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Pratītyasamutpāda and Śūnyatā in Mādhyantavibhāga

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Dr. Chaisit Suwanvarangkul
University of Otago, New Zealand

The Sanskrit terms pratītyasamutpāda (“dependent arising” or “dependent origination”) and śūnyatā (emptiness) are core teachings of the Buddha, and occur in the canons of all the schools of Buddhism. Two important sources for understanding the relationship between these two Sanskrit terms – pratītyasamutpāda and śūnyatā – are the sixth bhūmi of Daśabhūmiśvāro nāma Mahāyānasūtraṃ in the Avataṃsaka- sūtra and the Mādhyāntavibhāga-bhāṣya. The Mādhyantavibhāga-bhāṣya was written by Vasubandhu and is associated with the Yogācāra School. The text consists of 112 verses in five chapters, and describes the middle and extreme views.
A third source, the commentary, or ṭīkā on the Mādhyantavibhāga-bhāṣya, is also important.

The ṭīkā was composed by Sthiramati (a well-known 6th CE Indian Buddhist Scholar Monk). No complete version of the ṭīkā has survived in the original Sanskrit, but the Tibetan translation of the ṭīkā (Dbus dang mtha’ rnam par ’byed pa’i ’grel bshad) has been preserved. The aim of this paper is to find out how the terms pratītyasamutpāda and śūnyatā developed and changed over time and united into one truth and also I will reconstruct the missing portions of the Sanskrit texts (Ṭīkā, chapter 2 Āvaraṇa pariccheda, Daśaśubhādiṣvāranam, saṣṭhyā) using the Tibetan ṭīkā (Sgrib pa’i le’ur bcad pa, Dge ba la sogs pa rnam pa bcu la sgrib pa)], drug pa).

First, I will consider the pratītyasamutpāda in the sixth bhūmi of ]]Daśabhūmiśvāro nāma Mahāyānasūtraṃ)] in the Avatamsakasūtra in order to understand the connection from pratītyasamutpāda to śūnyatā. Next, I will consider the development from śūnyatā to pratītyasamutpāda in the Mādhyāntavibhāg Chapter 2 Āvaraṇa pariccheda, Daśaśubhādiṣvāraṇam of Yogācāra. And finally I will consider the relationship between pratītyasamutpāda and śūnyatā in the Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 1 Abhūta-parikalpa Stanza 1 in the Sad-asal-lakṣaṇa. I From pratītyasamutpāda to śūnyatā in the sixth bhūmi of the Daśa- bhūmiśvāro nāma Mahāyānasūtraṃin the Avatamsakasūtra.

The sixth bhūmi of Daśabhūmiśvāro mentions the pratītyasamutpāda, and ex- plains the relationship between the pratītyasamutpāda and the three doors of libera- tions (vimokṣatraya). The three liberations described in the sixth bhūmi of the Daśabhūmiśvāro are emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness. In this bhūmi, the Bodhisattvas use their wisdom to contemplate the cycle of birth and death of all creatures in these ten aspects, forward and backward in time, that is; (1) in terms of the interconnections of the elements of becoming (bhavāṅgānusaṃdhitas);
(2) in terms of being all in one mind (ekacittasamavasaraṇatas);
(3) in terms of differentiation of one’s own action (svakarmasaṃbhedatas),1 and so on. After contemplating the pratītyasamutpāda with these ten aspects, then the Bodhisattvas expound on emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness as follows:

tasyaivaṃ daśākāraṃ pratītyasamutpādaṃ pratyavekṣamānasya/ nirātmato niḥsat- tvato nirjīvato niḥpudgalataḥ svabhāva-śūnyataḥ kāraka-vedaka-rahitataś ca/ pra- 1 Cleary, Thomas (1993), The Flower Ornament Scripture: The Translation of Avataṃsaka Sutra, p. 748 tyavekṣamānasya śūnyatā-vimokṣa-mukham ājātaṃ bhavati/ (Dbh p.102 ll.3- 6)
While Bodhisattvas thus contemplate the pratītyasamutpāda in these ten aspects, because of contemplating it in terms of being without self, without being, without soul, without person, inherently empty, without doer or subject, the door of emptiness liberation becomes manifest to them. tasyaiṣāṃ bhavāṅgānāṃ svabhāva-nirodhātyantavimokṣapratyupasthānato/ na kiṃcid dharmanimittam utpadyate/ ato’syānimitta-vimokṣa-mukham ājātaṃ
bhavati/ (DBh p.102 ll.6-7)

Because of the nullity of own-being of these elements of becoming, being in the presence of ultimate liberation, no sign of any elements occurs to them. Hence, this door of signlessness becomes manifest to them. tasyaivaṃ śūnyatānimittam na kaścid abhilāṣa utpadyate/ anyatra mahākaruṇāpūr- vaṃgamāt/ sattvaparipākād evam asyāpraṇihita-vimokṣa-mukham ājātaṃ bhavati/ (DBh p.102 ll. 7-9)

In those who have thus entered into emptiness and signlessness, no desire whatsoever arises, except, led by great compassion, for the full development of sentient beings: thus this door of liberation of wishlessness becomes manifest to them. In this way, the Bodhisattvas contemplate the fact that all creatures in saṃsāra dependently originate. In the pratītyasamutpāda, there are no ideas of self and other, of agent and perceiver, of being and nonbeing. As the liberation of emptiness arises, the contaminated being of the Bodhisattva turns into the purified being of the Bodhisattva, or śūnyatā. We can explain the relationship between the pratītyasamutpāda, signlessness and wishlessness in this way. After the Bodhisattvas have contemplated the pratītya- samutpāda, the door of emptiness liberation becomes manifest to them.

After realizing that the pratītyasamutpāda is not a real entity, they gain absolute liberation through the origination of solitude. They continue to contemplate the pratītyasamutpāda until the door of signlessness liberation becomes manifest to them. The condition of being without self, without being, without soul, without person arises after the realization of emptiness, and no sign of any thing occurs to them after the signlessness. But still they have great compassion for all creatures. The wish to help all creatures is still in their minds and the door of wishlessness liberation becomes manifest to them. The Bodhisattvas contemplate the fact that all creatures are still in saṃsāra due to the pratītyasamutpāda. The Bodhisattvas understand the relationship between the pratītyasamutpāda and the three doors of liberation as follows:

sa imāni trīṇi vimokṣamukhāni bhāvayann ātmaparasaṃjñāpagataḥ kāraka-vedaka
-saṃjñāpagato bhāvābhāvasaṃjñāpagato/ bhūyasyā mātrayā mahākaruṇā-puraskṛtaḥ prayujyate/ apariniṣpannānāṃ bodhyaṅgānāṃ pariniṣpattaye/ (DBh p.102 ll.9-11)
Causing these three doors of liberations to become manifest, they leave behind the ideas of self and other, of agent and perceiver, of being and nonbeing. All the more, filled with compassion, they work to perfectly attain the elements of enlightenment which they have not yet attained. In this way the Bodhisattvas contemplate the pratītyasamutpāda while practising these three doors of liberations. Then they leave behind the ideas of self and other, of agent and perceiver, of being and nonbeing. At this moment the Bodhisattvas turn themselves from contaminated beings into śūnyatā.

II From śūnyatā to pratītyasamutpāda in the Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 2 Āvaraṇa pariccheda, Daśaśubhādiṣvāranam of Yogācāra In the Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 2 Āvaraṇa pariccheda, the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā, which is the fundamental truth, (1) is in the all-encompassing beings, (2) is the foremost, (3) is the yet foremost aim, which flows from that, etc. The Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 2 Āvaraṇa pariccheda has explained the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā on the Daśabhūmi (ten stages) like this. The ten bhūmi (stages) are the locations or stages along the path that the Bodhisattvas are able to use to pursue the perfections in order to ascend to the next location above. Moreover, they are places of morality, where the ten truths can be practiced.

bhūmiṣu punar yathā-kramaṃ/
sarvvatragārthe2 agrārthe3
niṣyandāgrārtha eva ca/
niṣparigrahatā4rthe ca
santānābheda eva ca// II 14
niḥsaṃkleśa-viśuddhy-arthe
’nānā5tvārtha eva ca/
ahīnānadhikārthe ca
caturddhā-vaśitāśraye// II 15
dharmma6-dhātāv avidyeyaṃ
akliṣṭā daśadhāvṛtiḥ7/
daśabhūmi-vipakṣeṇa
pratipakṣās tu
bhūmayaḥ// II.168
(MAnVBh p.34 l.20-p.35 l.5)

sa rnams la yang (C-rims) go rim bzhin te//
kun tu ’gro don mchog gi don//
rgyu mthun don gyi mchog nyid dang//
yongs (C9a-7) su (N11a-6)’dzin pa med (D9a-7) don dang//
rgyud rnams tha dad med (P11a-8) don dang// (14)
nyon mongs rnam dag min don dang//
tha dad med pa’i don nyid dang//
bri (NP-dri) med ’phel ba med don dang//
dbang ni rnam pa bzhi yi gnas// (15)
chos kyi dbyings la ma rig pa//
(P11b-1) nyon mongs can min (N11a-7) sgrib pa bcu//
sa bcu’i (C9b-1) (D9b-1) mi mthun phyogs rnam kyi//
gnyen po dag ni sa yin no//9 (16)

And to the stages, [there may be obstructions,] in this order:

“In regard to the all-encompassing aim,
to the foremost aim,
to the yet foremost aim which flows from that,
to the aim of non-seizing.
to an absence of distinction in the series,
to the aim neither affliction nor purity,
to the aim of an absence of variety,
to the aim that there is neither “inferior” nor “superior”,
and to the four-fold basis of power,
there is this ignorance in the Element of Existence (dharmadhātu),

2 without saṃdhi, metri causa.
3 Pāda in vipula III
4 Ms °grahātā
5 Avagraha unmetrical; read anānā°
6 Ms dharmmā
7 Ms °āvṛttiḥ
8 Madhyāntavibhāga-bhāṣya

Chap.2 varaṇam c) bhūmiṣv āvaraṇam (kārikās 14-16) By Vasubandhu 9 dBus daṅ mtha’ rnam par ’byed pa’i ’grel pa Chap.2 sgrib pa’i le’ur bcad pa (kārikās 14-16) By Vasubandhu (C9a2-9b2) (D9a6-9b2) (N11a5-11b1) (P11a7-11b2) a ten-fold non-afflicted covering,
by way of factors adverse to the Ten Stages,
but the antidotes to them are the Stages!” II. 14-16.
However, in the sixth stage of the Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 2 Āvaraṇa pariccheda it is explained that the difference between the contaminated and purified beings has disappeared. Here, I will refer to the commentary of Vasubandhu: ṣaṣṭhyā niḥsaṃkleṣa-viśuddhy-arthaṃ pratītyasamutpāde (/) nāsti sa kaścid dharmmo yaḥ saṃkliśyate vā viśudhyate veti prativedhāt/ (MAnVBh p.35 ll.19-21)

With the sixth stage, it comprehends the aim where there is neither affliction nor purity, because of its realization that there is no event which is being afflicted or purified [by defilement, karma, etc] in the pratītyasamutpāda. In the verse of Maitreya in the commentary of Vasubandhu it is explained, “It was not contaminated and also purified by the defilement and karma etc.” The reason for this, as Sthiramati comments, is: ṣaṣṭhyā niḥsaṃkleśaviśuddhyarthaṃ dharmadhātoḥ pratividhyatīti saṃbadh- yate/ pratītyasamutpādalakṣaṇaḥ saṃ- kleśas tasminn āgantujāt prakṛtyā na saṃkliṣṭaḥ/ prākṛtikaviśuddher na10 viśudhyati/
(MAnVT p.104 ll. 3-6)

drug pa la (NP om. la) ni kun nas nyon mongs pa dang/ (D239b-7)rnam par dag (CD byang) pa ma yin pa’i don du(P79b-6)ste/ chos kyi dbyings rab tu rtogs zhes bya bar sbyar ro/ rten cing(N72-a7)’brel bar ’bying ba’i mtshan nyid kun(C239a-7)nas nyon mongs pa ni (NP om. ni) de la glo bur du ’byung ba’i phyir rang bzhin gyis kun nas nyon mongs pa ma yin no/(P79a-7)rang bzhin gyis rnam par dag pas rnam par dag (C dgyu) par(D240a-1)’gyur ba ma yin no//11 (C239a6-239b1) (D239b6-240a2) (N72a7-72b1) (P79b5-79b7)
The connection of this passage is as follows: “With the sixth stage, the dharmadhātu realizes that it comprehends the aim where there is neither affliction nor purity.” The affliction in being with the characteristic of the pratītyasamutpāda arises accidentally, not from the natural state; it does not mean that it was purifying its natural state, because its natural state is pure.

In section I, the sixth bhūmi of Daśabhūmiśvāro nāma Mahāyānasūtraṃ, the Bodhisattvas contemplate the pratītyasamutpāda, and expound these three doors of liberations. They leave behind the ideas of self and other, of agent and perceiver, of being and nonbeing. At this moment the Bodhisattvas turn from contaminated beings into śūnyatā. But in section II the Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 2 Āvaraṇa pariccheda explains that the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā in its natural state is not contaminated and also is not purified. As Vasubandhu and Sthiramati explain: a) the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā is brilliant and luminous in its natural state, because it is the nature of all creatures, b) when 10 The italics are the reconstruction of the missing portions of the Sanskrit texts.

11 The underlined parts are the meaning of the missing portions of the Sanskrit texts.

the Bodhisattvas enlighten the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā, the affliction arises accidentally; it is purified by the eradication of affliction. Therefore, the eradication of affliction equals to the purification of beings. It does not mean that the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā was contaminated in its natural state; rather c) the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā is pure in its natural state, and is beyond all encompassing defilement. It is at this point in time that the mechanism of the Great Compassion starts to work. Because defilement has been annihilated, the being is purified. However, this does not mean that the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā is purified. In this way, when the Bodhisattvas practice on the Bodhisattva-path, they change from contaminated beings into purified beings. And conversely, when the Great Compassion works, they change from purified beings into contaminated being. We can understand from this that the Buddhas and the Bodhisattvas are non-self, and also that all sentient beings are non-self. They are all one in the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā and all work together. It is not meant that the natural state was contaminated and purified.

III The relationship between pratītyasamutpāda and śūnyatā in the Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 1 Abhūta-parikalpa Stanza 1 Sad-asal-lakṣaṇa Let’s contemplate the contaminated and purified being in this third section. The Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 1 Stanza 11 states that: Tredhā dvedhā ca saṃkleśaḥ saptadhā ’bhūta-parikalpanāt // I.11 (MAnVBh p.21 l. 21)
Together, the threefold, twofold, and sevenfold afflictions (the twelvefold afflictions of the pratītyasamutpāda) originate from the Unreal Ideation (abhūta-parikalpa). From this stanza we can infer that the Unreal Ideation and the pratītyasa- mutpāda are the same. The Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 1 Abhūta-parikalpa Stanza 1 Sad-asal-lakṣaṇa explains this as follows: tatra lakṣaṇam ārabhyāha/ abhūta-parikalpo’sti dvayan tatra na vidyate/

śūnyatā vidyate tv atra tasyām api sa vidyate// I1
tatrābhūtaparikalpo grāhya-grāhaka-vikalpaḥ/ dvayaṃ grāhyaṃ grāhakañ ca/ śūn- yatā tasyābhūtaparikalpasya grāhya-grāhaka-bhāvena virahitatā/ tasyām api sa vidyata ity abhūtaparikalpaḥ/ evaṃ yad yatra nāsti tat tena śūnyam iti yathābhūtaṃ samanupaśyati yat punar atrāvaśiṣṭaṃ bhavati tat sad ihāstīti yathābhūtaṃ prajānātītyaviparitaṃ śūnyatā-lakṣaṇ an udbhāvitam bhavati/ (MAnVBh p.17 l.15-p.18 l.7)

There, beginning with the characteristics, the author says: (“he”) “There is Unreal Ideation; duality is not found there; (“she”) But emptiness is found here; and “he” is found in “her”, as well.” I.1. There (in this passage), “Unreal Ideation” is the distinction of object grasped and subject grasper. The two are object grasped and subject grasper. “Emptiness” is the separation of Unreal Ideation from the being of object grasped and subject grasper. “And ‘he’ is found in ‘her’, as well”: i.e. Unreal Ideation (is found in Emptiness, as well). And if it (duality) is not there in that way, then, as a result, one sees “as it is”, namely, that it is empty. Furthermore, one completely observes that that which remains (after duality vanishes) is what is (really) existent here, and the emptiness characteristic is made to arise in an unreversed manner.
And also we can see from the Ṭīkā of Sthiramati:

atha vā lakṣaṇaṃ saṃkleśavyavadānā- bhidhānād anyan nāstīty ataḥ saṃkleśa- vyavadānalakṣaṇaparīkṣārtham āha/ abhūtapari kalpo’sti
yang (P26a1) na kun nas nyon mongs pa dang rnam par byang ba dag gi mtshan nyid brjod pa las gzhan med pas de’i phyir kun nas nyon mongs pa dang/ rnam par byang ba’i mtshan nyid brtag (P rtag DC bstan) pa’i don du/ (P om. /) yang dag ma yin kun rtog (P26a4) yod// (P om. //)
iti vistaraḥ/ abhūtaparikalpasvabhāvaḥ saṃkleśo bhrāntilakṣaṇatvāt / katham etaj jñātavyaṃ bhrāntilakṣaṇam iti yena dvayaṃ tatra na vidyate/
ces rgya cher (D195a3) gsungs so//

’khrul (C195a3) pa’i mtshan nyid phyir (DC phyi/) yang dag pa ma yin pa kun rtog pa’i rang bzhin ni kun nas nyon mongs pa’o// ’di ’khrul pa’i mtshan nyid (DC nyid du) ji ltar shes par bya zhe na/ ’di (P26a5) ltar de la gnyis po yod ma yin// (P om. //)
svātmany avidyamānena grāhya-grāha- kākāreṇa prakhyānād bhrāntisvarūpeṇa jñāyate/ idānīṃ vyavadānasvarūpapa- rīkṣārtham āha/ śūnyatā vidyate tv atra
bdag nyid du med par gzung (P bzung) ba dang ’dzin pa’i rnam (D195a4) par snang bas ’khrul ba’i ngo bo nyid (C195a4) du mngon no// da ni rnam par byang ba’i rang gi ngo bo brtag pa’i phyir/ stong pa nyid ni (P26a6)’di la yod//
(P om. //)

iti/ śūnyatāsvabhāvo hi vyavadānaṃ dvayābhāvasvabhāvatvāt/ atra ca śūnyatā- prabhāvitatvād mārganirodhayor api gra- haṇaṃ veditavyam / saṃkleśapakṣād eva vyavadānapakṣo mārgayitavyo na punaḥ pṛthaktvam asyāstīti pradarśanārtham āha atreti/ yadi dvayaṃ nāsti kathaṃ tasyā ṃ vidyamānāyāṃ12 loko bhrānta iti pṛṣṭam/ ataś cāha/
tasyām api sa vidyate//
iti/13

(MAnVT p.12 l. 26-p.13 l.16)
ces bya ba gsungs so// gnyis po med pa’i rang bzhin yin pa’i phyir/ (PC //) stong pa nyid kyi rang bzhin ni rnam par byang ba’o// stong pa nyid kyis rab tu phye bas lam (D195a5) dang ’gag pa dag kyang ’dir (P26a7) bsdu (C195a5) bar rig par bya’o// kun nas nyon mongs pa’ i phyogs nyid las rnam par byang ba’i phyogs (DC phyogs nyid) bstal bar bya’i (DC bya ba’i) rang gi rgyud gud na med par rab tu bstan pa’i phyir ’di la zhes bya ba gsungs so// gal te (P26a8) gnyis po med na ci’i phyir de yod par ’jig rten (D195a6) ’khrul par gyur zhes (P ces) dris(C195a6)pa dang/ de’i phyir
de la yang ni de yod do zhes bya ba gsungs te/14
(C195a2-195a6) (D195a2-195a6) (P26a1-26a8)

12 Yamaguchi’s note is sā vidyamānā.
13 The italics are the reconstruction of the missing portions of the Sanskrit texts.
14 The underlined parts are the meaning of the missing portions of the Sanskrit texts.
Or rather, the lakṣaṇa, the characteristic is no other than the expression (of characteristic of) defilement and purification. Therefore in order to examine this characteristic of defilement and purification, he says: “Unreal Ideation exists” etc.
The essence of Unreal Ideation is defilement because its characteristic nature is false. How should this to be understood? Since [Unreal Ideation) is a false characteristic. “Duality does not [absolutely] exist in it.”

And because it is the being perceived by the form of subject grasper and object grasped which does not exist in itself, its illusive own form is evident. Now, in order to examine the aim of its own form of purification (vyavadāna) he says: “Emptiness however exists in it.”
For the essence nature of Emptiness is purification because it is the essence nature of the unreality of duality. -- (Omitted) -- now the following question may arise: If the duality (subject grasper and object grasped) does not exist, then even though she (the Emptiness) exists, why is here the illusion of the world? Therefore states:
“In this (Emptiness) too, that (Unreal Ideation) is found.”

The Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 1 Abhūta-parikalpa Stanza 1 Sad-asal-lak- ṣaṇa explains the contaminated being. The contaminated being has the Unreal Ideation as its essence nature. Because its characteristic nature is false, the discrimination of object grasped and subject grasper has occurred. However, when the Bodhisattvas became enlightened, and there was no object grasped, then we also know that the subject grasper does not exist either. At this moment the Bodhisattvas turn themselves into the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā or tathatā. Therefore, in Stanza 1, the concept of the Unreal Ideation is explained: that there are no object grasped and subject grasper.

 When the Bodhisattvas realize that there is duality in the Unreal Ideation, then the enlightenment of the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā or tathatā occurs. At this moment, the Bodhisattvas turn themselves from contaminated beings into the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā, but, at the same time in Stanza 1, purified the dharmadhātu has emptiness as its essential nature. Next, the Bodhisattvas work to help all creatures to achieve purified the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā through their great compassion. We can recall at this time that the contaminated being (Unreal Ideation) and the purified being (dharmadhātu or śūnyatā) are the same and conclude that in śūnyatā there is the Unreal Ideation, and in the Unreal Ideation there is śūnyatā.

Conclusion

In this paper I have argued, based on the analysis of the thought of the sixth bhūmi of Daśabhūmiśvāro nāma Mahāyānasūtraṃ in the Avatamsakasūtra and the Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 2 Āvaraṇa pariccheda, Daśaśubhādiṣvāraṇam of Yoga- cāra, that Unreal Ideation and pratītyasamutpāda are the same. I have also argued that the sixth bhūmi of Daśabhūmiśvāro nāma Mahāyānasūtraṃ has explained that in the pratītyasamutpāda, the nature of oneself, life, creatures, human beings, behavior, and experience do not exist. In the Mādhyāntavibhāga it is stated that the nature of these things can be understood as the object grasped and subject grasper. In short, if we compare the sixth bhūmi of Daśabhūmiśvāro nāma Mahāyānasūtraṃ to the Mādhyāntavibhāga, Chapter 1 Abhūtaparikalpa, Stanza 1, Sad- asal-lakṣaṇa, when the nature of oneself, life, creatures, human beings, behavior, and experience of subject grasper in the pratītyasamutpāda do not exist, the door of the liberation of emptiness opens.

This means that śūnyatā is located in the Unreal Ideation. Furthermore, when the Bodhisattvas contemplate the pratītyasamutpāda, they realize these three doors of liberations. Then they are able to leave behind the ideas of self and other, of agent and perceiver, of being and nonbeing: in short, the Unreal Ideation is also located in śūnyatā. According to the sixth bhūmi of Daśabhūmiśvāro nāma Mahāyānasūtraṃ and the Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 1 Abhūta-parikalpa Stanza 1 Sad-asal-lakṣaṇa, when the Bodhisattvas practice on the Bodhisattva-path, they turn from contaminated beings into purified beings. Moreover, when the Great Compassion works, they turn from purified beings into contaminated beings. In the Mādhyāntavibhāga Chapter 2 Āvaraṇa pariccheda it is explained that the Buddhas and the Bodhisattvas are non-self and also all the sentient beings are non-self. They are all one in the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā and all work together. This does not mean that the dharmadhātu or śūnyatā turns into contaminated being, or becomes clean. References
Primary Sources and Abbreviations
DBh = Daśabhūmiśvaro nāma mahāyānasūtraṃ by Ryūko Kondo, Tokyo, 1936.
Tib. Sang rgyas pha po che shes bya ba shin tu rgyas pa chen po’i mdo
31. sa bcu
Peking: li 101b7-109a1 sDe dge: kha 219a3-226a7
MAnVBh = Madhyāntavibhāga-bhāṣya by GM. Nagao, Tokyo, 1964.
Tib. dBus dang mtha’ rnam par ’byed pa’i ’grel pa
Peking: bi 11a7-12a4 Cone: bi 9a6-10a2
sDe dge: bi 9a6-10a2 sNar thang: bi 11a5-12a2
MAnVT = Madhyāntavibhāga-ṭīkā by Susumu Yamaguchi, Nagoya, 1934.
Tib. dBus dang mtha’ rnam par ’byed pa’i ’grel bshad
Peking: tshi 76a1-81b5 Cone: bi 236a3-241a1
sDe dge: bi 236b3-241b2 sNar thang: tshi 68b7-74a3

Secondary Sources

Anacker, Stefan. Seven Works of Vasubandhu-The Buddhist Psychological Doctor. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1998. Chandra, Lokesh. Sanskrit-Tibetan Dictionary. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan, 2007.

Cleary, Thomas. The flower Ornament Scripture- A Translation of The Avatamsaka Sutra. Boston & London: Shambala, 1993. G.M, Nagao. Daijyou Butten 15- Seshin Ronshuu. Tokyo: Chuo kou ron sha, Showa 51 (1976). G.M, Nagao. Index to theMahāyāna-Sūtrālaṃkāra, Part I (SANSKRIT-TIBETAN-CHINESE). Tokyo: Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkokai, 1958. G.M, Nagao. Index to theMahāyāna-Sūtrālaṃkāra, Part II (TIBETAN- SANSKRIT& CHINESE-SANSKRIT). Tokyo: Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkokai, 1961. G.M, Nagao. Mādhyamika and Yogācāra- A Study of Mahāyāna Philosophies. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1992. Norutoshi, Aramaki. Daijyou Butten 8- Juu Chi Kyou. Tokyo: Chuo kou ron sha, Showa 49 (1974). Pandeya, Ramchandra. Madhyānta-Vibhāga-śāstra. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1999.

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