into space (dkdsa) and, falling from above, poured into the bodhisattva's left hand. 87

87 In the Manoratha, IV, p. 183, there is no fictivc brahmin and things happen in a more simple way: Veldmo ikarahl vnnaiiisanattl ' i ' i imasmim loke sace imam pati vi ' / inhatu at < n ' atthi, evain eva titthatu " gahitam viya ahosi. Bodhisatto "suui'io vai i i nun vuttarupo n 'atthi " 'ti vippatisarani akatva "sace dayakassa vsenayani dakkhina visujjhissati, udakani inkkhaiiutva patliaviiii ganhatu ti contest. Phalikavattisadisani I \ * i i divase danam dvyati... Dane diyamane yeva sattavassaui sattamasd atikantd. Tr.: "Velama, clothed in all his adornments, wished to test his generosity : having filled a golden vase with water the color of crystal, he made the following vow: "In this world, if there is a person worthy of homage, able to receive this gift, may the water coming from this vase spread over (he earth; il'lhcrc is no-one, may the water remain in the vase." At once he turned the vase upside down; the water was retained as if b\ a Biter, the Bodhisattva then said: "So lambudvlpa is then empty; there is not even a single person capable of receiving my offering." Nevertheless, without regret he added: " If my offering is purified by the action of the donor, may the water coming out of the vase spread over the earth." At once, the water, flowing out of the vase like crystal, spread out over the earth. He resolved then to fulfill his alms and distributed his gifts. The distribution lasted for seven years and seven months."

Seeing this wonder, king Vasava felt great respect (arcana, satkdra) and spoke this stanza: Great master of brahmins Water the color of pure beryl (vaiduiya) Flowing down from above Has fallen into your hand! Filled with respect and joining their hands as a sign of homage, the great assembly took refuge (sarana) in the bodhisattva. Then the bodhisattva spoke this stanza: The gifts that I make today Do not have as their goal the merits of the threefold world (traidhdtukapunya): They are for [the benefit] of all beings And in order to seek for Buddhahood. When he had said this, the great earth (mahdprthivi), the mountains (parvata), the rivers (nadi) and the trees (yrksa) trembled in six different ways (sdclvikdram akampanta). ss At the beginning, Velama had given alms to the assembly [of brahmins] with the idea that they were worthy of receiving his homage ipuja); afterwards, when he had understood that this assembly were unworthy, it was out of compassion [and no longer from respect], that he gave them gifts that they had already received. 89 Jatakas and avadanas of this type relating to all kinds of gifts could be cited at length here. Those are outer gills (hdhyacldna), but what arc inner gifts (aclhyatmikaclana)'f' {)

4. Inner generosity Inner generosity consists of giving one's life (dyus) to others without any regret, as is told in the Jatakas and Avadanas.

On this sixfold trembling of the earth, see above, Traite, I, p, 473-474F. 89 See the interpretation proposed above, p. 679F, note. 90 Outer and inner gifts are defined in Bodh. bhumi, p. 114-115: tatra sarvadanam katamat. sarvam ucyate samasato dvividlutiu deya\ ca haliyam , xl kevaladhyatinikavastuparityaya ity ucyate. yat piuiar hodlusattvo vaiiitasijiviiuiiii sattvanam artlie hhuktva hhuktva annapanam vamati tat sainsrstain adliyatinikahaliyavastudaiiain hodhisattvasycty ucyate. etad yathoktam sthapayitvapausi taa tuptii i ha istupa i aa,a evety ucyate.

1. [The king who set fire to his body so as to hear a Buddhist stanza]. 91 - The Buddha Sakyamuni

Condensation of a long jataka told in detail by the la feng pien fo pao ngen king, T 156, k. 2, p. 131c-132b: A cakravartin king, whose name is not given, met a brahmin in a small frontier kingdom who knew the well-known stanza summai l m Ihc Buddha's Icachin tavyayad hi nirudhyante tesam vyutpasamah sukham (cf. DTgha, II, p. 157; Samyutta, I, p. 6, 158, 200; II, p. 193; Theragatha, no. 1159; Jataka, I, p. 392 Visuddhima i,p >27 i tanza endli I lepioduccd in Buddhist inscriptions: cf. E.I., IV, p. 64). To obtain this stanza from She brahmin. Ihc king had Ihc upper part of his body cut in a thousand places by a candala, the wounds filled with oil with cotton wicks inserted in them. When the brahmin had revealed the second part of the stanza, the king set fire to these wicks. Then, in the presence of Indra, he testified thai his sacrifice had no other purpose than to obtain supreme complete enlightenment. He said: "If I speak the truth, may my blood turn into milk and may my wounds be healed. Immediately, the desired miracle was accomplished and Indra announced to the king that before long he would be Buddha. - The same jataka with a few variations occurs in the P'ou sa pen hing king, T 155, k. 1, p. 1 12c- 1 13c; Hien yu king, T 202, k. 1, p. 349b-350a (repeated in King liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 25, p. 136b-c): The king called Ton did na sie li (in T 155), or K'ien cho nip'o li (in T 202) - perhaps Kancanasrl - cut a thousand lamps into his own body in order to obtain from the brahmin Lao ton tch 'a (Raudraksd) another famous stanza: sarve A i nicchrayah, samyogu viprayt i hi jivitam (cf. Sanskrit Udanavarga, I, 22, ed. Chakravarti, p. 4; Nettip., p. 146; Mahavastu, III, p. 152, 183; Divya, p. 27, 100, 486; JA, Jan.-Mar. 1932, p. 29). Buddhists have always loved the stanzas: in the Greater Vehicle, the greatest rewards have been promised to the sons and daughters of good family who learn, repeat, understand or explain to others even one four-lined stanza taken from the I'rajhaparamita ( Vajracchcdika, p. 46: ittih I'rajhaparainitaya dharmaparyayad antasas catuspadikain dpi gathain udgrhya dharayed uddesayed vacayel paiyavapnuyat parehhyas ca vistarena samprakasayet) . A whole series of exploits accomplished by the future Buddha in order to obtain one stanza could be cited: we limit ourselves to mention several: -Ta tch'eng pen cheng sin ti konan king, T 159, k. 1, p. 194a; Tapan nie p'an king, T 374, k. 14, p. 449b-451b; T 375, k. 13, p. 691b-693b; King liu yi siang, t 2121, k. 9, p. 43a-c: A young brahmin, practicing austerities on Mount Himavat, strongly wished to know the Buddhist doctrine. Wanting to test the sincerity of his w is!), India appeared to him in the form of a hideous raksasa and recited the first part of the stanza to him: aiutya hata sainskarah. The brahmin, enchanted, requested the second part, but the raksasa, before 1 1 1 ill' in I in id ! ih 'in i hi i i ii him hi id food the brahmin agreed and after the second part of the stanza had been recited io him. he climbed up into a tree and threw himself down at the feet of the raksasa, but the latter, resuming his form as India, caught him in his fill anil paid homage io him. Hiuan Tsang who summarizes this exploit (T 2087, k. 3, p. 882c24) locates it 400 // south of Mong kie li (Mangalapura), on the mountain Hi lo (Ham, 2500 m. high, in Buner. The jataka is depicted on the Formosan pagodas (cf. Ecke-Demieville, Twin Pagodas, p. 42 and pi. 32. 1) and on the Tamamushi altar. - P'ou sa pen hing king, T 155, k. 2, p. 119M5-16; Hien yu king, T 202, k. l,p. 350a-b; King liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 25, p. 136c-137a: King P'i leng kie li drove a thousand nails into his body to obtain from the brahmin i li v i hi ' i IJiu i ill ityii ha i ' - Avadanasataka, no. 35, 1, p. 187-193 (tr. Feer, p. 128-131); Siuan tsi po yuan king, T 200, no. 34, k. 4, p. 218c-219b; Dvavimsatyavadana. eh. 23: Hien yu king, T 202, k. 1, p. 349a-b; King liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 25p. 140a-b: The king of Benares, Surupa (variant) Kurupa) offered his son, his wife and his own body as food to Sakra transformed into a yaksa, m order to hear the stanza: priyehhyo jayatc soktih, priyehhyo jayate hhayain; priyebhyo

was once a bodhisattva. At one time when he was [143c] the king of a great country, there was neither Buddha nor Dharma nor Samgha of monks. Having gone forth four times to seek the Buddhist Dharma, the king understood that he would not find it. A brahmin said to the king: "I know a stanza of the Buddha (buddhagdthd); if you pay homage ipuja) to me, I will give it to you." The king asked: "What homage do you want?" The brahmin replied: "If you give the upper part of your body (purvakdya) and cut the flesh into the shape of a wick (dipavarti) and pay homage to me with it, I will surely give you [the stanza)." The king said to himself: "My body is fragile and impure; from one lifetime to the next, it experiences innumerable sufferings. On the other hand, the Buddhist Dharma is a rare thing (adbhuta); today when I am beginning to be able to use it, why should I regret its loss?" Having thought thus, he called on outcaste (canddla) who cut the upper part of his body, made a wick out of it, bound his flesh with white cotton and poured oil (taila) over it. At once the [king's] body burst into flame and [the brahmin) gave him the stanza. 2. [Jdtaka of the Pigeon]. 92 - The Buddha was once a pigeon (kapota) living in the Snow Mountains (himdlaya). On stormy day, a man lost his way; miserable (daridrd) and exhausted (drta), hunger (bubhuksd) and cold (sita) had brought him to his last moments (muhurta). Seeing this man, the pigeon

i i ii i (cf. Dhammapad 12 I ika I, p. 191). - According to the Mahavastu, II, p. 225-257, the same (?) Surupa, head of a herd of antelope, gave up his own body to Sakra disguised as a hunter for (lie pri f the gall / i I ihdndya sa giri sokavardhanah. - Avadanasataka, np. 38, I, p. 213-222 (tr. Feer, p. 142-138); Siuan tsi po yuan king, T 200, no. 35, k. 4, p. 219b- 220b: The son of Brahmadatta, king of Ben ,i c Dharma i in or ■iubhasitaga in ilucw himself into blazing coals to hear from the mouth of Sakra, disguised as Guhyaka, the stanza: dliannaiii caret sucaritam nainam duscaritam an uit klian n lot tru ca (cf. 1 li iiinn ipada, v. 169; Av. sataka, I, p. 220). King liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 8, p. 41b-c, which refers to P'ou sa kiue ting king, ch. 1: The bodhisattva Chan sin learned that a woman from the east kept the memory of half of a Buddhist stanza once preached by a Buddha. He went out to seek her and having miraculously crossed a vast morass, he discovered at the back of a cave near the city of Chan tchou (Supratistita) an ugly woman who agreed to recite the beginning of the stanza: sahhapapassa akarauain kusalassa upasampada, sacittapariyodapaiiain eta Buddliana sasasam (cf. Uigha, II, p. 49; Dhammapada, v. 183; Nettipakarana, p. 43, etc.) - Ling liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 3, p. 42c-43a: A man living at the foot of a precipice knew a Buddhist stanza. The bodhisattva Lo fa (Dharmalrata), in exchange lor this stanza, promised him his golden cloak and his pearl necklace and, to prove the sincerity of his intention, had no hesitation in throwing himself over the precipice. The Caturmaharajika devas caught him in his fall. - Below, T 1509, k. 16, p. 178c: A bodhisattva, whose name varies according to the sources, used his skin as parchment, one of his bones as brush and his blood as ink to write (he stanza: dliarmani caret sucaritam. Tsa pao tsang king, T 203, no. 49, k. 4, p. 469c -470a (tr. Chavannes, Contes, III, p. 43-46): The Buddha himself shows how much he appreciated the value of one stanza: four brothers having given him offerings, he leaches each of them a phrase incomplete in itself: mil b\ joining these lour phrases, she brothers succeeded in reconstructing the Buddhist creed: anityct bata samskard. 92 This jataka is repeated in King liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 48, p. 254b.

flew to look for fire (agni), collected some kindling (indhana) and lit it. Then the pigeon threw itself into the fire and gave its body to the famished man. In the same way, the Bodhisattva gave his head (siras), his eyes (nayana), his marrow (majja) and his skull (mastaka) to beings. 93 It would be necessary to list fully the various Jatakas and Avadanasutras here. All of that is called inner generosity. The immensity of these inner (ddhyatmika) and outer (bahya) gifts is the nature of generosity.

See references in Traite, I, p. 143F, n

CHAPTER XX: THE VIRTUE OF GENEROSITY AND GENEROSITY OF THE DHARMA (p. 692F) I. GENEROSITY OF THE DHARMA 4 Question. - What is meant by generosity of the Dharma {dharmadanaj! Answer. - Here are various opinions: 1. All speech well-spoken (subhdsita), all useful (arthasahita) speech constitutes generosity of the Dharma. 2. Generosity of the Dharma consists of preaching the Holy Dharma (saddharma) explained by the Buddha (huddhakanthokta) lo people. 3. Generosity of the Dharma consists of teaching people the threefold Dharma: 7) the Sieou tou lou (Sutra); 2) the P 'i ni (Vinaya; 3) the Ap'it 'an (Abhidharma). 4. Generosity of the Dharma consists of teaching people the four Baskets of the Dharma (dharmapitakd): 7) the Sieou tou lou tsang (Sutrapitaka); 2) the P'i ni tsang (Vinayapitaka); 3) the A p'i fan tsang (Abhidharmapitaka); 4) the Tsa tsang (Samyuktapitaka). 95 5. Generosity of the Dharma consists of teaching in brief form the twofold Dharma: 7) the sravaka Dharma; 2) the Mahayana Dharma.

The distinction between matcri If icrosily and gencrosi I Dharma (dliarmaddna) is of canonical origin: cf. Ahguttara, I, p. 91; Itivutlaka, p. 98: Tseng \ i a han, T 125, k. 7, p. 577b. To these two types of generosity, the Mahayana treatises, especially those of the Vijhanavadin school, add a third, namely, the generosity of safety (abhayaddna): cf. Dhann . m raha h p s mdhinirmo nil I 3am i ha, p. 190-191; I lidharma imuci ,, ivy ikhya, T 1606, k. 12, p. 749c; Siddhi, p. 620; Bodh. Bhumi, p. 133: dmisaddnam dharmaddnam abhayaddnam ca samdsatah iliainutrasukliani amisadanam dliannaddnam abhayaddnam i i i 'pit tin villi yd mdtsaryamalam i ' an ca d i , iiiayah ci rahaparityagata idliiinaUiriiiayi ' i vetlihn , i siinliav) , i apai ttrdnatayd veditavyah dim lanain tt\ tudi < i.yayopadcst ad I u< < ladhyanlav ibhaga p. 206-207:, ugi t i i kavsatuiiii it pratyupakann ii o u/ia cetanayd parityajati kdyavdkkarmand ca pratipddayattdam bodliisattvasyainisadaiiain... sattvai ntpaghdtakdndm ajivasastrakalaiiipiiiuiiiaiii kaninapurvakaiiain upadesah sugatiinoksainan.yipadesas ca dltarinadaiiain... rdjacauraddyadi u dadihi , n tchliyo vimoksai, hliayadaiian 95 The question has already been raised (Traite, I, p. 596F) of the four Dharmapitakas: on the fourth "the Mixed Basket", see Przyluski, Concile, p. 1 19-120.

Question. - But T'i p'o ta (Devadatta), Ho to (Hatthaka, should be Udraka) , etc., have also taught people 97 the Tripitaka, the four Baskets, the Dharma of the sravakas and that of the Mahayana; nevertheless, they fell into hell (niraya). Why? Answer. - The sins of wrong view (mithyddrstydpatti) in Devadatta were [144a] numerous; in Ho to, the sins of falsehood (mrsdvdda) were numerous. [Their sermons] did nor constitute a gift of the pure Dharma (visuddhadharmadana), made with the Path (mdrga) in view; they sought only honors (yasas), wealth (labha), the signs of respect (satkara, arcana) and homage (puja). Because of these bad intentions, Devadatta was reborn in the hells (niraya). 9S Furthermore, it is not enough to preach to fulfill generosity of the Dharma. In order for it to be true generosity of the Dharma, it is necessary to teach everyone with a pure mind (visuddhacitta) and good intention (kusalacetana). Just as the material gift (dmi$addnd) is not meritorious if it is not inspired by a

Ho to (30 ami 5: 36 and 3) may transcribe an original llattaka (cf. Akanuma, p. 222a); bill the censure addressed here to Ho to does not fit in any way the famous disciple of the Buddha Hatthaka Aiavaka (cf. Traite, I, p. 562- 565F); it actually does apply to Udraka. First of all, the Mpps blames Devadatta and Ho to of giving alms, not in view of the Path, bill to acquire benefit, honor and fame (lahhasatkarasloka, ci'. .Vlajjhima, I, p. 192, etc.). Now we know, from the Adhyasa i im od ill i it I mi um il imuci i\ p In ih I the search for profits and honor causes men to fall into the hells, into the animal destinies or into the world of Yama, and makes him similar in lduct lo Devadatta and Udraka" I i i utloi ' I I ndly, the Vlp] ill i d hi i i lo I di I in lie numerous"; now this is precisely the reproach that could be addressed to Udraka Ramaputra. w hose teachings the Buddha had followed when he was still the Bodhisattva. The Buddha was full of respect for his old teacher and, if he had been still alive, it was lo him and to .Mara ICalama thai he would have preached the Dharma in the first place (Vinaya, I, p. 7; Mahavastu, III, p. 322-323; Laliiav istara, p. 403), but that does not prevent him from disputing Udraka's false pretenses in Samyutta, IV, 83: Tain o pa i i > Ramaputto a\ i i i i mo i edagusmiti hhdsati; asahha \ i ati; apah \ ' i ' bhdsati: "Although Uddaka Ramaputta had not attained supreme wisdom, he pretended io have attained it; although he was not a universal conqueror, he pretended io be one; although he had not uprooted the root of evil, he pretended to have uprooted it." We may note also that the .Vlahav \ utpatti, no. 3516, places Udraka Ramaputra in the list of the Tirthikas. 91 A sermon of Devadatta is mentioned in the Tsa a han, t 99, no. 499, k. 18, p. 131; Ahguttara, IV, p. 402-403; ■id i pni ummari/ i foi - riputta in tin i \ rd <'i i.tti. n a ' uin in i > , , lam deseti: yato kho dvuso bin! I tain paria I na jati vusitam hralun il an in i i t re is how Devadatta pi lies the Dharma to the monks: When the mind of a bhiksu, O monks, is full of understanding, he is allowed to say: Rebirth is destroyed, sainthood is fulfilled, duty is accomplished; there is no further return to this world." We may add that the orthodoxy of this sermon is indisputable. Udraka taught the doctrine professed by his father Rama, a doctrine that led to the state of neither perception nor n in i i i i i i \ i it hidn . i (p ijd) to them; each day he had beside him, in turn, a Dharma teacher (dharmacarya) who preached the Dharma to him. There was a young tripitakadharmacarya, intelligent (medhavin) and handsome (abhirupa); when his turn came to preach the Dharma, he was seated beside the king and his mouth exhaled a thousand perfumes (gandha). Astonished, the king said to himself: "This is not good. With

This anecdote is borrowed from the Ta tchouang yen louen king, T 201, no. 55, k. 10, p. 309c-310b (tr, Huber, Sutralamkara, p. 273-278). which in nun is derived from the A yu wang tchouan, T 2042, k. 7, p. 128b-c (tr. Przyluski, Asoka, p. 41 1-412). In the latter source, the hhiksu is named Utpala. - A slightly different version is in the Tchong king aiuan tsa p'i yu king, T 208, no. 41, k. 2, p. 541c-542a (tr. Chavannes, Contes, II, p. 130-133): King Asoka had taken away from Kasmir the wife of an upasaka: having become queen, she durst into tears on smelling a beautiful flower that reminded her of the perfume of her former husband who, in the meantime, had become a sramana and had attained arhathood. the king had him come into his presence and determined that the body of this monk was more perfumed than the lotus. In a previous lifetime, this monk had paid homage to a bodhisattva who was reciting sacred texts and haul burned incense in his honor: the pleasant smell that he exhaled was the reward of this offering. - It is not impossible that Asoka had a Kasmirian woman among his queens: the Rajatarahgini, 1, v. 108 sq., knows of a Jalauka, son of Asoka, who reigned in Kasmir. - Besides, it is a well known theme of Buddhist hagiography thai a pleasant smell came from the bodies of saintly individuals; this was the case of the Sugandhas or Sugandhins mentioned in the Avadanasataka, I, p. 350-353; Kalpadrumav., chap. 16: Thcragatha, v. 24 (tr. Rh. i) , Brethren, p. 28-29); Apadana, II, p. 459-463. 100 On these 84,000 stupas of Asoka, cf. Divya, p. 381; Tsaahan, T 99, k. 23„ p. 165a; Ayu wang tchouan, T 2042, k. 1, p. 102a (tr. Przyluski, Asoka, p. 243-244); A yu wang king, T 2043, k. 1, p. 135a; DTpavamsa, VI, v. 96; Mahavamsa, V, v, 175-176.

this perfume, he will trouble my palace people." And speaking to the bhiksu, h said: "What do you have in your mouth? Open your mouth so I can see." The bhiksu opened his mouth and the king saw that there was nothing there. He made him rinse his mouth with water, but the perfume remained as before. The king asked: "Bhadante, have you always had this perfume?" The bhiksu replied: "I have had it for a long time." The king asked: "Since when?" The bhiksu answered with this stanza:

Since the time of the Buddha Kasyapa I have had this perfume; It has lasted since then And seems always to be renewed. The king said: "Bhadante, you speak [too] briefly (samdsatah), 1 do not understand; explain more fully (vistarah)." The bhiksu replied: "O king, listen carefully (ekacittena) to my words. Once, at the time of the Buddha Kasyapa, I was a bhiksu preacher (dharmadesaka). In the great assembly (mahaparsad), I always had great pleasure in describing the immense qualities (apramdnaguna) of the bhagavat Kasyapa as well as the true nature (bhutalaksana) of dharmas; in innumerable sermons (dharmaparyaya) I took care to celebrate [the Buddha) and teach all beings. Since then I have always possessed the wonderful fragrance that [144b] comes from my mouth; from lifetime to lifetime, without interruption, it has been as it is today." And the bhiksu spoke this stanza: This fragrance surpasses and eclipses The perfume of all the flowers of the vegetable kingdom; It can make all hearts rejoice; From lifetime to lifetime, it continues ceaselessly. Then the king, with mixed shame (apatrdpa) and joy (prill), said to the bhiksu: " It is wonderful (adbhuta) that the virtue of preaching (dharmadesandguna) can bear such great fruit!" The bhiksu answered: "That is its flower (puspa) but not its fruit (phala)." The king said: "What are its fruits? Please explain to me." The bhiksu answered: "In brief (samdsatah), its fruits are ten in number: listen well, O king." And the bhikshu spoke these stanzas: 1) Great reknown (mahayasas), 2) beauty (jmistlda),

3) The conquest of happiness (sukhaldbha), 4) the signs of respect (satkdra), 5) A majestic light like the sun and the moon, 6) The love of all people, 7) The art of speech (pratibhdna), 8) possession of great knowledge (mahajnana), 9) Disappearance of all the bonds (sarvabandhaksaya), 10) Destruction of suffering {duhkhanirodha) and acquisition of nirvana: These are the ten fruits [of preaching]." The king asked: "Bhadanta, by celebrating the qualities of the Buddha, how did you obtain the ten fruits a reward?" Then the bhiksu answered with these stanzas: In celebrating the qualities of the Buddha, I did it so that everyone heard everywhere. As reward for this merit I obtained great fame. In celebrating the true qualities of the Buddha I did it so that everyone rejoiced. Because of this merit I have always, from one lifetime to the next, been handsome. In speaking to people about sins (dpatti) and merit (punya), I made them obtain the place of happiness (sukhdvatf). As a result of this merit, I enjoy happiness and am always content. In celebrating the power of the Buddha's qualities,

I overcame all their hearts. Because of this merit, I ceaselessly gather the signs of respect. By lighting the lamp of preaching, I illumined all beings. Because of this merit, '• I m m tic light shines like the sun. In celebrating the Buddha's qualities in all ways, I satisfied all beings. As a result of this merit, I am always loved by people. In celebrating the Buddha's qualities with skillful speech I have set neither bounds nor limits. As a result of this merit, My eloquence (pratihlitina) is inexhaustible. In celebrating the wondrous attributes of the Buddha I commit no errors. As a result of this merit, [I have acquired] great purity of knowledge. [144c] In celebrating the Buddha's qualities I have decreased people's afflictions (klesa). As a result of this merit, My bonds are broken and my stains destroyed.

By the breaking of the two types of bonds I have realized Nirvana. Thus, when the rain pours down The fire is extinguished, there is no more heat.

He spoke again to the king: "If there is something you have not understood, this is the time to overcome the army of your doubts (samsayasend) with the arrows of knowledge (jndnasara)r The king said to the Dharma master: "I have understood well; I have no more doubt. The Bhadanta is a virtuous man, skilled in celebrating the Buddha." Preaching the Dharma by means of all kinds of Nidanas of this kind is to save people and this is what is called generosity of the Dharma. Question. -Which is more important, material generosity (dmisaddna) or generosity of the Dharma (dharmadana)? Answer. - As the Buddha has said: "Of the two generosities, generosity of the Dharma is more important." 101 Why? 1) The fruit of retribution (phalavipdka) of material generosity occurs in the desire realm (kdmadhdtu), whereas the fruit of retribution of generosity of the Dharma is in the threefold world (traidhdtuka) or above the threefold world. 102 2) Moreover, words (vac) that are pure (visuddha) reach the central point of the reasoning (yukti) and the mind (citta) attains it also. This is why they surpass the threefold world. 3) Moreover, material generosity is limited (sapramdna), whereas generosity of the Dharma is limitless (apramana); material generosity is exhausted, whereas generosity of the Dharma is inexhaustible: it is like a fire (agni) fed by kindling (indhana), the light of which is always increasing. 4) Moreover, the retribution (vipdka) of material generosity involves mediocre purity (visuddhi) and many stains {mala), whereas the retribution of generosity of the Dharma has few stains and great purity. 5) Moreover, carrying great gifts requires (apeksate) a great show of power, whereas the gift of the Dharma depends on nothing other than realization. 6) Moreover, material generosity can bring about the increase (vrddhi) [only] of the four great elements (caturmahdbhuta) and material organs (indriya), whereas generosity of the Dharma leads to the perfection 101 Anguttara, I, p. 91; Itivuttaka, p. 98; Tseng yi a han, T 125, k. 7, p. 577b: Dve 'mani bhikkhave ddndni. Katamdni dvc? Amisad Iiuani klio ikkhave imesam dvinnam danam in yadi am laiiam 102 Compare Bodh. Bhumi, p. 133: amisabhayadanam saprabhedam ihasukham, dharmadanum punah saprabhedam amutrasukham.

(paripuri) of the pure organs (anasravendriya), the powers (bala) and the Path of enlightenment (bodhimdrga). 7) Moreover, whether there is a Buddha [here below] or not, material generosity always exists in the world; on the other hand, generosity of the Dharma can be practiced only if there is a Buddha in the world. This is how we know that generosity of the Dharma is very rare. Why is it rare? Even the pratyekabuddhas [do not practice it], because they cannot preach the Dharma. They [are limited] to practicing mendicancy (pindapata) correctly and to converting beings by flying (patana) or by transforming themselves (parinama) m 8) Moreover, material gifts can be derived from generosity of the Dharma, and one can equal the sravakas, pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattvas and even the Buddhas. 9) Finally, generosity of the Dharma can analyze (vibhaj-) all dharmas: impure (sasrava) and pure (andsrava) dharmas, material (rupidharma) and immaterial (drupyadharma) dharmas, conditioned (samskrta) and unconditioned (asamsakrta) dharmas, good (kusala), bad (akusala) and indeterminate (avyakrta) dharmas, permanent (nityd) and impermanent (anitya) dharmas, existent (sat) and non-existent (asat) dharmas. The true nature (bhutalaksana) of all dharmas is pure (visuddha), indestructible (abhedya) and unchangeable (avyaya). The brief explanation (samksepa) of all these dharmas makes up the eighty- four thousand Baskets of the Dharma (caturashitidharmapitaka): the developed (vistara) explanation is limitless (apramana). All these dharmas are analyzed (vibhakta) and cognized (vijndta) thanks to the generosity of the Dharma; this is why generosity of the Dharma is the higher gift. These two generosities, [material and Dharma), together form "Generosity". When one practices this twofold generosity while wishing to become Buddha, one is able to lead people to the state of Buddha and, all the [k. 12, p. 145a] more so, to other states. Question. - Four kinds of abandonings (tydga) consititute generosity, namely: abandoning material goods (amisatyaga), the gift of the Dharma (dharmatydga), the gift of of safety (abhayatydga) and abandonment of the afflictions (klesatydga). Why mention only the [last] two tydgas here? Answer. - Because the gift of safer) (abhayatydga) is not distinct from the virtue of morality (sila), we do not speak of it here. On the other hand, as [we will deal later with the virtue) of wisdom (prajna), we do not speak of the abandonment of the passions (klesatydga) here. If we were not going to deal with the six virtues (paramita), it would be necessary to mention these four abandonments together. II. VIRTUE OF GENEROSITY

Question. - What is meant by Ddnapdramita (Virtue of generosity)?

l! ' On the pratyckabuddha I i 1 i ^ ill 1 i ran I I' \ p 152-154; Malalasckcra. 11, p. 94-96.

Answer. - The meaning oidana (generosity) has been explained above (chap. XIX). As for paramita, here: 1) Para, in the language of Ts'in, means "the other bank"; mi, in the language of Ts'in, means to "arrive at". Therefore the expression means: "To cross over the river of generosity (ddnanadi) and to attain the other shore." 104 Question. - What is meant by: "Not attaining the other shore"? Answer. - Not to attain the other shore is, e.g., beginning to cross a river and turning back before arriving. (Sariputra renounces the Greater Vehicle). 105 - Sariputra, who had practiced the bodhisattva path for sixteen kalpas, 106 wanted to cross over the river of generosity. One day a beggar came to him and asked for his eye (nayand). Sariputra said to him: "My eye will be of no use to you; why do you want it?" But if you asked me for my body (kaya) or my goods (dmisadravya), I would give them to you immediately." The beggar answered: "I do not need your body or your goods; I only want your eye. If you really practice generosity, you will give me your eye." Then Sariputra tore out one of his eyes and gave it to him. The beggar took it and, in front of Sariputra, h e sniffed it, spat upon it with disgust, threw it on the ground and stamped on it with his feet. Sariputra said to himself: "People as vicious as this are hard to save. My eye was of no use to him at all but he demanded it violently and, when he got it, he threw it away and stamped on it. What can be more vicious? Such people cannot be saved. It is better to tame oneself; one will free oneself sooner from samsara." Having had this thought, Sariputra left the bodhisattva path and returned to the Lesser [145b] Vehicle (hinaydna). This is what is called not reaching the other shore. But if one travels one's path directly without turning back (avinivartana) and reaches Buddhaood, that is called reaching the other shore. 2) Furthermore, having done what had to be done (krtakrtya) 101 is "to reach the other shore". [Note: In India, it is commonly said of someone who has accomplished that which had to be done, that he has reached the other shore.] 3) Furthermore, "This shore" [the shore from which one is departing], is greed (matsaryd); the river is generosity; and "the other shore" is Buddhahood. 4) Furthermore, "this shore" is the wrong view of existence and non-existence (bhavavibhavadrsti) m ; "the other shore" is wisdom (prajha) which destroys the wrong view of existence and non-existence; the river is the diligent practice of generosity.

For the etymology of the word paramita, see Kosa, IV, p. 231; Madh. avatara, p. 30 (tr. Lav., Museon, 1907, p. 277); Samdhinirmocana, IX, §13; Sutralamkara, ed. Levi. XVI, 15; Samgraha, p. 186; Abhidhaima-. imiu cayav\ khya, T 1606, k. 11, p. 748a; Siddhi. p. 628. 105 The story of the downfall of Sariputra, who abandoned the Greater Vehicle to return to the Lesser Vehicle, is repeated in ICinu lin yi siang, T 2121, k. 14, p. 69b. 106 On the sixteen kalpas of Sariputra's career, cf. P'i p'o cha, T 1545, k. 71, p. 366c; k. 101, p. 525b. 107 For this expression, see above, Traite, I, p. 212-215F. 108 Cf. Traite, I, p. 423F, n.l.

5. Finally, there are two types of gifts: the gift of Mara and the gift of Buddha. Mara's gift is accompanied by fetters (samyojana), theft (harana), sadness (daurmanasya), confusion (updydsa) and fear (bhima); it is called "this shore". Buddha's gift is pure generosity (visuddhaddna), free of fetters and objects of fear, leading to Buddhahood; it is called "the other shore" and it constitutes the Paramita.

[Asivisopcinuisutrci] "

l! " I a 11 o] im i mi ii lal a [l >m n\ i i ulta, IV, p. 172-174 (tr. Woodward, Kindred Sayings, IV, p. 107- 110). It also occurs in the Samyukta and the Chinese Ekottara: Tsa a han, T 99, nO. 1 172, k. 43, p. 313b-315a; Tsing yi a han, T 125, k. 23, p. 669c-670. These two versions correspond in essence to the Pali text. The Pali Samyutta and the Tseng yi a han place the AsTvisopamasutra in Sravasti, in the Jetavana in the mathapindadarama, while th< I i a han placi it at 1 uisambi in the Gh< itarama The Chinese versions have some details lacking in the Pali texl bul which appear in the Mpps. The Tsa a han and the Tseng yi a han note thai the four venomous snakes arc in a trunk Ik 7c) or a chest (han), symbolizing the human body, the receptacle of the lour greal elements. Moreover, the Tseng yi a han, like the Mpps, has a king ordering the hero of the story to feed and bathe the snakes ai a certain time. In the Pali Samyutta and the two Chinese versions, the hero, in his (light, successively meets five deadly em in i vad ct i umli idi nil i" lar assasin l \ haka), an empty illage l «), robbci [.ill igcrs of villa (co , i ai i vast expanse ol iter {ma 'atiji. ) In the Mpps, the adventures are slightly different: the hero successively meets five lined i in nt by the king to catch him, a false friend, an empty village, a good counsellor, a great river. - Moreover, the interpretation of the parable varies from one source to the other: the Pali Samyutta and the two Chinese versions see in the vast expanse of water an allegory symbolizing the four streams of desire (kama), existence (bhava), wrong view (ditthi) and iiwi m ( a ) ! hi \1' i m lb i ii n i i ii u i null iii Ihii i i i These significant differences show that the Mpps instead of being directly Inspired by the canonical texts of the Pali Samyutta, the Tsa a han or the Tseng yi a han, has borrowed its parable from other sources. In fact, the AsTvisopamasutra, as told here by the Mpps, is taken almost textually from a chapter of the Mahaparinirvanasutra (T 374, k. 23, p. 499a-b; T 375, k. 21, p. 742c-743a), of which here is the translation: i 1 m nil d i Irui I nil lb n i i nn his (ash i) si n I mini tided a m m to i d them, put them to sleep and wake them, rub (heir bodies. He ordered: "If anybody infuriates one of these snakes, I will takes steps to have him put to death and his body exposed in a public place." Then on hearing the royal decree, our man became frightened, abandoned the trunk and fled. At once the king ordered live Candidas to draw their swords and pursue him. Looking back, our man saw them and fled even more quickly. Then the five men, resorting to a trick, hid their swords which they were carrying and sent after him an individual >,\ ho, pretending to be his friend, said to him: "You can turn back." But our man did not believe them and took refuge in a village (grama) where he tried to hide. Coming into the village he furtively inspected all (he houses, but saw no one: he took some containers (hliajana) but they were empty. v\ ithout contents. Seeing nobody and not finding any provisions, he sat down on the ground. In the sky he heard a voice that said: "Hey, man! This village is empty and without inhabitants, but tonight six great thieves (mahdeaura) will come; If you ever encounter them, your life will not be spared. How then will you escape them?" Then our man, his fear increasing, took flight. On his road he found a ri\ cr w ith choppy \\ atcr, but he had no boat [to cross it].; feverishly, lie gathered all kinds of material and built a boat (kaula). He thought: "If I stay here, I will be

In the Fo chouo tou cheyu king (Asivisopamasutra), it is said: A man who had committed an offence against the king was commanded by the latter to take a chest containing four venomous snakes and to guard them and take care of them. The man said: "It is dangerous to come near these four snakes; they kill anyone who approaches them. It is impossible to feed even one of these snakes, let alone four at once." Then he threw away the chest and fled. The king ordered five men to take their swords and pursue him. Thereupon, an individual, of attractive speech but inwardly hostile, said to the man: "It would be reasonable to feed these snakes; that would not cause any harm." Smelling a rat, our man went his own way and saved his life by fleeing. He came to an empty village where an honest man skillfully (upayena) said to him: "Although this village is empty, it serves as a stopping-place for thieves. If you stay here, you should watch out for the robbers. So don't stay here." Then our man came to a great

the victim of the four poisonous snakes, the five candalas, the false friend and the six great thieves; if I cross the river and my boat does not hold, I will fall in the water and drown. I prefer to fall in the \\ atcr and die rather than be the victim of the snakes and the robbers." At once, he pushed his straw rail into the water, seated himself on it and paddling with his hands and feet, he reached the other shore [where he found] peace (ksema) and safety; his mind (cittd) was calmed and his fears disappeared. The Mahaparinirvanasutra follows (his apoploguc wish a long interpretation that can be summarized as follows: the body is like the trunk; earth, water, fire and wind the loui venemous snakes; she five candalas, the five ! i ill) Ih ill i friend / i 1 ni] y cilia the si hyatini i /.v: the rivci ih kit sas, the raft, vimukti, jndna-darsana, the six pdramitas and the thirty-seven bodhi . ik harmas; the other shore, nityasukhanirvdna. The Asivisopamasutra seems to have been particularly well-known in north-west India, a region with which the Mpps shows so much acquaintance. According to the Samantapasadika, I, p. 66, the Chan ken liu p'i p'o cha, T 1462, k. 2, p. 685b; and the Mahavamsa, Xll, v. 26, the sthavira .Yladhyanyika (thcra .Ylajjhantika) preached it to the naga king Aravala and the people of ICasmira Gandhara: eighty four thousand listeners w ere converted to Buddhism and a hundred thousand received ordination. It should be noted, however, that this preaching of the AsTvisipamasutra is not mentioned in the i 'i i iin I < Ji ilin * mi tin iii i i n in i i mil I VI idh mtil ! i n pen chou... tsa che, T 1451, k. 49, p. 410c -41 lb (tr. Przyluski, Le Nord-Ouest de I'Inde, JA, 1914, p. 533-537); A yu wang tchouan, T 2042, k. 4, p. 1 16b-c (tr. Przyluski, Asoka, p. 340-342); A yu wang king, T 2043, k. 7, p. 156a-b. The Asivisopamasutra should not be confused with the IsTvisasutta of the Anguttara, II, p. 110-111 ) tr. > lodward. Gradual i>m 11 i 11 I 16) another important suti hi h ' no parallel in th Inn i I ripital but which is often cited in the Pali sources: cf Puggalapahhatti, p. 48: Sullanipata, comm., p. 458. Finally, we note that the four great elements entering into She bodily composition are often compared to poisonous snkes; cf. Traite, I, p. 8iF; Sutralamkara, tr. Huber, p. 153, 387; VimalakTrtinirdesasutra, T475, k. 1, p. > - ' i K! parti ni ni d idl 11 th im < iparison utralamkara, ti Huber, ) I I The apologue of the fom poisonou- 1 1 1 1 on lined in thi i isopama itra ho u aits in common with the parable of "the man in the well", which has four snakes (i.e., the four elements) threatening to bite a man clinging to a root on the edge of a well; cf. Chavannes, Contes, II, p. 83-84; III, p. 257; IV, p. 158, 235-238; J. Ph. Vogel, The Man in the Well, RAA, XI, 1937, p. 109-115.

river, on the other shore of the river (para), there was a foreign land, a very happy country (sukhavati), peaceful, pure and free of torment. Immediately, our man gathered materials and ropes and built himself a raft. Using his hands and feet, he paddled across the river and reached the other shore, Sukhavati, free of torment. The king is king Mara; the chest is the human body; the four poisonous snakes are the four great elements (caturmahabhuta); the five solders with drawn swords are the five aggregates (pahcaskandha); the individual with fine words but bad intentions is attachment (sanga); the empty village is the six attractions (ruci); the thieves are the six sense objects (sadbahyayatana); the honest man who addresses him with compassion is the good teacher; the great river is thirst (trsna); the raft is the Noble eightfold Path (astahgikaryamarga); paddling with hands and feet is exertion (yirya); this shore is the world (loka); the other shore is nirvana; the man who crosses over is the arhat who has destroyed the defilements (ksinasrava). It is the same for the bodhisattva. If his generosity comes up against three obstacles (avarana) [which consist of saying]: "It is / who am giving such and such a thing to this recipient, he falls under Mara's power and he does not escape from difficulties. But if the bodhisattva' s gift is triply pure (trimandalaparisuddha) and free of these three obstacles (avarana), 1 10 he reaches the other shore and is praised [145c] by the Buddha: this is called Danaparamitd, this is arriving at the other shore [of generosity]. The six Paramitas allow people to cross the great ocean of the afflictions (klesa) - greed (matsarya), etc. - and attachment (sanga) and lead them to the other shore.

Question. - But arhats and pratyekabuddhas also reach the other shore. Why do we not speak of the Paramitas [in their regard]? Answer. - The arhats and pratyekabuddhas reach the other shore just like the Buddha reached the other shore; but, although the words are the same, the reality is different. The shore [that they leave] is samsara; the shore [that they reach] is nirvana; however, they do not reach the other shore of generosity [like the Buddhas and the bodhisattvas]. Why? Because they are not able to give everything (sarva) at all times (sarvatra) in every way (sarvend). Even supposing they do give, they are not motivated by the great mind [of Bodhi]. Practicing generosity, sometimes with a neutral mind (avyakrtacitta), sometimes with a good but impure mind (sasravakusalacitta), sometimes with a pure mind that lacks compassion (andsravacitta mahdkarundrahita), they are unable to "give for all beings". But when the bodhisattvas give, they know that the gift has no birth (anutpanna), does not perish (aniruddha), is free of stains (andsrava), is unconditioned (asamskrta) and like nirvana (nirvanasama), and they know they are giving for all beings. This is what is called danaparamita.

See above, p. 676F, n. 2.

Others call danaparamita the fact of dedicating all wealth, all inner and outer goods to generosity, without seeking for reward (phalavipaka). Finally, the fact of being inexhaustible (ah ayatvi I i on tituti d in ipai imita Why? When one knows that the thing given (deyadravya) is absolutely empty (atyantasunya), like nirvana (nirvdnasama), and in this spirit, one gives alms to beings, the reward of generosity (ddnavipdka) is called danaparamita. Just as a sage (rsi) having the five supernatural powers (abhijnd) hides a precious object in the rock and, to preserve it, he crushes diamond and coats it so as to make it indestructible, so the bodhisattva coats his generosity with the wisdom of the true nature of nirvana so as to make it inexhaustible. Moreover, the bodhisattva gives for all beings and as the number of beings is inexhaustible, his gift also is inexhaustible. Finally, the bodhisattva gives in order to acquire] the attributes of Buddha and, as these attributes are immense (apramdna) and infinite (ananta), his gift too is immense and infinite. This is why, although the arhats and pratyekabuddhas reach the other shore [of nirvana], it cannot be said that they have reached the other shore [of generosity]. III. PERFECTION OF GENEROSITY

Question. - What is meant by perfection of generosity (danaparipuri)! Answer. - As we have said above, the bodhisattva practices all the generosities. Whether it is a matter of inner (ddhydtmika) goods or outer (bdhya) goods, great (mahat) or small (partita), numerous (sambahula) or few (alpa), coarse (sthula) or subtle (suksma), valued (adhyavasita) or scorned (anadhyavasita), useful (arthika) or useless (apdrthika), the bodhisattva abandons all of these. His mind is without regret (vipratisdra) and even (sama) towards all beings. He does not make considerations such as the following: "It is necessary to make large gifts, not small gifts; one should give to monastics (pravrajita) and not to lay people; one should give to humans (manusjya) and not to animals (tiryagoni)." He gives to all beings with [146a] perfect equanimity (samacittatd); he gives without seeking any reward (vipaka) and realizes the true nature (bhutalaksana) of generosity. This is what is understood by perfection of generosity. Furthermore, he keeps no count of time (kdla), day (ahar) or nighl (rdtri), winter (hemanta) or summer (gnsma), favorable or unfavorable moment; he gives equally at all time, and his heart feels no regret. He even goes so far as to giving up his head (siras, his eyes (nayana), his marrow (majjd) and his skull (cf Traite, I, p. 143F). This is the perfection of generosity. Furthermore, some say: During the interval of time between the first production of the mind of Bodhi (prathamacittotpada) up to the thirty-four minds under the Bodhi tree, 111 the generosity practiced by the bodhisattva is perfect generosity.

For these tlin i foul minds, of which sixteen are d i wrg md i hi n u havanamarga, i Traite, I, p. 434, n. 2.

Furthermore, in the seventh bhumi (saptamabhumi), 112 the bodhisattva obtains the knowledge of the true nature (satyalaksana) of dharmas. From then on, he adorns (alamkaroti) the buddhafields (buddhaksetra) converts (vinayati) beings, worships (pujayati) the Buddhas and acquires great miraculous powers (mahdbhijna): he divides his own body into innumerable bodies and rains down the seven jewels (saptaratna), flowers (puspa), perfumes (gandha), banners (patakd) and garlands (nicaya) from each of these bodies; he transforms himself into a great lamp (dipa), like Mount Sumeru and pays homage to the Buddhas and assemblies of bodhisattvas of the ten directions. Then in marvelous accents, he celebrates the qualities of the Buddhas in verse; he pays homage (vandana) to them, worships ipuja), respects (satkara) and welcomes them (j > ■,< Ig mana) He causes a rain of all kinds of food (ahara) and clothing (vastra) to fall on innumerable lands of the hungry ghosts (pretavisayd) of the ten directions, enough to fill them fully. Having been filled to satisfaction (trpti), all the pretas produce the mind of supreme and perfect enlightenment (anuttarasamyaksamhoclhi). Then he goes to the animal realm (tiryagyoni); he commands the animals to improve themselves and to cast aside all feelings of mutual hostility; he chases away their fears (bhaya) and each is gratified according to their needs. Having obtained satisfaction, all the animals produce the mind of anuttarasamyaksambodhi. Among the damned (narakd) plunged in the immense torments of the hells, he causes the extinction of the hell fires and the cooling of the boiling water. When their punishment has ceased and their hearts are healed, the damned feel neither hunger (bubhuksd) nor thirst (pipdsa); they obtain rebirth among the god or humans and that is why they produce the mind of anuttarasamyaksambodhi. To the poor people (daridrd) of the ten directions, the bodhisattva gives good fortune; as for the rich (dhanya), he rejoices them by satisfying them with various flavors (rasa) and colors (rupa); this is why they all produce the mind of anuttarasamyaksambodhi. The bodhisattva goes to the gods of the desire realm (kamadhdtudevd) and makes them renounce their heavenly sense pleasures (kdmasukhd); he rejoices them by giving them this wondrous jewel that is the bliss of the Dharma (dharmasukhd); this is why they all produced the mind of anuttarasamyaksambodhi. Finally, he goes to the gods of the form realm (rupadhdtudevd) and destroys their attachment to pleasure of meditative concentration (samddhisukhdsvadand); he rejoices them by means of the dhyanas appropriate to bodhisattvas. This is why thess gods produce the mind of anuttarasamyaksambodhi. This [activity] which is continued until the tenth bhumi (dasamabhumi) is called the perfection of the virtue of generosity (danaparamitapuri).

For the conduct of the hodhisattva in the seventh bhumi, called "Far-Gone' (duramgama hhiimi), Dasabhumikasutra, p. 55-63 and Introduction by J. Rahder. Other references in Samgraha, p. 38-39.

Furthermore, the bodhisattva has two kinds of bodies (kdya): 1) a body born from bonds and actions (bandhanakarmajakdya) and 2) a body of the Dharma (dharmakdya). 113 The perfection of the virtue of generosity that he practices in these [146b] two bodies is called paripurnaddnapdramitd. Question. - What is meant by virtue of generosity belonging to the body born of bonds and actions? Answer. - Without having attained the Dharmakaya and without having broken his fetters (ksinasamyojana), the bodhisattva is able to give all his precious goods (ratnadravya) unreservedly, his head (siras), his eyes (nayana), his marrow (majja), his skull (mastaka), his kingdom (rdjya), his wealth (dhana), his wife (ddra), his children (putra), his internal (ddhyd >r external a) possessions, without his mind feeling emotions. [Visvantarajdtaka 114 ]. - Thus the prince (kumdra) Siu t'i na (Sudinna?), in the language of Ts'in "Excellent Generosity", gave his two children {putra) to a brahmin, and then he gave his wife, without his heart being upset by emotion.

113 To understand this text and the developments that follow, it is useful to compare othei pa ; . ige! of the Mpps that deal with the two bodies of the Bodhisattva. Sonic ha\ e ahead} been listed in Hobogirin, p. 141, and in the appendix to the Siddhi, p. 780f. In order to justify my [Lamotle j translations, I would like to mention that de La Vallee Poussin, Notes bouddhiques, VIII,BCLA, 1929, p. 218, has established thai the fa-sing (61 and 4) of Kumarajlva which, in Hiuan-tsang's versions, corresponds to dharmata, translates dharmadhatu here. Dharmadhatu may be translated as Absolute; according to the explanation of the Samgraha, p. 12 i , ii is called thus because it is the cause (dhdtu = hetu) of pure dharmas (vaiyavaddnikd). T 1509, k. 28, p. 264b: We have already said that the Bodhisattva entering into the dhariniivasthd, abiding in the avaivartikabhumi, acquires a body born of the Absolute I tujakdya) hen his last fleshly body (mil ' li diaustcd, I m iliiiou 'i In in u< ii| Mi miction ( I, the ] rfumin (vctsana) of the il li tic i i m iim I'iii he tal innadiia /, not an i nee in tl tin c i >ld world (traidlia i i) T 1509, k. 30, p. 283a-b: Although the Bodhisattva has not attained cither acquiescence of non-production Uiiuitpadaksdnti) or the five abhijnas, his fleshly body of birth am! death (cyiitupapattiinwnsakdya, or samsdramdmsakdya) possesses a mind of great comp \on (inahaka n ml and is able to give beings all the inner and outer goods that he possesses. T 1509, k. 30, p. 284a: When the Bodhisattva enters into nydma, he abandons the body of birth-and-death (c i ' uui i ] lin h I'M form of th i ilu i i 114 The Mpps will return to this jataka later (k. 33, p. 304c): "The bodhisattva Siu ti nien na (Sudhinna) gave a fine white elephant to an cncm\ family: withdrawn into the depths of the mountains, he gave twelve ugly brahmins his two dear sons; then he gave his wife and his eves to a fictivc brahmin, then the earth shook violently, the heavens rolled with thunder and the ether rained down a rain of flowers." We are dealing with a qui i' pi ial n ension of tin II-known\i urtaiajataka Whereas Visvantara is elsewhere called Sudaiui "Excellent generosity" (T 152, k. 2, p. 7c29; T 171, p. 418cl6), Sudanta or Sudamshtra "With Beautiful Teeth" (T 2087, k. 2, p. 881b8; Rastrapalapariprccha, p. 22., 1. 18; Lalitavistara, p. 167, 1. 21), here he is surnamed Sudinna "Excellent Generosity". In the other sources, it is to a single brahmin diat he gives his children and not to, as here, "twelve ugly brahmins". Finally, the mention of the gift of the eyes, after that of the wife, occurs only here.

The story is well know n: "\ isvantara, or V essantara, w as a young prince who had a passion for generosity. He had a white elephant endowed with the magical power of bringing the rains. A neighboring king whose land was afflicted with aridity, asked for the animal. Visvantara gave it to him; his countrymen were furious and demanded his punishment. The generous prince had to leave in exile, accompanied by his wife Madrl who wanted to share his exile and their two children, Jalin and Krsnajina. On the way, two brahmins demanded the horses of his chariot: he gave them away; a third demanded the chariol itself: he gave it. At the cost of a thousand sufferings, the exiled family finally arrived at the forest of Vahka chosen for his exile. They lived there in a hut, eating roots and wild fruits. The trees, moved by compassion, bent down their branches to offer their fruit to the two chikdren of Visvantara and Madrl. But a new brahmin named Jujaka arose and demanded that the father give him the two children to be his servants. Despite their terror, despite the desolation, he gave them. The god Indra, disguised as an ascetic, came and demanded his wife as slave: he gave her also. Finally India made himself known and gave back to the hero his family and his goods." (R. Grousset). Here is a summary of the main sources: Pali sources: Jataka no. 547, VI, p. 479-596; Cariyapitaka, I, no. 9, p. 78-81 (tr. Law, p. 100-105). - Many allusions or references: Jataka. I, p. 47; Milinda, p. 1 12, 274; Samantapasadika, I, p. 245: Dhammpadattha, I, p. 69; Vibhahga Comm., p. 414; Mahavamsa, XXX, v. 88; Colavamsa, XLII, v. 5. Avadanakalpalata, no. 23, vol. I, p. 646- 1 llnsions in Rastrapalaparipi 1 i p II L:\lita\istara, p. 167, 1. 21. Tibetan sources: Dulwa, tr. Schiclhcr-Ralston, Tibetan Tales, no. 16, p. 257-272; J. Bacot, Drimedkundan, Une version Ti In i << lu Vessain ' taka, JA, 1914, p. 221-305. Chinese sources: Lieou tou tsi king, T 152, no. 14, k. 2, p. 7c-l la; T'ai tseu siu ta na king, T 171, p. 418c- 424a (tr. Chavannes, Contes, 111, p. 362, 395; Ken pen chou... yao che, T 1448, k. 14, p. 64c-69a; Ken pen chouo... p'o seng che, T 1450, k. 16, p. 181a-184b; King liu yi sinag T 2121, k. 31, p. 164c-166c. - The Chinese pilgrims described at len i'> tin pi i i iii> nn il i s l i mtara i rifn < ony i nn, Lo yany k*ic Ian ki, (tr. Chavannes, BEFEO, III, 1903, p. 413-414; 419-420); Hiuan tsang, Si yi ki, T 2087, k. 2, p 881b (tr. Beal, I, p. 1 1 1-113; Watters, I, p. 217-218;): they locate, respectively, the legend at Fo cho fou and at Po lou cha, which Foucher locates at Shahbaz-garhl. >o di ii onn ( L ; . Bcnvcnist ! < mtara .land I \ > I Ui In Cambodia: A. Leclerc, Le livre de Vesandar, le roi bi pi i c iboddgienne, L. Finot, BEFEO, III, 1903, p. 320-334. In Laos: S. Karpelcs, Clironique de I'Ecole Francaise d'Extrliue-Orient, Laos, BEFEO, 1931, p. 331 (local holiday at Vieng Chan in honor of the reading of the Vessantarajataka). Iconography: for Bharhut, see Memoires concernant I'Asie orientale, III, pi. 2,1); Barua, Barhut, III, pi. 91; JRAS, 1928, p. 390-398. - Marchall-Foucher, Mon. ofSanchi, I, p. 225-226; II, pi. 23a 1, 25 (1), 29 (3), 31 (1). - Foucher, Art Greco-bouddhique, I, p. 284, fig, 144; AR Arch. Surv., 1907-1910, pi. 17 (a, c). - STvaramamurti, Amaravartx, p. 260-262; pi. 63(5). - Ramachandran, Sculptures from Goli, p. 7-12, pi. IV- VI; - Ajanta, cave XVII.

[Sarvadajdtaka]. Thus, king Sa p 'o ta (Sarvada), "Universal Generosity" in the language of Ts'in, having been conquered by an enemy kingdom, hid in a forest. A brahmin of a distant region came to beg alms of him. The king, whose kingdom was lost, his home destroyed and who was in hiding by himself, took pity on the fatigue (drta) of this man who had come so far without receiving anything, and said to this brahmin: "I am king Sarvada; the new king has enlisted men to search for me and places great importance [on my capture]." At once he chained himself and gave himself up to the brahmin who led him to the new king and was given a big reward. [Candraprabhajdtaka]. 116 - Again, prince (kumdra) Yue koiiang (Candraprabha) went out for a ride one day. A leper (pdmavat) saw him, stopped his chariot and said to him: "I am gravely sick (gland), tired (drta) and in pain. Will the prince, who rides for pleasure, be the only one to enjoy himself? I would like him, with a mind of great compassion (mahdkarundcitta), to cure me." Having heard this, the prince questioned his physician (yaidya) who told him: "The blood (sonita) and marrow (majjd) are needed of a man who, from his birth up to his adolescence, has never been angry (dvesa); we will smear {the sick man with this marrow] and give him to drink [this blood]; then he will be cured." The prince said to himself: "Supposing such a man existed, he will hold onto his life and preserve it. What can be done? It is impossible to find someone who will sacrifice his body spontaneously." Then the prince commanded a candala to cut into his flesh, break his bones (asthi), extract the marrow (majjd), smear the sick man with it and give him his blood to drink.

115 Later, at k. 33, p. 304c, the Mpps will return to this jataka; here the king has the name Sa p '<> ta to (Sarvamdada). The same jataka is taught in the Ta tchouang yen louen king, T 201, no. 70, k. 15, p. 339b-340a (tr. Huber, Sutralamkara, p. 416-421), Tsa p'i yu king T 207, no. 34, p. 530a-c (tr. Chavannes, Contes, II, p. 59-61). In these two collections, the story has a favorable ending: the usurper king re establishes Sarvada on the throne and goes home. On the other hand, in the Lieou tou tsi king, T 102, no. 10, k. 1, p. 5a()6a (tr. Chavannes, Contes, 1, p. 8-45), the good king is put to dath by the usurper. In the same collection, T 153, no. 11, k. 2, p. 6a-c (tr. Chavannes, Contes, I, p. 46-49), the good king, called Po ye this time, docs not wait to be handed over to the brahmin, but gives him his head on which a reward had been set: the conqueror, touched by such virtue, replaced the head of the former king back on his body, covered his entire body with gold leaf and seated him in the place of honor. See also P'ou sa pen yuan king, T 153, k. 1, p. 55sq; King liu yi snag, T 2121, k. 26, p. 141b-142b. - Hiuan (sang. Si yu ki, T 2087, k. 3, p. 883a (tr. Beal, I, p. 124; Watters, I, p. 232-235), locates the feat of Sarvamdada at the Mahavana monastery on the side of a mi ntai n I ill | i i II nigral 116 Here the Mpps seems to have grouped into a single story two jatakas from the Ratnakuta (cf. Ta pao tai king, T 310, k. 1 1 1, p. 640c9-631a22; Maitreyapariprccha, T 349, p. 188b21-188c8; see also Ling liu yi sinag, T 2121, k. 10, p. 55bl7-55c2): the first jataka tells how prince Kien yi ts 'ieyi (Sarvarthadarsana)took his own blood to give a sick man a drink; the second, how prince Miao houa or Lien houa ( Qtpala) broke one of his bones and took the marrow to smear over a sick man. The Mpps attributes both of the exploits to pronee Candraprabha, also mentioned in the Ratnakuta (T 310, k. 1 1 1, p. 631a25-631bl2; T 349, p. 188c9-18) as having given his eyes to a blind man. However, Utpala seems to have the monopoly of "the gift of the marrow", for it is he again who writes a text of the holy Dharma with one of his broken bones as pen, his marrow as ink and his skin as parchmenl (see traite, I, p. 144-145, as note: '1 he gift of the marrow ).

By giving his life, his wife and his children in this way, the bodhisattva spares them no less than he would pieces of rubbish. Considering the things that he gives, he knows that they exist due to conditions (pratyaya) and that, if one looked for a reality in them, one would find nothing: [indeed] everything is pure (visuddhi) and like nirvana. Until he attains the acquiescence of the non-production of things (anutpattikadharmaksanti), this is how his body born of bonds and actions (bandhanakarmajakdya) practices the perfection of generosity (ddnapdramitdparipuri) . Question. - How does the Dharmakaya bodhisattva practice the perfection of generosity? Answer. - Having reached the end of the fleshly body (mamsakaya), the bodhisattva attains the acquiescence of the teaching of the non-production of things (anutpattikadharmaksanti); he abandons his fleshly body and acquires the body of the Dharma (dharmakaya). In the six realms (sadgati) of the ten directions, he converts beings by means of emanated bodies (nirmdnakdya) and avatars (avatdra); he gives all kinds of pearls and jewels (maniratna), clothing (vastra) and food to all; he gives his head (siras), his eyes (nayana), his marrow (majja), his skull (mastaka), his kingdom (rajya), his wealth (dhand), his wife (ddra), his children (putra), his inner (ddhydtmika) and outer (hdliyti) possessions unreservedly. [Saddantajataka]. 111 - The Buddha Sakyamuni was once a white elephant with six tusks

For this well-know n jataka, see (he follow ing sources: Pali sources: Jataka. no. 514, vol. V, p. 36-37. Sanskrit sources: Kalpadrumavadanamala, no. 22 (cf. Mitra, Nep. Buddh. Lit., p. 301-302); Avadanakalpaiata, no. 49. but this avadana is absent from tin Pari VIS (J 1'illio I, Catalogue du l-'oi Sanskrit, p 4, no. 8) and in the edition of the Avadanakalpaiata in the Bobliotheca Indica by S. C. Das and H. M. Vidhyabhusana, 1888 and 1918; It may be found in the Cambridge MS, Add. 1306 and 913 (cf. Foucher, Beginnings ofB. Art, p. 204, n. 1). Chinese sources: Lieou tou tsi king, T 152, no. 28, k. 4, p. 17a-c (tr. Chavannes, Contes, I, p. 101-104); Ta tchouang yen louen king, T 201, no. 68, k. 14, p. 336b-338a (tr. Ffuber, Sutralamkara, p. 403-411); tsa pao tsang king, T 203, no. 10, k. 2, p. 453c-454b (tr. Chavannes, Contes, IV, p. 100-102); Mo ho seng k'i liu, T 1425, k. 2, p. 240b-241a (tr. Chavannes, Contes, II, p. 289-293); Ken pen chouo... yao che, T 1448, k. 15, p. 71a- 72a; Hiuan tsang, Si yu ki, T 2087, k. 7, p. 906a (tr. Beal, II, p. 49; Watters, II, p. 53). Iconography: Cunningham, Barhut, pi. 26 (6): cf. also Liidcrs, Bliarhut una die huddli. Literature, p. 155- 159; Marshall-Foucher, Mon. ofSanchi, I, p. 224; II, pi. 15, 29, 55: Coomaraswamy, Bodhgaya, p. 27-28, pi. 48 (1); Sivaramamurti, Amardvati, pi. 26 (2), but see note p. 218; Ramadhandram, Sculptures from Golf, pi. I (c, d); Foucher. Art Greco-bouddhique, p. 272, fig. 138; Griffiths, Ajanta, cave X, col. I, pi. 41 and fig, 21; cave XVII, vol. I, pi. 63 and p. 37, fig. 73. Works: L. Feer, Le Chaddantajataka, JA, 1895, p. 31-85; 1895, p. 189-223; J. Speer, Uber den Bodhisattva als Elefant mit sechs Hauzahnen, ZDMG, LVII, p. 305-316; A. Foucher, Melanges S. Levi, 1911, p. 231 ii / in I lit 1917, p. 185-204. In this work, Foucher shows how this jataka has evolved in a parallel way in (he literal') texts and (he archcological documents. 1) The hunter cuts the elephant's tusks w illi a knife: Stanzas from the Pali jataka. 2) The hunter cuts the elephant's tusks with a saw: Bharhut medallion (2 nd century B.C.), Amaravati medallion, fresco from grotto X at Ajanta and Gandharan bas-relief (2 nd century A.D.), Goli frieze (3 rd century A.D.). Lieou tou tsi king (translated into Chjnese in 280). 3) The elephant himself saws off his tusks: Pali prose commentary 5 th century).

(saddantapdndragajapota); a hunter (ludhaka) who was on the lookout for him shot him with a poisoned arrow (visasara); the other elephants ran up with the intention of killing the hunter by trampling him under their feet, but the white elephant pushed them away with his body; he protected this man and had compassion for him as for his own son; after having sent away the herd [146c] of elephants by his exhortations, he quietly asked the hunter: "Why did you shoot me with an arrow?" The hunter asnwered: "I need your tusks." At once the white elephant wedged his tusks into a hole in a rock [and broke them off] so that the blood and the flesh ran out at the same time; then he took the tusks in his trunk and gave them to the hunter. Although here it is a matter of an elephant, a thought imposes itself: we should know that this elephant is not an ordinary animal (tiryak) [the existence of which is due] to retribution for actions (sumskuravipdka); and as the same greatness of spirit is not found among the arhats, we should know that this elephant is a Dharmakaya bodhisattva.

4) The elephant himself breaks his tusks against a. rock (Kalpadrumabadana, Ylahaprajriaparamitasastra (translated into Chinese between 402 and 405). 5) the elephant himself breaks his tusks against a tree: Tsa pao Isang king (translated into Chinese in 472). 6) The elephant himself tears out his tusks with his trunk: Sutralarnkara (translated into Chinese about 410), fresco in cave XVII at Ajanta (6 lh century). For the Bharhut medallion, see also Liiders, Bharhut und buddh. Lit., -p. 155-159.

[Tittiriyam bralimucariyam] . There was a time when the men of Jambudvipa were unaware of the

This well-known apologue is cm Ml d Reli ion lii ol il« Phi i ml / ( an in Pali, Tche fan hing in Chinese. The Buddha preached it to his monks to encourage ihcm to practice respect towards their elders. The apologue has three or four animals, a bird, a monkey and an elephant, to which some sources add a hare. The bird is sometimes a pheasant (tittiriya in Pali: telic (172 and 8) in Chinese), sometimes a francolin ('.') (kapinjala). sometimes also the To-bird (36 and 3, or 196 and 8). a kind of pigeon that lives in the Gobi desert. In order to determine their respective ages, these three animals went to a large tree, either a nyagrodha (Ficus indica) or a pippala {Ficus religiosa) which some sources locate on the side of the Himavat others on the shore of the sea. A comparative study of the various sources allows us to classify them as follows: 1 st Three Vinayas, the Pali Vin. (II, p. 161-162), the Mahlsasaka Vin. (T 1421, k. 17, p. 121a), the Dharmaguptaka Vin. (T 1421, k. 17, p. 121a) as well as the Tch'en yao king (T 212, k. 14, p. 686a) present the apologue in the form of a simple fable. 2 nd The Mahasamghika Vin. (T 1425, k. 27, p. 446a-b) presents the exploits of the pheasant and his friends in the form of a jataka, in the sense that the parts played by the heroes of the fable are proposed as having been lived by the Buddha and his contemporaries in the course of a previous life. According to this Vimaya, the elephant was none other than the Buddha. 3 rd The Sarvastivadin Vin. (T 1435, k. 34, p. 242b-c) and the Mpps (T 1509, k. 12, p. 146c) both show the story in the form of a jataka, bul identify the pheasant as the Buddha this time. Moreover, they develop the apologue considerably, the three animals, perched on on top of the other, go to preach to the other animals and to people. 4 th The Tittirajataka of the Pali Vin. I, p. 218-219) reproduces, almost word for word the text of the Pali \ hi Im uli h » f the Sarvastiva lm \ n ii ul nlifyi th lcphanl I i i I ' ma the monkey as Sariputra nd the pheasant as the Buddha. 5 th The Mulasarvastivadin Vin. (original version in Gilgit Manuscripts, III, part 3, p. 125-131); Tibetan version in Schiclhcr-Ralston. Tibetan Sales, p. 302-307) has four animals: a francolin (kapinjala), a hare (sasa), a monkey (markafa) and an elephant (gaja), which il identifies (p. 131) with the Buddha, Sariputra, Maudgalyayana and Ananda, respectively. This Vin. brings a new detail: il is the king and the people of Benares who are converted by the example of the four animals. 6 th The oral traditions collected by Hiuan tsang also relate this jataka with Benares. Acording to the Life (T 2053, k. 3, p. 235c) and the Memoirs (T 2087, k. 7, p. 906a) of this pilgrim, there was a sffipa built to commemorate the virtuous pheasant in the neighborhood of Benares. See a comparative study of the various recensions in La condui i i \ dam les textes bouddhiques, Museon, LIX, 1946, p. 641-653. See also Ecke-Demieville, Twin Pagodas, p. 58 and pi. 39 (1). Most of the Vinayas add that the elephant places the monkey on his head and the monkey placed the pheasant on his shoulder: they walked together from village to village preaching the Dharma. the Sarvastivadin \ in. continues: Eaih' i ill ilin nun I njo d killin livin beings l < ta), st< lin (ad ui), engaging in sex (kamamithyaeara) and lying (mrsarada). They had this thought: "Why do we not renounce our bad actions?" Thinking thus, they renounced killing, stealing, sex and falsehood: among the animals they were unequalled in observing the four precepts. After theii death, they were reborn in the here, ens At thai time, the code of the pheasant was propagated and spread, it was manifested among gods and men People thought: "Why do the animals do good deeds and not pillage our crops to feed themselves?" And they also thought : I f the animals show so much respect, all the more reason we should show mutual respect." From then on, people showed respect to one another, practiced

respect due to the venerable aged ones (vrddhabhadantd); it was impossible to convert them by words. Then the Bodhisattva changed himself into a kia p 'in cho lo bird (kapinjala or francolin). This bird had two friends (mitra), a great elephant (mahdhastin) and a monkey (markafa); they lived together under a pi po la tree (pippala or Ficus religiosa). One day they wondered: "We do not know who is the oldest of us." The elephant said: "Earlier, when I saw this tree, it came to under my belly (udara) and today it is the size that you see. From that I conclude that I am the oldest." The monkey said: "Once, when I was kneeling on the ground, my hand reached the top of this tree; from that I deduce that I am the oldest." The bird said: "In a gig-tree forest, one day I was eating a pippala fruit; a seed sprouted from my droppings (varcas) and that produced the tree that you see; from that I deduce that I am by far the oldest." The bird also said: "The antiquity of my previous births (purvey anmapaurana) gives me the right of respect (puja)." At once the great elephant put the monkey on his back, the bird perched on the monkey and they went to walk about. All the birds and animals, seeing them, asked: "Why are you doing this?" They answered: "This is how we pay respect (satkdrd) and homage (puja) to the elders." The birds and animals accepted the lesson and began to respect [their elders]; they stopped invading the fields of the people and destroying the lives of animals. People found it strange that all the birds and animals had stopped doing harm. Having entered the forest, a hunter (luhclhaka) saw the elephant carrying the monkey who was carrying the bird; he told the country people that the practice of [mutual] respect had transformed beings and that all of them were busy doing good. The people rejoiced saying: "Today the great peace begins; the birds and animals are becoming civilized." In turn, the people imitated the animals and all practiced respect [toward their elders]. From that ancient event until today, the thousand lifetimes have elapsed; we should know that this [francolin] was the Dharmakaya Bodhisattva. Finally, in the space of a moment, the Dharmakaya Bodhisattva transforms himself (parinamute) into innumerable bodies (asamkhyeyakdya) and pays homage (pujayati) to the Buddhas of the ten directions (dashadigbuddha); in one moment, he can create immense riches (apramdnadhana) and give them to beings; in the space of one moment, he can preach the Dharma to all in harmony with high, medium or low tones (agramadhydvarasabda); and the Bodhisattva follows these practices until he sits under the Bodhi tree (bodhivrksa). It is by means of these kinds of practices that the Dharmakaya Bodhisattva practices the perfection of the virtue of generosity (ddiuipdramitdparipuri). Furthermore, there are three kinds of generosity: 7) material generosity (dravyaddna), 2) the generosity of homage and respect (pujdsatkdraddna); 3) the generosity of the Dharma. (dharmaddna). What is material generosity? Material [147a] generosity consists of giving unreservedly all the inner (adhyatmika) and outer (bdhya) goods that one possesses, such as precious stones and jewels (maniratna), clothing (vastra), food (ahara), head (siras), eyes (nayana), marrow (majjd) and skull (mastaka). - The generosity of respect consists of shows of respect (satkdrd) and veneration (yandand) inspired by pure faith (prasddacittavisuddhi): to accompany (parivdra) someone, to go to meet them (pratyutdgamana), to load them with praise (varnana ), to pay homage to them (pujana ) and other things the code of the pheasant widely and carefully observed the five prcccpl (pancasila). Vftci Ihcir death, they were reborn in the heavens.

of this type. - The generosity of the Dharma, having as object the beauty of the Path (mdrga), consists of instructing (uddesa), teaching (upadesa), explaining (bhdsana), discoursing (lapana), removing hesitations (vicikitsanihsarana), replying to questions (prasnavyakarana) and telling people about the five precepts (pancasila): all these instructions given with the view of Buddhahood are called generosity of the Dharma. The perfection of these three kinds of generosity is called the perfection of the virtue of generosity. Furthermore, three causes and conditions give rise to generosity: 7) the purity of the mind of faith (prasddacittavisuddhi); 2) the material object (amisadravya); 3) the field of merit (punyaksetra)} 19 a. There are three kinds of minds: compassion (karund), respect (satkdra), and respect joined with compassion. Giving to the poor (daridra), to the humble {hind) and to animals {tiryagyoni) is a generosity inspired by compassion (karundddna); to give to the Buddha and bodhisattvas is a generosity inspired by respect (satkdraddna); to give to the arhats and pratyekabuddhas, to the elderly (vrddha), the sick (glaiui), the poor (daridra) and the exhausted (drta) is a generosity inspired by both respect and compassion. b. The object given (deyadravya) is pure (visuddha) when it is neither stolen, nor pilfered but given at the proper time (kale)., without seeking for renown (yasas) or gain (labha). c. The greatness of the merit (punya) obtained comes either from the mind (citta), or from the field of merit (punyaksetra) or from the value of the gift given: It comes first from the mind when, for example, [the latter has] the fourfold evenness of mind (samatdcitta) or the meditative stabilization of the recollection of the Buddha (buddhdnusrtisamddhi)} 20 Thus, when the [Bodhisattva] gives his body to the tigress (vydghri), 121 it is the mind that provides the greatness of his merit. There are two kinds of fields of merit (punyaksetra): 1) the pitiful field of merit (karundpunyaksetra), 2) the venerable field of merit (satkdrapunyaksetra). The pitiful field of merit provokes minds of compassion, whereas the venerable field of merit provokes minds of respect: this was the case for the king A chou k'ie (Asoka), ["Without Care" in the language of Ts'in], when he gave to the Buddha the gift of earth (pdmsupraddna). 122

In other words, three factors concur in the production of generosity: I) the donor (dayaka) who is inspired hy motivations of compassion, respect or compassion joined villi i pi i l tin >hin< iven ( vti) lm h may he more or less pure; 3) the recipienl I ati hat hen ailed Held of merit" because it is in him that the donor plants merit; this recipienl provokes the gill cither by inspiring compassion due to his misfortune, or by inspiring respect by his moral qualities. 120 Above, I, p. 325-327) the Treatise has defined the evenness of mind and the recollection of the Buddhas (I, p. 409-415). 121 For the "gift of the body" to the famished tigress, see the references in Treatise, I, p. 143, n. 1. 122 One day, the Buddha was walking with Ananda in the streets of Rajagrha. in passing, they saw two little boys, layaand Vijaya, who were at play, building a city of earth, making houses and granaries and making the grain which

Finally, [the greatness of the merit] is derived from the object given. Thus the woman whose wine (madya) had disturbed her mind and who heedlessly gave her necklace made of the seven jewels (saptaratnamayakeyurd) to the stupa of the buddha Kasyapa, was reborn among the Trayastrimsa gods by virtue of this merit. Gifts of this kind are called material gifts (dravyaddna). IV. NON-EXISTENCE OF THE THING GIVEN

Question. - Generosity is the renunciation of wealth (dhanaparitydga); why then do you say that the perfect gift (paripura) involves a thing to be abandoned (parityaktadharma)? Answer. - 1. There are two kinds of generosity, supramundane (lokottara) and that which is not supramundane. 123 Here we are talking about supramundane generosity, which is without marks (animltta); being without marks, it does not involve anything abandoned. This is why we say that perfect generosity does not involve renunciation. 2. Moreover, it does not involve renunciation because the material object (amisadravya) is non-existent (anupalabdha): this object is empty (sunya) in the future (andgata) and the nasi (affta); in the present (pratyutpanna), it has no defined property (niyatadharma). This is why we say that there is no renunciation. 3. Moreover, the agent (kdraka), when he renounces his riches, says to himself: "My alms have great value (mahdgunay and thereby gives rise to pride (uhhimunu) and bonds of thirsi (/; snuhandhana). This is why we say that [the perfect gift] does not involve a thing abandoned. Since nothing is abandoned, all pride is excluded; pride being absent, the bonds of thirst do not arise. [147b] 4. Moreover, there are two kinds of donors (ddyaka), mudane (laukika) donor and supramundane (lokottara) donor. The mundane donor renounces his riches (dhana) but does not renounce his generosity they put into the granaries with earth. The two children, seeing the Buddha, were filled with joy. Then Jaya, taking from the granary the earth which he called grain, he rcpcclfully offered it to the Buddha, while V ijaya, with palms joined, agreed wish has friend. Having given alms wish She earth, young Java, made She vow of having the power in the future to protect Ihc entire universe under his royal umbrella. So recite gathas and to make offerings. The Buddha accepted the handful of earth which the little boy offered him and began to smile. He explained to Ananda who asked for the reason for the smile: "A hundred years after my Nirvana, this little boy will be a holy cakravartin king, master of one of the four continents. In the city of Kusumapara (Pataliputra), he w il! be a king of She true Dharma with the name of Asoka. Having divided up my relics, he will build 84,000 precious stupas for the benefit and prosperity of beings." This anecdote, known under the name of she She gill of she earth (paiiisupradaiuivadaiia) is told in Divyavadana, p. 364-382; Tsa a han, T 99, no. 604, k. 23, p. 161b-165b; A yu wang tchouan, T 2042, k. 1, p. 131b-135b; Hien yu king, T 202 (no. 17), k. 3, p. 368c-369a. - Iconography: Foucher, Art Greco-bouddhique, I, p. 517; fig. 255, 256; Lou hui i \ ".'/ uiiakon p 37; pi. 35b. 123 See above p. 675F,

(ddna), whereas the supramundane donor renounces both his riches and his generosity. Why? Because the material object (amisadrvaya) and the concept of generosity (ddnacitta) are both non-existent (anupalabdha). This is why we say that the perfect gift does not involve renunciation. 5. Finally, in the Prajnaparamita, it is said that three things do not exist (anupalabdha), namely, the object given (amisa), the donor (dayaka) and the recipient (pratigrd/iaka). 124 NON-EXISTENCE OF THE OUTER OBJECT 5 1. Debate with the Realist.

The Realist. - But these three things must be joined in order that there be generosity (cf. p. 663F), and now you say that they do not exist! What is meant by the perfection of the virtue of generosity

Cf the passage of the I'ahcavimsati, p. 264, relative to lokottara danaparamita: Tatra katrama lokottard danaparamita yaduta trimandalaparisuddliih. tatra katamd trimandalaparisuddliih. tatra katama trimandalaparisuddliih. ilia hodhisattvo nialiasattvo dana/u dadat natmanam upalahhatc pratigraliakani nopalabhate ddnam ca nopalabhate. 125 In this section, the Mpps argues against the realism of the Lesser Vehicle (Sarvastivadin and Sautrantika) which believes in the existence oi' nipas or material objects. Two types of rupa should be distinguished: 1) subtle rupa, i.e., the atoms (paramdnu), 2) massive rupa or coarse matter consisting of atoms. According to the Sautrantika, the subtle rupa alone is real, but the ma i < , , lm h lo< noli u I ipart from tin ublli ,, i fictivc (samvrta): according to the Sarvastivadins, both rupas are real. The Mpps begins by attacking massive rupa, accepted by the Sarvastivadins who, adopting the positions I rtain hci i ka and othci laim that massi i i I' cloth) is real (a) I cause it bears a name (ndman) producer of an idea (e.g., the name of cloth), (b) because it is the seat of certain qualities (size and color in the case of cloth) and the result of certain causes (the thread making up the composition of the cloth). - Borrowing its refutation from the Sautrantikas, the Mpps comments: (a) there may be a name, an idea, without a corresponding reality (we have the notion of the horns of a rabbit, while the rabbit has no horns): (b) the qualities that we find in the objects have only relative value and these objects, since they do not exist apart from the ultimate atoms of color, smell, taste and touch that constitute them, have only nominal existence. Then the Mpps goes on to attack these ultimate atoms which, the Sautrantikas claim, arc not derived from a complex of causes and conditions like the cloth but constitute the final result of the analysis of the substance. According to the Sarvastivadins, the atom has no extension - is just a point - and these atoms do not touch one another (cf. Kosa, 1, p. 89): on the other hand, according to the Sautrantikas, the atom, which entails spatial division (dibhdgabheda, dig\ • <h ig i). i < tli nded, <n>l the atoms touch one another as a result of their extension (Kosa, I, p. 89). It is this last definition which the Mpps opposes mainly; it shows that the concept of an extended atom is intrinsically contradictory, Finally, in the spirit of the Greater Vehicle, the Mpps shows that the object, being capable of giving rise to h i ii onti li ii r\ i on pi ha mh ibj n li i'J i i II mpl ( / l

(tlaiuiparamitaparipuri) if not the presence of a material object (dmisadravya), a donor (dayaka) and a recipient (pratigrdhakayl Why do you say that these three things are non-existent? The cloth (pata) that is offered as a gift nevertheless really exists. Why? 1 st Argument. - Since the cloth has a name (ndman), a reality, cloth (pafadharma), exists. If the reality cloth did not exist, the name cloth would not exist either; but since the name exists, there is necessarily the cloth. 2 nd Argument. - Moreover, the cloth is long (dirgha) or short (hrasva), coarse (sthula) or fine (siiksma), white (avaddtd), black (krsna), yellow (pita) or red (lohita); it has causes (hetu) and conditions (pratyaya); it has a maker (karaka) and a destroyer (bhedaka); it has an effect (phulu) and, according to the properties it possesses, it arouses concepts. - Indeed, it is long if it is ten feet, short if it is five feet; it is coarse if its threads (tantu) are heavy, fine if its threads are thin; it has the color that the dye gives it; it has threads as cause and weaving as condition; these causes and conditions being brought together, there is cloth. For maker, it has the professional weaver, for destroyer , the person who tears it; for effect, it protects the body from cold (sfta) and heat (usna). The person who finds it experiences joy (muditd); the person who loses it experiences sadness (daurmanasya); the person who gives it as a gift gains merit that will be of profit on the Path (mdrga); the person who steals it is killed, exposed in the market place, and after death, falls into hell (niraya). For all these reasons, we know that the cloth exists and we assume a dharma cloth. ANSWER: Refutation of the 1 st argument. - You say that the thing exists because the name exists: this is not correct (ayukta)\ Why? There are two kinds of names: the kind that corresponds to a reality and the kind that does not correspond to a reality. Thus, there is a plant (trna) called Tchou li (cauri) - CaurT, in the language of Ts'in, means "thief; although this plant does not rob, does not pilfer, and is not really a thief, nevertheless it is called "the thief. Again, the horn of a rabbit (sasvisdna) and the hairs of a tortoise (kurmaroma) are only names and have no reality. Although the cloth is not non-existent in the same way that the horn of a rabbit or the hair of a tortoise, it exists [only] as a result of the complex of causes and conditions (hetupratyayasdmagrT) and, when these causes and conditions disappear, it no longer exists. It is the same for the forest (vana), the chariot (ratha), etc., which all have a name but have no reality. In a mannekin (kasthapurusa) that is, however, given the name of a man (purusa), human properties (purusadharma) cannot be found; similarly, in the cloth, that also is given a name, no reality cloth can be found. In the human mind, the cloth can produce the causes and conditions (hetupratyaya) productive of a concept since, when someone finds the cloth, they are happy whereas, when someone loses the cloth, they are sad. But the cloth is only the cause and condition generating a concept [and there is no cloth in itself]. 126

On the relationships between the name and the thing that it designates, sec Samgraha, p. 118, 174, 237; Tattvasamgraha, I, p. 274-366 (Sabd v i lha ivartam, 1 \l in J. Bihara and Orissa, XXIII, 1937, Part III (appendix) and translation by S. Y'amaguchi, JA, Jul. -Sept., 1 929, p. 1-86; or G. Tucci, Pre-Dinnaga, p. 1-77.

There can be two kinds of causes and conditions for the arising of a concept: some concepts stem from a reality, others from a non-reality, such as the visions in a dream (svapnadrsta), the moon reflected in water [147c] (udakacandra) 121 or the tree-stump seen in the darkness and mistaken for a man. Such names come from non-realities but are able to provoke the arising of a concept. Conditioning is not fixed (niyata) and it cannot be said that, because a concept is produced, there exists a corresponding substance. Real existence must not be sought in that which exists by virtue of causes and conditions productive of a concept. Thus, when the eye sees the moon reflected in the water, a concept is produced which is expressed by saying: "This is the moon", but the so-called moon resulting from this concept is not a real moon. Refutation of the 2 nd argument. - Furthermore, there are three kinds of existence (bhdva): 1) relative existence (pcira.ipardpcksikabhdva), 2) nominal existence (prajiiaptiblulva), 3) real existence (dharmabhdva). 1) For example, length (dirghatva) and shortness (hrastva), the qualty of being "this" or "that", etc., have relative existence. In reality, there is neither length nor shortness, neither distance nor closeness; it is because of mutual relationship that we speak thus. Length exists as a result of shortness, and shortness exists as a result of length; "that" exists as a result of "this" and "this" exists as a result of "that". If I am east of an object, it will be looked upon as "western"; if I am west of an object, it will be looked upon as "eastern"; distinctions (bheda) between east and west exist in relationship to one and the same object; but even though they have a name, they are not reality. That is what is meant by relative existences; no true reality is found there and they are not comparable to colors (rupa), smells (gandha), tastes (rasa) tangibles (sprastavaya), etc. 2) Nominal existence (prajnaptibhdva), milk, for example, which has four factors: color (rupa), smell (gandha), taste (rasa) and touchable (sparstavya). When these causes and conditions (hetupratyaya) come together, we commonly speak of milk. The milk exists, but not in the way dharmas coming from causes and conditions (pratityasamutpannadharma) exist; the milk does not exist, but not in the way that the horns of a rabbit (sasvisdna) or the hair of a tortoise (kurmaroma) are non-existent. It is only as a result of the complex of causes and conditions (hetupratyayasdmagrt) that we commonly say that milk exists. 128 It is the same for the cloth. 3) Moreover, it is as a result of color, smell, taste and tangible in the state of ultimate atoms (paramdnu) that particles of hair (romahhdga) exist; as a result of the particles of hair, there are hairs (roman); as a result of hairs, there is fluff; as a result of fluff, there is thread (tantu); as a result of thread, there is cloth (pata); as a result of cloth, there is a garment (vastra). - If the causes and conditions, namely, color, smell, taste and tangible in the state of ultimate atoms were lacking, there would be no hair particles; the hair particles not existing, there would be no hair; the hairs not existing, there would be no fluff; the fluff not existing, there would be no thread; the thread not existing, there would be no cloth; the cloth not existing, there would be no garment.

For svapna and udakacandra, sec above, Traite, 1, p. 364F, 373F. Compare Kosa, IX, p. 239.

2. Debate with the Atomist.

The Atomist. - It is impossible that every object (drvaya) exists indiscriminately only by virtue of the complex of causes and conditions (hetupratyayasdmagri). Thus, the ultimate atoms, because of their extreme subtlety (paramasuksmatvdt), have no parts (bhdga, avayava) and, having no parts, have no complex (samagri). Being coarse (sthula, auddrika), cloth is susceptible to being torn (rupand), but how could the ultimate atom, that has no parts, be broken? ANSWER: 1. The extremely tiny does not exist; this is said mistakenly. Why? Because coarseness {sthulatvu) and subtleness (suksmatvd) are relative concepts (paraspardpeksika). The subtle exists in contrast with the coarse and this subtle always has something more subtle than itself. 2. Moreover, if there existed a substance (rupa) in the state of ultimate atom (paramdnu), it would entail tenfold spatial division (clcisciclighhlulgahhcckiy™ but if it entailed the tenfold sparial division, it would not be a question of the ultimate atom. On the other hand, if there is not tenfold spatial division, it is not a question of matter. 130

129 In his Wei che eul che louen (T 1599, p i <i Hiuan I ei rcndci Hi < pn ion / igabheda of the Vimsika (ed. Levi, p. 7, 1. 19) as Fang fen (70; 18 and l. Hci di li>| | il ol / ihlwda, tenfold spatial division in reference to the four cardinal directions, the Tour intermediate directions, the zenith and the nadir (cf. Traite, I, p. 446F, note). - We have just seen that, according to the Sautrantikas (cf. Kosa, I, p. 92), the atom entails spatial division or "extension" 130 The concept of material atom is intrinsically contradictory. The atom, not susceptible to deterioration, not nsccplibl to l istancc (prai hata)\ by definition, free from breakage (rupana) and i ind >i ibk (cf Kosa, I, p. 25). Matter (rupa), on the other hand, is essentially subject to deterioration, breakage, by virtue of the definition ' , n (Kosa, 1, p J If, as the Sautrantikas would have it (cf. Kosa, I, p. 89), the atom is extended, i.e., entails spatial division, it is divisible and thus is not an atom. If, as the Sarvastivadins would have it (cf. Kosa, I, p. 89; Siddhi. P. 39), the atom is not extended, it will appear like space, like emptiness, and will no longer be able to be called rupa. Compare Vimsika, p. 7: digbhdgabhedo yasyasti tasyaikatvam na yujyate. anyo hi paramanoh urvadigh > yavad adho tga iti i idatinakasya para i < mam yoksyate: "That which has spatial division constitutes a unity. If the ultimate atom has a part oriented io the cast (another to the west), up to a pan oriented io the nadir, how could the unity of the ultimate atom be possible with such diversity of orientations?" The atomic theories of the Lesser Vehicle are explained and refuted in Siddhi, p. 44-47.

3. Furthermore, if the ultimate atom existed, it would have spatial subdivision (dkdsapariccheda); 131 but if there is subdivision, it cannot be a question of the ultimate atom. [148a] 4. If the ultimate atom existed, color (riipa), smell (gandha), taste (rasa) and touchable (sparstavya) would occur as a function of the parts (bhdga); but it cannot be a question of the ultimate atom there where color, smell, taste and touchable function as parts. 132 Try as one may to argue about the ultimate atom, this is why it cannot be established. The sutra says: "All matter (riipa), whether coarse (auddrika) or subtle (suksma), inner (adhydtman) or outer (bahirdhd), if considered generally, is transitory (anityd) and non-substantial (anatmaka)", 133 but it does not say that ultimate atoms exist. This is called the emptiness of the division into parts. 3. The object, subjective creation and emptiness. 134

Moreover, for those who contemplate emptiness (sunyatddarsiri), matter exists as a function of the mind (eittanitparivartiri). Thus these contemplatives (dhyayin) see matter as being earth (prthivi), water (ap-), fire (tejas) or wind (vayu), as being blue (nila), yellow (pita), red (lohita) or absolutely empty

131 There is dkdsa-fen-ts'i (18 and 2; 210) il cl i i i ordin lo Suzuki Index to the Lahkdvatdra, p. 238. 132 One can reply to that, along with the Kosa, II, p. 148-149, note) that an atom never exists in isolation, but that there is a minimum of seven atoms. The molecule of derived matter (atom of color, or atom of smell, etc.) entails 1379 atoms, and as all dcri\ cd matter has color, smell, taste and touchable, this number must be multiplied by four to obtain (he smallest part of mailer existing in (he isolated siate. 133 Cf. Vinaya, I, p. 14; Samyutta, II, p. 252, 253: III, p. 47, 68, 80, 89; IV, p. 332: Yam kind rupam \ / \ ; i t in i a yam dure santikc yd, sahhain rupam n ' etani mania, n ' eso 'ham asmi, na so attd 'ti. 134 This paragraph seems to take its inspiration in part from the "Sutra of Four Knowledges", popular in the idealist school; cf. Samgraha, p. 104-105, 250-252, 421-423. The bodhisattva who possesses the lour knowledges takes into account the non-reality of outer objects: 1) ViruddhavijMnanimittatvajndna: he knows that one and the same object can give rise to absolutely opposite concepts. 2) Andlambamn tyu, ulhih na he knows that one may have concepts that do not conform to any reality. 3) Aprayatndvipantatyajnana: he knows that if the object were real, his consciousness would require no effort and would not be subject to error. \) Tn'yii < tyaji h kno ihnili. >Im cl n be bent I ilv in d oflhi kinds of minds: (a) to appear as they wish to bodhisattvas and meditators endowed with mastery of mind (cetovasita); (b) to appear to yogins endowed with sainatha and yipasyana at the moment when they think of it; (c) to not appear at all to the mi ho n i [nil d ii ii ii know led (niryikalpala i)

(atyantasunya). 135 And in the same way they can contemplate the ten views of the object as totality of the object (krtsnayatanci)}^ [Darukkhandhakasutta]. 131 - The Buddha, who was dwelling on Grdhrakutaparvata, went one day to the city of Rajagrha along with the assembly of bhiksus. Seeing a large piece of wood (change ta houei "great water" to ta mou "big piece of wood" or "mahadclruskandhd") in the middle of the path, 138 the Buddha spread out his mat (nisadana), sat down and said to the monks: "A bhiksu entered into trance (dhydnapravista) and, endowed with mastery of mind (cetovasiprdpta), would be able to change this big piece of wood (read ta mou) into earth (prthivi) and this would be real earth. Why? Because the earth element exists in the wood. He would also be able to change it into water (ap-), into fire (tejas) into wind (vdyu), into gold (suvarna), into silver (rajata) and into all kinds of precious substances {ndndvidharatnadravya); and they would all be real. Why? Because the elements (dhatu) of all these things exist in the wood (read mou)." 2. Moreover, it is the same as in the case of a beautiful woman; the voluptuous man (kamesu mithyclcarin) who sees her, takes her to be a pure wonder and his heart clings to her; the ascetic given to contemplation of the disgusting {asubhabhdvana), on looking at this woman, finds all sorts of defects without any beauty; her rival, when she sees her, feels jealousy (irsyd) hatred (dvesa) and bad feelings; she does not want to look at her, as if she were ugly. 139 - On looking at this woman, the voluptuous man

Lo The contcmplativcs (dhyayiii) who practice the trance stales (dhyaiia) obtain master)' of mind (cctovuslita), a mental capability, (cittakarmanyata) thai makes them able to cause whatever they wish to appear by the power of iln n i piratioi i < // unit >ai , li n. ih. y chan i i nth mi > , ad r. cl • I ',! idh ival i i. p. 163 (tr. Lav., Museon, 1916, p. 346-347): Samgraha, p. 106, note. - The power of the contemplative is described by the Bodh. bhumi, p. 352, in the following way: yatepsitam ca sarvanlt ikarya , i ru haiuai samrdhyanti, yayad eva vastu yathadliiituicyate tat tatliaiva hhavati: "He performs all his miracles according to his wish, all his wishes come about as he desires; every object becomes exactly what he wants it to be." 136 The ten krtsnayatanas are studied in Kosa, VIII, p.213-215. 137 Cf. the Darukkhandhakasutta of Anguttara, III, p. 340-341 (tr. Hare, Gradual Sayings, III, p. 240-241), or Tsa a han, T 99, no. 494, k. 18, p. 128c-129a, and Kosa, II, p. 147. But according to the canonical version, this sutra was pronounced by Sariputra and not by the Buddha. 138 The reading of the TaisB: Ta houei (37; H5) large piece of water", is unacceptable. It is absurd that the Buddha would have spread out his mat on a piece of water and that then he would proclaim, as an extraordinary feat, the possibility of changing this piece of water into water. All these absurdities disappear if we adopt the variant Ta mou (37; 75) " large peice of wood'" this variant is attested in the Yuan, Ming and Sung editions as well as the Tempyu Ishiyama-dera monastery Mss; besides, it is the reading adopted in the Pali and Chinese versions of the / " l) III 4 Kill •'• 'i- U I I. 139 If the object were real, it would not be the object of such diametrically opposite conceptions, but it would be seen by everyone in the same way. Now the concepts relating to one and the same object van according to the categories or dispositions of the pcrcen ing subjects. In order to illustrate the theme, the texts resort especially to two examples, that of the woman and that of water.

feels pleasure (sukha); the jealous, sadness (duhkha); the ascetic finds the Path (mdrga); the unprejudicd man feels neither attraction nor repulsion: it is as if he was looking at a piece of wood. If this beauty were truly pure, the four men who were looking at it should all see it as fine (subha); if it were truly ugly, all should see it as ugly (asubha). But, [as this is not the case], we know that beauty and ugliness are in the mind (citta) and outwardly (bahirdhd) there is nothing fixed (niyata). It is as if one were looking at the void (siinya). 3. Finally, because the eighteen emptinesses (astadasasunyatd) are found in matter, it appears as empty (siinya) on being examined; being empty, it is non-existenl (anupalabdha). In the same way, all wealth (dmisadravya) resulting from causes and conditions (pratityasamutpanna) is empty (siinya) and absolutely non-existent (atyantanupalabdha).

V. NON-EXISTENCE OF THE DONOR ° A given woman is a beauty to her lover, a frightful skeleton to the ascetic, a horror to her rival, a tasty mouthful for the dog, etc. A well-known stanza, cited in the commentary to the Samgraha, p. 106, note, and in the 3ai idai ana imgraha cd of tin uianda rama, p 12 :\ Parivrdtkdmukasuiuan ekasyain pramaddtanau / kunapah kamini bhaksya iti tisro vikai a , "The ascetic, the lover and the dog have three different conceptions of the same female body: for the ascetic, it is a corpse; for the lover, it is his mistress; for the dog, it is a good mouthful." As for the example of the water, here is the commentary of the Samgraha, p. 105, n.: "There where the pretas, by the power of retribution of ihcir actions, see a river full of pus, the animals - fish, etc., - see a drink, a home, and they settle down in it. People sec delicious, pure and clear w ater; they use i'i to w ash. to quench their thirst and to bathe in it. As for the gods in the sphere of the infinity of space, they see only space there, for they have no physical sensations. Now, it is impossible to have so many opposing consciousnesses on one and the same thing if this thing were real." The same example is given in Madh. avatara, p. 164, 1. 12 (tr. Museon, 1910, p. 348), the Vimsika, p. 4 i ( >\v I\ i\ i irtilil up 8 1. 12, 140 In this section, the Mpps argues inst the belief in il i l, the belief in individa In i which finds adherents, not only among heretics, but also among certain Buddhists, mainly the VatsTputrTya- SammitTyas (cf. above, Traite, I, p. 43F, n.) In the refutation presented here by the Mpps, wc have changed slightly the banalities current among the opponents of the Atmavada w ho plagiarize one another at every opportunity: Canonical and post-canonical sources: Vinaya, I, p. 13-14; Milinda, p. 25 sq; Kathavatthu, I, p. 1. Sarvastivadin and Vaibhashika: Vijnanakaya in L. de La Vallee Poussin, La Controverse du temps et du Pudgala dans le Vijnanakaya, EA, p. 358-376; Kosha, IX, p. 227-302. Madhyamika: Madh. karika and vrtti, p. 340-381; Chatuhsataka, ed. P. Vaidya, p. 83-89 (tr. p. 138-142), ed. Bhattacharya, p. 19-101; Madh. avatara, p. 233-287 (tr. Lav., Museon, 1911, p. 282-328); Bodhicaryavatara, IX, v. 73, and Panjika, p. 471-484. Vijnanavadin: Sutralamkara, ed. Levi, p. 154-160 (tr. Levi, p. 259-265); Siddhi, p. 14-15; Tattvasamgraha, I, p. 125-130 (tr. S. Schayer, Kamalasilas Kritik des Pudgalavdda, RO, VIII, 1932, p. 68-93; tr. Jha, I, p. 217-226). It should be noted that the Mpps, attributed right ly or \\ rough, lo Nagarjuna, shows no special resemblance in its refutation of the atman to the Madh. karika of Nagarjuna, and, in a word, seems to ignore it whereas, in other

Why is the donor (dayaka) non-existent? Because, like the cloth (pata), he exists as a result of the complex of causes and conditions (hctypratyayasclmagri). If we examine the cloth part by part (hhugusuh), we see that it is non-existent; it is the same for the donor. We call a portion of space (akasa) enclosed within the four great elements (mahabhuta) body (kdya); when this body thinks, moves about and acts, when it walks, stops, sits down or arises, we commonly (prajnaptitah) call it a man (pudgala). But considering it part by part, it is non-existent (anupalabdha) Moreover, the atman is absent in all the aggregates (skandha), elements (dhdtu) and bases of consciousness (urn/ana). Since the atman does not exist, the donor does not exist. Why? Because the atman is given all kinds of nami hi ) lan (/; usya), god (deva), male (purusa), female (strf), donor (dayaka), recipient (pratigrahaka), suffering person (duhkhasamvedin), fortunate person (sukhasamvediri), animal (tiryagyoni), etc.; there are only names (namari), there is no true reality in them (bhutadharma). [148b] Question. - If the donor does not exist, who is this bodhisattva who is practicing the virtue of 11 i I ! '/ / i I ) Answer. - He is a simple name (namasamketa) existing as a result of the complex of causes and conditions (hetupratyayasamagrt), but with no more reality than a house (grha) or a chariot (ratha). NON-EXISTENCE OF THE ATMAN 1. The atman is not an object of consciousness. Question. - Why does the atman not exist? Answer. - We have already said above [when we were explaining the phrase) Evain mayd srutam ekasmin samaye (cf. Trade, I, p. 67-69F), but we will repeat it. The Buddha spoke of six consciousnesses (vijnana): 1) the eye consciousness (caksurvijnana) and the dharmas associated with the eye consciousness (caksurvijnanasamprayukyakadharma) together take color (rupa) as object (cllainhana), but are not concerned with houses {grha). cities (nagara) and other nominal fictions of all kinds; 2-5) similarly, the consciousnesses of ear, nose, tongue and body i rotnighniiuijihvuku) ivijhuna) [are concerned with sound (sabda), smell (gandha), taste (rasa) and touchable (spastavya) repectively]; 6. the mental consciousness (manovijnana) and the dharmas associated with the mental consciousness (manovijnanasamprayuktakadharma) cognize the eye (caksus),

places, it frequently has recourse to it (cf. Traite, I, p. 36F, 37F, 69F, 367F, 378F, 396F). We have already determined above, Traite, p. 614F, n., that the Mpps, at certain places, departs from the doctrines of the Madh. karika.

color (rupa), the eye consciousness (caksurvijndnd), and so on up to : they cognize the mind (manas), dharmas and the mental consciousness (manovijndna). 141 The things that are the object (dlambana) of these consciousnesses (vijndna) are all empty (siinya), impersonal (andtman) and perish after their arising (utptiimtiniritddha); they are not independent (svatantra). Neither can an atman cannot be attributed to unconditioned dharmas (asamskrtadharma) ul , for they experience neither suffering (duhkha) nor happiness (sukha). If an atman were needed in all of that, there must be a seventh consciousness to cognize this atman; but this is not the case. Therefore we know that there is no atman.

2. Debate with the Personalist.

The Personalist. - How do you know there is no Atman? 1 st Argument. - Each person in particular conceives the idea of atman in respect to his own person (svakdya), and not in respect to that of another. Therefore if he wrongly considers as atman the non- atman of his own person, he ought also to wrongly consider as atman the non-atman of another. 2 nd Argument. - If there is no inner (ddhydtma) atman, (given that) the cognition of colors arises and perishes from moment to moment (kscinotpannciniriiddha), how does one distinguish and recognize the color blue (nila). yellow (pita), red (lohitd) or white (avaddtd)! 3rd Argument. - If there is no atman, and since the evolving human consciousnesses (pravrttivijndna), constantly arising and ceasing, all disappear with the life of the body, who is bound by the actions - sins (dpatti) or merits (punyaf! Who endures sufferin (dul I o happ i khay Who is liberated (vimukta)? For all of these reasons, we know that the atman exists.

According to the Kosa, IX, p. 238, the \ at ipulri'ya bclii < (hat tin Iman or putlsjafa is cognized by the visual consciousness. When the visual consciousness, they say, cognizes color and shape, i.e., the body, they secondarily I nn lit / ivati) - Here the Mpps establishes that the object belonging to the six consciousnesses is empty and does not constitute an atman; it will add that there is no seventh consciousness to cognize the atman. This difficulty v. iil later lead the idealist school to posit a seventh i which they call the Stained by belief in a self, this has the store- (alayaviji ) object hich it wrongly takes to I in atman (el imgraha, p. 16 I'rimsika, p 22-24; Siddhi, p. 225-288). 142 These asamskrta dharmas are space (akasd), cessation (= nirvana) due to wisdom {pratisamkhyanirodha) and the cessation not due to wisdom (ap, iti in n u rodi I .1 Kosa, I, p. 8.

ANSWER: Refutation of the I s ' Argument. - 1) The difficulty is common to us, for if the man conceived the idea of atman with reference to another person, one must still ask why he does not conceive the idea of atman in reference to his own person. 143 2. Furthermore, arising from causes and conditions (pratityasamutpdnna), the five aggregates (skandha) are empty (siinyd) and are not atman. 144 But because of ignorance (avidya), the twenty kinds of satkdyadrsti (belief in "me" and "mine") arise. 145 This satkdyadrsti arises relative to the five aggregates. Since it arises from the five aggregates, it is these five aggregates and not the person of another that is considered to be the atman, and that is due to the impregnations { vdsand) of [ignorance]. 3. Furthermore, if there were any atman [whatsoever], the atman of a third person should exist; but without even knowing if your own atman exists or not, you are questioning me about the atman of a third person. It is as if somebody, questioned about the horns of a rabbit (hasvisdna), should answer that they are like the horns of a horse (asvavisdna). If the horns of a horse really existed, one could resort to them to establish [the existence] of the horns of a rabbit; but if the horns of a horse are also uncertain (avyakta), how could one resort to them to establish the horns of a rabbit? 4. Furthermore, it is because the man conceives the idea of atman in reference to his own person that he himself affirms the existence of the atman. But you are speaking of a universal (vydpin) atman which should also be attributed to other people. This is why one cannot say that the fact of conceiving the idea of atman in reference to one's own person and not in reference to [148c] another's person proves the existence of the atman.

143 Aryadeva meets this objection in his Catuhsataka, v. 228 (cited in Madh. vrtti, p. 199): va avatina nainai , tina e • n nil i " a nan n nunv anityesu hhavesu iiaina jayate. "What is self for you is non-self for me; therefore it is not certain that it concerns a self. Do these hypotheses not arise on the basis of impermanent things?" 144 To understand the discussion that follows, one should remember that the idea of the self applies to the five skandhas, the elements constituting the individual, namely, substance or body (rupti), perception (saiiijha), feeling (vedand), formations (samskdra) and consciousness (vijhdna). A synonymous expression is "name-and-form" (namarupa) which the Vlpps will use later. Naiiian is she four non-material skandhas, perception, feeling, formations and consciousness; Riipa is the material skandha, the both' or substance, 145 Satkdyadrsti, the etymology of which is obscure (cf. Kosa, V, p. 15, n. 2) means the belief in "me" and "mine" (dtmdtmfyagrdha). See .Vlajjhima, 111, p. 17: Samyutta, 111, p. 16; Vibhaiiga, p. 364: DhammasaiigaEni, p. 320; Patisambhida, I, p. 143-149; Mahavyutpatti, no. 1684-4704; P'i p'o cha, T 1545, k. 8, p. 36-49 (tr. J. Rahder, La satkdyadrshti dapres Vibhdsd, 8, in MCB, I, 1931-32, p. 227-239; Kosa, V, p. 15-17; Siddhi, p. 348 The satkdyadrsti takes as atman cither the live skandhas or incofthel it has twenty aspect or "points" on which scholars disagree: (he Pali system counts four different aspects for each of the five skandhas: 1) riipa is atman I i ml > I in I illun ih i in i hin nd o I for each of the oilier four skandhas. The Abhidharma system is explained in \'lahav\ utpatti and Vibhasa (I.e.) and is more complicated.

5. Furthermore, there are people in whom the idea of atman arises in reference to something [other than themselves]: thus, heretic contemplatives (ffrthikadhydyiri), practicing the seeing of the totality of earth (prthivikrtsnayatana), see the earth as being the atman and the atman as being the earth, 146 and the same also for water, fire, wind and space. But it is out of error (viparyasa) that the idea of atman is conceived in reference to another. 6. Moreover, there are circumstances (samaya) where the idea of self is conceived in reference to another. [The man whose limbs were replaced by those of a corpse]. 147 Thus, a man who had undertaken to go on a long journey spent the night alone in a deserted house. In the middle of the night, a demon, carrying a dead man on his shoulder, was about to set the corpse down in front of him; then another demon angrily chased the first one saying: "That dead man belongs to me; why are you bringing him here?" The first demon replied: "He is my property; it is I who took him and brought him here myself." The second demon continued: "No, it was I who brought that dead man here." Each seizing the corpse by one hand, the two demons argued with each other. The first demon said: "There is a man here and we can ask him." The second demon began to question him. The man thought: "These two demons are very strong; whether I tell the truth or I lie, my death is certain; in either case, I can't escape. What is the use of lying?" Then he answered that it was the first demon that had brought [the corpse]. Immediately, very angry, the second demon seized the man by the hand which he tore off and threw on the ground; but the second demon took an arm of the corpse which he fitted onto the man by slapping it on. In the same way he substituted the two arms, the two legs the head and the sides [of the corpse]. Together, the two demons devoured the man's body which they had replaced [by that of the corpse], and after wiping their mouths, they went away. Then the man thought: "With my own eyes, I saw the demons devour the body which my mother and father gave to me; now my present body consists completely of another's flesh. Do I really have a body now, or am I only a corpse? If I think I have body, it is entirely another's body; if I think I don't have one, there is, however, a body that is visible." Having had these thoughts, he was very worried and became like a man who has lost his mind. The next morning, he resumed his journey. Having arrived at the kingdom that was his destination, he saw an assembly of monks around a Buddhist stupa, and he asked them whether his body existed or not. The monks asked him: "Who are you?" He answered: "I don't even know if I am a man or not." He told

146 On the power of these contemplatives, see above, p. 73 IF. 147 In its version of this macabre story, the Mpps is very close to Tchong king siuan tsa p'i yu king, T 208, no. 3, p. 531c-532a (tr. Cha\ amies, Contes, II, p. 72-74). The story is summarized in King liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 46, p. 241a- b. - According to the legend of Asoka, the victim of the story was the son of a noble family of Mathura: he had become a monk under Qpagupta, but decided to return to the world; on going home, he stopped for the night in the temple of a deva, where two yaksas appeared and substituted his body for that of a corpse. The next day, he returned to Upagupta and. completely detached from his both', he attained arhathood: cf. A yu wang tchouan, T 2042, k. 6, p. 122b (tr. Przysluski, Asoka, p. 381-382); A yu wang king, T 2043, k. 9, p. 165b.

the assembly all that had happened. The bhiksus said: "This man knows for himself the non-existence of a self; he will easily be liberated." Speaking to him, they said: "From the very beginning until today, your body was always without atman, and it is not just coming to the present moment [that that is so]; it is simply because the four great elements were combined that you thought: 'This is my body.' There is no difference between your previous body and that of today." The bhiksus converted him to the Path (mdrga); he cut through his passions and became an arhat. Thus there are circumstances where one conceives the idea of self in reference to another. But under the pretence that there are distinctions between "that" and "this", one cannot say that there is a "me". 7. Finally, the true nature (bhutasvabhdva) of the atman cannot be established with precision (niyama); one cannot establish whether it is eternal (nitya) or transitory (anitya) independent (svatantra) or dependent (asvatantra), [149a] active (kdraka) or inactive (akdraka), substantial (rupin) or non- substantial (ampin), and other characteristics (nimitta) of this kind. Where there are characteristics (nimitta), there is reality (dharma); but without characteristics, there is no reality. Since the atman has no characteristics, we know that it does not exist. a. If the atman were eternal (nitya), the sin of murder (vadhdpatti) would not exist. Why? The body can be killed bcause it is transitory, whereas the atman would be indestructible because eternal. Question. - Without a doubt, the atman which is eternal cannot be killed, but the sin of murder is only killing the body. Answer. - If killing the body were murder, why does the Vinaya say that suicide (dtmavadha) is not murder? 148 Sin (dpatti) and merit (punya) result from evil done to another (paivrilict/iana) or good done

148 I (Lamotte) strongly doubt that the Vinaya says that "suicide is not murder", but it is certain that Buddhism has never condemned suicide as such. It seems that it is wrong that de La Vallee Poussin, in his article Suicide in ERE, Xll, p. 25, claimed the contrary. In fact, the third Paarajika, to which he refers, docs nisi condemn suicide itself, but the encouraging of others to kill themselves, which is quite different: "If a bhiksu gives a knife or had a knife given to someone and tells them to kill th mseh if h pra death to them; if he says for example; "What use is this miserable life? It is better to die than to live" ... and aftcrvv aids this man. because of that, dies, this bhiksu is guilty of npdrdjika sin" (Vinaya, III, p. 72; L. Finot, Le Prdtimoksasutra des Sarvdstivddin, JA, Nov.-Dec., 1913, p.477-478). As the Mpps comments here, suicide, which harms no one else, is not a sin since sin consists of harming others, just as merit consists of doing good to others. But although suicide itself is not to be condemned, that does not mean that it should be recommended to all. A reasonable action in some, in others it can be madness. Among successful suicides, we may cite that of the Buddhas who turned the wheel of Dharma and converted disciples, that of pratyekabuddhas who judged the time had come to enter into nirvana, that of arhats who destroyed their passions and "did what had to be done" (krtakrtya); finally, that of bodhisattvas who sacrificed their lives in honor of the Buddha or for the good of creatures. Thus, Sakyamuni, having decided to die, spontaneously renounced his life foicc f i i Digha, II, p. 106). Pratyekabuddhas in groups or singly, judging that the time had come, rise up into hi 1 ii i th m I i into fin ind i ei parinii Lna (cl Traite, I, p. 182F, n. 2; p. 392F). At the death of Sakyamuni, eighteen arhats entered nirvana with him | Traite, I, p. 89, n. 2) while

to another (parahita) respectively. It is not by taking care of one's own body or by killing one's own body that one gains merit or commits a sin. This is why the Vinaya says that suicide is not a sin of murder but is tainted with ignorance (moha), desire (rdga) and hatred (dvesa). If the atman were eternal, it would not die and would not be reborn. Why? Because according to your system, the atman which is eternal, completely fills the five destinies (gati); how would there be birth and death? Death (cyuti) consists of leaving this place, and birth (upapatti) consists of appearing in that place. This is why it cannot be said that the atman is eternal. If the atman were eternal, it would be unable to experience sorrow (duhkha) and happiness (sukha). Why? When sorrow prevails, one is sad, and when happiness prevails, one is joyful. But that which is modified (vikrta) by sorrow and joy is not eternal. If the atman were eternal, it would be like space (dkdsasama); rain would not moisten it and heat would not dry it up. There would be no hither (ihatra) or thither (paratra) in it. If the atman were eternal, it could not be reborn over there or die here. If the atman were eternal, the view of sell (dtmadr$ti) would exist permanently and one would never be able to attain nirvana. If the Atman were eternal, it would be without arisin > (i pdda) indi i ingl t dha) and there would be no falsehood or error, for there must be non-self (andtman) and impermanence (anitya) for there to be forgetfulness and error.

Subhadra voluntarily preceded him in death (Traite, 1. p. 2 1 01'). Vakkhali, who was suffering from a painful illness, received asssurance from the Buddha thai his death would be innocent (apapika), recited the Buddhist credo for the last time and stabbed himself (Samyutta, III, p. 1 19-124; Tsa a han, T 99, no. 1265, k. 47, p. 346b-347b; Tseng yi a haii, II ' 1' p. 642b-643a). Go Ihil i I pairiin ol ttainin lefiniti lelivcranci lit hi throat it oik obtainedarhathood and entered into nirvana (cf. Traite, I, p. 21 IF, n.). Ylahaprajapati Gautami and her friends voluntarily entered nirvana with (he Buddha's permission (Traite, I, p. 587F, n.). Both the Lesser and the Greater Vehicle unreserved!) praise the charitable deeds of the bodhisattvas who sacrifice their life for the bene fit of beings or to pay homage io the Buddhas. We may recall the '"gift of the body" and the gift of the head" made by the future Buddha Sakyamuni (Traite, I, p. 143-144F, n.), the deed of the bodhisattva Sarvasattvapriyadarsana who, to celebrate the Buddha and the Saddharmapundankasutra. filled his body w ith oil. set it on fire and burned for twelve years {Traite, I, p. 579, n.; below, p. 751F). Suicide seems to be reserved for very saintly and very virtuous people; others would do best to abstain. Often, the untimely attempl ai suicide fails, not without, however, assuring the hopeless one of considerable spiritual benefits. Siha. hopeless ai no! progressing on (he spiritual path, wished to hang herself; hardly had she knotted the cord around her neck than she attained arhathood; the cord loosened from her neck and fell to the ground (Therfgatha, v. 77-81). Sappadasa. feeling unable to arrive at meditative stabilization, was about to kill himself with a razor when he suddenly attained insight (Theragatha, v. 405-410). Vakkhali, regretting not seeing the Buddha, wished to throw himself down from a high rock; ai that moment the master appeared and prevented him from prematurely ending his days (Apadana, II, p. 465-468; Manorathha, I, p. 248-251; Dhammapadattha, IV, p. 118-119. ti Burlingam d II! p 6 6 I hcra itha ran. in Rh.-D., Brethren, p. 197-199).

Therefore the atman is not eternal and, for many reasons of this kind, we know that the atman is not eternal. b. If the atman were transitory (anitya), there would, again, be neither sin (dpatti) nor merit (punya). The body being impermanent and likewise the atman, both would perish together [at death) and final annihilation (uccheddnta) would be reached. Swallowed up in this annihilation, one would not go on to future existences (parajanman) and undergo there [the retribution] of sins and merits. If this annihilation were nirvana, it would not be necessary to cut the bonds {bandhanadamuccheda), and one would only commit sins and merits, the causes and conditions {hetupratyaya) of future existences. For many reasons of this kind, we know that the atman is not transitory. c. If the atman were independent (svatantra) and active (kdraka), it would be able to have everything according to its desires. Now it does not [always] get what it wants and it [often] gets what it does not want. If the atman were independent, no one would commit evil deeds and fall into the bad animal destinies {tiryagyonidurgati). Furthermore, every being hates suffering (duhkha); but whoever seeks happiness (sukha) finds suffering. This is how we know that the atman is neither independent nor active. [149b] Moreover, out of fear of punishment, people make an effort to practice the good. If it were independent, why would it be forced to cultivate merits (punyabhdvana ) out of fear of punishment? Finally, beings do not realize their wishes (manorathd); they are pulled about (dksipta) by the afflictions (klesa) and the bonds of craving (trsndbandhana) For many reasons of this kind, we know that the atman is neither independent nor active. d. Is the atman dependent (asvatantrd) and inactive {akdrakajl No, those are not the characteristics of the atman. What is called the atman is not different from the six consciousnesses (sadvijndna). Moreover, if the atman is inactive, why does king Yen lo (Yama) 149 ask the fisherman: "Who commanded you to commit this sin?" And the fisherman answered: "I myself committed it." This is why we know that the atman is not inactive e. It is not correct that the atman is substantial (rupiri). Why? Because all substance is transitory (anitya). Question. - Why do people say: substantiality is one of my own characteristics? Answer. - Some say that the atman resides in the mind (citta) and that it is as fine (suksma) as a mustard grain (sarsapa): pure (visucldha), it is called subtle material body (jirasaclarupakaya). According to other opinions, it is like a grain of wheat (yava), a bean (mdsa, masura) half an inch high (ardhdngustha), an

Yama, king of death and the hells in Hindu mytholog) (cf. Macdoncll, Vedic Mythology, p. 171-174; Hopkins, Epic Mythology, p. 107-116): he plays only a minor role in the Buddhist pantheon (see Malalasekera, II, p. 680-681; Akanuma, p. 777a).

inch high (angustha). As soon as it takes on a body, it resumes its former form, the way the skeleton of an elephant (gajdsthi), when it has reached its complete form, is like that of the entire elephant. Some say that the size [of the subtle body) corresponds to that of the human body and that after death the dimensions re -appear. But all of that is wrong (ayukta). Why? Because all matter (rupa) is made of the four great elements (mahdbhuta); being the result of causes and conditions (pratityasamutpanna), all matter is impermanent (anitya). If the atman were material, since matter is transitory, the atman too would be transitory. For this hypothesis, see what has been said above (p. 743F). Question. - There are two types of bodies (kdya), the coarse body (sthulasmfra) and the subtle body (suksmasanra). The coarse body is transitory (anitya), but the subtle body is the atman; eternally it passes from existence to existence and penetrates the five destinies (gati). 151 Answer. - This subtle body does not exist (nopalabhyate). If the subtle body existed, there should be a place (sthdnd) where it could be found, as is the case for the five internal organs or the four parts of the body. But we may search for it everywhere without finding it. Question. - This subtle body is extremely fine (paramasuksma). At death, when it has gone, how would you see it if, during life, you couldn't find it? Besides, the five organs can neither see nor cognize this subtle body; only the arya endowed with the superknowledges (abhijnd) could see it. Answer. - If that is so, it is no different than nothing at all. When a person, at the moment of death, abandons the aggregates (skandha) of the present existence to enter into the aggregates of the intermediate existence (antardbhava), 152 there is no relationship of anteriority or posteriority between the

150 Here we have a very clear allusion to the speculations of the Upanisads w hich often contrast the Brahman, world soul, with the brahman, the psychic principle; as such the Being dwells in the citadel of the body (purisayah purusah: Prasna Up., V, 5), in the loin of the heart ( / / tnd< I 111 1, I). It is tiny (vdmana: Katha Up. V, 3) a span in length ( lesamal nil i ya Up. V, 18, 1), an inch high (angusthamatra: Katha Up. IV, 12), smaller Shan a grain of rice, than a grain of wheat, than a millet seed aniyaydn vriher yavdd i a irsupad v< undka ttt Ui va - i Up III 14 I thi izi it mei I! point (drdgramdtra: Candogya Up. V., 8). It is « in vital \ ind in , a I in it il i Up III, 9), the witness (sdksin), the person who appears in the pupil of the eye (ya eso ksani , in li \ a Up. Iv, 15, 1). In the Buddhist texts references are rarely found as clear as in (he rantings of the Upanisads. 151 The Vedanta accepts the existence of this subtle body; at the same time as the indriyas, the seeds of the organs of the coarse body, the soul carries w ith il al death the subtle body composed of subtle particles of the elements, which will be the seeds of a new coarse body. The subtle body is materia! but transparent; thus no one can see it when it exits. The animal heat belongs to it: if the corpse is cold, it is because the subtle body, enveloping the soul and the organs, has abandoned the coarse body. Cf. Samkara ad Brahmasutra, I, 4, 1: IV, 2, 9; P. Deussen, Das System des Vedanta, 1883, p. 399-404. - The Samkhya also believe in the existence of a subtle body that does not come from the parents but results from a projection; cf. Samkhyapravachanabhasya, III, 7, cd. R. Garbc, p. 89; Samkhyasutra, V, 103, ed. R. Garbe,p. 241. 152 Some Buddhists are of the opinion that between existence-death and existence-birth there is an intermediate existence (antardbhava) - a body, five skandhas - that goes to the place of rebirth; this theory is proposed mainly by

moment when the body of the actual existence disappears and when it assumes the body of the intermediate existence: the birth occurs at the same time as the disappearance. It is as if one presses a wax seal (mudra) onto clay and, the clay having received the imprint, the imprint were to be broken at once; the impression and the disappearance of the imprint are simultaneous, without anteriority or posteriority. At the very same moment when one takes on the aggregates and the mode of being of the intermediate existence, one abandons the aggregates of the intermediate existence (antardbhava) to assume the mode of being of existence-birth (upapattibhava). You say that the subtle body constitutes this intermediate existence, but this [alleged] body of intermediate existence comes [from nowhere] and goes [nowhere]. It is like the burning of a lamp (dipci) characterized by a succession of productions and disappearances (utpddanirodha-prabandha), without permanence (sdsvata), but also without interruption (uccheda). 153 [149c] Finally, the Buddha said: "Whether past, future or present, coarse or subtle, all substance is transitory." 154 Therefore your [alleged] subtle matter constituting the atman would also be transitory and perishable. For many reasons of this kind we know that the atman is not substantial. / Neither is the atman non-substantial (ariipin). The four aggregates {skandha) 155 and the three unconditioned (asamskrta) factors are non-substantial. The four aggregates in question, being impermanent (anitya), dependent (asvatantra), dependent on causes and conditions (hetupratyaydpeksa) cannot be the atman. As for the three non-conditioned factors, they cannot be considered as being the atman because they are not taken on (updtta). For many reasons of this kind we know that the atman is not non-substantial.

the Sammitlyas (cf. Kathavatthu, II, p. 361). But most of the sects do not agree, deny this antarahhava (see Kosa, III, p. 32, n) for the good reason that birth immediately follows the death. 153 In its reasoning and its examples, the Mpps seems to take its inspiration directly from the Madh.vrtti, p. 544: tatrabimbapratibimbanydyena svddhyin uiudrapi , i.ydyena vd marandntikesu skandhesu nirudhyamdnesv ekasminn eva ksani tuldda i iai\ ivpapa i ikdh skandha yathakarmdksepata upqjdyante: In the example of the image and the reflection or the example of reading and the lamp, the seal and the impression, etc., when the present skandhas arc destroyed at death, at (hat very moment, as is the ca.se for the (simultaneous) rising and falling of She pans of a balance, the skandhas relating to birth arc produced hy a projection in harmony with the actions. For the example of the image and the reflection (himhapratihimha), sec Kosa. Ill, p. 34: for the example of the seal and the n ion ( Lalitavistara p 176, 1. 15; Madh. vrtti, p. 428, 551; for the example of the pan of a balance (nil I, VI >lli itara, ] 4 Or. La luseon, 1910, p. 291-292). Also according to the Visuddhimagga (p. 604), birth immediately follows death and there is no intermediary (tesam antarikd natthi). 154 Cf. Vinaya, I, p. 14; Samyutta, II, p. 252, 253; III, p. 47, 68, 80. 89; IV, p. 382: Yam kind rupam ti ' c< i , ii, , m ihiddhd i ilarii vti Im < i , • \ id, > it ike vd, sabbam rupam n ' etain mama n ' eso 'ham asmi na me so attdti. 155 I.e., samjhd, vedand, samskard and vijndna; cf. above, p. 77F, n. 2.

Search for the atman in the heavens or on earth, inside (adhyatmam) or outside (bahirdhd), in the three times (tryadhva) or the ten directions (dasadis), you will never find it anywhere. Only the coming together of the twelve bases of consciou n [< vdd 1 ma, i.e., the six sense organs and their respective objects] produce the six consciousnesses (sadvijnana). The coming together of the three [trisamnipata, or the coming together of the organs, the objects and the consciousnesses] is called contact (sparsa). Contact produces feeling {vedana), concept (samjnd), the act of attention (cetand) and other mental dharmas (caitta, caitasikadharma)} 56 According to the Buddhist system (ihadharma), it is by the power of ignorance (avidyd) that satkdyadrsti (belief in me and mine) arises. As a result of satkdyadrsti, the existence of atman is affirmed. This satkdyadrsti is destroyed by seeing the truth of suffering (duhkhasatyadarsana, the knowledge of the law relating to suffering {duhkhe dharmajndnd) and the subsequent knowledge relating to suffering {duhkhe 'nvayajndna). When satkdyadrsti is destroyed, one no longer believes in the atman. Refutation of the 2 nd argument. - Above (p. 736F) you said: "If there is no inner (adhyatma) atman, given that the consciousness of colors arises and perishes from moment to moment (ksanotpannaniruddhd), how does one distinguish and cognize the color blue, yellow, red or white?" But if the atman existed, neither could it cognize it by itself; it would have to depend (dsri) on the visual consciousness (caksiurijiiuna) to be able to cognize it. If that is so, the atman is futile {nisprayajana). The visual consciousness cognizes color; color arises and perishes, and [the visual consciousness] arises in similarity with it and perishes in similarity with it. However, in the mind that [immediately] follows, there arises a dharma called memory (smrti); this memory is a conditioned (samskrta) dharma; although it perishes and disappears, this memory is capable of cognizing. 157 In the same way that the arya, by the power of his wisdom (prajndbald), is able to cognize future things {andgatadharma), so successive moments of memory are able to cognize past moments (atitadharmd). On disappearing, the previous visual consciousness gives birth to the subsequent visual consciousness. This subsequent visual consciousness is endowed with power by the energy of its activity (pravrttiksnatvdt) and, although the color is temporary and unstable, it can be cognized thanks to the energy of memory. This is why, while arising and ceasing from moment to moment and despite its impermanence, consciousness can distinguish and cognize color. Refutation of the 3 rd argument. - You said (p. 736F): "If there were no Atman, since the evoking human consciousnesses {pravrttivijndna), which are always arising and perishing, all disappear with the life of the body, who then is related to actions - sins or merits? Who endures the suffering (duhkha) or enjoys the happiness {sukhaj! Who is liberated {vimukta)?" Now we will reply.

Extract of a siilra the Sanskrit version of which is known to us by the Vijiianakaya fir. Lav., EA, I, p. 370) and Kosa, III, p. 105; IX, p 245 ca/< nji cotpa rvi ruyii ipa i ih tli i i In hi h hi I lin hi i in i luitta, II, p. 72; Iv, p. 33, 67-69, 86- 87, 90: cakkhmi icca r'upc ca u t i ' laccaya vedana, redanapaccaya tanlia, ayain klio dukkhasso samudayo. 157 For the problem of memory, see Kosa, IX, p. 273 sq.

1. In the person who has not yet obtained the true Path (mdrga), the afflictions (klesa) cover over (avrnvanti) the mind (citta); he performs actions (karman) that are the causes and condition for his rebirth (jdtihetupixityaya): alter death, the five aggregates [of the future existence] arise from the series of five aggregates (pancaskandhasamtdna) of the present existence in the same way that one lamp lights another. And in the same way that, in the production of rice (sail), three causes and conditions intervene, namely, soil (bhumi), water (vdri) and seed (by a), so for a future existence to be produced, a body (kdya), defiled actions (sdsravakarman) and the fetters (samyojana) are necessary. Of these three causes and conditions, the body and actions cannot be cut through, cannot be suppressed; only the fetters can be cut through. When the fetters are cut through, even though a body and actions remain, one can obtain liberation [150a] (vimukti). If there is a rice seed (sdlibvja) and earth (bl , i) bu - il r (vdri) is missing, the rice will not grow. Similarly also, despite the presence of a body (kdya) and despite the presence of actions (karman), one is not reborn when the water of the fetters (samyojana) has dried up. Thus, even though there is no atman, one can obtain liberation (i in kti) I ond ij i (t andhana) is due to ignorance (avidyd); liberation is due to wisdom (prajnd); the atman plays no part. 2. Finally, the complex of name-and-form (ndmarupasdmagri) is commonly (prajnaptitah) called pudgala (person, individual). This pudgala is chained by all the bonds (bandhana); but when it has found the tab of pure wisdom i rai ;' a) it unties all the knots; from that time onward, this person has found liberation (vimukti). It is like a rope which one knots or unknots (rajjuninirmocana): the rope is the knot, and the knot is not something distinct (bhinnadharma); but in common usage (loka), we say: to tie the rope, to untie the rope. It is the same for name-and-form (ndmarupa): the coming together of these two things, i.e., name (ndman) and form, is commonly called (prajnaptitah) pudgala, but the fetters are not something different from name-and-form. With regard to name-and-form, it is just a matter of being chained [by the fetters] or liberated [from the fetters]. It is the same for receiving punishment or reward. Although no dharma is truly pudgala, it is by means of name-and-form that one gathers the fruit of sins and merits; and yet the pudgala has the name of the gatherer. It is like the chariot (ratha) that carries goods: by examining it piece by piece, there is no real chariot [distinct from its constitutive parts]; nevertheless, the chariot has the name of the transporter of goods. In the same way, the pudgala receives punishment and reward [in the sense that] name-and-form receive punishment or reward, whereas the pudgala has [merely] the name of receiver. It is the same for what feels suffering or happiness. For many reasons of this kind, the atman is non-existent. [Here] atman means the donor (ddyaka), but it is the same for the recipient (pratigrdhaka). According to you, the atman is the pudgala. This is why the pudgala who gives is non-existent and the pudgala who receives is non-existent. For many reasons of this kind, it is said that the thing given, the donor and the recipient do not exist. Question. - If, among all the dharmas, the gift has as the true nature as its characteristic (tathatdlaksana), if it is indestructible, non-perishable, unborn and uncreated, why do you say that the three elements [of which it is constituted], namely gift, donor and recipient] are broken and non-existent?

Answer. - If ordinary people (prthagjana) \ think] they see a donor, a recipient and a gift, that is an error (viparyclsa) and a wrong view (mithyddrsti); they are reborn in this world (loka) and enjoy happiness here; but when their meril (punya) is exhausted, they go backward. This is why the Buddha wants to lead the bodhisattva to follow the true Path (satyamdrga) and obtain the true fruit of reward (vipdkaphala). The true fruit of retribution is Buddhahood. To destroy wrong views, the Buddha says that the three things (donor, beneficiary and gift] do not exist and are truly indestructible. Why? Because from the very beginning (dditah), all dharmas are absolutely empty (atyantasunya). For innumerable reasons of this kind, they are non-existent, and that is what is meant by perfection of the virtue of generosity. VI. GENEROSITY AND THE OTHER VIRTUES

Moreover, if the bodhisattva practices the virtue of generosity, he will be able to give birth to the six virtues (pdramitd), and this will then be the perfection of the virtue of generosity. 1. Generosity and the virtue of generosity. How does generosity engender the virtue of generosity? Generosity is lower (avard), middling (madhyd) or higher (agrci); from the lower generosity comes the middling generosity and from the middling generosity comes the higher generosity. Giving food (dhdra) and [other gross] objects (auddrikadravya) with gentleness (mrducitta) is lower generosity. [150b] Advancing in the practice of generosity (ddnabhdvandvardhana) and giving garments (vastra) and [other] precious objects (ratnadravya) is middling generosity, the result of lower generosity. Progressing in the generous motivation {ddnacittavardhana) \\ ithout sparing anything, giving one's head (siras), one's eyes (nayana), one's blood (sonita), one's flesh (mdmsa), one's kingdom (rdjya), one's wealth (dhana), one's wife (ddra) and children (putra) unreservedly, this is higher generosity, coming from middling generosity. [Gifts practiced by Sakyamuni in his jatakas]. 15 ^ [1. Lesser gifts]. - Thus, when the Buddha Sakyamuni produced the Bodhi mind (prutamucittotpddukule) for the first time, he was a great king called Kouang ming (Prabhasa) - seeking Buddhahood, he practiced generosity more or less. - When he took on a new existence, he was the master-potter (kumbhakdra) who gave bath utensils and honey syrup to another Buddha Sakyamuni and

In the course of his previous existences, Sakyamuni made countless offerings to the Buddhas, seeking for enlightenment in order to liberate beings. The Mpps limits itself here to mentioning several of these offerings, but a much longer list may be found in Lalitavistara, p. 171-172 (tr. Foucaux, p. 153-154).

his samgha. - Then when he was reborn, he was the wife of a great merchant (mahdsresthibhdryd), who offered a lamp to the buddha Kiao tch 'en jo (Kaundinya). Various deeds of this kind are called lesser gifts of the Bodhisattva. [2. Middling gifts]. - In his previous existences, the buddha Sakyamuni was a merchant's son who gave a garment to the buddha Ta yin cheng (Mahaghosa) and built ninety stupas to him fter his parinirvana. - Then, when he was reborn, he was the great king who offered to the buddha Che tseu (Simha) garlands made of the seven jewels {saptaratnamayanicaya). - Finally, when he was reborn, he was the great merchant (mahasresthin ) who offered to the buddha Miao mou (Sunetra) an excellent palace and lotuses made of the seven jewels (saptaratnamayapadma). Deeds of this kind are called middling gifts of the Bodhisattva. [3. Higher gifts]. - In a previous existence, the buddha Sakyamuni was a recluse (rsi) who, seeing the grace and beauty of the Buddha Kiao tch 'en (Kaundinya) threw himself at the feet of this Buddha from the top of a high mountain; then, with peaceful body, he stood to one side. - He was also the bodhisattva Tchong cheng hi kien I Jan isatt\ ipriyadai .ma) who offered his body as a lamp to the Buddha Je yue kouang to (CandrasuryavimalaprabhasasrT). 160 Various deeds of this kind, where the Bodhisattva sacrifices his body (kayajivita) to offer it to the Buddhas, are the higher gifts of the bodhisattva. These are the three gifts of the Bodhisattva. It is the same also when the bodhisattvas, from their first production of Bodhi mind (pruthumuhodhicittotpudu), make gifts to beings; first, they give food (dhdra); then their generous intentions increasing (ddiuicittcivtirdluiiui), they give them the flesh of their body (kayamamsa). First, they give all kinds of excellent drinks; then, their generosity increasing, they give them their body's blood (kdyasonita). First they give them paper, ink and canonical texts, then they give the dharma teachers the fourfold offering (pujd) of garments, robes, food and drink; finally, having obtained the dharmakdya, they preach all kinds of sermons {dharma) to countless beings (aprameyasattva), thus practicing generosity of the Dharma (dharmadand). It is by means of such [progressions] that, from the virtue of generosity, there ensues [an increase of] the virtue of generosity.

2. Generosity and the virtue of morality.

How does the generosity of the bodhisattva give rise to the virtue of morality (sFlapdramitd)? The bodhisattva says to himself that, if he does not give anything to beings, he will be poor in the following existence; because of this poverty, thoughts of stealing (adattdddnd) will arise in him; in the course of these thefts, he will commit murder (prdndtipdta). As a result of his poverty, he will have insufficient pleasure; since these pleasures are insufficient, he will engage in illicit lovemaking (kdmamithydcdru).

159 On the gift of the Buddha to the former Sak> amuni, see above, Traite, I, p. 225F and notes. 160 The action of this bodhisattva who later became the Buddha Bhaisaraja is fully described i Saddharmapundarrka, p. 405-408. See text, Traite, I, p. 579.

Because of his poverty, he will be a man of [150c] low condition (hina); fearful of the fact of this lowly condition, he will speak falsehoods (mrsavada), etc. Thus in the course of his poverty, he will commit the ten bad paths of action (akusalakarmapatha). 161 [On the other hand], if he practices generosity, he will be reborn wealthy, and having riches, he will not commit sins (adharma ). Why? Because one has no needs, then the five objects of enjoyment (panca kdmaguna) are assured. [The snake, the frog and the rat] 162 . - In a previous existence, T'i p'o ta (Devadatta) was once a snake (sarpa). This snake lived in a pool (hrada) in friendship along with a frog (manduka) and a tortoise (kurma). In time, the water of the pool dried up completely, but there was nobody the snake could blame for the famine (duribhiksd) and distress; however, he sent the tortoise to call the frog [intending to eat the latter). But the frog sent the tortoise back with this stanza:

When one becomes poor, one forgets previous dispositions. One forgets earlier values; eating becomes the main thing. Remember my words and repeat them to the snake: The frog will never return to you.

If one develops generosity, one will become rich in future existences and never have needs; then one will be able to keep morality (Ma) and avoid all these sins. Therefore generosity can engender the virtue of morality. Furthermore, generosity leads to the alleviation of the bonds of immorality (cluuhsFlyu): it increases the mind of morality (sUacittd) and brings about its strengthening (drdhatva). Thus generosity is the cause and condition (hetupratyaya) that advances (yardhand) morality. Furthermore, the bodhisattva who gives always feels sentiments of goodwill (maitri) and compassion (karuna) towards his beneficiary. Detached from riches, unsparing of his own goods, how could he steal? Full of loving-kindness and compassion towards his recipient, how could he have the intention to kill? This is how generosity impedes immorality and gives rise to morality. By practicing generosity, all

The ten good and bad paths of action have been listed above. Traite, I, p. 50 IF. 162 This jataka occurs in a shorter form in King liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 48, p. 257a (cf. J. Hertel, ZDMG, 1914, p. 67). A more developed form in Mul isarva ti\ tdin ' in i\ i (ken pen chouo... p'o seng che, T 1450, k. 17, p. 188c- 189a, tr. Chavannes, Contes, II, p. 398-400; Dulwa in Schiemer-Ralston, Tibetan Tales, p. 308) which has, not a snake, a frog and a tortoise, but a mongoose, a rat and a snake. These three animals took refuge in the same burrow. A famine breaks out: the rat Gahgadatta goes to look for food, in his absence, the mongoose declares that he will eat him if he returns without bringing anything brick: the snake Nadascna sends a letter to the rat to warn him of the danger. The rat announces that he will not return because in times of famine, beings listen only to their bellies and lose all feeling of kindness; he does not want to be the victim of the mongoose.

thoughts of miserliness (matsaryacitta) are suppressed, and henceforth morality (sihi), patience (ksanti), zeal (virya) and the other (virtues) are readily practiced. [The gift of Manjusri). - Wen chou che li (Manjusri) was once a bhiksu a long time ago - these are long kalpas. Having gone to a village to beg alms, he succeeded in filling his bowl (patrd) with sweet cookies {p. 754F} of a hundred flavors (satarasamodaka). In the town, a little boy insistently asked him for one of [these cookies] but Manjusri did not give him any. However, having come to a sttipa of the Buddha, Manjusri took two cookies in his hands and said to the boy: "If you can eat one of these cookies yourself and give the other one to the Samgha, I will give them to you as a gift." They agreed and the boy made a gift of one cookie to the Samgha. Then in the presence of Manjusri he received ordination {up as amp add) and made the aspiration to become Buddha. This is how generosity can lead to obtaining morality and to making the decision to become Buddha. Therefore generosity gives rise to the virtue of morality. Finally, as reward for generosity, one obtains the fourfold offering, a fine kingdom, a good teacher and one has no needs. Under these conditions, one [easily] keeps morality. Besides, as reward for generosity, the mind becomes gentle; the gentleness of the mind gives birth to morality; thanks to this morality, one can maintain one's mind free of bad dharmas (akusaladharmd). For many reasons of this kind, generosity engenders the virtue of morality. 3. Generosity and the virtue of patience. How does generosity gives rise to the virtue of patience (ksantipavamitaV- [151a] 1) If the bodhisattva gives a gift and his recipient (pratigrdhaka) rebuffs him, either by asking for too much or by asking at an inopportune time (akdle), the bodhisattva has the following thought: "If I give gifts, it is to attain Buddhahood; no one forces me to give. Acting by myself, why should I get angry?" Having reasoned in this way, he practices patience; thus generosity engenders the virtue of patience. 2) Furthermore, if the bodhisattva gives and his recipient becomes annoyed, the bodhisattva thinks in the following way: "At this moment I am giving my inner and outer wealth (ddhydtmikabdhyadhand); I relinquish that which is hard to abandon. Then why should I endure vain insults (siinyasabda)? If I did not have patience, the gifts that I would be making would be impure (asuddha). Giving without patience is to act in exactly the same way as a white elephant (pdndaragaja) going to take a bath in the river who, as soon as he comes out, goes to roll in the dirt." Having reasoned in this way, he practices patience. For many reasons of this kind, generosity engenders the virtue of patience. 4. Generosity and the virtue of exertion.

How does generosity engender the virtue of exertion (viryaparamita)'? In making gifts, the bodhisattva always uses his exertion. Why? At the moment when the bodhisattva produces the mind of Bodhi (prathamachittotpada) for the first time, his resources (guna) are not great. And so, when he wants to practice the twofold generosity and gratify the wishes of all beings, since his resources (dravyd) are insufficient, he is forced to acquire wealth (dhand) so as to give sufficiently.

[The lives of Mahatyagavat] 163 II i Jin « (Capable of giving) d nil K is the I mlln ill Ta (Gi il I ralil \ 'i >m Ih Ylpps has already praised (cf Traitc, I. p. 265) as a hero of vigor. The same individual also appears, under the name P'ou che (Universal liberality) in the Lieou tou tai king and, under the transcription Mo ho cho kia fan (Mahatyagavat), in the Hien yu king. The acts of the bodhisalh I lm igavat ai 11-kno n in tin i ill in < vl ihavastu, II, p. 89- 91; Lieou tou tsi king, T 152 (no. 9), k. 1, p. 4a-5a (tr. Chavannes, Contes, I, p. 30-38); Hien you king, T 202 (no. 40), k. 8, p. 404b-409c (cf. Chavannes, Contes, IV, p. 90-91; Schmidt, Der Weise u. d. Thor, p. 227-252); King liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 9, p. 47b-48a. - In summary, Mahatyagavat, the son of the brahmin Nyagrodha, is a kind of hero of generosity. As hi forlun id thai I In i II i insufficient, he undcrlal | u i Oni'ii. way he meets first the brahmin Kia p 7 \\ ho promises him his daughter in marriage. Having come lo the sca-shoi e, he joins some travelling companions, and on the seventh day, the last anchor holding the ship was cut. They came to the land of jewels; his companions, having made their fortunes, leave Mahatyagavat who alone sets out to look for the cintamani pearl in the palace of the nagas. Having triumphed over the poisonous serpents and the raksasas, Mahatyagavat comes in turn to citk il I i lapi li ul eid iol I li u li ith i '<iili u p ills On his way back, they arc stolen from him while he sleeps by She nagas. To gel them back, he undertakes io empty the water of the ocean; his pearls arc returned lo him. Having come back to his homeland, he finds his aged parents and marries his fiancee. The deeds of Mahatyagavat as they appear in the aforementioned sources are reproduced here incompletely by the Mpps which is silent about the mai l ' i "i !<hii igaval md bout hi ouragcous action of emptying the water of the ocean with a gourd. The latter detail, however, is not unknown to the Mpps because it mentions il in another place (Traite, I, p. 265F). On the other hand, here it introduces a series of episodes as the deeds of Mahatyagavat that earlier are foreign to him; thus, after a shipwreck, during a period of seven weeks, Mahaly agavat has to overcome a whole series of obstacles in order to reach the naga palace. These new episodes are borrowed partially from another cycle of legends closely related to that of Mahatyagavat, the legend of the two brothers Kalyanakarin and I'apakarin, of which the following is a summary: The king of VaranasT had two sons, Kalyanakarin and Papakarin. The king of another land, Li che Po (Rsabha) promised his daughter in marriage io Kalyanakarin who was a hero of generosity and who, in order to satisfy his leanings, went to seek his fortune beyond the seas; his brother I'apakarin accompanied him. He came in turn to the cities of gold, of silver, of lapis-lazuli, and finally, after a thousand obstacles, the palace of the naga king. Kalyanakarin obtained from the naga the cintamani pearl, but his brother stole il from him after having put out his eyes. The brother returned first and made pretensions to the throne. The blind Kalyanakarin returned to the court of the king who had promised him his daughter, and the filler, although not recognizing him. declared that she wanted to marry only him: Kalyanakarin regained his sight and, having driven away his borthcr, the usurper, mounted the

The Buddha Sakyamuni in one of his previous existences (purvqjanmari) was a great physician-king (mahtlvaidyardja) who healed all the sick people (vyddhi), not with pride (sloka) or self-interest (labha) but with compassion (anukampd) for all beings. But as the sick were too numerous, he was unable to heal them all. He worried about the whole world and worry did not leave his mind. He died of sadness and was reborn in the heaven of the Tao li gods (Trayastrimsa). Then he thought: "Here I have become a god; but by enjoying the reward of my merits (punyavipdka) alone, I have not advanced." By his own means, he chose to die and renounced the divine longevity (devdyus). He was reborn in the palace of the Naga king P'o kia t'o (correct So k'ie lo = Sagaranagaraja; cf. Traite, I, p. 294F, 288F) as naga-prince (ndgakumdra). When he was grown up, his parents loved him very much, but he resolved to die and gave himself up to the king of the golden-winged birds (garuda). The bird carried him away and devoured him at the top of a cottonwood tree (sdlmali). His parents wept, moaned and lamented. After his death, the naga-prince took rebirth in JambudvTpa as the crown prince of a great king (mahdrdjakumdra). He was called Neng che (Tyagavat) and was able to speak as soon as he was born. He asked everywhere what wealth there actually was in the land so as to take it and distribute it as gifts. Frightened, the people avoided him and fled from him. Out of compassion and affection, his mother alone stayed to care for him. He said to his mother: "I am not a demon (rdksasa); why do people run away from me? In my previous existences (purvanivdsa), I always loved to give and I surpassed everyone by my gifts." Hearing these words, his mother repeated them to peopple, and everyone returned. His mother raised him with love. When he had grown up, he gave [151b] away everything he possessed; then he went to find his father and asked him for riches to distribute. His father gave him a portion, and he spent it also in liberality. Seeing how many people in JambudvTpa were poor (daridra) and unfortunate (drta), he still wished to give to them, but his wealth was not enough. He began to weep and asked people: "By what means (updya) could one get enough wealth for everyone?" The astrologers answered: "We have heard at one time that there is a cintdmani (philosopher's stone); if one could get it, throne. - The story of the two brothers is found in the followiing sources, collated by Chavannes: Hicn yu king, T 202 (no. 42), k. 9, p. 410a-415b (cf. Schmidt, Der Weise u. d. Thor, p. 261-282); Ta fang pien fo pao ngen king, T 156, k. 3, p. 142c-147a; Dharmagupta Vin., Sseu fen liu, T 1428, k. 46, p. 910c-913a; Mulasarvastivadin Vin. in T 1450, k. 15, p. 178c-180a (tr. Chavannes, Contes, II, p. 389-397), and Schiefher-Ralston, Tibetan Tales, p. 279-285; C. Huart, Le ton ot <qi d leu ti n i urqt et en earaeteres < on I t I iii i I h'l J p 58; P. Pelliot, La version < hist \ il t'apaiul Poiing I'ao I'M' , 272. - See also the Mahajaiuikajataka. Pali Jalaka, VI, p. 30-68. But the cycles of Mahatyagavat and that of the two brothers are not enough to account for all the episodes told by the Mpps which, from borrowed bits and pieces, succeeds in giving its own tale the aspect of an original story. Indeed, all the tales of sea voyages use the same themes; only the choice and arrangement of the anecdotes differ a little. Another story of travel, built up \\ iih the same action, is thai of Maitrakanyaka, otherw isc Maitrayajna, in Pali Mittavindaka, to which S. Levi has brought abundant documentation in his edition of the Karmavibhanga, p.

one could obtain all that one desires." Having heard these words, the bodhisattva said to his parents: " I want to go to sea to look for this cintdmani on the head of the Naga king." His parents replied: "You are our only son; if you go down to the bottom of the sea, it will be hard for you to escape dangers; 164 if we ever lose you, what is the use for us to live on? You must not go. In our treasury (kosa) there is still some wealth; we will give it to you." The son replied: "Your treasury is limited, but my aspirations are limitless: I want to satisfy the whole world so that there will be no more needs. I would like to have your permission (anujha). If I can follow my original intention, I will satisfy everyone in Jambudvlpa." Seeing the gravity of his resolve, his parents dared not hold him back and allowed him to depart. At this moment, out of respect for his great qualities, five hundred merchants were very happy to follow him. Knowing the date of his departure, they assembled in the port. The bodhisattva, who had heard that there was a cintdmani in the head of the Naga king Sagara (read So k'ie Id), asked the crowd: "Does anyone know the way leading to this Naga's palace?" A blind man (andhapurusa) 165 named To cho (Dasa), who seven times previously had been on the high seas 166 knew the sea route in question. The bodhisattva asked him to accompany him. He answered: "I am old and my eyes have lost their light; although formerly I went several times, today I can no longer go." The bodhisattva said: " If I am undertaking this journey now, it is not for myself; it is in the interests of all that I am going to look for the cimtdmani. I wish to satisfy people so that their bodies have no more suffering." Then by means of a sermon on the Path {ma i irn ipi vdyd) [the bodhisattva] converted the [old pilot]: "You are a wise man, how could you deny that? How could my vow be accomplished without your help?" Dasa heard his appeal, warmly embraced the bodhisattva and said: "I will accompany you and set sail with you on the great ocean. As for myself, I will surely not return. You must gather my ashes and leave them on the island of golden sand (suvcirncivcilukciclvfpci) that is in the middle of the great ocean." 167 When the gear for the voyage had been gathered together, they cut the seventh anchor 168 ; the ship set forth, pitching and heeling and arrived at the island of precious stones. The merchants argued about the seven kinds of jewels (saptaratna) and, when each had had enough, they asked the bodhisattva why he did not take any. The bodhisattva asnwered: "What I want is the cintamani; these jewels are impermanent things and I don't want them. But each of you should [151c] limit yourselves so as not to weigh down the ship which cannot withstand it." But the merchants said: "Bhadanta, make some wishes for us so that we will be safe (yogaksema)." Then they went away. Dasa said to the bodhisattva: "Let us

Parents always try to discourage their children from the business of the < f. Ma i ij ika, Pali Jataka, VI, p. 34 165 Suparaga, the master manner from Bharakaccha, had also himself become blind; but his services being revealed as indispensable, he agreed to lead an expedition on the high seas: cf Pali Jataka. IV. p. 138-139; Jatakamala, p. 88. 166 Seven voyages on the high seas are a record, since, as Purna comments in the Divyavadana, p. 34: "Has anyone ever seen or heard of a man who has returned from the great ocean six times bringing his ship back safe and sound and who goes to sea. again for the seventh time?" 167 This is cvidcntl) Sn\ arnadvipa or Sn\ arnabhumi, cf. above, p. 628F. 168 The ship had been anchored to the quai by seven anchors; once the departure was decided on, one anchor per day was cut; cf. Chavannes, Contes, II, p. 243; IV, p. 90, 129.

keep the dinghy separately and we will go another route. Let us wait seven days for the wind. We will sail along the southern coast; we will reach a dangerous place; there will be a craggy shore with a forest of jujube trees the branches of which extend down to the water. A heavy wind will blow our boat and it will break up. You must try to grab a branch and you will be able to save yourself. As for me who have no eyes, I will perish. Beyond the reef there is an island with golden sand and you must bury my body in the sand; this golden sand is pure and that is my wish." As he had said, the wind arose and they sailed off. They came to the craggy shore and according to Dasa's advice, the bodhisattva tried to grab a branch and succeeded in saving himself. He took Dasa's body and buried it in the Golden Island (Suvarnabhumi). Then he went on alone according to the instructions previously given. For seven days he swam in deep water; for seven days he waded in water up to his neck (kantha); for seven days he waded in water up to his thighs (kati); for seven days he waded in water up to his knees (janii); for seven days he walked in mud (kardama). Then he saw beautiful lotuses (utpala), fresh and delicate, and he said to himself: "These lotuses are too fragile; it is necessary to enter into the meditative stabilization of space (dkdsasamddhi)." Having made his body light [by means of this meditative stabilization], he walked on these lotuses for seven days. Then he saw venomous snakes (asivisa) and he said: "These poisonous snakes are very formidable"; he entered into the meditative stabilization of loving-kindness (maitricittasamddhi) and he walked on the heads of these venomous serpents for seven days: all the snakes raised their heads and presented them to the bodhisattva so that he could walk thereon. 17 ° When he had overcome these obstacles, he found a city made of the seven kinds of jewels (saptaratnamayanagara) fortified by seven moats; three great nagas guarded the gates. Seeing this handsome (abhirupa), graceful (prdsddika) bodhisattva adorned with the major and minor marks {laksandnuvyanjan-dlamkrta) who had overcome all the obstacles to come to them, these nagas thought: "This is not an ordinary man (prthagjana); this must be a bodhisattva, a man of great merit (mahdgunapurusa)." They allowed him to enter into the palace. The naga king and queen had recently lost their son and were still mourning him in their hearts. Seeing the bodhisattva coming, the naga queen, who possessed the superknowledges (abhijnd), recognized that this was her son, and the milk spurted from her breasts. 171 She asked him to be seated and said to him: "You are my son; when you left me, where did you take rebirth?" The bodhisattva who, for his part, kept the memory of his previous existences (purvanivdsdnismrti), recognized that these were his parents and answered his mother: "I took birth in JambudvTpa as the crown prince of a great king {mahdrdjakumdra) Out of compassion (anukampd) for the poor (daridrd) who are unable to overcome the suffering of hunger (bubhuksa) and cold (sita), I have come here to look for the cintdmani." His mother said to him: "There is a [152a] cintdmani on your father's head as an ornament (cuddmani), but it will be difficult to 169 The favorable wind was known by the name ira, the propeller; cf. Cim amies, Contes, II, p. 243. 170 Usually it is at the end of seven days and aftei sailing seven hundred leagues dial she ship is shipwrecked (cf. Pali lataka, IV, p. 16; VI, p. 34). To reach the marvelous city, (he castaway musl still struggle against all kinds of obstacles for seven weeks: one week of swimming, etc. See a development of very similar points in Sseu fen liu, T 1428, k. 46, p. 912al4. 171 This is the theme of The Mother's Milk, cf. Chavannes, Contes, I, p. 83; III, p. 12; IV, p. 98.

get it. Your father will certainly take you to the treasure-house where he keeps his jewels and will certainly give you them at will; you must answer: 'I do not need these assorted jewels (misraratiia): 1 want only the presious jewel on the head of the great king; if he understands my compassion [for beings], he will consent to giving it to me. ' This is how you will be able to get it." The bodhisattva went to his father who was deeply moved and whose joy was boundless. Full of pity for his son who had endured so many dangers to come to him, he showed him magnificent jewels and said: "I give you anything you wish; take what you want." The bodhisattva answered: "I have come from afar to visit the great king in order to look for the cintdmani winch is on his head. If he understands my compassion [for beings], he will give it to me; if he does not want to give it to me, I have no need of anything else." The naga king replied: "I have only this single stone which always serves me as head- adornment (cuddmani); the inhabitants of JambudvTpa are unfortunate and miserable; you should not go back to them." The bodhisattva replied: "But that is why I endured so many dangers and braved death to come so far. The inhabitants of Jambudvlpa are unfortunate and miserable and I want to fulfill their desires with the cintdmam?' Then with a sermon on the Buddhist path {buddhamdrgaparydya), the bodhisattva converted his father. The naga king, giving him the stone, formulated one condition: "Here, I give you the stone; but when you are dead, you will return to me." The bodhisattva answered: "I will conform with the king's words with respect." Taking the stone, the bodhisattva flew up into the sky (dkdsa) and in the time it takes to stretch out one's arm, he returned to JambudvTpa. His human parents, the king and queen, seeing their son return safe and sound, joyfully embraced him and asked: "What have you found?" He ansered: "I have found the cintdmani." - "Where is it?" - "In the lining of this garment." - "How big is it?" - "Because of its marvelous qualities, it does not take up much space." And the bodhisattva said to his parents: "Command that the inside and outside of the city be cleaned and that incense be burned, that banners (patdka) be hung, that the fast {posadhavdsd) and the vows be observed (silasdddna)." The next day, early in the morning, he set up a great pole as a monstrance and attached the pearl to its summit. Then the bodhisattva made the following vow (pranidhdna): "If I attain buddhahood and save all beings, may this stone obey my wishes and make all precious things (ratnadravya) appear; may it fulfill all the needs of people." Immediately a dark cloud spread and rained down all kinds of precious objects, garments (civard), food (dhdra), beds and seats (saydsand), medicines (bhaisajya) and all the materials (pariskdra) that people need. And to the end of the [bodhisattva' s] life, this rain never stopped. This is how generosity gives rise to the virtue of exertion in the bodhisattva. 5. Generosity and the virtue of meditation. How does generosity give rise to the virtue of meditation {dhydnapdramitdyl 1) When the bodhisattva gives, he eliminates miserliness (mdtsaryd) and greed (lobha). Having eliminated avarice and envy by this generosity, he fixes his attention (ekacitta) and progressively

eliminates the five hindrances (nivarana). 112 [152b] Elimination of the five hindrances is what is properly called meditation (dhyana). 2) Moreover, it is by the support (asritya) of generosity that the mind (citta) goes from the first dhyana up to the dhyana of the absorption of the cessation (nirodhasamapatti)" . m How is [generosity] a support? When the bodhisattva gives a gift to a person deep in meditation, he says to himself: "Because this person is practicing meditation and absorption (samapatti), I am making the offering with good intention (visuddhacitta ). What can I do now to replace the meditation [from which I have just distracted him]? " Immediately, he concentrates his own mind and practices meditation. - When the bodhisattva gives to a poor person (daridra), he recalls the previous existences of this poor person [and says to himself]: "It is because he has committed errors (akusala), because he has not concentrated his mind (ekacitta) or practiced meditation that he is at present (ihajanmari) poor." As a result of that, [the bodhisattva] himself tries to practice the good, to fix his attention, and he enters into the dhyanas and the absorptions.

[Mahasudassanasuttanta]. ' This is what has been told: The eighty-four thousand vassals of the noble king Hi Men (Sudarsana) 175 came one morning to offer him precious things made of the seven jewels. The king said: "I have no need of them. Each of you should cultivate merit (punya)." The petty kings had the following thought: "Even though the great king does not want to accept [our gifts], it is not fitting that we should use them 172 These are fully studied below, chap. XXVIII. 173 These are the nine anupurvavihdra listed in DIgha, II, p. 156; III, p. 265, 290; Ahguttara, IV, p. 410. They ii 1m, I lh( foul ' i iIm i mi rupyasaina i nd iU i < irodh iniapatti 174 The Mahasi i ita, of which the present passage is a somewhat variant version, is a separate surra in the Pali DIgha, II, p. 169-199 (tr. Rh. D., II, p. 198-232), whereas the Chinese DTrghagama and related sources incorporate it into theMaliaparinirvaijasutra: cf. Tch'ang a han, T 1, no. 2, k. 3, p. 21b-24b; Fp pan ni yuan king, T 5, k. 2, p. 169c-171a; Pan ni yuan king, T 6, k. 2, p. 185b-186c; Ta pan nie p'an king, T 7, k. 2 and 3, p. 200c-203a; Ken pen chouo... tsa che, T 1451, k. 37, p. 393a-394b. - However, an independent version of the Mahasudassana is in the Tchong a han, T 26, no. 68, k. 14, p. 515b-618c: and Ta tcheng kiu wang king, T45, p. 831a seq. The story of Sudassana is also summarized in DTgha, II, p, 146-157; Sam\ ntla. III. p. 144: Pali lataka, I, p. 391-393. 175 Sudarsana is here rendered as //; kicn (30 nd 9; 147); elsewhere as Chan kicn (30 and 9; 147) or Miao kicn (38 and 4; 147). - This cakravartin Mahasudarsana belongs to the royal lineage of Ylahasammala from which the Buddha came: cf. DTpavamsa, III, v. 8; Mahavamsa, II, v. 5; Mahavastu, I, p. 348; Mahavyutpatti, no. 3570; Tch'ang a han, T 1, k. 22, p. 149a8; Ken pen chouo... p'o seng che, T 1450, k. 1, p. 101c27. - In mythical times, he reigned in KusavatI, in the actual location of Kusinagara. This city and its splendid palaces arc fully described in the various versions of the Mahasudassanasuttanta mentioned above; see also Divyavadana, p. 227; Divyavadana, p. 227; P'o p'o cha, T 1545, k. 76, p. 395c. The Dharmaprasada was built following to the model of the cakravartin's city; cf. ["rzyluski. La \ a in Ko hi 1 i )> \> nl \ 1927, p. 165-185.

ourselves." Thereupon, they set to work together to build a palace (prdsdda) made of the seven jewels (suptarutnamaya); they planted rows of trees (vrksapankti) 116 made of the seven jewels and built pools (puskirinif 11 made of the seven jewels. In this palace they built eighty-four thousand floors (kiitdgdra) m made of the seven jewels; on each floor was a bed (paryanka) made of the seven jewels; cushions of different colors {misravarnopadhdnd) were placed at the two ends of the bed; they had banners (dhvuju) and flags (patdkd) hung and incense (dhupd) was spread on the ground. When all was ready, they said to the great king: "We would like you to accept this Dharma-palace (dhurmuprdsdda) with its precious trees and its pools." The great king accepted by remaining silent; then he thought: "I must not be the first to live in this new palace and devote myself to pleasure; I am going to look for holy people (sajjana) ii im m.i and brahm mas to be the first to enter the ceremonies (pujd); only afterwards will I myself live there." 179 Then he joined the holy men who were the first to enter into the precious palace, filled with offerings of all kinds (ndndvidhapujd) and splendid accessories ipariskdra). When these men had gone, the king entered the precious palace 180 , ascended to the floor of gold {suvarnakutdgdra), sat down on the silver bed (rupyaparyanka) and, meditating on generosity, eliminated the five hindrances (pancanTvarana), concentrated his six organs (sadydtmikdyatana), swept away the six sense objects (sadbdhydyatana), experienced joy ipnti) and happiness (sukha) and entered into the first dhyana (prathamadhydna). - Then he ascended to the floor of silver {rupyakutdguru), sat down on the golden bed (suvarnaparyanka) and entered the second dhyana (dvitiyadhydna). - Then he ascended to the floor of beryl (vaiduryakutdgdra), sat down on the crystal bed (sphatikaparyanka) and entered into the third dhyana (trtiyadhydna). Finally, he ascended to the crystal floor (\/ ', .,', kutdgdra) sat down on the beryl bed (vaiduryaparyanka) and entered into the fourth dhyana (caturthadhydna): he spent three months in solitary meditation. 181 The queen Yu niu pao (Strfratna) 182 and her eighty-four thousand followers (upasthdyikf) who had all adorned their bodies with the White Pearl jewel (maniratna ) came to the great king and said: "For a long time you have been averse to visits from your family and we have come to ask why." The king answered: "Sisters (bhagini), you should change your feelings and be friends, not enemies, to me." In " Seven rows of palm trees (tdla); cf. Dlgha, II, p. 171-172. These pools were placed between the rows of palm trees (talantarika) at a distance of a hundred bow-lengths [dhamnusata); each pool had four staircases ( sopaiia) and t\\ o balustrades i vcdi/ai), of \\ Inch the uprights (stambha), i'i n pieces! uci) i'iiM t , u ,li ,[| (usiji • < r< of dill i nt metal cf. Di ha II p 1" I 79 For these stones {kutai i) ei Digha, II, p. 182. The inauguration of palaces was reserved for monastics, f. Digha, II, p. 185. According to Digha, II, p. 186-187, (he king first practiced the four din anas and the four hrtilmitivilitirtis and only after that did he receive the queen. On the oilier hand, in the Mpps, the king iirst practiced the four dhyanas then repulsed the requests of the queen; after her departure, he devoted himself to the practice of the four brahmaviharas . 181 This manner of practicing the four dhyanas is described in similar words in Digha, II, p. 189-195. 182 Compare the visit of queen Subhadra in Digha, II, p. 189-195.

tears, queen Striratna said: "Why does the great king call me 'sister'? Surely he has a hidden motive; I would like to know the meaning. Why doe he order us to be his friends and not his enemies?" The king replied: "For [152c] me, you have been the cause of rebirths; together we give ourselves up to pleasure; while giving me joy, you are my enemies. If you could wake up [to the doctrine] of impermanence (anityatd), know that the body is like a magic show (may a), cultivate merit (piinya), cultivate the good (kusala) and give up the satisfactions of desire (kdma), you would be my friendss." The women agreed: "We will obey your orders with respect." Having spoken thus, they took their leave and went away. When the women had gone, the king ascended to the floor of gold (suvarnakutagara), sat down on the silver bed (rupyaparyanka) and practiced the absorption of loving-kindness (maitrisamadhi). - Then he went to the floor of sih n pyak ta Ira) it down on the golden bed (suvarnaparyanka) and practiced the absorption of compassion (karunasamadhi). - He went up to the floor of beryl (vaiduryakutdgdra), sat down on the bed of crystal (sphatikaparyanka) and practiced the concentration of joy (muditdsamddhi). - He went up to the floor of crystal (sphatikakutagara), sat down on the bed of beryl (vaiduryaparyanka) and practiced the concentration of equanimity (upeksasamddhi). 183 This is how generosity gives rise to the virtue of meditation in bodhisattvas.

6. Generosity and the virtue of wisdom.

How does generosity give rise to the virtu of wisdom (prajnaparamitaj! 1) When the bodhisattva practices generosity, he knows that this generosity will necessarily have its reward (vipdkaphala) and he is free of doubts (samsaya, vicikitsd); he destroys wrong views (mithyddrsti) and ignorance (avidyd). This generosity gives rise to the virtue of wisdom. 2) When the bodhisattva cultivates generosity, he knows clearly that an immoral (duhsTla) person who strikes, beats or imprisons, but who practices generosity, nevertheless has broken the law to obtain wealth, is reborn among the elephants (hastin), horses (asva) and oxen (go-); while taking on an animal existence (tiryugyonisumsthunu) where he is burdened down with loads, beaten, fettered and used as a mount, he will always have good shelter, be well-fed and will be respected (gurukrta) by men who will take good care of him. He knows that an evil bad-tempered man, but one who practices generosity even though it be for tortuous and indirect intentions, will be reborn among the nagas where he will have a palace made of the seven jewels, good food and beautiful women.

This royal manner of practicing the four hraliiiiaviluira.s, inaitn, etc., is described in DIgha, II, p. 186-187; cf. Kosa, VIII, p. 196-203; Traite, I, p. 163F. 1 i I ih ud i havin culti I J ih I mi <i maviharas died soon after and was reborn in the Brahmaloka, cf. Digha, II, p. 196.

He knows that a proud man, but one who practices generosity even though it be ostentatiously (abhimdna), is reborn among the golden-winged birds (garuda), where he will always have power (aisvarya), possess the philopher's stone (cintamani) in place of a i ing (keyura ). succeed in having all his needs satisfied, suffer nothing contrary to his wishes, and can manage everything. He knows that a minister (amdtya) who wrings money out of people and plunders them of their goods illegally, but one who practices generosity, is reborn among the Kouei chen (asura) where he is the demon Kieou p 'an tch 'a (Kumbhanda), 184 who enjoys himself by carrying out multple transformations (pcirindma) on the five outer objects (pancabdhydyataiia). He knows that a very ill-tempered and wicked man who loves good wine and good cheer, but one who practices generosity, is reborn among the Ye tch 'a, the terrestrial yaksas (bhumya), where he always has varied pleasures, fine music (vddya) and good food (dhdra). He knows that an unfeeling and violent man, but one who who satisfies by gifts [his army, for example] his chariots (ratha), his cavalry (asva) and his infantry (pattika), is reborn among the heavenly yaksas (vihdyasayaksa), 1S5 where he possesses great power (mahabala) and moves like the wind. He knows that a jealous man who loves to dispute but who can give fine houses (grha), beds and seats (saydsana), clothing (vastra) and food (dhdra), will be reborn among the yakshas who fly about in palaces and temples where they enjoy all kinds of pleasures and material advantages. That is what the bodhisattva knows completely when he cultivates generosity. Therefore, generosity gives rise to the virtue of wisdom in bodhisattvas. [153a] Furthermore, when one gives food (bhojana), one obtains strength (bala), beauty (varna), long life (dyus), happiness (sukha) and good servants (upasthala). - By giving clothing (vastra), from birth one knows modesty and honor (hnrapatrapya), power (anubhdva), beauty (prasddd) and comfort of body and mind (kayacittasukha). - By giving a house (grha), one obtains a palace made of the seven jewels (saptaratnamayardjakuta), and one possesses the enjoyment of the five pleasurable objects (pancakdmaguna) automatically (svatah). - By giving a well (kupa), a pool (taddga), a spring (udbhida), water (udaka) or any kind of juices, at birth one obtains freedom from hunger (ksudh) and thirst (pipdsk) and the five pleasurable objects (pancakdmaguna) are assured. - By giving a bridge (setu), a ship (nau) or shoes (upandh), at birth one obtains a whole set of chariots and horses (rathasvasambhara). - By giving a pleasure-garden (annua), one gets to be an eminent servant of refuge for all (sarvdsraya), and one receives [one's share] of beauty of body (kayaprasada), joyous mind (cittasukha) and freedom from sadness. These are the various benefits obtained by generosity in human existences.

Class of dem . i h \ J il< ig ilh Ih yal i isnni iuJ n i a I'hc; In i'i Mu miii md their king is Virudha (DIgha, II, p. 257; III, p. 198). They are so called because their genitals (anda) are as large as pots (kumbha): cf. Sumahgala, III, p. 964. 185 The Mpps distinguishes three kinds of yaksas: terrestrial (bluiiiivti) yaksas. heavenly (viliaytisayaksa) yaksas and the yaksas who haunt palaces and temples. Other types are mentioned in Digha, II, p. 156-257. The Pathavatthu < mm [i L calls them bin i vai terrestrial di is i>n

The person who cultivates (bhdvayati) merits (punya) by his gifts, who abhors the conditioned (samskrta) and conditioning (samskara) life, is reborn in the Caturmaharajika heaven. - The person who, by his gifts, increases the care (pujd) for his parents, his uncles and aunts and his brothers and sisters, the person who, without anger (dvesa) or hatred (pratigha), abhors arguments (kalaka) and is unhappy to see people who are arguing, is a person who obtains rebirth among the Trayastrimsa, Yama, Tusita, Nirmanarati and Paranirmitavasavartin gods. The bodhisattva distinguishes all these gifts, and this is the way generosity gives rise to the virtue of wisdom in the bodhisattva. If a person gives with detached mnd (asaktacitta), out of distate for the world (lokanirveda), with the view of the happiness of nirvana, this is the generosity of an arhat or pratyekabuddha. - If a person gives with the view [of attaining) buddhahood and for the welfare of beings, this is the generosity of a bodhisattva. The bodhisattva knows all these gifts, and this is how generosity gives rise to the virtue of wisdom. 4) Moreover, when the bodhisatva gives, he reflects {manasikaroti) on the true nature (bhutalaksana) of the three elements [of the gift, namely, the donor, the recipient and the gift given], as has been said above (p. 724F). In this way, generosity gives rise to the virtue of wisdom. 5. Finally, omniscience (sarvajna), the prime quality [of the Buddhas), takes its origin in generosity. Thus, the thousand [latest] Buddhas, at the moment when they [each in turn] first produced the mind of Bodhi (prathamdbodhicittotpddakdle), were in the process of offering something to the Buddha [who was their contemporary]: one offered a lotus (utpala), another a garment (civard), a third a tooth-pick (dantakdstha); and it is by giving this gift that they produce the mind of Bodhi. These different gifts prove that generosity gives rise to the virtue of wisdom in the bodhisattva.

CHAPTER XXI: DISCIPLINE OR MORALITY (p. 770F)

[153b] Sutra: The virtue of discipline must be fulfilled by basing oneself on the non-existence of sin, wrong-doing, ami 11 opposil i i •> < i i i lyitvyd dpattyaiuipattyana-clliydpattitdmupdddya). I. DEFINITION OF DISCIPLINE 6 Sastra: Sila (discipline), in the language of Ts'in, is called innate goodness (prakrtikausalya). Wholeheartedly following the good Path (kusalamdrga) without allowing any faults (pramada) is what is called sila. Practicing the good (kusala), whether one has taken the precepts (samdddnasila) m or not, is called sTla. In brief (samdsatah), the [ethical] discipline of body and speech (kdyavdksamvara) is of eight kinds: 1) abstaining from killing (prdndtipdtavirati), 2) from theft (adattdddna), 3) from forbidden love (kdmamithydcam), 4) from falsehood (mrsdvdda), 5) from slander (paisunyavdda), 6) from harmful speech (pdrusyavdda), 7) from idle gossip (sambhinnapraldpa), 8) from the use of liquor (madhyapdna); and to resort to pure ways of life (parisuddhajiva): 1 ™ these are the characteristics of discipline (sTlanimitta)} w>

186 Discipline {sila) is the virtue that consists of abstaining (virati) from sin, wrong-doing. There are two kinds of discipline: general discipline, natural honesty which consists simply of avoiding sins, or, as the Chinese translate it. ill he pi | ' / i 1 1 1 1 ( nd led Im niu i isda): in ( lnni.se cheou kiai: 29 and 6, 62 and 3), resulting from a previous vow: in Buddhism, it is encountered among the lay adherents (iipasakam uptn II as in the monastics (si n ! ; / / / aid />//// ;/) who, when they take their vows or at ordination, formally pledge themselves to adopt certain rules of life i , / i Hi i In o c charactci ml (29 ind 6, 6 ml ivc tin mskrit cxpn ion sail ' < (pledged discipline), but they arc also used to denote the monastie ordination (npasainpada) conferred on monks after their "leaving the world" (Sanskrit, pravrajya: Chinese, tch 'mi Ida: 17 and 3, 40 and 7). See above, p. 632F, n. This chapter is concerned only with general discipline, the pledged discipline bciny treated in detail in the following chapter. For the Lesser Vehicle sila, consult She Pali sources indicated in Rhys Davids-Stcde, s.v. sila, and mainly the detailed description in Patisambhida, Im p. 42-48, and the Visuddhimagga, I, p. 6-58 (tr. Nyanatiloka, I, p. 11-85). For the sila of the Mahayana, refer to the texts studied in Hobogirin, Bosatsukai, p. 142 seq. as well as explanations in Madh. avatara, p. 32-45 (tr. Lav., Museon, 1907, p. 280-293), Bodh. bhumi, p. 137-188; ' i' : unuccaya, p. 69-72 (tr. Bendall-Rouse, p. 73-77); Bodhican avatara and Pahjika, chap. V (tr. Lav., p. 30-48); Bodhisattvapratimoksasutra (ed. N. Dutt, IHQ, VII, 1931, p. 259-286). - Works: L. de La Vallee Poussin, Le Vinaya et lapurete d 'intention, BCLS, June 1929, p. 201 -2 17: Moral,- hondclhique, p. 46: Opinions, p. 302, 334; Oltramare, Theosophie, p. 379; Dutt, Mahayana, p. 290. 187 I.e., whether or not one has pledged to avoid sins. 188 General morality, simple innate honesty (prakritikausalyd) forbids to everyone the eight sins listed here and in Anguttara, IV, p. 247-248 (tr. Hale, Gradual Sayings, IV, p. 169) taken up again partially in the Sanskrit

To violate these precepts, to neglect them, is immorality (dauhsrfya); the person who violates the precepts falls into the three bad destinies (durgati). II. VARIOUS KINDS OF MORALITY ° By means of lower morality (hinasila), one is reborn among humans (manusya); by middling morality (madhyasila), one is reborn among the six classes of gods of the desire realm (kdmadhdtudeva); by superior (pranitasUa) morality, one courses through the four dhydnas and the four absorptions of emptiness (sunyasamdpatti) and one is reborn among the pure gods (suddhdvdsadeva) of the form realm {riipadhdtu) and the formless realm (drupyadhdtu). Superior morality (pranitasTla) is of three kinds: 1) as a result of lesser pure morality {hinaparisuddhasila), one becomes arhat; 2) by medium pure morality (madhyaparisuddhasila), one becomes pratyekabuddha; 3) by higher pure morality (pranitaparisuddhasila), one obtains buddhahood. Detachment (asanga), disinterestedness (anisraya), absence of transgression (abhedana) and absence of defect (avaikalya), so lauded by the holy men (arya) [in the cultivation of morality], constitute the superior pure morality. 191 If one has loving-kindness {maitri) and compassion (karund), if one wants to save beings and if one understands the true nature (satyalaksana) of the precepts, the mind is completely disinterested (nirdsanga): observing the precepts in these conditions is going directly to buddhahood: this is what is called the morality that realizes the unsurpassed state of the Buddhas. III. BENEFITS OF MORALITY.

Karmavibhanga, p. 33. These eight precepts are repeated and developed in the various rules (pratimoksa) of the "pledged discipline". The Mpps thinks it proper to add, from now on, the moral pledge to resort exclusively to pure ways of life (pai iliajiva) > i oid d> il i in rm in li n I ,n in fl h m i n,i ilii 1 poison i 189 Cf. Ahguttara, IV, p. 247, or Karmavibhanga, p. 33, where it is said that killing, etc., practiced and repeated, leads to hell to an animal or hungry ghost rebirth ( / iivartamyo hliavati, tirya'.iyoiiisaiiivartaniyo hliavati, pretavisayasaiiivartamyo 'pi hliavati): those are the three "bad destinies". 190 The Visuddhimagga, p. 13, has an entire paragraph on the various degrees of morality. "Lower" is the morality based on a mediocre enthusiasm (cliauda), intention (citta), energy (viriya) or insight (viniaiiisa); the morality that pursues a goal of fame (yasakamatal; the morality that is aimed at exalting oneself and putting down someone else (attukkamsana-i th mot ilii thai n till from the desire for profit or wealth (bhavabhoga). - "Middling" is the morality that seeks to gather reward for good actions | / i \oildly (lokiya) morality, the morality that is aimed at individual! liberation {attain) viniokklia). Superior" is the morality that results from the spirit of duty and holiness (kattabbam e\ ulan ti i >liava) upramundan (lo ttara) morality, morality thai aims lo assure She salvation of all (sahhasattvaviinokklia). These three moralities are rewarded differently in the human world and in the heavenly realms described above: cf. Traite, I, p. 517F, 605-607F. 191 The Greater Vehicle insists above all on the altruistic nature of morality. See Hobogirin, Bosatsukai, p. 142.

The person who wants great benefits must keep the precepts firmly as if he were guarding a precious treasure (kosa) or defending his life (kdyajTvita). Why? Just as everything (sakaladravya) on this great earth (mahaprthivi ) that has form subsists by being supported (asritya) by the great earth, so morality is the seat (aspada, adhisthana) of all good dharmas (kusaladharma). Just as it would be futile to try to walk without feet, fly without wings or make a crossing without a boat, so it is futile to want to obtain the good fruits [of the Path) without morality. The person who has rejected morality, even if he is an ascetic 192 in the mountains (parvatatapasvin), eating fruits (phala) and grasses (osadhi) 193 , is no different from the animals (tiryagyoni). 194 Some men have as their rule of conduct the custom of swallowing [153c] nothing but water (udaka), milk (ksira) or air (dhuma); 195 they cut their hair, wear it long or keep only a little bit of hair on their head; they wear the yellow robes (kasaya) [of the Buddhists) or the white robes (svetambara) [of the Jains), wear a garment of grass (kusacfvara) or of tree bark (rcilkcilcicFrcira); 196 in v« inter (hemantu), they go in the water; in summer (grismd), they roast themselves at the fire; 197 they throw themselves over cliffs; they wash in the Ganges;

In this passa >li ii i i irguin i 111 i i In vi ol crtain brah lai iik 1 raman (mainl lli ii i ndi and the Ajlvikas) who, denying (he precepts of the moral law, believe that purity consists only of purely external practices, such as food, hail dress, clothing, ascetic practices or ritual actions. Before his conversion, the Buddha himself had participated in this training and practiced - without success - the external mortifications. He soon determined that these austerities did not lead to "the supramundane qualities of the noble knowledge of noble vision" (najjhagamam uttarim manussadhamma alamariyananadassana-viscsam) and he condemned them later in many sutras: cf. Digha, 1. p. 168 scq.' .Ylajjhima, i, p. 77 seq, 238, 342; II, p. 161; Tch'ang a han, T 1, no. 25, k. 16, p. 103; Tseng yi a han, T 125, k. 23, p. 670c-672a; Lalita, p. 248-250 (tr. Foucaux, p. 214-216). Without listing all the ascetic practices condemned by the Buddha in the texts cited, the .Ylpps limits itself to mentioning the most characteristic. 193 Digha, I, p. 166: "He cats vegetables (saka). wild nee (saiiiaka), nivara seeds, peelings (daddu/a), the waterplant called 'hata', the fine powder adhering to seeds of rice inside the spike (kana), the scum from boiled rice (acama), the starch of oily seeds (pinnaka), grass (tina), cow manure (gomaya), forest roots and fruits (vanamahiphata), windfalls (pavattapliala)" 194 This passage is to be taken literally because according to the Majjhima,I, p. 387 and the Lalita, p. 248, certain i >v d (vrtii l to Ii' liki i .i izclli d>> wild b u monki oi lcphanl 195 Lalita, p. 249: They drink hot water (usnodaka), rice water (hiijiiduloduku), filtered through felt (paiisravitakdmbalika), boiled in a cauldion (sthalfpaniya) th drinl milk | " a), curds (dadhi), better (sarpih)... ; they drink smoke (dluanapaiia). 196 Lalita, p. 249: They have one, two, three, four, five, six, seven or more garments: they remain naked... ; they wear their hair long, braided and piled up in a crest... ; they smear their bodies with dust, feces, mud; they wear animal skins, human skulls, hair, claws, a lower garment made only of bones... they wear ashes, colored marks, reddish garments, tridents: they shave their heads, etc. 197 By practicing the pancatapas or the austerity of the five fires: cf. Tseng yi a han, T 125, p. 671b; Lalita, p. 249; Sutralamkara, tr. Huber, p. 48.

they bathe three times per day; they make repeated offerings to the fire (agniparicarya); with many sacrifices (yajna) and magical formulas (mantra), they carry out ascetical practices (duskacarya). But because they have no morality [all these efforts] are vain and futile. - Other people, living in great palaces or great houses (grha), wearing fine clothes and eating exquisite food but capable of exercising morality, succeed in being born in a good place and win the fruits of the Path (mdrgaphala). Whether one is noble (pranita) or lowly (hind), small (hrasva) or great (mahat), provided that one observes pure morality, one always obtains great benefits. But if one violates morality, neither wealth nor humbleness, neither greatness nor smallness, will allow one be reborn at will (yathdkdmam ) in the blessed abodes (sukhavihara). Furthermore, the immoral (duhsila) man is like a clear pool (prasannataddga) filled with venomous snakes (asivisa): one does not bathe there. He is like a tree bearing beautiful flowers (puspa) and fine fruits but full of cruel thorns (kantaka). Although born into a noble family (uccaihkula), with fine body (abhiriipakAa), learned (paribhavita) and wise (bahusruta), the man who does not conform to morality does not know the loving-kindness and compassionate mind (maiti ikan n 7. itta) [of the saint). As a stanza says: Nobility without knowledge (Jndna) is a failure; Knowledge increased by pride (abhimana) is a failure also; The person who has taken the precepts but who violates them Is bound for complete failure here and in the beyond. Despite his poverty or lower rank, the person who observes morality is superior to wealthy people and noblemen who live in immorality. The perfume of flowers (puspagandha) and of the Tagara does not spread very far; the perfume of discipline spreads throughout the ten directions. 200 198 A practice known as ;/ ill n i i il thin tin lim i ii f. Di'gl I, p. 167; Samyutta, I, p. 182; Anguttara, i, p. 296. The Udakorahakas form a class of ascetics: Majjhima, I,p. 281; Samyutta, IV, p. 312; Anguttara, V, p. 263. 199 On the brahmanical cult of Fire, see Majjhima, 1. p. 32; Anguttara, V, p. 263; Dhammapadattha, II, p. 232. 200 Literally, the perfume of flowers and the scent of woods, hut Mou hiang (75; 186) "scent of woods" assumes an original Sanskrit Tagara (cf. Rosenberg, Vocabulary, p. 248); this is a highly-scented tree known as Tabernaemontana coronaria (see above, Trade, I, p. 600F, n. 2). The present comparisons are borrowed from a stanza of the Gaiidliasiitta (Anguttara, 1, p. 226: Dhammpada. v. 54: Dhammapadattha, I, p. 422; Jataka, III, p. 291; Vlilincla, p. 333; Kosha, III, p. 163 inskrit I china' in up I libctan Uclana irga p 6) \ * j rpp , ig ' id io i iti\ na tin i ii Na candanam tagaram mallika va; ndho sabba disa sappuriso pavdti. In Sanskrit: \ pusp ,' ,', dh ih pi , atdi eti

The moral person (silavat) is full of happiness (sukha); he is famed (kirtisabda) far and wide; he is esteemed by gods and men; in the present lifetime he obtains all kinds of happiness and, if he wants to find wealth, nobility and long life (dirghdyus) among gods and men, he finds it easily. When morality is pure, one finds everything one wishes. Moreover, the moral man who sees the immoral man struggling with all kinds of problems - punishments, imprisonment, searches, despoliation - and who knows himself to be sheltered from such troubles, experiences great joy (muditd) thereby. On the other hand, seeing the good person (satpurusa) obtain fame (kirti), glory (yasas) and happiness (sukha), he says to himself: "If he can obtain fame, I also can have some." At the end of his life (jTvitparyavasdna), when the knife (sastra) and wind (vdyu) dissolve the body (kdya) and the veins (sird) are broken, 201 the moral man has awareness of the purity of his discipline (silavisuddhi) and his mind is without fear (bhaya). Thus a stanza says:

is a remedy (bhaisajya); ian (pdki): is a lamp (pradipa);

In great sickness (vyddhi), discipline is In great terror (bhisana), it is a guardia In the darkness of death (marana), it is In evil rebirths (durgati), it is the girder of a bridge; In the ocean of death (maranasamudra), it is a great ship (nau). [154a]Furthermore, In the present lifetime (ilia/unman), the moral man will receive people's homage (pujana); his mind (citta) will be joyful and without worry (avipratisdra); he will never lack clothing i ui vali ni /at tagarac caiidanad va sataiii tii gandhah prativatani cti ■Kuril (lisalj satpiirusalj pravati. The GandhasuUa from which this stanza is borrowed explains that plant perfumes go with the wind and not against the wind (anuvatam gacchati na pativatam), whereas the perfume of a virtuous man who observes the five sUa goes with the wind, against the wind and in both directionsal the same time (anuvatam pi gaccchati, pativatam pi gacchati. anuvatapativataiii pi gacchati). Wc have seen above (Trade, 1, p. 5231') that among the Trayastrimsas, the perfume of the I'arijataka flowers is propagated a hundred yojanas with the w ind, fifty against the The Gandhasutta has come down to us in several versions: Anguttara, I. p. 225- 226; Tsa a han, T 99, no. 1073, p. 278c-279a; T 100, no. 12, k. 1, p. 376c-377a; Tseng yi a han, T 125, k. 13, p. 613b-c; Kiai to hiang king, T 116, p. 507b-c; Kiai kiangking, T 117, p. 508a-b. 201 The end of a cosmic ige I |i marked by three scourges: the knife (sastra), sickness (roga) and famine (durhhiksa): cf Anguttara, !. p. 159; Di'gha, 111, p. 70 (which mentions only the first scourge); Kosa, III, p. 207. - The disappearance (samvartana) of the world is caused by fire (agni), water (atnbu) and wind (raw): cf. Kosa, III, p. 184, n. 4; 187, n. 4; 209-210.

(civara) and food (dhdra); after death he will be reborn among the gods and will then attain buddhahood. There is nothing that the moral man will not obtain; as for the immoral man, he loses everything.fr/ze Vase of miracles) 202 . - Thus, there was a man who constantly made offerings (pujd) to a god; this man was poor (daridra); having made offerings wholeheartedly for twelve years, he asked for wealth and power. The deva took compassion on him and, taking a visible form, came to ask him: "What do you want?" The man answered: "I want wealth and power. I would like to get everything my mind desires." The deva gave him a vase (bhajana) called the Vase of miracles (bhadraghata), saving: "The things that you need will come from this vase." Then the man was able to obtain, as he fancied, everything he wished for; when his desires were realized, he made a fine house, elephants, horses and chariots appear; the seven jewels (saptaratna) were given to him in abundance; he entertained gusts (atithi) without lacking anything. His guests asked him: "Formerly you were poor; how does it happen that today you have such riches?" He answered: "I have

202 The Vase of miracles i i i i) also called the vase of abundance (purnaghata) is a theme of ui Indian folklore. Like the Tree of desire and the Philosopher's stone (see above, p. 758F), it is supposed to fulfill all the desires of its possessor: the Pali Jataka, II, p. 432, defines it as sahhakamadada kuinhha. As a result of their wondrous effects, certain doctrines or certain practices arc compared to the Vase of miracles: (his is the case mainly of bodhicitta (Gandavyuha, T 279, k. 78, p. 430a, cited in Siksasamuccaya, p. 6: Parijika.p. 23), she worship of the four great disciples, .Ylahakatyanana, etc. (T 1796, k. 8, p. 665a) and the Dharma of the Three Vehicles (T 411, k. 5, p. 748b;); cf. Hobogirin, p. 267. The Vase of abundance is used in cult ceremonies (Atharvaveda, III, 12, 8), feasts and consecrations (ibid., I "ii lain [I ii non "ii i li imul (asta l: th nlJiu Is n II nhance their feasts and decorate their houses (Jataka, 1, p. 62: Dipavamsa, VI, v. 65: Sumarigala, I, p. 140). The Vase of abundance has thus become one of the main decorative motifs of Buddhist and Indian art. Its form is essentially that "of a flower vase combining an inexhaustible spring of water with an eternal vegetation or with the tree of life"; it occurs on almost all the Buddhist monuments at Sanchi, Vlathiira, Amaravati, Sarnath, Aniiradhapiira, Dcodarh, Borobudur, etc. (cf. A, Coomaraswamy, Yaksas, II, 1931, p. 61-64, and pi. 28-33; Vogcl, Mathurd, p. 28, and pi. 7a and b). The vase with the lotus or w ith spouting w atcr is represented from the earliest times in all eastern ail and later in western art (cf. Combaz, Inde et Orient, I, p. 174-177; II, pi. 1 19-122). Ih' i n I'm Ii Iso occui in I il>l di I tilii nil i iii I i MT - II 2) lh' ipologue related here by the Mpps has as its theme: "The vase of miracles broken by the frivolousncss of its owner." It is found, told in similar words and detail in Tchong king sinan tsa pi yu, T 202, no. 4, k. 1, p. 532a-b (tr. Chavanncs, Contes, II, p. I 6). Hi h did no. 291 of the Pali collection (II, p. 431-432), is a variation on the same theme: In one of his previous existences, the Bodhisattva was a rich merchant, father of a single son. After his death, because of his merits he \\ as reborn in the form of Sakra, king of the gods. His son who was still alive spent all of his fortune and so Sakra gave him the gift of a miraculous vase, warning him to take care of it. But one day, in a fit of drunkenness, the son amused himself by throwing the vase up and catching it; the vase fell out of his hands and Another theme is that of the "Hidden Vase", which is found in a tale of the King liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 44, p. 232c-233a (tr. Chavannes, Contes,, III, p. 256-257). A man receives as a gift from a monk a miraculous vase that gives him everything he \\ ishes. A king takes it away by force. The monk gives the man another vase that spouts forth stones and weapons thai kill all (lie king's men. Hie iniquitous king is forced to restore the vase to its lawful

a heavenly vase; this vase can produce all sorts of things and that is how I am rich now." His guests continued: "Bring us this vase and show us how it produces things." He brought the vase and made it produce all kinds of things; in a fit of pride (abhimdna), this man danced on the upper part of the vase; the vase broke and everything [it had produced] disappeared in an instant. 203 It is the same for the moral man: he has at his disposal marvelous pleasures and there is no wish (pranidhi) that he does not realize; but if he violates the precepts, his pride puffs up, he becomes licentious and is like the man who broke his vase and lost all his treasures. Moreover, the perfume of glory (yasogandha) of the moral man, here (ihatra) and in the hereafter (paratra), extends everywhere (samantdt) in the heavens and among men. Moreover, the moral man is pleased with generosity (ddnci) and is unsparing of his riches (vasu); even though he does not follow after ordinary interests (laukikdrtha), he lacks nothing; he is reborn among the gods; in the presence of the Buddhas of the ten directions (dasadighuddha), he enters the path of the Threefold Vehicle (ydnatraya) and attains liberation (vimoksa). Many wrong views (mithyddrsti) disappear after taking the precepts. Furthermore, without going forth from the world (pravrajita), the person who observes the rules of discipline will also be reborn among the gods. The person whose discipline (sila) is pure (parisuddha) and who practices meditative stabilization (samddhi) and wisdom (prajnd) seeks to free himself from the misfortunes of old age (jard), sickness (vyddhi) and death (maraud): he will necessarily realize this wish (pranidhana). 204 Even though the moral man has no weapons (dyudha), wicked people do not attack him. Morality is a treasure (vitta) that cannot be lost; it is a parent (jndti) who does not abandon you even after death; it is an adornment (dlamkdra) that surpasses the seven jewels (saptaratna). This is why morality must be guarded as if one were defending the life of the body (kdyajivita) or as if one were watching over a precious object. The immoral man endures ten thousand sufferings; he is like the poor man who broke his vase and lost his wealth, This is why pure discipline must be observed. IV. DISADVANTAGES OF IMMORALITY

[154b]Moreover, seeing the punishments suffered by the immoral man, the moral man must try to observe discipline carefully (ekacittend). What are the punishments of the immoral person?

In the Tchong king sinan tsa p'i yn (I.e.) the man began In dance \\ ith the vase and dropped it; in the Pali Jataka, he threw it up in the air and finally Icl il fall. 204 Morality, under various titles, is profitable to the lay person and to the monastic: the lay person who aspires to heaven (svarga) is reborn among the gods: the monastic who practices the Path in its three essential elements, sila (discipline), samadlii (meditative stabilization) and prajna (wisdom) will escape from old age. sickness and death and will attain nirvana.

The immoral person is not respected (satkrta) by people; his house is like a cemetery (smasana) into which people do not go; he loses all his virtues (guna) like a rotten tree that people despise; he is like a frozen lotus that gives people no pleasure to see; filled with evil thoughts (dustacitta), he is dreadful like a demon (raksasa); people do not turn to him, no more than a thirsty (pipdsita) man goes to a poisoned well (kupa); his mind is always disturbed like a guilty man who always fears the approach of punishment; he is like a field (ksetra) covered with hailstones over which nobody can venture; he is like bad grain, having the outer appearance of good seed but which is inedible; he is like a den of thieves (cauranigamd) where it is not good to stop; he is like a great sickness (vyddhita) which no one dares to approach; he does not succeed in avoiding suffering; he is like a bad path difficult to travel on; he is dangerous to visit like an evil thief whom it is difficult to befriend; he is like a big ditch (garta) that people who walk avoid; he is bad company like a poisonous snake (asTvisa); he is impossible to approach like a great fire; he is like a wrecked ship on which it is impossible to set sail; he is like vomit that cannot be swallowed back. In an assembly of good men, the immoral man is like a bad horse in the midst of good horses, like a donkey in a herd of cows (go-). In an assembly of vigorous men (viryavat), he is like a weak child among robust men. Even though he has the external appearance of a bhiksu, one would say he is a corpse (kunapa) in the midst of sleepers. He is like a false pearl (mani) among real pearls, like a castor-bean tree (eranda) in a sandalwood (canadana) forest. Even though outwardly he looks like an honest man, inwardly he is without good qualities (kusaladharma). Even though he is called bhiksu because he has a shaved head (munda), the yellow robe (kasaya) and presents his 'ticket' (saldkdm grhndti) in the proper order (anukramena), 205 in reality he is not a bhiksu. If the immoral man takes the monastic robes, these are like burning brass for him, like an iron ring around his body; his alms bowl (patra) is like ajar (bhdjana) Tilled with melted copper; when he takes his food, it is as if he were swallowing balls (pinda) of burning iron or drinking boiling brass; the people paying homage (pujd) to him with their offerings (dana) are like the guardians of hell (narakapdla) watching over him; when he enters the monastery (vihdra), it is as though he were entering the great hell (mahdniraya); when he sits on the monastic benches (samghakancaka), it is as if he were taking his place on a bed of burning iron. [154c]Finally, the immoral person is always fearful (bhaya), like a sick man who constantly fears the approach of death, or a person guilty of the five sins leading to immediate (dnantarya) damnation and who always says he is the enemy of the Buddha. He hides himself and lies like a brigand fearful of being taken. Years, months and days pass; he never finds any safety (yogaksema). Although the immoral man may get honors (pujd) and bench: ,/,</"', r) in h i] pin . I kha) is impure: it is as though madmen had dressed and adorned a corpse (kunapa), and wise people, who know it, do not want to look at it. These are the many (nanavidha) innumerable (apramdnd) punishments of immorality; all of them could not be enumerated. The ascetic will therefore carefully (ekacittena) observe the precepts.

The salaka is a wooden card that allows its holder to participate in a vote or in the distribution of food; it is a sort of method of supervision. To vote is called s<// i to hold one's 'ticket' ": cf. Vinaya, I, p. 117; II, p. 199, 205; Anguttara, I, p. 24.

CHAPTER XXII: THE NATURE OF MORALITY( P . 782F) 2C

~ 16 Preliminary note. - In order to understand the technical explanation which follows, it is useful to define the notion of sin, wrong-doing (papa, akusald) and of morality or discipline (sila) in the Sarvastivadin-Vaibhasika system from which the Mpps is derived. 1. Sin (murder, theft, lust, falsehood, drunkenness) and the state of sin resulting assumes three things: a. A mental action (inaiiaskarinan) consisting of an evil volition (ahisalacetand). the resolution to kill, to lie, etc. b. A bodily actioi (ka\ inn l 01 o e i lioi ( ikka Kin) i murdcrou id or fa I peech derived from the preceding volition and win h i it to otheis Because of tin d rti n it is called "information" (vijnapti). c. A substance derived from the five great ehiu ui variipa) ul lantial but in i .hie, pio]ected by the bodily or vocal action, which transforms the person into a murderer or a liar. Since this substance, although it is material, is invisible and docs not make itself known to others, it is called "non-information" (avijilapti). In away, it is a perpetual action thai classifies the person within the framework of guilt and continues to exist within him even when the person is inactive. This state of sin, understood in a material way, is ended only by death, by formal renunciation (virati) of sin, and by physical or vocal actions directly opposed to its nature. 2. Morality consists of abstaining from sin and its sequel. But abstaining from sin does not have the same value in all people. There can be a fortuitous and purely negative abstention: e.g., a person does not sin because he has no occasion for it, or because his condition renders him incapable of committing a fault. Secondly, there is a conscious and willed abstention, e.g., from simple innate taste or out of more or less noble motives, by oneself one makes the resolution to avoid sin in general or a particular sin. Finally and thirdly, abstention from sin may be derived from religious motives and from a public formal pledge in the course of a ceremony of taking vows: this ilu ul I mil if moralil haractcrizi Buddhist practitionci 1 i i ; na) II as monastic l \ it In Buddhism there are two kinds of lay people and four kinds of monastics. Among the lay people, the following should be distinguished: 1) those who undertake to observe, for their their cntin If <h 11 vi h>IJ disciplim l '«) incumbent on tin ipasaka (la\ dept) Ihosi ho pledge to observe the eight precepts of the "one day and one night discipline" (rdtridivasasamvara) incumbent on the upavasthana (faster) every fourth, sixth or fifteenth day of the month. Among the monastics the following are to be distinguished: I ) those who undertake to observe, for their entire life, the "ten ]>i< cp i < ada) in uml ri on ll i n (novice) 2) those who undertake to ob i i < for thcii ntin lifi ill i irticd \ Idi or ruli >Mli k i (pro! itioncr) l those who undertake to observe, for their entire life, the 'five hundred articles" (pancasatadlianna) of the bhiksunT (nun) rules; 4) those who undertake to observe, for their entire life, the "two hundred and fifty articles" of the rules of the hluksu (monk). The process resulting in the creation of an upasaka, upavasastha, sramanera or bhiksu is exactly parallel with that which makes a man a murderer or a liar: a. The candidate for the religious state of upasaka. etc.. mentally makes the resolution (cittotpdda) to avoid the sins that are contrary to that state. b. At the time of the initiation or ordination (upasanipadai ceremony, by means of certain gestures and certain words, he pledges publicly and solemnly to avoid sin: this is the "pledge'" morality which was mentioned

FIRST PART: GENERAL MORALITY

Question: - Knowing the various marvelous fruits (ndndvidhagunavipdka) of morality, what is its nature ( Ink sana )'? Answer. - The nature of morality is the cessation of sin, wrong-doing (pdpdsamatha) and its non- reappearance. The suppression of sins of body and speech (kdyavdkpdpasamitd), whether it be the making of a resolution (cittotpada), a verbal promise (vagukti) or a pledge before a third person (paratah samddanam), constitutes the nature of morality (silalaksana),.

I. Abstaining from murder. 1 . Required conditions for murder. 207

c. This ritual pledge induces in him a "non-information" (avijnapti) of a special kind, material substance. but invisible, called discipline" (sanivara) which, according to the pledges made by him, make him an upasaka, an upavasastha. a siamancra or a bhiksu. this quality of upasaka, etc., continues to exist and to develop in him as long as he has not forsworn it by a public statement, or as long as it has not been destroyed by a physical or vocal action contrary to its nature. An upasaka who commits murder, a bhiksu who lacks chastity ceases to be an upasaka or bhiksu, because these faults arc directly opposed to their discipline. Clearly, discipline as ii has been described here can be possessed only by people living in the realm of desire. Does this mean thai (he gods of the form realm anil 'she formless realm as well as the saints free of all stains do not possess any kind of discipline? No, ami this leads the scholars to distinguish three new kinds of discipline: 1) i 1 i s j iplii ii ul {pratim i i i) I In i the morality of the i ilm of kam idli Uu ih hud lily < bcin ol this world; 2) the discipline produced by heavenly dhyana, the morality of rupadhatu: 3) [sure {anasrava) discipline which arises from the Path, pure morality. The theories summarized here which are the basis for the laborious studies of the Mpps are those of the n i i lin v libhasikas; they are explained in detail in Kosa, IV and in the introduction of the Karmasiddhiprakarana. They are not accepted by all the Buddhist schools. Thus the Sautrantikas deny the existence of he avijnapti as a material substance, for them, sins or renunciation of sins (virati) induce a subtle change t , * i aid i' i [ ii < i i 1 a >fu n i i am i i m if I il < .|n iln ol intv i >i ol m> ■ ii on i (cf. Kosa, IV, p. 22; Karmasiddhiprakarana, p. 88-89). 207 According to traditional Buddhism, five conditions must be present for there to be murder. These are explained in the Dasakusalakarmapathah, attributed by the Kanjur (Mdo, XXXIII, 39 and XCIV, 23) to Asvaghosa, found in a Nepalese manuscript published by S. Levi, Autour d 'Asvaghosa, JA, Oct-Dec. 1929, p. 268-269: ra katliain praijatipati hhavati, praui ca i ivafi, vadhakat mam ca bhavati, upakramam ca karoti, jTvitddvyavaropayati: etdhpanca [sambhdrah] pranapate: "How is one a murderer? There is

What is sin (papa, akusald)! If there is really a living (prana) being, if one knows that there is a living being, if one makes the decision to kill it, and if one takes its life (jivita), one is committing a physical act (kayakarman) consisting of derived matter (upadayarupa) 20 * which is called murder (pranatapatti). All the rest, such as being put under arrest (bandhana nirodha) and flogging (kasaprahara) [that accompany killing] are auxiliaries of murder. Moreover, to commit murder, it is necessary to kill another person (paropaghata); to kill oneself (dtmopaghata) is not murder. For there to be murder, it is necessary to kill that which one thinks is a living (prana) being. If in the dark, one takes a man to be a tree-stump and one kills him [believing him to be a tree-stump], the destruction of this living being is not murder. This is not unreasonable because in order for there to be murder, it is necessary to kill in full awareness. Distraction (viksepa) or error (moha) exclude guilt. For there to be murder, it is necessary that the vital organ (^Tvitendriya) 109 [of the victim] be cut. The bodily action that inflicts only a woumd (vrana) is not murder; a word of command alone, an encouragement alone [to kill] is not murder; the resolve [to kill] alone is not murder. These are the (conditions) for there to be murder. Abstaining from this sin is called morality (sila).

2. The vow not to kill. Sometimes a person pledges [publicly to observe] morality (Mam samadadati) and expresses his resolve (cittotpada) aloud: "From today on, I will no longer kill living beings"; sometimes, without moving or speaking, he just ratifies his resolution by means of a personal oath: "From today on, I will no longer kill living beings": this is called the morality of abstaining from murder (prdndiii)d(u:>rativiratisTla)} w

a living being, one knows that there is a living being, one has the intention to kill, one proceeds to attack, one deprives it of life: these are the five things needed for there to be murder." this teaching is repeated and completed by Buddhaghosa in Sumahgala, I, p. 69-70; Atthasalim, p. 97 (tr. Tin, Expositor, I, p. 129): 'Passu pauca samhliara lionti: pan/), pauasaunita, vadhakacittani, upakkamo, tena maranan ti. Ch itthiko, a > iko, tlidvaro anayo, kldi uiyo ti: "Five things are necessary for murder: a living being, Ihc awareness that a sentient being is there, the intention to kill, attack and the death that results. There are six ways of realizing it: with one's own hand, by instigation, by weapons, by stratagem, by trickery or by supernatural means." See also Kosa, IV, p. 153; 1 ibctan Karmaprajnapli, .Vklo 62. chap. XI; Hardy, Manual, p. 461 Bk nidi I, G mdama,p. 417. 208 On the nature of this bodil i t\ mallei ! <u\cd from the great elements, see Kosa, IV, p. 4; Karmasiddhiprakarana, p. 64-68. 209 Murder assumes Ihc destruction essentially of Ihc vital organ (/ivitendriya), w hich has been discussed in Kosa, II, p. 105, 123; IV, p. 154. 210 The solemn statements in the course of the refuge (saranagamand) and ordination (upasampadd) ceremonies will be described in the second pari of the presenl chapter, Bui in the preliminary note , we have seen that abstaining from sins may be derived from a simple inner resolution independent of any statement. It seems that at the beginning, the practitioners of the Greater Vehicle "took the precepts" by means of personal oath (cf. Hobogirin,

According to some, this abstention from murder is someetimes good (kusala), sometimes neutral [i.e., undefined from the moral point of view (avyakrta)]. 3. Why abstention from murder is sometimes neutral. 211 Quesion. - In the Abhidharma it is said that every moral discipline (sarvasilasamvara) is good (kusala): why is it said here that it is [sometimes] neutral (avyakrta)! Answer. - It is in the Katyayanlputra Abhidharma that it is said that it is always good; but in the other Abhidharmas, it is said that abstention from murder is sometimes good, sometimes neutral. Why? If abstention from murder is always good, the person who abstains from killing would be like a practitioner of the Buddhist path (labdhamdrgapurusa) and would never fall into the bad destinies (durgati). This is why there can be the case where abstaining from murder is neutral; being neutral, it does not involve any fruit of retribution (vipakaphala) and therefore does not lead to rebirth among the gods (devd) or men (manusya). Question. - One does not fall into the hells because the morality of abstention is neutral, but rather because there had been, in addition, the production of an evil mind (clustacittotpacla). [155a] Answer. - 1) Abstention from murder produces an undefined merit (apramdnakusala) because, whether there is action (kriya) or abstention (kriya), a merit (punya) always results. If one commits a slight error (ksudrapatti), [the resulting demerit] will be quite limited (saparyanta) and quite definite (sapramana). Why? Because [the demerit] is proportional to a determinate [fault] and not to an indeterminate fault. This is why we know that abstention from murder is sometimes neutral. 2) Moreover, there are people who pledge to observe the precepts and who limit themselves to formulating mentally (cittend) a personal oath, saying: "From today on, I will no longer kill living beings." Such an abstention is sometimes neutral (avyakrta).

4. The "realm" of abstention from killing. Question. - To which realm (dhatu) does abstention from murder belong? Bosatsukai, p. 142); later, they had a separate ceremony, otherwise closely copied from the ritual of the Lesser Vehicle (cf. Bodhisattvapratimoksasutra. ed. N. Dutt, IHQ, VII, 1931, p. 259-286). 211 If I [Lamotte] correctlyunderstand the problem studied here, three cases should be distinguished: a. Pure and simple abstention from murder, not inspired by any elevated motivation, has no moral value; it is neither good nor bad, but neutral (avyakrta). b. The abstention from murder that comes from a resolution, from a formal pledge {sainadcma) but which is tainted by a wrong notion, is not capable of directly and absolutely opposing sin. Thus, infidels (bahya) can possess the morality of pledge, but as they remain in the false view of existence (bhavasamnisrita), they are incapable of rejecting, of absolving from sin. Therefore it is not really good. Cf. Kosa, IV, p. 48-50. c. The abstention from murder to which the Buddhists pledge themselves by the Pratimoksa directly iJ merit bcin |u ilifi d i >od (A alu i

Answer. - In the Katyayanlputra Abhidharma it is said that all morality of pledge (samdddnasamvara) belongs to the desire realm (kamadhatuvacara); but the other Abhidharmas say that it belongs to the desire realm or that it belongs to no realm (anavacara). To speak truthfully, it is of three kinds: it belongs either to the desire realm (kamatllititvavacard), or to the form realm (rupaclhdtvavacara), or to the pure realm (andsravacara). The killing of living beings (prdndtipdta) involves the desire realm; abstention from killing, corresponding to it, is in the desire realm. It is only the absence of killing in the form realm or the absence of killing in the pure (andsrava) realm which, by pushing it away {yipakrstah at), constitute the true morality of abstention from killing. Moreover, there are people who, from birth onwards, without pledging to observe the precepts, have come to abhor killing; sometimes good (kusala). sometimes neutral (avyakrta), this [abstention from killing] is described as undefined.

5. The nature of abstention from killing. This abstention from killing is neither mind (citta), nor mental event (caitta), nor associated with mind (cittasamprayuktd); sometimes it arises with the mind (cittasahaja), sometimes it does not arise with the mind. In the Katyayanlputra Abhidharma, it is said that abstention from killing is a bodily or vocal action (kdyavdkkarman), sometimes with derived matter (upddayarupa), sometimes without derived matter; sometimes concomitant with mind (cittdnuvartin), sometimes non-concomitant with mind. It is not the reward (vipdka) of actions carried out in previous existences (purvajanmakarmari). It is of two kinds, i.e., practice (bhdvand) or intended to be practiced (bhdvitavya), and realization (sdksdtkdra) or intended to be realized (sdksdtkurtavya) ... [The moral discipline) of ordinary people {bald) and the aryas is a material dharma (rupadharma), sometimes visible (sanidarsana), sometimes invisible (anidarsana); sometimes offering resistance (sapratigha), sometimes non-resistant (apratigha); it is a dharma that involves retribution (savipdka) and involves fruit (saphala); it is a defiled (sdsrava) conditioned (samskrta) dharma which has others beneath it (sottara); it is not an associated cause (samprayuktakahetu). These are the categories that constitute the morality of abstention from murder. Question. - In the Noble eightfold Path tui \ ngamarga) tnoralil la) also consists of the banning of the killing of living beings. 212 Why do you speak only of the morality of abstention from murder which involves retribution (vipdka) and defilement (dsravdf.

The eightlol I n ! ISn I Path, 1 in ribin ri hi speech ( i c) ri hi lion ( i nCmta) and right means of livclih. >■ > 1 I i • n I in alleles 3, 4 and 5, forbids by that very fact the sins of body (murder, theft and lust) and the sins of speech (falsehood, slander, harsh speech and idle gossip). But we have seen above that the morality arising from the Path constitutes pure discipline (aiiasrarasamvara) and consequently transcends the mechanism of retribution: li leads directly lo nirvana.

Answer. - Here we are speaking only of the discipline of the morality of pledge (samadanasilasamvara); we are not speaking of the dis