The 9th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
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Founder of the Yogacara (or Mind-Only) school of Buddhism. Born of a Brahmin family in North India sometime in the fourth century A.D. He was converted to the Mahisasaka (one of the 20) early schools of Buddhism and became a monk in that tradition.
Asvaghosa is one of the four great Indian Buddhist sages who are called the 'four suns that illuminate the world'. Buddhist poet best known for his famous epic poem called the Buddha-Carita which represents the first complete biography of the Buddha. Information concerning his life is conflicting but it appears that Asvaghosa was a contemporary of King Kaniska (second century C.E.).
Austin, Jack (1917-93)
Pioneer of Shin Buddhism in UK, born Caerleon, Gwent (South Wales, UK). With Richard Robinson, founded Dharma Study Group for studying Mahayana sutras.1946-52: a member of 1st ad hoc council of Buddhist Society.
1966: initiated into Soto Zen by Chisan Koho Zenji in London. With others founded the Hannyakai to practice zazen under proper tuition for the first time in the UK, inviting Sochu Suzuki Roshi from Japan (later London Zen Society).
Served as Buddhist representative on various committees. 1975: Development Officer of World Congress of Faiths, organizing conferences and interfaith activities; served on several related committees, including Buddhist Religious Adviser, especially in education.
A Chinese monk of the Eastern dynasty (4th-5th Century). In 399 he left China for India, finally arriving there after six years of hard travel. After studying Sanskrit and obtaining many Sanskrit texts of the Tripitaka (Buddhist canon), he returned to China by sea in 414. After his return he not only translated these texts but also wrote a record of his travels. He died when either eighty-two or eighty-six years old.
1924: first Nipponzan Myohoji formed at Tagonoura, near Mt Fujii. 1931-33: travelled in India to regenerate Buddhism there; met Gandhi. Throughout World War II, prayed and regularly fasted for early peace.
The ruler of a large empire in northern India. He was a Buddhist convert in a Hindu era. Harsa was crowned at age 16 after the assassination of his elder brother, Rajyavardhana, and an encouraging "communication" with a statue of the Buddhist Avalokitesvara bodhisattva.
Harsa is known mainly through the Chinese pilgrim Hsüan-tsang, who became a personal friend of the king and depicts the emperor as a convinced Mahayana Buddhist, though in the earlier part of his reign Harsa appears to have supported orthodox Hinduism.
His fame rests mainly on the volume and diversity of his translations of the Buddhist sutras and on the record of his travels in Central Asia and India, which, with its wealth of detailed and precise data, has been of inestimable value to historians and archaeologists.
1960:on Toda's death, became 3rd President of SG. Set out to raise membership to 3 million, to erect a large reception hall at Head Temple and 'to arouse an awakening in religious circles'. 1962:1st goal realized.
1964:2nd goal realized.3rd is 'forever in his heart and actions'. 1975: Soka Gakkai International formed; began international activities, holding dialogues with eminent world leaders and leading intellectuals, arranging cultural exchanges, etc. 1972: Sho Honda, Grand Main Temple, opened at Head Temple (Taiseki-ji).
1983: presented with UN Peace Award by N Sec Gen Perez de Cuellar. Books including The Living Buddha, My Recollections, Dialogue on Life (A Buddhist Perspective on Life and The Universe); Life an Enigma, a Precious Jewel;
Executive Secretary of International Association of Shin Buddhist Studies (founded 1984).
Editor of The Pure Land.
Editor of Ryokoku Translation series.
More than 100 translations are attributed to him.
Of these only about 24 can be authenticated, but they include some of the most important titles in the Chinese Buddhist canon. Kumarajiva's career had an epoch-making influence on Chinese Buddhist thought, not only because he made available important texts that were previously unknown,
Makiguchi Tsunesaburo (1871-1944)
Formed small organized of educators.
1928: converted to Nichiren Shoshu.
Nagarjuna (2nd-3rd Century)
1934: set up milk shop in order to meet people. 1938: seceded from Reiyukai, not because of doctrinal differences, but due to growing awareness of his own powers of leadership and consequent desire for independence; with Mrs M. Naganuma, established Dai Nippon Rissho Kosei-Kai;
became its 1st President. Membership has since grown to 5 million with branches throughout Japan and overseas. Practices including Hoza (Circle of Compassion) and the discipline of Veneration. 1979: won Templeton Prize. Books including Buddhism for Today.
Pieper, Harry (1902-78)
1946: formed a Mahayana group.
1956: founded 1st Pure Land Association in Europe (Buddhistische Gemeinschaft Jodo-Shin). 1962: founded 1st Buddhist prison chaplaincy in German-speaking world. Translated many US and Japanese books on Shin Buddhism.
Representative of the Madhyamika school of Mahayana Buddhism. Shantideva was a king's son from South India. He flourished in the 7th to 8th centuries and was a monk at the monastic university Nalanda. He was the author of two surviving works, the Collection of Rules and Entering the Path of Enlightenment. The latter is still used in Tibetan Buddhism as a teaching text.
Founder of the True Pure Land School of Japanese Buddhism. A disciple of Honen (Jodo School), he carried the doctrine of salvation by faith in Amitabha Buddha to the extreme one of recitation of Amitabha's name being sufficent if done with a pure heart.
He popularized congregational worship.
Travelled in East.
Returned to USA; performed priestly function while working as probation officer, etc.
Founded Chinese Buddhist Association and the journal Hai Cha'o (the Voice of the Tide). Travelled in Europe 1928-9 where he founded Les Amis du Bouddhisme in Paris. Worked hard to improve relations between Buddhists of the East and West. His main doctrinal theme focused on promoting a synthesis of various Chinese Buddhist schools in a harmonious fashion.
1946: married Sakaye Kawabata; 5 children. 1937: University of BC, Canada. 1942: University of Toronto. 1948: Ryukoku University, Kyoto. 1958: ordained minister, Jodo Shinshu, Buddhist Churches of America. 1968: Bishop, Buddhist Churches of America. 1941-2: minister, Vancouver Buddhist Church. 1942-5: Slocan Buddhist Church. 1945-58: Toronto Buddhist Church. 1958-68: National Director of Buddhist Education, BCA. 1968-81: Bishop, BCA; President of Institute of Buddhist Studies. 1981-: Eko-ji Buddhist Temple. Editor, Program of Studies of Buddhist Sunday Schools. 1960: Publications including Three Lectures on Tannisho. Has made documentary films, including In The Footsteps of Shinran, The Story of Hongwan-ji, A Buddhist Pilgrimage, and Sri Lanka, Where the Dharma is Preserved.
1979, PhD (Ministry in Religious Education) from Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley, Cal. 1964: ordained, Buddhist Churches of America: Research Committee, BCA. Minister, Buddhist Church of Oakland.
1971-81: Stockton Buddhist Temple. 1969-71: Registrar, Institute of Buddhist Studies, Berkeley, Cal. 1970-5: member, Research Committee, BCA.1971-5 and 1979-81: member, IBS Board of Trustees, 1972-5: English Secretary, Ministers Association. 1977: member, Board of Buddhist Education. 1979-81: Chairman, Ministers Association. Publications including Compassion in Encounter, Teaching and Practice of Jodo Shinshu, Jodo Shinshu - Religion of Human Experience, Meditation - Gut Enlightenment. The Way of Hara and Six Aspects of Jodo Shinshu. Office: San Francisco.
see also: Mahayana