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Patthana Dhamma by Htoo Naing

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PATTHANA DHAMMA

1

In Theravada Buddhism, Patthana Dhamma is the most admirable Dhamma as

can be heard citation of Patthana everywhere in most Theravada Buddhist

countries. The Buddha preached Abhidhamma at Tavatimsa Deva realm and

Patthana is one part of Abhidamma Pitaka. As it is frequently heard Dhamma,

understanding of Patthana will be very valuable for every Buddhist.

There are 24 Patthana texts in Patthana part of Abhidhamma Pitaka. This number

24 is not the number that all Buddhists know. 24 Paccaya or 24 conditions in

causal relationship between and among Dhamma has been set as a summary of

Patthana Dhamma that have been described in 24 Patthana texts.

As a summary, Patthana Dhamma are packed into 24 Paccaya or 24 conditions.

They are

1. Root condition ( Hetu Paccayo )

2. Object condition ( Arammana Paccayo )

3. Predominance condition ( Adhipati Paccayo )

4. Proximity condition ( Anantara Paccayo )

5. Contiguity condition ( Samanantara Paccayo )

6. Conascence condition ( Sahajata Paccayo )

7. Mutuality condition ( Annamanna Paccayo )

8. Dependence condition ( Nissaya Paccayo )

9. Decisive Support condition ( Upanissaya Paccayo )

10.Prenascence condition ( Purejata Paccayo )

11.Postnascence condition ( Pacchajata Paccayo )

12.Repetition condition ( Asevana Paccayo )

13.Kamma condition ( Kamma Paccayo )

14.Vipaka condition ( Vipaka Paccayo )

15.Nutriment condition ( Ahara Paccayo )

16.Faculty condition ( Indriya Paccayo )

17.Jhana or absorptive condition( Jhana Paccayo )

18.Path condition ( Magga Paccayo )

19.Association condition ( Samyutta Paccayo )

20.Dissociation condition ( Vippayutta Paccayo )

21.Presence condition ( Atthi Paccayo )

22.Absence condition ( Natthi Paccayo )

23.Disappearence condition ( Vigata Paccayo )

24.Non-disappearence condition ( Avigata Paccayo )

These 24 conditions are just a summary of Patthana Dhamma. To understand

Patthana Dhamma, it is essential to understand Paramattha Dhamma or ultimate realities or universal truths

 

There are only four Paramattha Dhamma and nothing more than these exists as

reality or in ultimate sense. These four Dhamma are Citta, Cetasika, Rupa, and

Nibbana. Before going deep into Patthana, these four Dhamma need to be

digested
14 Jul `11, 2:10PM

 

PATTHANA DHAMMA

2

In paramattha dhamma, citta and cetasika are nama dhamma. Nama dhamma are mind

related things. Rupa dhamma are things that are not conscious to anything at all. Or they

will not be able to know themselves or their environment. And these dhamma are always

influenced by other dhamma like kamma, citta, utu, and ahara.

Nibbana on the other hand is much much more subtler and it is quite difficult to realize its

existence by non-experiencers even though intellectual people may sense its existence with

their limited mental faculties through intellectual consideration.

Nama dhamma and rupa dhamma are known as sankhata dhamma. Because these

dhamma are conditioned by other things and their arising is more or less related to

appropriate conditions. If there is no condition for their arising they will not arise and if

there is condition, then they arise due to that condition.

Nibbana is asankhata dhamma. Sometimes nibbana is said as asankhata dhatu. This means

that nibbana is not conditioned by anything and it is free of any condition. It is not related

to nama or rupa in any way. But if it has to be related, then nibbana is said to be a state

where there is no lobha, no dosa, and no moha or avijja.

These are just a touch to paramattha dhamma and further detailing is needed to

understand to some extent. Now some starts have been given to rupa and nibbana. Nama

dhamma comprises citta and cetasika.

Patthana involves all these dhamma and if these dhamma are not understood then

patthana will be much much more difficult to understand. So far initialization of

paramattha dhamma has been done and through out the course of discussion of patthana,

some facts will be repeated so that dhamma becomes seeming to be easier 14 Jul `11, 2:12PM

Glossary:

1. paramattha _ This Pali ( language used by The Buddha ) word comes from a word

combination of ' parama ' and ' attha '. Parama means superior, excel, great. Attha

means essence, meaning, content, core. So paramattha means ' superior core ' or ' great

essence '. This is ultimate reality. When everything we can sense is analysed, ultimately

there comes out nothing but just ultimate reality. These ulitimate realities are

paramattha dhamma. These are universal truths. They are always true so they are

 

universal truths. They were true millions of years ago, aeons ago and they are still being

true and they will be true in next endless time and even in timeless states. So they are

always true and they can be called as universal truths. Paramattha the word is an

adjective but it is sometimes used as a noun in the sense of paramattha dhamma.

2. Dhamma_ This word has many meanings.a) If it is expressed as ' The Dhamma ' with

capital 'D' it represents one of three refuges that is The Buddha, The Dhamma, and The

Sangha. b)Dhamma is the doctrines of The Buddha teachings, c) dhamma is nature or

natural things, d) dhamma is law, e) dhamma is an action, f) dhamma is truth, g )

dhamma are good things or good actions. Still there are many of its meanings. The

dhamma here in this article is truth if it is associated with paramattha.

3. Citta_ means consciousness. It is the nature that is able to know or sense or be aware of

objects. Objects may be visual objects or sight, auditory object or sound, smell, taste,

touch and intellectual things or thinking. Seeing mind, hearing mind, smelling mind,

tasting mind, touching ( feeling ) mind, thinking mind are examples of citta.

4. Cetasika_ is the nature that always arises along with citta and it also passes away with

the disappearence of citta. It always depends on the same base that citta based that is if

citta arises at eye-base, cetasika also arises at eye-base and if heart-base, then heartbase. It always takes the same object that is taken by citta. If citta takes colour or sight

or visual object cetasika also takes that. If citta takes sound as an object, cetasika also

does so. Examples of cetasikas are annoyance, hatred, anger, fury, depression, jealousy,

stinginess, repent, ignorance, distraction, shamelessness, fearlessness, love, attachment,

craving, clinging, conceit, and many other things. As they always arise with citta, the

combination may become annoyed mind, furious mind, depressed mind, ignorant mind,

distracted mind, loving mind, conceited mind, and many other minds depending on

cetasikas.

5. Nama_This is a nature that has a quality of bending toward objects. It tends to know

object. It is mind related thing. It is not material. So it can never be sensed by material

things like electric detectors. Citta and cetasikas are nama dhamma. Mind is nama dhamma.

6. Rupa_ This is things in the worlds or in the universe after excluding nama dhamma. It

is material things. Some of rupa are substance or materials. Science says many are

complex materials, many are compound materials, and some are elements. Element

here is being talked on scientific elements like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon.

Ultimate things in physical world from science view are proton, neutron, electron etc.

But rupa is more than that.

7. Kamma_ It is potential energy that can induce effect or result. If we did something

good, we got a good kamma and if bad, a bad kamma. These good or bad potentials

always stay with us without being able to be sensed their existence and we only know

them when the effect are shown due to revealing of its result.

8. Utu_It is physical environment. It is temperature. It is weather. The earth can be wet

and it can also be dry. This is due to weathering effect of utu. There may be breeze,

wind, gale, storm or movement of air and they are weathered by utu. The environment

may be warm or may be cold due to weathering effect of utu. Dead animals change in

different stages start from dead bodies to old dry bone pieces and dust. These changes

are due to weathering effect of utu. We hear some sounds produced in our environment

and these sounds if not produced by beings ( beings with citta ) they are the result of

 

utu. Utu weathers these sounds like sounds of wind and storm, sounds of thundering

and so on.

9. Ahara_It is nutriment or nutritious things that support the result. All living beings need

nutriment as their ahara. The food they eat are ahara. Food when digested and support

the body they are called ahara. Food is just for physical body. It is just ahara for the

physical body. There are other ahara for us. There are 3 kinds of nama ahara. These 3

kinds support mind. Cetasika Phassa or contact is a need for mind. It supports mind.

Mind only senses object with the aid of contact or Phassa. So Phassa is an ahara for

mind. There are other ahara for mind and these will appear in due course.

10. Nibbana_It is an ultimate reality. It exists. Here it is difficult to understand as it is not a

rupa dhamma and it is also not a nama dhamma. So some may assume it as nonexistence or annihilation. But it is not. It is an absolute peace. This peace is being seen

from mundane side. We say it absolute peace because it is void of any suffering. It is

total extinguishment of all fire and total eradication of everything.

11. Sankhata_It means influenceable, conditionable

12. Dhatu_It is a nature that brings its own characteristic.

13. Lobha_attachment, greediness, craving, clinging etc etc.

14. Dosa_hatred, anger, fury

15. Moha_ignorance, lacking wisdom

16. Avijja_the opposite of vijja, which is panna or wisdom of Arahats. So Arahats have

Panna or Vijja and all other non-arahats do not have this Vijja. Instead they all have

avijja.
14 Jul `11, 2:16PM

 

PATTHANA DHAMMA

3

Citta is the nature that senses objects. It knows the object. It bends toward the object. As

nuclear particles cannot be countable, Cittas are also not countable. As it is not a physical

material, sometimes it is difficult to describe how it exists and how it works.

We are sattas. Sattas are beings with the faculties to know themselves and their

environments. There are different kinds of satta. Sattas are grouped into different realms.

There are 31 realms or planes of existence. According to senses available, these realms or

bhumis are divided into three separate groups. They are kama bhumi, rupa bhumi, and

arupa bhumi.

Cittas are arising at these 31 bhumis. There are 89 kinds of cittas if all cittas in sankhata

domain have to be characterised. These 89 cittas are states of consciousness. These 89 are

just a summay. In real terms, there is immense amount of cittas in sankhata domain.

Sometimes cittas are discussed as 121 cittas.

There are 54 cittas which are most frequently arising in kama bhumi even though they may

sometimes arise in other bhumi if appropriate. These 54 cittas are called kamavacara

cittas.

There are 15 cittas which are most frequently arising in rupa bhumi even though they may

arise in kama bhumi and arupa bhumi if conditions favour and if appropriate. These 15

cittas are called rupavacara cittas as they mostly arise in rupa bhumi.

There are 12 cittas which are most frequently arising in arupa bhumi even though they

may arise in kama bhumi and rupa bhumi if conditions favour their arising and if

appropriate. These 12 cittas are called as arupavacara cittas.

There are 8 cittas that are not taking objects in the sankhata domain. They are

supramundane consciousness and they are the highest and noblest cittas among 89 cittas.

They are not related to loka or sankhata domain and they are called lohuttara cittas. These

cittas can arise in kama bhumi, rupa bhumi, and arupa bhumi if conditions are there to

arise these cittas.

Kamavacara cittas are 54, rupavacara cittas are 15, arupavacara cittas are 12, and

lokuttara cittas are 8 and in total there 89 cittas. At any given time, at any given blink, at

any given moment, there is only one and only one citta in a satta. This one may be one of

these 89 cittas.

If lokuttara cittas arise while in jhana, then lokuttara cittas are talked as 1

st

jhana

lokuttara cittas, 2

nd

jahana, 3

rd

jhana, 4

th

jhana, and 5

th

jhana lokuttara cittas. As these are

8 lokuttara cittas there are 40 lokuttara cittas in total if talk in this way

 

In sankhata domain or loka that is kama loka or kama bhumi, rupa loka or rupa bhumi,

and arupa loka or arupa bhumi, there are 81 cittas and these all 81 cittas always deal with

loka related things and they do not involve in lokuttara related things. These 81 lokiya

cittas along with 40 lokuttara cittas will constitute 121 cittas. This should be noted as cittas

are discussed as 89 and sometimes discussed as 121 according to the setting.

There are 54 kamavacara cittas. They are 24 sobhana cittas or beautiful cittas and 30

asobhana cittas or non-beautiful cittas ( not ugly cittas. If want to use 'ugly' it should be

assigned to 12 akusala cittas. ).

30 asobhana cittas can be divided into three groups according to their origion or jati. They

are 12 akusalacittas, 15 vipakacittas, and 3 kiriyacittas.

Akusalacittas can again be divided into three groups according to the root or hetuka they

mainly have. They are 8 lobhacittas, 2 dosacittas and 2 mohacittas.

There are 8 lobha mula cittas. They are

1. Somanassa sahagatam ditthi sampayutta asankharika citta.

2. Somanassa sahagatam ditthi sampayutta sasankharika citta

3. Somanassa sahagatam ditthi vippayutta asankharika citta

4. Somanassa sahagatam ditthi vippayutta sasankharika citta

5. Upekkha sahagatam ditthi sampayutta asankharika citta

6. Upekkha sahagatam ditthi sampayutta sasankharika citta

7. Upekkha sahagatam ditthi vippayutta asankhrika citta

8. Upekkha sahagatam ditthi vippayutta sasankharika citta

All these cittas are rooted by dosa. The first 4 are associated with piti cetasika or joy. So

they all are designated as 'Somanassa sahagatam'. Somanassa means joy. Saha means

together and gati means 'to go'. The first pair are ditthi smpayutta. Ditthi means wrong view. Sampayutta means exist together, mix together, stay in common. In the first pair are

asankharika citta and sasankharika cittas. Asankharika means 'unprompted ' and

sasankharika means 'prompted'. The last 4 are the same but they do not have joy. So in

simple English they may be mentioned as follows.

1. Happy disbelieving unprompted consciousness

2. Happy disbelieving prompted consciousness

3. Happy believing unprompted consciousness

4. Happy believing prompted consciousness

5. Equanimous disbelieving unprompted consciousness

6. Equanimous disbelieving unprompted consciousness

7. Equanimous believing unprompted consciousness

8. Equanimous believing prompted consciousnes

 

But if these cittas are translated in this way, their origionality and origional senses may

lose. The best thing I think is that they should be learned as they origionally are and then

assume each citta as a single unit and give it a name whatever you want.

Examples are like these.

1. Happy disbelieving unprompted consciousness ( HDUC )

2. Happy un-believing unprompted consciousness ( HUUC )

3. Joyous disbelieving unprompted consciousness ( JDUC )

4. Joyous un-believing unprompted consciousness ( JUUC )

5. Joyous un-believing non-prompted consciousness ( JUNC )

6. Joyous hardly-believing unprompted mind ( JHUM )

And any other term may be used But in real terms that citta is only one ever exists in terms

of it characters.

The first citta ' somanassa sahagatam ditthi sampayutta asankharika citta differs from

other cittas.

Lobha or greediness may be explicit or very subtle. If explicit it expresses arising

somanassa cittas. If subtle, the lobha expresses as arising upekkha cittas.

In the second pair that is ( 3 and 4 ) joyous cittas without ditthi or wrong view, there is no

ditthi. So it believes kamma and effects. This means it does not have wrong view. So it is

stated as ditthi vippayutta or without wrong view.

Akusala actions with or without ditthi will not be the same in terms of kamma. With wrong view is worse than without it.

In the first pair of citta, there are two cittas, asankharika and sasankharika citta.

Asankharika does not need to be prompted or stimulated. Again, without promptedness is

much much more powerful in producing kamma.

1. Somanassa sahagatam ditthi sampayutta asankharika citta

Joy kamma-disbelieving un-stimulated mind

In case of ' a young child eating a sweet, there arise the first citta. He or she does not

know anything about kamma. Children like sweet food. So he or she will be happy

while eating what he or she likes. No one prompts him or her to be happy.

2. Somanassa sahagatam ditthi sampayutta sasankharika citta

       In this, example would be like this. A child gets a thing. He grasps it in his hand. He

does not know what is in his hand but only know there is a thing in his hand. His mother

says ' Tom. Eat that sweet, it is really nice. ' As soon as he knows that it is a kind of food

eatable and it is sweet that is what he likes than a lobha citta arise. But this time it is

prompted. So the arising citta wil be sasankharika citta.

 

3. Somanassa sahagatam ditthi vippayutta asankharika citta

       In this, a man steals something from a food store because he forgets money to bring

with him. He knows that it is not good to do so but he did it as his lobha dictates him to do

so. He does himself ( asankharika ). He knows there might be a result ( ditthi vippayutta )

and still he is happy as he is going to have food in hand.

4. Somanassa sahagatam ditthi vippayutta sasankharika citta

   In this, a man steals something from a shop. He met a friend after his stealing. His friend

thief said, ' Friend thief. Whatever thing did you get today? ' The man showed him the

thing he stole. He did not know the value of the thing he has stolen. Friend thief said, ' Oh!

What a nice thing you have stolen. This thing is very valuable. Then the 4

th

citta arises.

Stealing is not good and he knows. But he has to do it because it is his profession. His lobha

has to arise after prompting by his friend.

Upekkha cittas are just the same but there is no trace of joy in these upekkha citta.

5. The case like stealing a thing that is not very valuable on his own decision or own effort.

6. This case will like stealing thing that is not very valuable. But he has to steal because his

mother said she needs it. Or alternatively the accompanying friend tells him to steal it.

In the first instance there is no one stimulating but still it is prompted because he just

remember his mother's word and with that prompt he did stealing.

7. This case will like in case of a wise man telling a lie. He believes kamma. But he still

does akusala and kusala whatever he faces. He just lies and and he is not joyful when he

lies. There is no ditthi or wrong view. And he does telling the lie on his own.

8. This case will like that of a case when the above man tells a lie in connection with some

influence. Example is, an employee tells a lie. He does so because of his employer. This

may be to protect his employer or may be he is afraid of his employer. So he does not

tell the truth and instead he tells a lie. This is prompted. Another example is someone

urges him to tell a lie and he does not wish to do so but he does.

There are many different occasions that these lobha mula cittas have to arise. As they all

are rooted by lobha, they are called as lobhacitta.

There are 2 dosa mula cittas that is 2 cittas with dosa-root or dosa hetuka. They are

1. Domanassa sahagatam patiga samyutta asankharika citta

    ( feeling bad) ( destructiveness)

2. Domanassa sahagatm patiga samyutta sasankharika citta

 

These two cittas are cittas that arise whenever there is annoyance in mind. There are

different degree of annoyance from very very subtle form to very explicit hatred that leads

to the most wicked crime ever exists.

The first citta can easily be understood as almost all people have come across such thing.

When hungry and there still lack of food, dosa arise. When being hit, dosa arise. When

being cursed, dosa arise and whenever unsatisfactory thing happen dosa arise. As soon as it

arise dosa affect its home that is angry person. He will feel bad in his mind or pain in his

mind.

The second citta is prompted. A man hears a word. He does not hurt. But nearby friend

tells him that he is being told such and such. Then dosa has to arise. This is prompted.

There are 2 moha mula cittas. There is no lobha and no dosa in these 2 moha mula cittas as

they both are ekahetuka cittas ( single-rooted mind ). Since they do not have any other root

like lobha and dosa, the feeling here is both equanimous.

Moha cittas are

1. Upekkha sahagatam uddhacca citta

2. Upekkha sahagatm vicikiccha citta

The first citta is moha with uddacca. Uddhacca means restlessness. When cittas are mainly

uddhacca they all are upset and cittas are wandering here and there. When uddhacca is

main cittas, then the person concerned will be restlessly thinking over many topics and

wandering around on many objects. This citta can be noticed in case of ' a man who lost

100 billions just now. Why lost? What happen? Who did it? That's not me. It's not my

fault. Is it justifiable that I lost all these properties?And many endless restless thought arise

successively in a matter of seconds and minutes even though he may settle down with time.

The second citta is moha with vicikiccha. Vicikiccha is disbelief. It is indecisiveness. It is

suspicion on realties such as nibbana and way to nibbana and other dhamma. As soon as

this citta arise there is no more saddha or confidence or belief. This citta can be noticed in

cases of people thinking indecisively. They are mainly thinking. Where am I? Am I here?

Who am I? Is there a world? Is there bhumi? Are there deva, brahamas? Is nibbana a real

thing? If I die, what will be next? There should not be any life after death. Disbelief in The

Buddha, The Dhamma, The Sangha, Paticcasamuppada, the past, the future, the present,

and Noble Eightfold path.

All these 12 cittas are called akusala cittas because these cittas have to arise whenever

akusala actions are done. They work as javana cittas in vithi series. 14 Jul `11, 2:17PM

 

Glossary

1.satta _ beings, lives

2.bhumi_ realm, where sattas of the same characters exist

3.kama_ 5 sense-related, related to sensual sphere

4.rupa bhmi_ rupa brahma realms

5.arupa bhumi_arupabrahma realms

6.kamavacara_ kama + avacara, frequently arising in sensual sphere

7.loka_ where sattas exist. kama loka, rupa loka, arupa loka. The world.

9. lokiya_related to loka

10. lokuttara_ loka + uttara uttara- unattached, librated, beyond loka, supramundane

11. sobhana_beautiful

12. asobhana_ non-beautiful

 
Edited by Weychin 15 Jul `11, 2:11AM 15 Jul `11, 2:13AM

 

PATTHANA DHAMMA

                                                                            4

Patthana is the dhamma that reveals how each dhamma relates other

dhammas. Dhamma here are paramattha dhamma. Paramattha dhamma are

ultimate realities. They are citta, cetasika, rupa, and nibbana. Some details

about citta has been started.

There are 54 cittas that are happening in kama loka or sensual sphere. They

arise most frequently in kama bhumi. These cittas are kinds of citta that arise

in us. 24 cittas are beautiful cittas and 30 are non-beautiful cittas. These nonbeautiful 30 cittas can be divided into 3 groups according to jati or origion.

They are 12 akusala cittas, 15 vipaka cittas, and 3 kiriya cittas.

12 akusala cittas have been described in PATTHANA3. Kiriya cittas are kind

of consciousness that do not carry any kamma potential or kammic force.

These cittas just do their jobs and their actions do not have any long-bearing

result-giving potential or kamma. They just perform what they have to do as

their functions.

In 30 asobhana cittas, there are only 3 kiriya cittas. They are

1. Upekkha sahagatam ahetuka pancadvaravajjana citta or simply

pancadvaravajjana citta

2. Upekkha sahagatam ahetuka manodvaravajjana citta ot simply

manodvaravajjana citta

3. Somanassa sahagatam ahetuka hasituppada citta

Pancadvaravajjana citta is a state of conscoiusness that contemplates on the

arising arammana or object. It contemplates whether the arising object is a

1.visual sense or 2.auditory sense or 3.smell sense or 4.gustatory sense or

5.body sense. It contemplates on the arising object what the sense is like and

it diverts that object to the next arising citta called pancavinnana citta.

In pancadvaravajjana citta there is no moha, no dosa, no lobha, no amoha (

panna ), no adosa ( metta ), no alobha ( dana ). These 6 cetasikas are called

hetuka or roots. As all these 6 cetasikas are not in pancadvaravajjana citta, it

is called ahetuka citta. The feeling in that citta is just upekkha or equanimous

feeling. As it just performs its function, it is a kiriya citta

 

Manodvaravajjana citta is a state of consciousness that contemplates on the

arising dhammaarammana or the arising mind object. It contemplates on the

arising object what it is like and decides how to feel how to realize on that

object and senses all about that object and decides completely what it should

be and what the characters of that object are. In this citta, there are no lobha,

dosa, moha, alobha, adosa, and amoha. So it is called ahetuka citta or rootless

consciousness. The feeling in that citta is upekkha or equanimous feeling. It

just decides on the object and it has no kamma potential. So it is a kiriya citta.

Somanassa sahagatam ahetuka hasituppada citta or simply hasituppada citta

is a state of consciousness that can arise only in arahats including

Sammasambuddhas and paccekabuddhas. It also does not have any of lobha,

dosa, moha, alobha, adosa, amoha and it is so rootless consciousness or

ahetuka citta. But unlike the above two ahetuka kiriya cittas, it is associated

with somanassa or joy. This citta just smiles and it has no kammic force. So it

is also a kiriya citta.

There are 15 ahetuka vipaka cittas ( 8 kama sahetuka vipaka cittas, 5 rupa

sahetuka vipaka cittas, and 4 arupa sahetuka vipaka cittas are 17 sahetuka

vipaka cittas ). Sahetuka means with roots like lobha, dosa, moha, alobha,

adosa, and amoha. There are ekahetuka cittas or single-rooted consciousness,

dvihetuka cittas or double-rooted consciousness, and tihetuka cittas or triplerooted consciousness. These will be discussed in root condition or 'Hetu

Paccayo'.

15 ahetuka vipaka cittas will be discussed in pair that is akusala and kusala.

So there will be 7 pairs of ahetuka vipaka cittas and one extra vipaka citta

which is somanassa citta or consciousness with joy while other 14 with the

exception of 2 kayavinnana cittas are all upekkha cittas or consciousness with

equanimous feeling.

The first pair is cakkhuvinnana cittas. They are called dvi-cakkhuvinnana.

One citta arises due to akusala kamma and another citta arises due to kusala kamma. They both are conscious to vanna or colour ( rupa or sight). No other

consciousness knows visual sense except this pair. They arise at eye.They

know visual sense particularly, especially, and distinctively. So they both are

called cakkhu ( eye ) vinnana ( special-knowledge ) .

 

They both arise with equanimous feeling. To do their job, there need not to

produce effort (viriya ) and they are accompanied by only 7 universal

cetasikas including 1.phassa or contact, 2. vedana or feeling, 3. cetana or

volition, 4.sanna or perception, 5. ekaggata or one-pointedness, 6. jivitindriya

or mental life, and 7. manasikara or attention. So in arising this pair of cittas,

there is no vitakka or initial application, no vicara or sustained application, no

viriya or effort, no piti or joy, no chandha or wish, and no adhimokkha or

decision.

The second pair behaves all the same with the exception that they both sense

sound object. They are conscious to sound. They arise at ear and they are

called dvi-sotavinnana or 2 sotavinnana cittas. One is for akusala kamma and

the other is for kusala kamma. They are ear-consciousness.

The third pair behaves all the same with the exception that they both sense

smell object. They are upekkha sahagatam ghanavinnana cittas. They are

conscious to smell. They both arise at nose and they are called dvighanavinnana or 2 ghanavinnana cittas. One if akusala and the other is kusala citta. They are nose-consciousness.

The fourth pair is called dvi-jivhavinnana. They are jivhavinnana cittas. They

know the sense of taste and they arise at tongue. They are accompanied by

equanimous feeling or upekkha and all other characters are much the same as

other dvi-pancavinnana but they are specific for taste and arise at tongue.

One is for akusala and the other is for kusala citta.

The fifth pair is called dvi-kayavinnana or 2 kayavinnana cittas. One is

dukkha sahagatam akusala kayavinnana citta. It arises at body and knows

body sense particularly. It is accompanied by dukkha or unpleasant feeling.

The other kayavinnana citta is sukha sahagatam kusala kayavinnana citta. It

arises at body and knows body sense particularly and is associated with

pleasant feeling. Except feeling, all other characters are all the same with

other pancavinnana cittas.

The sixth pair is called sampaticchana cittas. One for akusala kamma and

another for kusala kamma. They both are accompanied by equanimous

feeling.1. Upekkha sahagatam akusala sampaticchana citta and 2. Upekkha

sahagatam kusala sampaticchana citta arise along with arising of 7 universal

cetasikas ( phassa_contact, vedana_feeling, cetana_volition, sanna_perception,

ekaggata_one-pointedness, jivitindriya_mental life, and manasikara_attention

 

) and 3 other cetasikas called vitakka_initial application, vicara_sustained

application, and adhimokkha_decision. There is no chandha_wish, no

piti_joy, no viriya_effort in arising of these cittas.

They receive the object that was sensed by pancavinnana citta while they are

sensing that sense and knowledge of the sense arises along with arising of

these cittas. They both have to depend on hadaya vatthu to arise and they

both arise in relationship with pancadvara. If pancavinnana citta is at cakkhu,

they are related to cakkhu or if sota, ghana, jivha, or kaya, then they will be

related to the respective pancadvara of sota, ghana, jivha, or kayadvara.

They can both be called receiving mind. These 2 sampaticchana cittas and

pancadvaravajjana citta all together 3 cittas are also called manodhatu.

Unlike other ( 89 - 10 dvipancavinnana cittas - 3 manodhatu = 76 cittas )

manovinnana cittas, these 3 cittas cannot fully know all about the sense and

they just sense the object. So these 3 cittas are called manodhatu while all

other manovinnana cittas are called manovinnanadhatu. Panvavinnana cittas

are called pancadhatu that is cakkhudhatu, sotadhatu, ghanadhatu,

jivhadhatu, and kayadhatu.

The seventh pair is called santirana cittas. One is for akusala kamma and the

other is for kusala kamma. 1. Upekkha sahagatam akusala santirana citta and

2. Upekkha sahagatam kusala santirana citta. They both arise behaving all the

same as sampaticchana cittas. That is they depend on hadaya vatthu for their

arising and they are related to respective pancadvara at which pancavinnana

citta arose. They are accompanied by 7 universal cetasikas and 3 other

cetasikas ( vitakka, vicara, adhimokkha ) as in manodhatu. Santirana cittas

take the same object of sampaticchana citta and their function is to investigate

the object. These 2 upekkha santirana cittas also perform the job of

patisandhi_linking lives, bhavanga_maintaining mental lives, cuti_dying

consciousness, and tadarammana citta.

One extra ahetuka vipaka citta is somanassa sahagatam ahetuka kusala

santirana citta. Its functions are doing the job of patisandhi, bhavanga,

cuti,tadarammana and santirana citta. In this citta there arises an extra

cetasika called piti or joy as it is a somanassa citta. So in this citta there are 11

cetasikas all together

 

cetasikas all together.18

So, there are 7 ahetuka akusala vipaka cittas and 8 ahetuka kusala vipaka

cittas totalling in 15 ahetuka vipaka cittas.

7 ahetuka akusala vipaka cittas are

1. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala cakkhuvinnana citta

2. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala sotavinnana citta

3. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala ghanavinnana citta

4. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala jivhavinnana citta

5. dukkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala kayavinnana citta

6. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala sampaticchana citta

7. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala santirana citta

and 8 ahetuka kusala vipaka cittas are

1.upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala cakkhuvinnana citta

2.upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala sotavinnana citta

3.upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala ghanavinnana citta

4.upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala jivhavinnana citta

5.sukha sahagatam ahetuka kusala kayavinnana citta

6.upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala sampaticchana citta

7.upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala santirana citta

8.somanassa sahagatam ahetuka kusala santirana citta 15 Jul `11, 2:15AM

 

Glossary

1.kamma  : the potential that is borne with beings all the time and when

conditions favour their results will be given rise to. Doing good things cause

arising of good kamma and doing bad things cause arising of bad kamma.

2.loka  : world. There are kama loka or kama bhumi or realm, rupa loka or

rupa brahma bhumi or realm, and arupa loka or arupa brahma bhumi or

realm. Loka is related to samsara or round of rebirth that is life after life

endlessly.

3.bhumi  : where beings with the same characters arise and dwell. It is realm

or plane of existence

 

4.jati : class, kind, origion ( in this writing ). Jati also means rebirth.

5.akusala  : bad deed, the result of bad action, actions that may give rise to

bad deed.

6.vipaka  : resultant, effects, results

7.kiriya  : just doing, not producing kamma

8.asobhana  : non-beautiful. Asobhana cittas_ non-beautiful consciousness.

But not ugly consciousness because some are not ugly.

9.upekkha  : equanimous, not pleasant nor not unpleasant

10.sahagatam : saha_ together, gati_to go, sahagatm _ arise together

11.ahetuka  : without hetuka or without root conditions such as greed or

lobha, hatred or dosa, ignorance or moha, wisdom or panna or amoha, nonattachment or dana or alobha, loving-kindness or metta or adosa.

12.pancadvaravajjana  : panca_five; dvara_door, avajjana_contemplating

five-sensedoor-contemplating

13.manodvaravajjana  : mano_mind; dvara_door, avajjana_contemplating

mind-sensedoor-contemplating

14.somanassa  : joy, happy

15.hasituppada  : hasita_humorous, uppada_arising

16.sahetuka : with hetuka or rooted

17.arammana : object such as colour or sight, sound, smell, taste, touch,

thought

18.pancavinnana : panca_five; vinnana_ vi-distinctively, differentiatingly &

nana-knowledge, vinnana_special knowledge

19.dhammarammana : thought, intellectual things, mind object

 mind object20

20.arahats  : those who have eradicated all defilements and so who no more

have potential to be reborn another life.

21.paccekabuddha : those who are self-enlightened but who do not preach

dhamma or who do not teach dhamma to be liberated.

22. sammasambuddha : those who have perfected 10 perfections offering,

moral conduct, deserting, wisdom, effort, patience, truthfulness, determining,

lovingkindness, equanimity at least 4 asencheyya and 100 thousand kappa and

finally self-enlighted and teach all dhamma to other to help them to be

liberated.

23.ekahetuka  : single rooted that is only moha hetuka or the root of ignorance

24. dvihetuka  : double rooted that is two roots; may be moha and lobha

combination or moha and dosa combination or adosa and alobha

combination.

25. tihetuka  : triple rooted that is three roots involving alobha, adosa, and

amoha or panna.

26. phassa  : contact

27. vedana  : feeling

28.cetana  : volition

29. sanna  : perception

30. ekaggata  : one-pointedness

31. jivitindriya  : mental life

32. manasikara  : attention

33. vitakka  : initial application, initial thought, applied thought

34. vicara  : sustained application, sustained thought

35. piti  : joy, rapture, rejoice

 joy, rapture, rejoice21

36. viriya  : effort

37. chandha  : wish

38. adhimokkha  : decision

39. patisandhi : linking

40. bhavanga : Bhava_life; Anga_ part; bhavanga_ part of life, life continuum

41. cuti  : end of life. Very end of life, final consciousness in a life, the last

consciousness in a life

42.tadarammana : continuing mental impulse or receiving of arammana or

object of javana with further sensing or feeling

43. sampaticchana : receiving , sam_well/ in good manner, paticchana receive

44. santirana : investigating 15 Jul `11, 1:45PM

 

PATTHANA DHAMMA

5

Before beginning discussion on patthana, paramattha dhamma need to be

digested. Now citta and cetasika are being explored hand in hand. Out of 89

cittas, as 8 are lokkuttara cittas, there left 81 lokiya cittas. 27 cittas are jhana

cittas or mahaggata cittas. And 54 cittas are kama cittas or kamavacara cittas.

There are 24 beautiful cittas and 30 non-beautiful cittas. All 30 non-beautiful

kamavacara cittas have been delineated in PATTHANA 3 and 4. This is file,

beautiful kama cittas will be discussed.

There are 24 beatiful cittas called sobhana cittas. They can be classified into 3

separate groups according to their nature or their origion or jati. They are

kusala citta, vipaka citta, and kiriya citta.

Kusala cittas are state of consciousness that arise when we are doing

meritorious deeds like offering things to someone with good mood, observing

precepts and cultivating the practice of meditation, learning dhamma,

preaching dhamma and so many other meitorious deeds. Consciousness that

arises at these times are called kusala cittas if the doer of actions is not

arahats.

If the doer of actions is an arahat, then any state of consciousness that arises

doing such things will be kiriya cittas. Kiriya cittas are states of consciousness

that lack any kammic force because the doer of actions does not have any

craving or clinging and as he is devoid of all types of defilements all his actions

are performed by such citta called kiriya citta. These cittas just perform the

actions. When they are performing the actions there is no attachment and so

there is no kammic force.

The third group of sobhana kamavacara cittas is called vipaka cittas. These

states of consciousness are all the results of the past actions that means the

effects of the kamma which was produced when kusala or akusala actions

were being performed at any point in the past including this time immediate

past, which lapse a moment ago.

24 kamavacara cittas are three sets of cittas namely mahakusala, mahavipaka,

and mahakiriya cittas. Here maha is used because they are other cittas like

ahetuka kiriya citta, rupa kiriya citta, and arupa kiriya citta. There are also

 

other vipaka cittas and other kusala cittas. The first set of 8 kamavacara cittas

is like this:

1. somanassa sahagatam nana samyutta asankharika mahakusala citta

2. somanassa sahagatam nana samyutta sasankharika mahakusala citta

3. somanassa sahagatam nana vippayutta asankharika mahakusala citta

4. somanassa sahagatam nana vippayutta sasankharika mahakusala citta

5. upekkha sahagatam nana samyutta asankharika mahakusala citta

6. upekkha sahagatam nana samyutta sasankharika mahakusala citta

7. upekkha sahagatam nana vippayutta asankharika mahakusala citta

8. upekkha sahagatam nana vippayutta sasankharika mahakusala citta

Somanassa means joy, saha means together, gata means to go. Somanassa

sahagatm means arising together with joy. Nana here means panna or wisdom

that realizes that there is kamma and any action will have kammic force

unless defilements are completely destroyed and eradicated. Samyutta means

along with. So nana samyutta here means citta arising along with nana or

panna ( pannindriya cetasika ). Asankharika means non-prompted. So arising

of this citta has no prompt or no pre-stimulation. Sasankharika means

prompted or stimulated. This matter will be clear in the example which will

follow later in this file.

Vippayutta means without or not along with. Nana vippayutta here means

citta arises without panna. Upekkha means equanimous feeling that is not

pleasant nor not unpleasant. If 'mahakusala' the word is replaced by

mahavipaka or mahakiriya, then there will be 8 mahavipaka and 8

mahakiriya cittas. So there will be in total 24 kamavacara sobhana cittas.

Mahakiriyacittas are consciousness of arahats when they are doing offering,

preaching dhamma, discussing dhamma, etc etc. Mahavipaka cittas are

bhavangacittas of most of us. They also also act as patisandhicitta and

cuticitta when they are the first and the last respectively in the same life.

The first citta in the set of 8 mahakusala citta is a consciousness that arises

when an adult who have known kamma and its implications well and when he

is doing good things like dana or offering to other people or monks with a

great joy. As he has a great joy, it is somanassa sahagata. As he has learned

well and panna arises it is nana samyutta and he does the offering on his mood

so it is asankharika citta.

 

The second citta is sasankharika citta. An adult has an opportunity to offer

things. But he does not do it. But one of his friends or one of his teachers or

one respectful person advises him to offer and he offers. At that exact moment

there arise somanassa sahagatm nana samyutta sasankharika citta. This is

because he needs to be advised or stimulated. He does not do on his own merit.

The third citta is nana vippayutta citta. This arises when he offers as a

charity. But he does not believe kamma and The Buddha dhamma. But he

does it as a good thing. Or this consciousness also arises when a child does

offering things to other with joy by his own judgement. So it is asankharika

citta.

The fourth citta is a consciousness that arises when a child gives sweet to his

younger brother because he is urged by his mother to give the sweet to him.

He still has joy but needs to be urged by his mother. He is not well learned or

he does not have enough wisdom and so wisdom does not arise.

The fifth citta is a consciousness that arises when an adult with wisdom do

good deed on his own but just with equanimous feeling. The sixth citta is when

he is urged to do so. And the seventh citta is without wisdom but he does

himself without any outside influences. And eighth citta is a consciousness

when a child gives his old shirts to the poor. He does not have much joy. He

does not have wisdom yet. And he is advised by his mother to give his old

shirts to the poor.

All these cittas are arising when these specific actions are doing. At the time of

doing there arise kamma but it is not obvious to the doer or non-doers or

anyone else but kamma is there and it always follows each successively arising

citta till the cuti citta of arahats. These kamma give rise to their specifice

cittas called vipaka cittas. If the kamma is mahakusala kamma then vipaka cittas that arise will be hamavipaka cittas.

Mahakiriya cittas are those states of consciousness that arise in arahats and as

all their actions are without any defilement there is no kammic force. But in

them, somanassa or piti does not always arise and in that case upekkha arises.

Sometimes wisdom or panna does not arise even though there is no avijja.

And sometime they do actions with prompts. Examples are tasks ordered by

The Buddha or other Elders like Sariputta or Moggallana or Mahakassapa.

These arahats just do actions but they do them because their teacher said to

do so. Glossry: All words in this file have been explained in the previous files 15 Jul `11, 1:48PM

 

PATTHANA DHAMMA

                                                            6

Patthana reveals how dhamma are related to each other. These dhamma are

paramattha dhamma. They are citta, cetasika, rupa, and nibbana. Regarding

citta all 54 kamavacara cittas have been explained. There are 27 jhana cittas

or 27 mahagatta cittas or 27 majjhima cittas.

They are 15 rupavacara cittas and 12 arupavacara cittas. Rupavacara means

frequently arising in rupa brahma bhumi or realm and arupavacara means

frequently arising in arupa brahma bhumi or realm. These 27 cittas are called

Jhana cittas because they are associated with factors of jhana. They are also

called mahaggata cittas because they are great kind of consciousness. They

are also called majjhima cittas or middle consciousness because they are not

as noble as supramundane consciousness or lokuttara cittas but they are

nobler than kama cittas or kamavacara cittas.

15 rupa jhana cittas can be classified into three groups as in case of kama

sobhana cittas. There are 5 rupakusala cittas, 5 rupavipaka cittas and 5

rupakiriya cittas.

5 rupakusala cittas are

1. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata samyutta pathamajjhanika

rupakusala citta

2. vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata samyutta dutiyajjhanika rupakusala citta

3. piti, sukha, ekaggata samyutta tatiyajjhanika rupakusala citta

4. sukha, ekaggata samyutta catutthajjhanika rupakusala citta

5. upekkha, ekaggata samyutta pancamajjhanika rupakusala citta.

These cittas arise when rupa brahma are staying in jhana that is when they

are not in bhavanga cittas. These cittas can also arise in kama bhumi like

deva realm and manussa realm or human realm when they achieve jhana

and they are staying in jhana.

5 rupavipakacittas are the same as above 5 rupakusala cittas but as they are

vipaka citta the function is totally different. Vipaka cittas are resultant cittas

 

These rupavipaka cittas can only arise in rupa brahma bhumi and not in

other bhumi. They never arise in other satts except rupa brahmas.

Their main functions are patisandhi or linking of the past life’s cuti citta and

the first bhavanga citta of rupa life, life continuum or bhavanga function and

they also arise as cuti citta of rupa brahmas.

5 rupakiriya cittas are those cittas that arise in Arahats when they are staying

in Jhana. As Arahats are free of defilements they actions as jhana do not have

any kammic force and all their jhana are just performance and they all are

called rupakiriya cittas.

There are 12 arupavacaracittas. Again these 12 cittas can be classified into 3

separate groups called 4 arupakusala cittas, 4 arupavipakacittas, and 4

arupakiriya cittas. Arupakusala cittas arise when arupa brahmas are staying

in jhana that is while they are staying in their respective arupa jhana.

Arupakusalacittas also arise in rupa brahmas if they practise arupa jhana and

in kama bhumi sattas while they are practising arupa jhana.

Arupavipakacittas are those cittas of arupa brahmas and they never arise in

other bhumi. They just do patisandhi, bhavanga and cuti function.

Arupakiriyacittas only arise in Arahats. These arahats may be human or deva

or brahma or rupa or arupa loka.

1. upekkha, ekaggata samyutta akasanancayatana arupakusala citta

2. upekkha, ekaggata samyutta vinnanancayatana arupakusala citta

3. upekkha, ekaggata samyutta akincinnayatana arupakusala citta

4. upekkha, ekaggata samyutta n’evasannanasannayatana arupakusala

citta

Arupavipaka cittas and arupakiriya cittas also have the same name with

the exception of the last name which has to be replaced with arupavipaka

citta and arupakiriya citta respectively.

So far 81 lokiya cittas have been delineated. There are 8 lokuttara cittas.

They are

1. Sotapatti magga citta

2. Sakadagami magga citta

 

3. Anagami magga citta

4. Arahatts magga citta

5. Sotapatti phala citta

6. Sakadagami phala citta

7. Anagami phala citta

8. Arahatta phala citta

Jhana citta, magga citta, and phala citta are difficult to understand and

they need separate discussion.

In rupa jhana there are 5 jhana cittas each in the three classes of

rupavacara cittas namely kusala, vipaka, and kiriya cittas. Why are there 5

different cittas? Because there are different jhana factors and as there are

5 jhana factors, there have to be 5 jhana cittas. 5 jhana factors are vitakka,

vicara, piti, sukha vedana, and ekaggata cetasika.

There are 4 different arupa jhana cittas each in the three classes of

arupavacara cittas namely kusala, vipaka, and kiriya cittas. Why are there

4 different arupa jhana cittas in each class of arupavacara cittas? Because

there are 4 different objects for each of them.

The first arupa jhana citta takes the object of pannatta which is boundless space or akasa. It is where citta can be stay as its place and it is called

ayatana so the object space or akasa becomes akasanancayatana. The first

arupajhana citta takes the object, akasanancayatana. So it is also called

akasanancayatana citta.

The second arupajhana citta takes the first arupajhana cittas as its object.

As akasa is boundless, the citta that take that obect is also boundless. So

boundless citta or vinnananacayata is the object of 2

nd

arupa jhana citta.

The 3

rd

arupajhana citta does not take the 2

nd

arupa jhana citta as its

object and it also does not take any object. But as all cittas have at least one

object, the 3

rd

arupa jhana citta takes the object pannatta which is

nothingness. That is empty sphere. The 4

th

arupa jhana citta takes the 3

rd

arupa jhana citta as its object but with the view that there is neither sanna

nor non-sanna.

There are 4 magga cittas because as there have long been defilements

throught out samsara which cannot be imaginable to count and so clearing

of all these defilement needs to take stepwise manner. As there are 4 magga

cittas, their resultant effects phala cittas also have 4 cittas. Each

corresponds with their respective magga citta 15 Jul `11, 1:49PM

 

Glossary:

1. jhana _ absorption

2. mahaggata_great, noble

3. majjhima_middle

4. vitakka_initial application

5. vicara_sustained application

6. piti_rapture

7. sukha_pleasant feeling

8. ekaggata_one-pointedness

9. patthama_first

10.jhanika_related to jhana

11.dutiya_second

12.tatiya_third

13.catuttha_fourth

14.pancama_fifth

15.akasanancayatana_akasa/ space,ayatana/sense-base

16.vinnanancayatana_vinnana/ consciousness,ayatana/sense-base

17.akincinnayatana _akinca/ nothing, ayatana/sense-base

18.n’evasannanasannayatana

Na Eva Sanna, Na Eva Nasanna that is not sanna and also not nonsanna. Ayatana means sense-base.

     19.Sotapatti_Sota/river, patti/arrive; reach

20.Sakadagami_Sakim/once, Agami/reborn or come back to kama

                                                                                                       bhumi

     21.Anagami_Ana/no;none, Agami/reborn or come back to kama

                                                                                                    bhumi

     22.Arahatta_deserving to be refuged

23.magga_path

24.phala_fruit, result
18 Jul `11, 3:30AM

 

PATTHANA DHAMMA

7

Lokuttara cittas sometimes arise along with jhana cittas. In that case,

lokuttara cittas are also called lokuttarajhana cittas. According to jhananaga

or factors of jhana, there are 5 jhanas. All arupajhana cittas are 5

th

jhana

cittas according to factors of jhana. Because there are only two jhanic factors

in all arupa jhana. They are upekkha vedana and ekaggata cetasikas.

All 8 lokuttara cittas may arise along with one of these 5 jhanas. So if

lokuttaracittas while arise along with jhanas are viewed they will be as

followings:

1. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata sahagatam patthamajjhanika

sotapatti magga citta.

2. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, sakadagami magga citta

3. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, anagami magga citta

4. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, arahatta magga citta

5. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, sotapatti phala citta

6. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, sakadagami phala citta

7. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, anagami phala citta

8. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, arahatta phala citta

9 to 16 are

vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata sahagatm dutiyajjhanika sotapatti magg

citta…sakadagami..anagami..arahatta magga citta…vicara,....sotapatti phala

citta..sakadagami..anagami..arahatta phala citta .

17 to 24 are

piti, sukha, ekaggata sahagatam tatiyajjhanika sotapatti magga

citta..sakadagami..anagami..arahatta magga citta…piti,….sotapatti phala

citta..sakadagami..anagami..arahatta phala citta.

25 to 32 are

 

sukha, ekaggata sahagatam catutthajhanika sotapatti magga

citta..sakadagami..anagami..arahatta magga citta…sukha,…..sotapatti phala

citta..sakadagami..anagami..arahatta phala citta.

33 to 40 are

upekkha, ekaggata sahagatm pancamajjhanika sotapatti magga

citta..sakadagami..anagami..arahatta magga citta…upekkha,…..sotapatti

phala citta..sakadagami..anagami..arahatta phala citta.

As there are 81 lokiya citta, there will be in total 121 cittas if 40 lokuttara cittas are added to 81 that is 81 + 40 = 121 cittas.

Citta is the nature that is capable to know what the object is like. Citta always

takes an object. There is no citta that does not take any object and citta

cannot arise without any object.

So far 89 states of mind or 89 states of consciousness have been delineated.

And 121 cittas or 121 states of consciousness are also described. Actually citta

is totally pure, utterly clean, and it is free from any sin any bad thing and it is

brilliant and luminous. In terms of character there is only one citta.

However, there are other mental factors that influence citta and due to these

mental factors citta has to be classified according to the co-presence of these

mental factors. When mental factors are present in various combinations then

citta has different names according to these influencing mental factors.

These mental factors are called cetasikas. Cetasika is a mental factor which

arises along with citta. It always take the very same object that is being taken

by citta. And cetasika also has to depend on the same vatthu or base like

cakkhuvatthu, sotavatthu, ghanavatthu, jivhavatthu,kayavatthu,

hadayavatthu. Cetasika always passes away along with co-arising citta.

There are 52 cetasikas are 52 mental factors. They can also be called mind

conditioners. Because they condition the mind and the mind then has the

name according to the co-arising mental factors or cetasikas.

There are 7 cetasikas which are common to any citta whether they are

vithicittas or bhavangacittas, kusala-akusala cittas or kiriya cittas or vipaka cittas. This does not mean that these 7 are permanent. Each of these 7 at each

citta is not the same even though characterwise they look like the same. These

 

7 cetasikas are called sabbacittasadharana cetasika. Sabba means universal,

all and sadharana means always bring up with.

They are

1. phassa or contact

2. vedana or feeling

3. cetana or volition

4. sanna or perception

5. ekaggata or one-pointedness

6. jivitindriya or mental life

7. manasikara or attention

Phassa is a mental factor or cetasika. It can be called as contact mind. It

makes contact of object, sense-base, and citta. When an irony surface is hit

with an iron rod there arises spark. The surface ( eye or sense-base ) is hit by

the rod ( colour or the object ) producing spark ( citta ). All happen while they

all are in contact. This function is carried out by phassa cetasika. Each citta

has a phassa.

Vedana is a mental factor that feels how the object is like. It is a feeling mind.

When spark arises there is also heat produced at the hit point. That is feeling.

There are sukha or pleasant, dukkha or unpleasant and adukkhamasukha or

neither pleasant nor unpleasant. This is also known as upekkha vedana. This

is according to anubhavanabheda. There are 5 feelings according to

indriyabheda. They are sukha, somanassa, dukkha, domanassa, and upekkha.

Each citta has a vedana.

Cetana is a mental factor. It is volition. It urges citta to do its function. It

encourages citta and its accompanying cetasikas to do their functions well at

full effort. It is said that cetana in actions of kusala and akusala later becomes

Kamma. Cetana pushes any mental components of each citta to act according

to their function. Each citta has a cetana. But regarding Kamma, only cetana

in kusala and akusala javana citta become Kamma.

Sanna is a mental factor. It cognizes the object how remarkable it is. It

perceives the object but it cannot fully know the object, which is the function

of citta. It acts like a register. It perceives particularness of the object like

shape, form, colour, darkness, brightness, loudness, softness, pitch, quality

 

shape, form, colour, darkness, brightness, loudness, softness, pitch, quality, 32

sweetness, stinginess, foulness, sourness, bitterness, etc etc. Each citta has a

sanna.

Ekaggata is a mental factor. It just fixes at a point. It stabilizes all mental

components of mind. It is one-pointedness. It is one-directionedness. It is

singleness. If cittas arising are taking the same object for a long time, then

ekaggata cetasikas in the whole series of cittas become samadhi or

concentration. There are two kind of concentration or samadhi. Micchasamadhi or sinful concentration and samma-samadhi or right concentration.

Here samadhi are not absorption or jhana. Jhana or absorption will be

discussing while jhana pacayo comes in the later discussion files.

Jivitindriya is a cetasika. It supports citta to live its life and it also supports

other co-arising cetasikas to lives their lives while they co-arise with citta. It is

a mental life. Without which nothing will arise. Jivitindriya cetasika is present

in all kinds of citta. Each citta has jivitindriya as its life.

Manasikara is a mental factor. It is attention. It can be also called attending

mind. Its function is to attend the object. It makes citta attend the object. And

it also makes all other co-arising cetasikas to attend the object which the citta

takes because of its ( manasikara ) dictation. Manasiraka works as a

controller or steerer. It directs the way how citta should view on the object

and so on. Each citta has manasikara as attending mind 18 Jul `11, 3:31AM

 

Glossary:

1.jhanika_related to jhana or absorption

2.phassa_contact

3.vedana_feeling

4.cetana_volition

5.sanna_perception

6.ekaggata_one-pointedness

7.jivitindriya_jivita/life; indriya/ faculty_mental life

8.manasikara_attention

9.miccha_wrongful,sinful

10.samma_right

11.samadhi_concentration
22 Jul `11, 5:51PM

 

PATTHANA DHAMMA

 

                                     8

Patthana reveals how dhamma are related to each other in the most detail

manner. Dhamma here are all ultimate realities or paramattha dhamma. 89

cittas or 121 cittas have been described and cetasikas have been introduced. 7

cetasikas common to any type of citta have also been delineated.

There are 6 cetasikas that mostly arise along with many cittas. When they

arise together with beautiful cittas they behave as if they are beautiful. Again

when they arise together with non-beautiful cittas and akusala cittas they

again behave as if they are bad dhamma. These 6 cetasikas, therefore, flexibly

work with co-arising cittas according to the nature they have. These 6

cetasikas are also called pakinnaka cetasikas or particular mental factors.

Vitakka is a cetasika that arises along with most of kammavacara cittas and it

also arises in vitakka samyutta 1

st

jhana cittas. There are 8 of 1

st

lokuttarajhana cittas, 1

st

jhana rupakusala citta, 1

st

jhana rupavipaka citta,

and 1

st

jhana rupakiriya citta totalling 11 of 1

st

jhana cittas. Out of 54

kamavacara cittas, dvi-pancavinnana or pair of kusala and akusala

cakkhuvinnana, sotavinnana, ghanavinnana, jivhavinnana, kayavinnana (eye,

ear, nose, tongue, body-consciousness of good and bad ) totalling 10 cittas do

not need vitakka in their arising as they are already conditioned by 7 common

cetasikas, pancarammana, pancavatthu, and media such as light, sound

medium, air, saliva, nerves. So only 44 kamavacara cittas will need vitakka.

Along with 11 jhana cittas, a total of 55 cittas out of 121 always arise together

with vitakka cetasika.

Vitakka puts the citta on the arammana. As citta has been put on the

arammana then it also help other co-arising cetasikas to be on the same

arammana. It inserts citta and its alliances into the arammana. It exerts so

that citta and its accompaniments take the object. It makes citta take a

particular object. As vitakka arises with most of cittas that arise in us (see that

we all mostly deal with 54 kamavacara cittas ), its real function may or may

not be apparent to dhammafarers. Vitakka just takes the object. When a

single citta is viewed, the function of vitakka may not be apparent.

 

Here are many examples of vitakka. When a person is committing stealing or

having sex or taking intoxicants such as drugs and alcohol, there arise lobha

mula cittas. Even though there are other kinds of citta such as bhavanga cittas, avajjana kiriya cittas, during the particular period for example an

hour, most cittas will be lobha mula cittas. In all 8 lobha mula cittas there

arises vitakka cetasika. Here vitakka makes citta take the object and

successively arising cittas are also accompanied by new and new vitakka

cetasika. But overall view on the event in an hour may sound like that it is

kama vitakka or sensual thinking. Because all thought processes are directed

to sensual feeling such as gaining of properties, achieving of sexual pleasure,

attaining of mental pleasure respectively. These vitakka are kama vitakka.

Vitakka should not be confused with the ordinary English word thinking or

thought. This may create misunderstanding. Thinking in the conventional

term involves a lot of mental faculties and not just vitakka cetasika. In the

thinking process of a person, there are more than vitakka. Vicara also arise.

Decision of adhimokkha also arise. Chandha or wish also leads thinking to a

specific way. Feeling are always mixed in ordinary thinking. So thinking or

thought in conventional sense should not be confused with the function of

vitakka which is quite specific. Vitakka is just a part or component of

thinking. As compared to the function of vicara, which will be discussing later,

vitakka is translated as initial application, initial thought, applied thought and

so on. But all these phrasal words should be assumed as single word for

vitakka, which is not thought. However differently translated into English,

interpretation should be all the same. Because vitakka is a paramattha dhamma. Vitakka is a reality. It is an ultimate reality. Whichever word we are

using, vitakka is an ultimate reality. It stands on its own right. It arises when

conditions and does not arise when conditions do not favour as in

pancavinnana cittas.

Vitakka also arises in dosa mula citta. When a person is killing other beings or

saying bad words or anything like that, vitakka arises along with dosa mula

cittas. His dosa has to continue because vitakka is continuously putting citta

on the object that stimulates his dosa. As soon as objects change for example if

the object is not for the source of dosa then dosa citta does not arise, instead

other kinds of citta arise. Vitakka also works for dosa cittas. In moha mula

citta uddhacca citta, it is apparent that vitakka is putting cittas to different

objects. Here each arising vitakka is new and each arising citta is also new.

Vitakka here just represent a typical vitakka for its own character. As it takes

different objects it sounds like spreading of seeds here and there, it sounds

 

like throwing a stone into a heap of ash causing dusting spreading all over.

This is also kama vitakka. Whenever there is suspicion, the mind of the person

concerned is no more stable. Citta repeatedly takes the object with disbelief

and suspicion. This again is pushed by vitakka cetasika.

The Buddha and arahats smile because vitakka puts hasituppada citta on the

object that makes amused. Both pancadvaravajjana citta and

manodvaravajjana citta are accompanied by vitakka. As these 2 cittas advert

or turn the attention to a particular object that is they are put on to the

particular object they both need vitakka cetasika. As said above dvpancavinnana cittas do not need vitakka as they are already conditioned to

arise. But in vithi vara, pancavinnana citta is immediately followed by

sampaticchana citta which works as a receiving mind. It takes the object of

pancavinnana. When it takes, that citta need to put on to that arammana

taken by pancavinnana citta. So kusala and akusala sampaticchana citta need

vitakka cetasika. This kind of citta in vithi vara is followed by santirana citta

which is an investigating mind. It also needs to be put on to the arammana so

that it can investigate what the arammana is like. So both kusala and akusala

santirana need vitakka cetasika. Somanassa santirana citta also needs vitakka

when it does its function as santirana , tadarammana, patisandhi, bhavanga,

and cuti. All 24 kamavacara sobhana cittas need vitakka as they all have to

take the object so that citta can work accordingly. All these are kama vitakka.

Jhana vitakka on the other hand is different from kama vitakka. All rupa jhana take the object pannatta. These rupa jhana citta do not take

paramattha object. Example if pathavi kasina is being the object of

meditation, then it is not the rupa pathavi that is sensed by cultivating mind

or by bhavana but pannatta. For jhana the object is patibhaga nimitta which

is a pannatta. Vitakka continuously put bhavana citta onto that pannatta

object of patibhaga nimitta. All kasina take patibhaga nimitta of their specific

object. All asubha kammatthana take the object patibhaga nimitta. Both

Kayagatasati and anapanassati take the object patibhaga nimitta. All anussati

kammatthana take the object pannatta. All 4 brahmavihara or 4

brahmacariya kammatthana take the object pannatta that is satta pannatta

such as man, woman, deva, brahma which are all pannatta. The function of

vitakka is to put onto the object.

If it works that is if new and new vitakka arises at the same object of

meditation, those all vitakkas collectively become jhana vitakka. This will be

discussed in Jhana Paccayo in detail. All 1stjhana cittas need vitakka as a

jhanic factor. In higher jhanas, there arises no more vitakka because vitakka

has no more chance to arise as conditions do not favour its arising in higher

jhana cittas.

On the other hand, all lokuttara cittas need vitakka. Without vitakka

lokuttara citta can never arise. Vitakka in lokuttara cittas is also known as

samma-sankappa magganga of the Noble Eightfold Path ( NEP ). Vitakka is

not a concentration. Vitakka is not a volition. Vitakka is not a contact which is

phassa. Vitakka is not a one-pointedness which is ekaggata. Vitakka is not an

attending mind, which is manasikara cetasika. Vitakka is different from

vicara which function is different. Vitakka is not an effort which is viriya

cetasika. Vitakka is not a wish which is chandha cetasika. 22 Jul `11, 5:52PM

 

Glossary:

1. pakinnaka_ separate entities mixed in a particular way

2. pancarammana_panca;five/ arammana; object_sight, sound, smell, taste,

touch

3. pancavatthu_panca;five/ vatthu;base or sense base_cakkhuvatthu or eye,

sotavatthu or ear, ghanavatthu or nose, jivhavatthu or tongue, kayavatthu or

body. Here eye, ear, nose, tongue, body are not ordinary words of English but

they represent sense-receptors like eye-sense-receptor, ear-sense-receptor,

smell-sense-receptor, taste buds, body touch-receptor. Vatthu are the bases

for arising of citta.

4. Patibhaga_counter image of mental image which again is attained through

the practice of taking real image.

5. Asubha_not pleasurable, disgusting

6. Kayagatasati_ mindfulness on parts of body

7. Anapanassati_mindfulness on breath

8. Pannatta _concept, names, idea

9. Jhananga_jhana;absorption/ anga;part _ jhanic factor

10.Magganga_magga;path/ anga; part _ part of Noble Eightfold Path

Most other Pali words have been explained in the other files and readers can

check themselves with Pali-English dictionary 28 Jul `11, 1:57AM

 

Patthana correlates all dhamma in many different ways. It shows the cause

and it also reveals the effect. And it also relates how the cause and effect are

related in a particular way. This is more than paticcasamuppada in which the

mode of relationship has not been clearly stated but just shows they are

related.

Before going deep, dhamma have to be reviewed so that all patthana things

can well be understood. Dhamma here means naturality or reality or

uninfluenced existence or ultimate realities or paramattha dhamma. As

already been said, these dhamma or these nature are citta or state of consciousness, cetasika or associated mental factor, rupa or materiality that is

subjected to change but serves as base for nama dhamma or mind related

spiritual things, and nibbana or a state when or where there is no citta, no

cetasika so no defilements and no fetters and no related rupa. Nibbana is

absolute peace when or where there is complete extinguishment of all fire.

In the earlier files most areas related to citta have been well discussed.

Cetasikas have also been introduced. 7 universal mental factors or

sabbacittasadharana cetasikas phassa or contact, vedana or feeling, cetana or

volition or intention, sanna or perception or cognition, ekaggata or onepointedness, jivitindriya or mental life or mind supporter, and manasikara or

attention have all been described. After that vitakka has been discussed in

some detail and will be dealt with again in jhana paccaya part of patthana

dhamma.

In the group of cetasikas which is a particular group and they are mixedly put

in a group as pakinnaka cetasikas. When they arise with kusala cittas they

behave as if they are kusala cetasika and when they arise with akusala cittas

they behaves as if they are akusala cetasikas and when they arise with vipaka cittas or kiriya cittas they again behave as if they are avyakata cetasikas. So

they are flexibly working together with all cittas. They do not arise in all cittas

but they can arise most cittas. Vitakka has been discussed but it mostly works

together with vicara. They are like very intimate friends or best friends.

 

Vicara is a cetasika or a mental factor that arise together with citta. It

reviews on the object. It investigates what the object is like. It examines the

object. It considers over the object. It works in close connection with vitakka,

its friend. There are similes for this pairs. When a bell is hit the first hit and

sound is like vitakka. Vitakka put citta and associated cetasikas on the specific

object here on the bell. The bell rings as soon as it is hit. That ringing is like

the act of vicara. Vicara is on the object because vitakka put him along with

citta. Vicara works as a reviewer. It reviews the object.

Another simile is the act of a bee to the flower. When he dives down right to

the flower is like vitakka and before he rest on the flower he makes wandering

round over the flower. That wandering round is like viacara. This pair is also

like rowing a boat. At first the boat is row with an oar with effort. That initial

rowing is like vitakka and next pushing back in the water is like vicara. So

some said vitakka is initial application and vicara is sustained application.

Again there are other translational English words. Whatever word is used, it

is not a problem. But their real essence and their nature should well be

understood.

Vicara is translated as sustained thought while vitakka is called as initial

thought. Here we need to be careful that vitakka and vicara as their function

is not of thought as in ordinary English wordthought’. But vitakka and

vicara in millions and billions may constitue thought. But in thought process

there are more than vitakka and vicara. When vitakka puts citta and vicara

onto the object, again vicara helps vitakka and citta and other mental factors

not to separate or depart from the object. This is the work of vicara. While it

maintains or sustains citta and all other cetasikas not to separate or depart

from the object, it makes citta review on the object. So it also is a reviewer or

investigator or examiner. While vitakka arises in 55 cittas in 121 cittas, vicara

also arises in all these 55 cittas. There are 11 extra cittas where vitakka does

not arise. These are 11 dutiyajjhanika cittas. There are 66 cittas out of 121

that vicara arises.

In the group of six particular cetasikas or pakinnaka cetasikas there includes

piti cetasika. Piti or joy is a cetasika. It arises along with citta and directed to

the same object or arammana and has to depend on the same base or vatthu

as the citta does. Piti energises citta and other cetasikas. It makes citta like

the object. It fills citta with joy. Piti is emotion of joy. It is delightment or zest

or exuberance. There are fivefold piti or pancavanna piti or there is 5 grades

of joy.

 

When there arises a slightest sense of interest, there is a minimal piti. This

interest is piti. Because it makes citta like the object. Interest makes to take

the object. If there is no interest the object will not be taken. This kind of piti

is called khuddika piti. When the interest last a bit long it is called momentary

joy or khanika piti. When there is flood of joy and interest is oscillating it is

called okkantika piti. It is like oceanic waves passing through heart and it is a

heart-felt thing.

When piti is higher in grade more than above these piti are sometimes labeled

as out of body experience ( OBE ) by non-Theravada learners. Actually it is

not. They are within the body or rupa as citta and rupa works hand in hand

and they works in close connection. When joy becomes higher and higher in

degree they becomes thrilling emotion and sometimes this is called ecstacy.

This piti arises in jhana and it becomes a jhanic factor. It is called ubbega piti.

When the whole body is wrapped with joy and interest amounting to rapture

or the body is suffused with joy, it is like that every part of the whole body is

filled fwith joy and the body feels like weightless and may even float in the air

without any attainment of jhana. This piti is called pharana piti. Piti arises in

51 cittas out of 121 cittas. They are 4 somanassa lobha cittas, 1 somanassa

kusala santirana citta, 1 ahetuka hasituppada kiriya citta, 12 kamavacara

somanassa cittas, 11 patthamajjhanika cittas, 11 2

nd

jhanika cittas, and 11 3

rd

jhanika cittas totaling 51 cittas.

Viriya is another cetasika in the group of six pakinnaka cetasikas. It is an

effort. It helps citta make an effort. It puts forth energy. It helps citta not to

withdraw from the present action that is when citta is taking an object viriya

helps citta take that object while it also making an effort not to withdraw

from doing so. In arising of dvi-pancavinnana cittas of 10 there does not need

effort as there are already conditions for their arising. So viriya does not arise

in 10 of these cittas. Pancadvaravajjana citta or 5-sense-door-advertingconsciousness also does not need viriya as it is the first vithi vara citta and

conditions favouring its arising are already there. Viriya does not arise in 2

sampaticchana cittas and 3 santirana cittas. So out of 89 total cittas after

excluding 16 cittas ( 10 pancavinnana cittas + 1 pancadvaravajjana citta + 2

sampaticchana cittas + 3 santirana cittas) , there are 73 cittas that viriya coarises.

Chanda is a cetasika in the set of six flexible mental factors. It is mental

impulse. It is a wish or will. It is excitement, intention or resolution. It also

 

means desire for wish for, delight in, and zeal. It is will power. Without

chanda the actions of cittas are not as strong as those of cittas with chanda.

Chanda is a force and push everything to accomplish. Chanda is one of four

idddipada dhamma for the root causes of success. Chanda is also one of 4

adhipati dhamma, which are leading dhamma and these will be discussed in

adhipati paccayo.

Chanda does not arise in 18 ahetuka cittas and 2 moha

mula cittas. So out of 89 total cittas 18 + 2 = 20 do not need chanda. Therefore

(89 – 20 = 69) chanda arises in 69 cittas. Adhimokkha is also a cetasika in six particular cetasikas or pakinnaka

cetasikas. It helps citta decide on the object. It determines on the object and

also helps other cetasikas in determining on the object. It establishes a firm

resolution regarding the object. 10 Dvi-pancavinnana cittas do not need

adhimokkha cetasikas as they do not decide anything but just sense the object

according to their faculties. As conditions favouring their arising already

fulfilled there does not need adhimokkha in these 10 cittas. When in vicikiccha

or in indecisive mind, there does not arise adhimokkha cetasika. ( 89 – 11 )

Adhimokkha cetasika arises in 78 cittas out of 89 cittas. 28 Jul `11, 1:58AM

Glossary:

All have been explained in the due course. 06 Aug `11, 11:13AM

 

While patthana reveals how dhamma are related to each other, it is desirable

to learn what dhamma are. Out of four ultimate realities cittta has been

explained in some detail and now it is in the middle of expounding cetasikas.

So far 13 cetasikas have been delineated. They are phassa ( contact ), vedana (

feeling ), cetana ( volition ), sanna ( perception ), ekaggata (one-pointedness ),

jivitindriya ( mental life ), manasikara ( attention ), vitakka ( initial

application ) , vicara ( sustained application ), viriya ( effort ), piti ( joy ),

chanda ( will or wish ), adhimokkha ( decisiveness ).

These above 13 cetasikas are called annasamana cetasikas because they agree

with citta that they co-arise with. This means that when they arise with kusala

dhamma they agree with kusala and they become kusala cetasikas. When they

arise with akusala dhamma they agree with those akusala cittas and they

become akusala cetasikas. When they arise together with avyakata cittas that

is vipaka cittas or kiriya cittas, they agree with vipaka cittas if cittas are

vipaka and they agree with kiriya cittas if they arise with them. So called they

are annasamana cetasikas.

There are 52 cetasikas in total. 52 - 13 = 39 cetasikas left to be explained.

There are 14 akusala cetasikas and 25 sobhana cetasikas or 25 beautiful

cetasikas. Akusala cetasikas should be digested so that we can understand

daily life events and happenings. There are 4 moha led cetasikas , 3 lobha led

cetasikas, 4 dosa led cetasikas and 3 miscellaneous cetasikas. Moha led

cetasikas are 1. Moha 2. Ahirika 3. Anottappa 4. Uddhacca cetasikas.

Moha is a cetasika that arises with any akusala citta so called it is

sabbaakusalasadharana cetasika. It is ignorance. It conceals right dhamma so

that citta cannot know the real dhamma. It has veiling effect. It covers

everything so citta cannot penetrate through that hard cover. It may arise in

different degrees from vividly apparent degree to very subliminous degree.

When in grief there arises uddhacca or spreading mind. At that time moha

works the most powerfully than at any other time. Moha arises with any of 12

akusala cittas. It is also known as avijja.

 

Ahirika is a cetasika that arises with any akusala cittas. So it arises with 12

akusala cittas. Ahirika is shamelessness. As it is shameless, it also advises citta

not to be shameful to do anything. It is a major dhamma that can commit any

crime however wicked they are. As shamelessness prevails, co-arising citta

that is akusala citta can do bad things from stealing minor things to killing of

beings in mass with strong intention to destroy all.

Anottappa is a cetasika and it is an intimate friend of ahirika. It always coexists with ahirika. Anottappa is fearlessness. As it is fearless, it dare do

anything from very minor bad things to the worst the most wicked things ever

exist like anantariya kamma such as patricide, matricide , killing of arahats,

making bruise to The Live Buddha and division of sangha. It always arises

with any of 12 akusala cittas.

Uddhacca is a cetasika that also arises with any of 12 akusala cetasikas. It is

restlessness. It is distraction. It is spreading mind, distracting mind, restless

mind. It never settles down to calmness. This is the nature of uddhacca. It is

spreading like ash dust when a heap of ash is thrown with a stone. As it is

restless and inconcentrated it helps moha or ignorance and other moha led

cetasikas ahirika and anottappa when akusala cittas are arising. Uddhacca

works the most efficiently in upekkha sahagatam uddhacca samyutta citta.

These four akusala cetasikas moha, ahirika, anottappa and uddhacca are

called sabbaakusalasadharana cetasikas as they always arise with any of 12

akusala cittas.

There are 3 lobha led cetasikas. They are 1.lobha, 2.ditthi , and 3.mana

cetasikas. They are also called papanca dhamma as they expand the samsara

so that satta concerned cannot get through the samsara. They mostly arise

with 8 lobha cittas.

Lobha is a cetasika that arises with all kind of lobha cittas that is it co-arises

with 8 lobha cittas. Lobha is craving. It is thirsty to commit many akusala

dhamma. It is also called tanha. It has a very strong force and akusala things

are attracted to citta because of lobha cetasika or tanha. It also has many

different degrees from subliminous lobha like bhavatanha to the most

strongest degree of lobha like cetasika lobha in the most greediest mind while

committing lobha-led akusala like robbing treasure, power, sex or anything

like that.

 

Ditthi is a cetasika. It is wrong viewer. As it itself is a wrong viewer, it advises

co-arising citta take the object with wrong view. It always covers the right

dhamma and causes wrongful belief. Ditthi always co-arises with 4 ditthi

samyutta lobha cittas and these lobha cittas commit akusala dhamma with

wrong view. Sotapanna eradicate ditthi cetasika with sotapatti magga nana

and these ditthi samyutta cittas never arise in them forever since their

sotapamship.

Mana is another papanca dhamma. It is conceit. It is very proud. It is also

wrongful lobha-like cetasika which is possibly an alternative form of a wrongviewer while ditthi views real dhamma as sattas or any other things, mana

views dhamma in a different way but with very conceited manner. Mana still

exists until arahatship is attained that is only arahatta magga nana can kill

mana and eradicate it. It also has different degrees from subliminous to

apparently vivid proud. Mana arises in 4 ditthi vippayutta lobha cittas.

There are 4 dosa led cetasikas. They are 1.dosa 2. Issa 3. Macchariya

4.kukkucca. Dosa arises in 2 dosa mula cittas. Sometimes dosa is accompanied

by issa and sometimes by macchariya and at another time by kukkucc. Dosa is

aversion. It is hatred. It can be detected in angry mind, furious mind,

annoying mind, distressing mind, depressing mind, crying mind, weeping

mind, jealous mind, stingy mind, repenting mind and so on. Dosa is

destructive in nature. It destroys its home that is co-arising citta and other

cetasikas and cittaja rupa and hadaya vatthu where it depends.

Issa is jealousy. It does not want to see anyone is better than him in any

aspect. Issa also arises in superior men ( health, wealth, power and anything )

when they see or hear that someone who was inferior to them achieves

something even though the poor do not excel them in any aspect. Issa is also

destructive in nature. It sounds like an opposite of mudita which is a

sympathetic joy.

Macchariya is stinginess. It does not want other people deal with his

achievements or properties or qualities or status. It is also a destructive

nature. It sounds like an opposite of alobha cetasika. It is an opposite of dana

or offering. Issa and macchariya are not good dhamma. While they do not

help in any aspect they are destroying to their home and their environment.

Macchariya is actually more than the meaning of stinginess. It can aslo arises

in the poor of any aspect.

 

Kukkucca is also a dosa-led cetasika. It is repenting mind. It causes citta to be

repent on the past for having done akusala while he might be able to avoid

them or not having done kusala while he had a chance to do them. Actually

past is not the present and arising of such mind does not help anything.

Instead much more akusala are being created because of arising of such

repent. Kukkucca is a useless cetasika and it helps dosa in destroying their

home and their environment.

There are 3 miscellaneous akusala cetasikas. They are 1.thina 2. middha 3.

vicikiccha. Thina is sloth. It is sluggishness of citta functioning. It is

inactiveness of citta. It is laziness of citta. It helps citta not to be alert and citta

cannot perform its function in full effect.

Middha is torpor. It is a cetasika that causes cetasikas become sluggish or lazy

or inactive. It does cetasikas not to be alert in their functioning so that they

cannot perform their jobs in full effect. Middha always arises with thina

cetasikas. Actually thina and middha down-tone akusala cittas. They arise in 5

asankharika cittas or 5 prompted consciousness. Thina and middha are not

simply sleepiness but they are both down-toners of functions of other

cetasikas.

Vicikiccha is a cetasika. It only arises in one and only one citta. That is

upekkha sahagatam vicikiccha samyutta citta. It arises in vicikiccha citta.

Vicikiccha is disbelief in triplegem that is The Buddha, The Dhamma, The

Sangha. It is indecisiveness. It is suspicion. It cannot decide whether dhamma

are right or wrong and which is real dhamma and which is not.

These 14 akusala cetasikas are frequently arising in daily life. Inside (Ajjhatta

) and outsidewise ( Bahiddha ). 4 moha-led cetasikas always arise in all 12

akusala cittas. Lobha cetasika always arises in 8 lobha cittas. Ditthi cetasika

arises only in 4 ditthi samyutta lobha cittas and mana cetasika arises only in 4

ditthi vippayutta lobha cittas. Ditthi and mana are mutually exclusive. Dosa

cetasika always arises in 2 dosa cittas. Issa, macchariya, and kukkucca are

mutually exclusive to one another. That is while issa arises, there is no

macchariya and kukkucca, while there arises macchariya there is no issa and

kukkucca and when kukkucca arises, issa and macchariya cannot co-arise

with it. Vicikiccha only arises in one and only one citta called vicikiccha citta.

Thina and middha always arise together and they arise in 5 sasankharika citta

that is 4 lobha sasankharika cittas and 1 dosa sasankharika citta.

 

Glossary:

1. annasamana _ anna..annehi- when dealing with, samanaca -

agree..suitable..appropriate/ annasamana_appropriating

2. avyakata_neither kusala nor akusala. Vipaka, kiriya and rupa are

avyakata dhamma. That is they do not give rise to any kamma.

3. Ajjhatta_inside, intrinsic, internal

4. Bahiddha_outside, extrinsic, external

5. Moha_ignorance, delusive or delusion, illusive or illusion

6. Avijja_ignorance, inability to see real dhamma, moha

7. Ahirika_shamelessness

8. Anottappa_fearlessness

9. Uddhacca_restlessness

10.Lobha_greediness

11.Tanha_craving

12.Ditthi_wrong view

13.Mana_conceit

14.Dosa_aversion, hatred

15.Issa_jealousy

16.Macchariya_stinginess

17.Kukkucca_repent

18.Thina_sloth

19.Middha-torpor

20.Vicikiccha_suspicion, disbelief 11 Aug `11, 12:29PM

11
Patthana dhamma is noble dhamma and it is difficult to understand. It looks into details of dhamma as they really are. It correlates one dhamma to another. There are 52 cetasikas that can arise with citta depending on conditions. 13 annasamana cetasikas and 14 akusala cetasikas have been described in previous files. So there left 25 cetasikas. These 25 cetasikas are called sobhana cetasikas or beautiful mental factors. There are 19 cetasikas common to any sobhana citta. They arise with any kind of sobhana citta. So they are called sobhanasadharana cetasikas. 19 cetasikas compose of 7 beautiful cetasikas and 6 pairs of enforcing cetasikas. 7 beautiful cetasikas are 1.saddha ( belief or confidence ) 2.sati ( mindfulness or remembrance ) 3.hiri ( shamefulness )

4.ottappa ( fearfulness ) 5.alobha ( detachment or dana ) 6.adosa ( unhurting or metta ) 7.tatramajjhatthata (balance ) 1.Saddha is a cetasika that co-arise with any kusala citta and any sobhana citta. It is belief or confidence. It clears up the mind and makes confident in dhamma. Saddha makes impartial belief in triplegem. When saddha arises and it works to its full strength it stays as mental faculty and it can also lead other mental factors to be fully enlightened. It is one of 37 bodhipakkhiya dhamma that leads to nibbana. Saddha co-arise with 59 sobhana cittas that is 24 kamavacara sahetuka citta, 27 jhana cittas and 8 lokuttara cittas. 2.Sati is a cetasika. It is mindfulness or remembrance. Sati always arises with 59 sobhana cittas. Sati advises citta to be mindful. Sati advises citta to remember its functions and sati also organizes other cetasikas to be mindful at their work. When sati is there, all mental work becomes facilitated and everything in mind is well organized. As goal-keeper keeps goal post, sati keeps thre mind. As gate watcher watches the gate, sati watches all 6 sensedoors. 3.Hiri is a cetasika.

It is shamefulness. As it is shameful, it will not do any shameful action. It advises citta to be shameful to do bad things. Hiri is a form of inhibition. When hiri becomes dominant, mind will keep in good deeds. Hiri also arises with 59 beautiful cittas mentioned above. 4.Ottappa is a cetasika. It is fearfulness. As it is fearful, it will not do any bad thing. If bad things were done, the wise would blame on the actions. It is frightened by this blame. Ottappa is also a form of inhibition. It always works with its close friend hiri. Even though both are inhibition their manifestations are not the same. They work together and they are called lokapala dhamma. 5.Alobha is a cetasika. It advises citta to detach. It is detachment. Alobha can be dana or offering. It is the opposite to lobha which is attachment. When alobha becomes evident, all mental factors and citta become plastic, flexible and the mind becomes tender and light. It arises in 59 sobhana cittas.

6.Adosa is also a beautiful cetasika. It advises citta not to do destructive things and advises it not to hurt anyone anything. It is metta. Adosa is the opposite of dosa which always destroy its home and environment. When adosa becomes a major component of mental force, all other cetasikas become obedient and they all become flexible and productive. It also arises in 59 sobhana cittas. 7.Tatramajjhatthata is a cetasika that balances everything co-arise with him. It works as a charioteer. When a side become weak, the imbalance makes deviation to one side. When a side become stronger, the imbalance arises and there also is a deviation from the tract. This cetasika arises in 59 sobhana cittas.
There are 6 pairs of cetasikas all work together with any sobhana citta. 8 & 9
(1) Passaddhi_cittapassaddhi and kayapassaddhi Passaddhi is calmness, tranquility, serenity. Cittapassaddhi is tranquility of citta. Kayapassaddhi is tranquility of cetasikas. They both arise with 59 sobhana cittas.

10 & 11
(2) Lahuta_cittalahuta and kayalahuta Lahuta is lightness. It is buoyancy. Cittalahuta is buoyancy of citta or lightness of citta. Kayalahuta is buoyancy of cetasika or lightness of cetasikas. They both arise together with 59 sobhana cittas. 12 & 13
(3) Muduta_cittamuduta and kayamuduta Muduta is softness. It is plasticity. Cittamuduta is softness or tenderness of citta. Kayamuduta is softness of cetasikas or plasticity of cetasikas. They both co-arise with 59 sobhana cittas. 14 & 15
(4) Kammannata_cittakammannata and kayakammannata Kammannata is workableness. It is adaptability. It is readiness to response or to work. Cittakammannata is adaptability of citta while kayakammannata is adaptability of cetasikas. They both co-arise with 59 sobhana cittas. 16 & 17
(5) Pagunnata_cittapagunnata and kayapagunnata Pagunnata means being familiar with. Pagunnata is experience. Pagunnata is well-learned mental factor. It is proficiency. Cittapagunnata is proficiency of citta and kayapagunnata is proficiency of cetasikas. They both arise with 59 sobhana cittas.
18 & 19
(6) Ujukata_cittujukata and kayujukata Ujukata means straightness. It is uprightness. Ujukata is rectitude. Cittujukata is uprightness of citta. Kayujukata is uprightness of cetasikas. They both arise along with 59 sobhana cittas.

20 & 21 & 22 are virati cetasikas. Virati means refrain from or keeping not doing bad things. There are 3 virati cetasikas. They are sammavaca, sammakammanta, and sammaajiva. 20. Sammavaca is the nature that keeps not to say bad things or things that are not good. It is right speech. When refrain from telling lie sammavaca arises. Not saying harsh words, not saying slandering words, not saying useless words are all led by sammavaca cetasika. This cetasika always arises with magga cittas and phala cittas. It sometimes arises in 8 kammavacara mahakusala cittas.
21. Sammakammanta is the nature that keeps not to do bad things. It is right action. When refraining from killing, torturing, stealing, robbing of properties or sex, taking intoxicants such as alcohol or recreational drugs, sammakammanta arises. It always arise in 8 lokuttara cittas and it arises sometimes in 8 kamavacara mahakusala cittas. 22. Sammaajiva is the nature that keeps not to live on livelihood related to killing, torturing, stealing, robbing, telling lies, slandering, intoxicants, weapon etc etc. It is right livelihood. It always arises in 8 lokuttara cittas and sometimes arises in 8 kamavacara mahakusala cittas. 23 & 24 are appamanna cetasikas. Appamanna means countless, boundless, limitless, unlimited. There are 2 cetasikas. They are karuna and mudita. 23. Karuna is a cetasika. It is compassion. It is also opposite of dosa. It is also unhurting in nature. It arises in 12 rupajhana cittas that is 1 st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
, 4
th
jhanacittas of kusala, vipaka, and kiriya. It also arises in 8 mahakusala cittas and 8 mahakiriya cittas. So karuna can arise in 28 cittas in total. 24. Mudita is a cetasika. It is sympathetic joy. It is direct opposite of issa cetasika. It makes citta happy when sattas are being florished in any aspect. It arises in each of 3 1
st
jhana, 3 2
nd
jhana, 3 3
rd
jhana, 3 4
th
jhana all together 12
rupajhana cittas. ( Three are kusala, vipaka, and kiriya here ). It also arises in 8 kamavacara mahakusala cittas and 8 kamavacara mahakiriya cittas. So mudita can arise in 28 cittas. 25. Pannindriya cetasika

Pannindriya or simply panna is a cetasika. Pannindriya is panna + indriya. Panna means knowledge in detail with analytical and penetrative wisdom. This cetasika is one of five faculties. Panna is amoha. It arises in 47 cittas. They are 12 nana samyutta kamavacara sobhana cittas,15 rupajhana cittas, 12 arupajhana citta, and 8 lokuttara cittas. Glossary:

1. saddha_ faith, confidence, belief 2. sati_mindfulness, remembrance 3. hiri_shamefulness
4. otappa_fearfulness
5. alobha_detachment, dana 6. adosa_metta
7. tatramajjhatthata_balance 8. cittapassaddhi_calmness of citta 9. kayapassaddhi_calmness of cetsaikas 10.cittalahuta_lightness of citta 11.kayalahuta_buoyance of cetasikas 12.cittamuduta_softness of citta 13.kayamuduta_tenderness of cetasikas 14.cittakammannata_workableness of citta 15.kayakammannata_workableness of cetasikas 16.cittapagunnata_proficiency of citta 17.kayapagunnata_proficiency of cetasikas 18.cittujukata_uprightness of citta 19.kayujukata_uprightness of cetasikas 20.virati_ avoid, refrain 21.sammavaca_right speech 22.sammakammanta_right action 23.sammaajiva_right livelihood 24.appamanna_ endless, countless, limitless, boundless 25.karuna_compassion
26.mudita_sympathetic joy 27.pannindriya_faculty of wisdom 28.bodhipakkhiya_ bodhi means bodhi nana or enlightenment, pakkhiyameans companions
23 Aug `11, 2:24PM

12
In the previous files, citta and cetasika have been described. In this file rupa dhamma will be discussed. Rupa are dhamma that are subjected to change and impermanent as in case of nama dhamma. Changes in rupa dhamma seem more obvious that changes in nama dhamma. There are 28 separate rupa dhamma and they all are paramattha dhamma and they do have their own characteristics, functions, manifestations and immediate causes. Overall, all 28 rupa have to depend on 4 mahabhuta rupa which are the four basic elements. Without these four rupa, no other rupa can exist. The four elemental rupa or A. mahabhuta rupa are_

1. pathavi
2. tejo
3. vayo
4. apo

Pathavi is hardness-firmness-softness of materials. It is solidity state of materials. It is density of material or thickness-thinness of material. Tejo is an element that serves as temperature in materials. It is coldness-hotness of materials. Vayo is motion. It is compressibility-repressibility of materials. It is movement or pressure intrinsic to maerials. Apo is an element that is cohesion in materials. It flows, sticks, glues, etc etc. it is wet-dry state of materials. But these 4 mahabhuta rupa never exist as a single rupa and instead they exist together. And serve as base for all other rupa. There are 7 gocara rupas. They serve as objects for cittas so called gocara rupa. Gocara means where citta visits. All these 7 rupa have to depend on 4 mahabhuta rupa even though they are separate entities as paramattha rupa. Among them pathavi, tejo, and vayo re-included because they can be sensed by physical body through body sense receptors. B. 7 gocara rupa are

1. rupa ( or vanna that is colour ) 2. sadda ( sound )
3. gandha ( smell )
4. rasa ( taste )
5. photthabba ( pathavi, tejo, vayo or touch senses )

Rupa or vanna here is colour that is rupa that serves as object for eyeconsciousness or seeing-consciousness or cakkhuvinnana citta. It functions as arammana. It is ruparammana. As it is a base of arising of nama dhamma, it is also called ayatana and it is rupayatana. It bears it own characteristic and it is also dhatu. It is rupa dhatu. Sadda or sound is rupa that serves as object for ear-consciousness or hearingconsciousness or sotavinnana citta. It is sotarammana. It is also sotayatana. It is sota dhatu as well.
Gandha or smell is rupa that serves as object for nose-consciousness or smelling-consciousness or ghanavinnana citta. It is gandharammana. It is gandhayatana and it is also gandha dhatu. Rasa or taste is rupa that serves as object for tongue-consciousness or tastingconsciousness or jivhavinnana citta. It is rasarammana. It is rasayatana. It is rasa dhatu.
Photthabba or touch-sense is rupa that serves as object for body-senseconsciousness or touching-consciousness or kayavinnana citta. It is photthabbarammana. It is photthabbayatana and it is also photthabba dhatu. These five are objects for five physical senses. They are each categorized into arammana, ayatana, and dhatu because they serve as though for arising of nama dhamma. These five are aggregate and it is known as rupakkhandha whereas all cittas and cetasikas are categorized into 4 namakkhandha namely_
1. vedanakkhandha which is aggregate of feeling 2. sannakkhandha which is aggregate of perceptions 3. sankharakkhandha which is aggregate of sankhara dhamma that is 50 mental factors or conditioners after exclusion of vedana and sanna from 52 cetasika

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1. rupa ( or vanna that is colour ) 2. sadda ( sound )
3. gandha ( smell )
4. rasa ( taste )
5. photthabba ( pathavi, tejo, vayo or touch senses )

Rupa or vanna here is colour that is rupa that serves as object for eyeconsciousness or seeing-consciousness or cakkhuvinnana citta. It functions as arammana. It is ruparammana. As it is a base of arising of nama dhamma, it is also called ayatana and it is rupayatana. It bears it own characteristic and it is also dhatu. It is rupa dhatu. Sadda or sound is rupa that serves as object for ear-consciousness or hearingconsciousness or sotavinnana citta. It is sotarammana. It is also sotayatana. It is sota dhatu as well.
Gandha or smell is rupa that serves as object for nose-consciousness or smelling-consciousness or ghanavinnana citta. It is gandharammana. It is gandhayatana and it is also gandha dhatu. Rasa or taste is rupa that serves as object for tongue-consciousness or tastingconsciousness or jivhavinnana citta. It is rasarammana. It is rasayatana. It is rasa dhatu.
Photthabba or touch-sense is rupa that serves as object for body-senseconsciousness or touching-consciousness or kayavinnana citta. It is photthabbarammana. It is photthabbayatana and it is also photthabba dhatu. These five are objects for five physical senses. They are each categorized into arammana, ayatana, and dhatu because they serve as though for arising of nama dhamma. These five are aggregate and it is known as rupakkhandha whereas all cittas and cetasikas are categorized into 4 namakkhandha namely_
1. vedanakkhandha which is aggregate of feeling 2. sannakkhandha which is aggregate of perceptions 3. sankharakkhandha which is aggregate of sankhara dhamma that is 50 mental factors or conditioners after exclusion of vedana and sanna from 52 cetasikas53
4. vinnanakkhandha which is aggregate of vinnana or cittas that is 89 cittas or 121 cittas in total.
Where collection of 4 mahabhuta rupa becomes clear and if they fit for serving as sense receptors they are called pasada rupa because they do have their own characteristics separated from 4 mahabhuta rupa even though pasada rupa themselves are 4 mahabhuta rupa. C. 5 pasada rupa are_

1. cakkhu pasada ( eye )
2. sota pasada ( ear )
3. ghana pasada ( nose )
4. jivha pasada ( tongue ) 5. kaya pasada ( body )

These five rupa are not simple rupa as they would be thought by some as eye, ear, nose, tongue and body. Eye in conventional sense is not cakkhu pasada rupa. Cakkhu pasada rupa is kammaja rupa or kamma-derived rupa and all kammaja rupa pass away with disappearance of cuti citta or death. So eye at postmortem period is not cakkhu passada even though it is still eye in conventional sense. But when alive cakkhu pasada lie in eye. It may well be cornea or retina or nerve or anything but cakkhu pasada is a paramattha rupa. It is also a base for vinnana or citta and nama dhamma. It is also called vatthu. It is the place where object comes through to mind and it is called dvara or door. So cakkhu pasada is also cakkhu vatthu, cakkhu dvara. And it is a cause in arising of cakkhuvinnana citta. So it is also called cakkhayatana. It is also called cakkhu dhatu. Sotapasada is by the same token called sota vatthu, sota dvara, sotayatana, sota dhatu. Ghanapasada is ghana vatthu, ghana dvara, ghanayatana, ghana dhatu. Jivhapasada is jivha vatthu, jivha dvara, jivhayatana, jivha dhatu. Kayapasada is kaya vatthu, kaya dvara, kayayatana, kaya dhatu. D. 2 bhava rupas are_
1. purisattabhava rupa

2. itthatthabhava rupa

Purisa means male. Satta means being. Bhava means life or entity or existence. Purisattabhava rupa is maleness. It is present in all bodily parts of male beings. Itthi means female. Itthi bhava rupa exist in all body parts of female.

E. 1 hadaya rupa
This rupa is the seat of vinnana or citta and in a life patisandhi citta, bhavangacitta, cuti citta all depend on hadaya vatthu when in pancavokara bhumi or where all physical materials are present. F. 1 jivita rupa
This rupa is physical life. It supports other co-existing rupa to be alive and active. It is kammaja rupa or kamma-derived rupa and it exists in all rupakalapa or aggregate of materials when in life. G. 1 ahara rupa
It is also called oja rupa. It is nutriment or nutrition that support other rupa to proliferate.
There are 4 mahabhuta rupa, 7 gocara rupa ( 4 further rupa ), 5 pasada rupa, 2 bhava rupa, 1 hadaya rupa, 1 jivita rupa, 1 ahara rupa altogether these 18 rupa are called nipphanna ruppa. Because they all are influenced by kamma, citta, utu or temperature or weather, and ahara. There are 10 anipphanna rupa. 18 and 10 make 28 paramattha rupa. H. 1 pariccheda rupa
This is a paramattha rupa that space between rupa and itself is space. It is also called akasa.
I. 2 vinatti rupa
1. kayavinatti rupa
2. vacivinatti rupa

Kayavinatti rupa is gesture or special body activity that expresses someone’s wish. Vacivinatti rupa is verbal activity that expresses someone’s wish. J. 3 lahutadi rupa

1. rupa lahuta
2. rupa muduta
3. rupa kammannata

Rupa lahuta is lightness of rupa. Rupa muduta is tenderness of rupa. And Rupa kammannata is wieldiness or workableness of rupa. K. 4 lakkhana rupa

1. upacara rupa
2. santati rupa
3. jarata rupa
4. aniccata rupa
Upacaya rupa is initial formation of other rupa. It is just characteristic. Santati is continued formation of rupa and it is also characteristic of other rupa. Jarata is decaying of rupa and it is also characteristic of other rupa. Aniccata is disappearance of other rupa and it is also characteristic of other rupa. So called all these as characteristics or lakkhana rupa. Among 28 paramattha rupa
Rupa or vanna works as ruparammana, rupayatana, and rupa dhatu. Sadda works as saddarammana, saddayatana, and sadda dhatu. Gandha works as gandharammana, gandhayatana, and gandha dhatu. Rasa works as rasarammana, rasayatana, rasa dhatu. Photthabba works as photthabbarammana, photthabbayatana, photthabba dhatu.
There left 21 rupa as above rupa are ( 1. rupa or vanna, 2. sadda, 3. gandha, 4. rasa 5. patthavi, 6. tejo, 7. Vayo ) These 21 rupa are 5 pasada rupa and 16 sukhuma rupa. Both are dhammarammana.

But 5 pasada are pancayatana that is cakkhayatana, sotayatana, ghanayatana, jivhayatana and kayayatana. Only 16 sukhuma rupa will be dhammayatana and they are also dhamma dhatu.

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