Mind and Mental Factors: The Fifty-one Types of Subsidiary Awareness by Alexander Berzin
Mere implies that this occurs without a separate unaffected, monolithic “me” that is either controlling or observing this activity. The “I” exists, but merely as an imputation based on a continuity of everchanging moments of experiencing everchanging things.
It plants the nonstatic abstraction (ldan-min ‘du-byed, noncongruent affecting variable) of a mental impression (bag-chags) of the cognition it cognizes, which then allows for subsequently recalling the cognition (dran-pa, mindfulness).
Recalling it occurs through conceptual cognition of a mental aspect resembling an object previously cognized and a category (spyi, universal) that mentally derives from the object and into which fit all mental aspects resembling the object.
- eye consciousness (mig-gi rnam-shes),
- ear consciousness (rna’i rnam-shes),
- nose consciousness (sna’i rnam-shes),
- tongue consciousness (lce’i rnam-shes),
- body consciousness (lus-kyi rnam-shes),
- mind consciousness (yid-kyi rnam-shes).
Unlike the Western view of consciousness as a general faculty that can be aware of all sensory and mental objects, Buddhism differentiates six types of consciousness, each of which is specific to one sensory field or to the mental field.
A primary consciousness cognizes merely the essential nature of an object (ngo-bo), which means the category of phenomenon to which something belongs. For example, eye consciousness cognizes a sight as merely a sight.
- deluded awareness (nyon-yid),
- alayavijnana (kun-gzhi rnam-shes, all-encompassing foundation consciousness, storehouse consciousness).
On a subtler level, deluded awareness cognizes the ripening factor of the alayavijnana as a “me” that is a substantially, self-sufficiently knowable entity that can hold its own position (rang-rkya ‘dzin-thub-pa’i rdzas-yod), lording over its aggregates.
According to the Vaibhashika view of Vasubandhu’s Treasure-House of Special Topics of Knowledge (Chos mngon-pa’i mdzod, Skt. Abhidharmakosha) – accepted by the Prasangika-Madhyamaka as well – the five congruent features are:
- reliance (rten) – relying on the same cognitive sensor (dbang-po),
- object (yul) – cognitively aiming at the same focal object (dmigs-yul),
- aspect (rnam-pa) – giving rise to the same cognitive appearance or mental semblance,
- time (dus) – arising, abiding, and ceasing simultaneously,
- natal source (rdzas, natal substance) – although coming from their own individual natal sources – referring to individual karmic tendencies (sa-bon, karmic seeds, karmic legacies) – coming from natal sources that have the same slant (ris-mthun).
Thus, they work harmoniously together without clashing.
- natal source (rdzas) – all arising from a single natal source (a single karmic legacy) that has the same slant as that of the primary consciousness they accompany,
- object (yul) and aspect (rnam-pa) – having the same appearing object (snang-yul), as what they cognitively aim at,
- essential nature (ngo-bo) – being the same type of phenomenon; namely, destructive (mi-dge-ba, “nonvirtuous”), constructive (dge-ba, “virtuous”), or unspecified as either (lung ma-bstan),
- plane (khams, realm) and bhumi level of mind (sa, Skt. bhumi) – being items within the same plane of [[samsaric] existence]] or within the same bhumi level of mind of an arya bodhisattva.
Within a cognition, a principal awareness is an awareness, consisting of the composite of a primary consciousness and its accompanying subsidiary awarenesses, that is the prominent way of being aware of the object of the cognition.
It characterizes the type of cognition that is occurring.
An example of a principal awareness is bodhichitta. Bodhichitta is the composite of a mind consciousness focused on one’s own individual future enlightenment and such subsidiary awarenesses as the intention to achieve that enlightenment and to benefit all others by means of that attainment.
Count of the Subsidiary Awarenesses
Often, the definitions of the awarenesses they assert in common differ as well.
The standard Bon treatment of the topic, found in Innermost Core of Topics of Knowledge (mDzod-phug) by Shenrab Miwo (gShen-rab mi-bo), unearthed as a treasure-text (gter-ma, terma) by Shenchen Luga (gShen-chen Klu-dga’), lists fifty-one.
In Treasure-House of Special Topics of Knowledge, Vasubandhu specified forty-six subsidiary awarenesses; while in his Treatment of the Five Aggregate Factors (Phung-po lnga rab-tu byed-pa, Skt. Panchaskandha-prakarana),
Here, we shall present his system, based on the explanations the seventeenth-century Gelug master Yeshey-gyeltsen ([[Kha-chen Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan) gave in Clearly Indicating the Manner of Primary and Subsidiary Awarenesses (Sems-dang sems-byung-gi tshul gsal-bar bstan-pa).
- five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses (kun-’gro lnga),
- five ascertaining ones (yul-nges lnga),
- eleven constructive emotions (dge-ba bcu-gcig),
- six root disturbing emotions and attitudes (rtsa-nyon drug),
- twenty auxiliary disturbing emotions (nye-nyon nyi-shu),
- four changeable subsidiary awarenesses (gzhan-‘gyur bzhi).
These lists of subsidiary awarenesses are not exhaustive.
There are many more than just fifty-one.
Many good qualities (yon-tan) cultivated on the Buddhist path are not listed separately – for example, generosity (sbyin-pa), ethical discipline (tshul-khrims), patience (bzod-pa), love (byams-pa), and compassion (snying-rje).
The various lists are just of certain significant categories of subsidiary awarenesses.
The ripenings include
- the aggregate factors with which we are born,
- the environment in which we live,
- the events that happen to us similar to what we have done in the past,
- our feelings to repeat our past patterns of behavior.
They are upsetting (zang-zing) when they share five congruent features with craving (sred-pa) for the aggregate factors of our experience when they are tainted (zag-bcas) – meaning mixed with confusion – and perpetuating (nyer-len) of samsara.
(2) Distinguishing (‘du-shes, recognition) takes an uncommon characteristic feature (mtshan-nyid) of the appearing object (snang-yul) of a nonconceptual cognition or an outstanding feature (bkra-ba) of the appearing object of a conceptual cognition, and ascribes a conventional significance (tha-snyad ‘dogs-pa) to it.
Thus, distinguishing differs greatly from “recognition.”
namely an audio category (sgra-spyi) or a meaning category (don-spyi) -- as the exclusion of what is other (gzhan-sel), although this is not a process of eliminating alternative possibilities one by one.
or the category "spoon" from everything that is not that category, such as the category "fork."
This is known as the distinguishing that takes a characteristic feature concerning a convention (tha-snyad-la mtshan-mar ‘dzin-pa’i ‘du-shes). Nonconceptual cognition lacks this type of distinguishing.
(4) Contacting awareness (reg-pa) differentiates (yongs-su gcod-pa) that the object of a cognition is pleasant (yid-du ‘ong-ba), unpleasant, or neutral, and thus serves as the foundation for experiencing it with a feeling of happiness, unhappiness, or a neutral feeling.
The four types of paying attention discordantly to the five aggregate factors of our experience is to consider them static rather than nonstatic, happiness rather than problematic (suffering), clean rather than unclean, and having a truly existent self rather than lacking such a self.
The four types of paying attention to them concordantly are the opposite of these.
All five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses are necessarily present in each moment of cognition of anything. Otherwise, our using the object (longs-su spyod-pa) as an object of cognition would be incomplete.
- We do not actually experience an object, unless we feel some level of happiness on the spectrum from happiness through neutral to unhappiness.
- We do not cognitively take something within a sense field as an object of cognition, unless we distinguish some characteristic feature of it.
- We do not even face or go in the direction of an object of cognition, unless we have an urge toward it.
- We do not have any basis for experiencing the object with a feeling, unless we have contacting awareness to differentiate it as pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral.
- We do not actually engage with the specific object, unless we pay some level of attention to it, even if that level is extremely low.
Vasubandhu defined the following five in a general manner and asserted that they also accompany every moment of cognition. Asanga called them ascertaining subsidiary awarenesses and gave them definitions that are more specialized.
(2) Firm conviction (mos-pa) focuses on a fact that we have validly ascertained to be like this and not like that.
For Vasubandhu, this subsidiary awareness means regard. It merely takes its object to have some level of good qualities – on the spectrum from no good qualities to all good qualities – and may be either accurate or distorted.
(3) Recollecting mindfulness (dran-pa) is not merely holding on to any cognized object without losing it as an object of focus. Here, it prevents mental activity from forgetting or losing a constructive object with which it is familiar. It has three characteristics:
- the object must be something constructive with which we are familiar (‘dris-pa),
- the aspect (rnam-pa) must be that it is focused on this object and does not forget or lose it,
- the function must be that it prevents mental wandering.
(4) Mentally fixating (ting-nge-‘dzin, concentration) is not merely keeping fixed on any object of cognition taken by any type of cognition, including sensory cognition. Here, it makes the mental activity stay single-pointedly engaged, with continuity, focused on a labeled constructive object (btags-pa’i dngos-po).
This is because commonsense objects that extend over time and that extend over the sensibilia cognized by other senses are mentally labeled here on the basis of a sequence of visually cognized moments of colored shapes.
Thus, as with the other ascertaining subsidiary awarenesses, discriminating awareness understands (rtogs-pa) its object – for instance, whether it is constructive, destructive, or unspecified by Buddha to be either.
It functions to turn away indecisive wavering about it.
Vasubandhu called this subsidiary awareness intelligent awareness (blo-gros) and defined it as the subsidiary awareness that decisively discriminates that something is correct or incorrect, constructive or destructive, and so on.
It adds some level of decisiveness to distinguishing an object of cognition – even if that level is extremely weak – and may be either accurate or inaccurate. Thus, intelligent awareness does not necessarily understand its object correctly.
(1) Believing a fact to be true (dad-pa) focuses on something existent and knowable, something with good qualities, or an actual potential, and considers it either existent or true, or considers a fact about it as true.
Thus, it implies accepting reality.
There are three types:
- Clearheadedly believing a fact about something (dang-ba’i dad-pa) is clear about a fact and, like a water purifier, clears the mind. Vasubandhu specified that it clears the mind of disturbing emotions and attitudes about the object.
- Believing a fact based on reason (yid-ches-kyi dad-pa) considers a fact about something to be true based on thinking about reasons that prove it.
- Believing a fact with an aspiration concerning it (mngon-‘dod-kyi dad-pa) considers true both a fact about something and an aspiration we consequently hold about the object, such as that we can attain a positive goal and that we shall attain it.
For Vasubandhu, this subsidiary awareness means having scruples, and is a restraint from being brazenly negative. This and the previous subsidiary awareness accompany all constructive states of mind.
(6) Lack of naivety (gti-mug med-pa) is the discriminating awareness that is aware of the individual details (so-sor rtog-pa) concerning behavioral cause and effect or concerning reality, and which acts as the opponent for naivety about them.
- armor-like courage (go-cha’i brtson-‘grus), to endure difficulties, gained from reminding ourselves of the joy with which we undertook what we did,
- constant and respectful application of ourselves to the task (sbyor-ba’i brtson-‘grus),
- never becoming disheartened or shrinking back (mi-‘god-ba’i brston-‘grus),
- never withdrawing (mi-ldog-pa’i brtson-‘grus),
- never becoming complacent (mi-chog-bar mi-‘dzin-pa’i brtson-‘grus).
(8) A sense of fitness (shin-sbyangs, flexibility) is a sense of suppleness or serviceablity (las-su rung-ba) of body and mind that allows the mental activity to remain engaged with a constructive object for as long as we wish.
It is attained from having cut the continuity of the body and mind from taking detrimental stances, such as mentally wandering or fidgeting. A sense of fitness induces a nondisturbing exhilarating feeling of physical and mental bliss.
(9) A caring attitude (bag-yod, carefulness) is a subsidiary awareness that, while remaining in a state of detachment, imperturbability, lack of naivety, and joyful perseverance, causes us to meditate on constructive things and safeguards against leaning toward tainted (negative) things.
In other words, being disgusted with and not longing for compulsive existence, not wanting to cause harm in response to its suffering, not being naive about the effects of our behavior, and taking joy in acting constructively, a caring attitude brings us to act constructively and to refrain from destructive behavior. This is because we care about the situations of others and ourselves and about the effects of our actions on both; we take them seriously.
(10) Equilibrium (btang-snyoms) or serenity is a subsidiary awareness that, while remaining in a state of detachment, imperturbability, lack of naivety, and joyful perseverance, allows the mental activity to remain effortlessly undisturbed, without flightiness or dullness, in a natural state of spontaneity and openness.
(11) Not being cruel (rnam-par mi-‘tshe-ba) is not merely the imperturbability of not wishing to cause harm to limited beings who are suffering or to irritate or to annoy them. It has, in addition, compassion (snying-rje), the wish for them to be free of their suffering and its causes.
The Six Root Disturbing Emotions and Attitudes
A disturbing emotion or attitude (nyon-mongs, Skt. klesha, “afflictive emotion”) is one that when it arises, causes us to lose our peace of mind (rab-tu mi-zhi-ba) and incapacitates us so that we lose self-control.
There are six root ones, which act as the roots of the auxiliary disturbing emotions and attitudes. Vasubandhu classified five of the six as being without an outlook on life (lta-min nyon-mongs). Thus, they are disturbing emotions or mental states.
The sixth is a set of five with an outlook on life (nyon-mongs lta-ba can) and thus comprises five disturbing attitudes. Asanga called this set of five “disturbing deluded outlooks on life” (lta-ba nyon-mongs-can). Let us call them “deluded outlooks” for short.
Except for the Vaibhashika school of tenets, all other Indian Buddhist tenet systems (grub-mtha’) assert that, other than a few exceptions, all disturbing emotions and attitudes have two levels: doctrinally based (kun-brtags) and automatically arising (lhan-skyes).
- Doctrinally based disturbing emotions and attitudes arise based on the conceptual framework of a distorted outlook on life.
Automatically arising ones occur without such a basis.
Among the disturbing emotions without an outlook, the exception is indecisive wavering and, among those without an outlook, the exceptions are holding a deluded outlook as supreme, an outlook of holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme, and a distorted outlook.
These exceptions have no automatically arising form and occur only doctrinally based. The Vaibhashika tenet system does not assert an automatically arising form of any disturbing emotion or attitude. According to its assertions, all disturbing emotions and attitudes are exclusively doctrinally based.
(1) Longing desire (‘dod-chags) aims at any external or internal tainted object (associated with confusion) – either animate or inanimate – and wishes to acquire it based on regarding the object as attractive by its very nature.
It functions to bring us suffering.
Although longing desire or greed may occur with either sensory or mental cognition, it is based on a conceptual interpolation beforehand. Note that sensory cognition is always nonconceptual, while mental cognition may be either nonconceptual or conceptual.
The preceding interpolation either exaggerates the good qualities of the desired object or adds good qualities that it lacks. Thus, the conceptual interpolation pays attention to the desired object in a discordant manner (incorrect consideration) – for example, considering something dirty (a body filled with excrement) as clean.
From a Western perspective, we may add that when longing desire is aimed at another person or group, it may take the form of wishing to possess the person or group as belonging to us or for us to belong to the person or group. It also would seem that longing desire is often additionally supported by a conceptual repudiation or denial beforehand of the negative qualities of its object.
Vasubandhu defined this root disturbing emotion as attachment or possessiveness. It is wishing not to let go of either any of the five types of desirable sensory objects (sights, sounds, smells, tastes, or physical sensations) (‘dod-pa’i ‘dod-chags) or of our own compulsive existence (srid-pa’i ‘dod-chags). It is also based on an exaggeration or a discordant way of paying attention to a tainted object.
Attachment to compulsive existence is attachment to the objects of the plane of ethereal forms (gzugs-khams, form realm) or the plane of formless beings (gzugs-med khams, formless realm). This means attachment to the deep states of meditative trance attained in those realms.
(2) Anger (khong-khro) aims at another limited being, our own suffering, or situations entailing suffering that may arise from either of the two or which may simply be the situations in which the suffering occurs. It is impatient with them (mi-bzod-pa) and wishes to get rid of them such as by damaging or hurting them (gnod-sems) or by striking out against them (kun-nas mnar-sems).
It is based on regarding its object as unattractive or repulsive by its very nature and it functions to bring us suffering. Hostility (zhe-sdang) is a subcategory of anger and is directly primarily, although not exclusively, at limited beings.
As with longing desire, although anger may occur with either sensory or mental cognition, it is based on a conceptual interpolation beforehand. The interpolation either exaggerates the negative qualities of the object or adds negative qualities that it lacks. Thus, the conceptual interpolation pays attention to the object in a discordant manner – for example, incorrectly considering something not at fault to be at fault.
From a Western perspective, we may add that when anger or hostility is aimed at another person or group, it may take the form of rejecting the person or group. Alternatively, because of fear of being rejected by the person or group, we may redirect the anger at ourselves.
As explained below, this deluded outlook focuses on some aspect or network of aspects from among our five aggregates and identifies it as an unaffected, monolithic “me” separate from the aggregates and lording over them.
There are seven types:
- Arrogance (nga-rgyal) is a puffed-up mind that feels I am better than someone inferior to myself in some quality.
- Exaggerated arrogance (lhag-pa’i nga-rgyal) is a puffed-up mind that feels I am better than someone equal to myself in some quality.
- Outrageous arrogance (nga-rgyal-las-kyang nga-rgyal) is a puffed-up mind that feels I am better than someone superior to myself in some quality.
- Egotistic arrogance (nga’o snyam-pa’i nga-rgyal) is a puffed-up mind that thinks “me” while focusing on our own samsara-perpetuating aggregates (nyer-len-gyi phung-po).
- False or anticipatory arrogance (mngon-par nga-rgyal) is a puffed-up mind that feels I have attained some quality that I have not actually attained or not yet attained.
- Modest arrogance (cung-zad snyam-pa’i nga-rgyal) is a puffed-up mind that feels that I am just a little bit inferior compared to someone vastly superior to myself in some quality, but still superior to almost everyone else.
- Distorted arrogance (log-pa’i nga-rgyal) is a puffed-up mind that feels that some deviant aspect that I have fallen to (khol-sar shor-ba) is a good quality that I have attained – for instance, being a good hunter.
- I am superior to others,
- I am equal to others,
- I am inferior to others,
- others are superior to me,
- others are equal to me,
- others are inferior to me,
- there is no one superior to me,
- there is no one equal to me,
- there is no one inferior to me.
(4) Unawareness (ma-rig-pa, ignorance), according to both Asanga and Vasubandhu, is the murky-mindedness (rmongs-pa) of not knowing (mi-shes-pa) behavioral cause and effect or the true nature of reality (de-kho-na-nyid).
In other words, unawareness makes us stubborn in our certainty about something incorrect, insecure and unsure of ourselves, and stressed.
According to A Commentary on (Dignaga’s “Compendium of) Validly Cognizing Minds” (Tshad-ma rnam-‘grel, Skt. Pramanavarttika) by Dharmakirti, unawareness is also the murky-mindedness of apprehending something in an inverted way (phyin-ci log-tu ‘dzin-pa).
According to Vasubandhu and all Hinayana tenet systems (Vaibhashika and Sautrantika), unawareness of the true nature of reality refers only to unawareness of how persons (gang-zag) exist, both ourselves and others.
According to the Sakya and Nyingma interpretations of Prasangika and all four Tibetan traditions’ interpretations of the Svatantrika-Madhyamaka and Chittamatra views, Asanga’s reference to unawareness of the true nature of reality also does not include unawareness of how phenomena exist.
The Gelug and Karma Kagyu interpretations of the Prasangika-Madhyamaka view include unawareness of the true nature of how all phenomena exist as a form of unawareness that is a disturbing state of mind.
Naivety (gti-mug) is a subcategory of unawareness and, when used in its strict sense, refers only to the unawareness that accompanies destructive states of mind – both unawareness of behavioral cause and effect and of the true nature of reality.
- tolerance for the deluded outlook, since it lacks the discrimination to see that it brings suffering,
- attachment to it, since it does not realize that it is deluded,
- consideration of it as intelligent,
- a conceptual framework that tightly holds on to it,
- speculation that it is correct.
(1) A deluded outlook toward a transitory network (‘jig-tshogs-la lta-ba, ‘jig-lta, false view of a transitory network) seeks and latches on to some transitory network from our own samsara-perpetuating five aggregates as a basis on which to interpolate (project) an accompanying conceptual framework (attitude) that it tightly holds on to.
(5) Indecisive wavering (the-tshoms, doubt) is entertaining two minds about what is true – in other words, wavering between accepting or rejecting what is true. What is true refers to such facts as the four noble truths and behavioral cause and effect.
Moreover, the wavering may tend more to the side of what is true, more to the side of what is false, or be evenly divided between the two.
Indecisive wavering functions as a basis for not engaging with what is constructive.
It refers to the wavering that tends more toward an incorrect decision about what is true. It is the troublemaker because, if the wavering tends toward what is correct or is even divided, it could lead to engaging in what is constructive.
It does not focus on the aggregates of anyone else.
The false “me” may be either a static monolith that can exist independently of the aggregate factors (rtag-gcig-rang-dbang-gi bdag) or a self-sufficiently knowable “me” (rang-rkya thub-‘dzin-pa’i bdag).
Thus, a deluded outlook toward a transitory network is based on unawareness of how the conventional “me” exists and is accompanied by grasping for the impossible soul of a person (gang-zag-gi bdag-‘dzin).
In more detail, a deluded outlook toward a transitory network is a disturbing, deluded discriminating awareness that “grasps” at a transitory network of aggregates as being identical with “me” (ngar-‘dzin), namely with a false “me” Or it grasps at them as “mine” (nga-yir ‘dzin), in other words as totally different from a false “me,” for instance as their possessor, their controller, or their inhabitant.
“Grasping” here means to conceptually cognize its object through the medium of one or more interpolated categories and to consider the interpolation of these categories to be correct. The conceptual categories constitute the conceptual framework that this deluded outlook tightly holds on to. In this case, the interpolated categories include both an impossible false “me” and either “totally identical (one)” or “totally different (many).”
Moreover, a deluded outlook toward a transitory network seeks and latches on to one or more of our aggregate factors, based on distinguishing one or more of them from everything else. As a disturbing, deluded discriminating awareness, it adds certainty to this distinguishing. Incorrect consideration (paying attention discordantly) also accompanies this deluded outlook and is the mental factor that actually regards (takes to mind) the aggregate factor or factors focused on as being the interpolated categories.
According to Tsongkhapa, a deluded outlook toward a transitory network does not actually focus on the aggregates, as Vasubandhu and Asanga explain. According to his Gelug Prasangika system, it focuses on the conventional “me,” which is imputed on a transitory network of our aggregate factors.
Moreover, the false “me” that it holds on to tightly is also one that has truly established existence.
regards our five samsara-perpetuating aggregates in either an eternalist (rtag-pa) or nihilistic (‘chad-pa) way. In his Grand Presentation of the Graded Stages of the Path (Lam-rim chen-mo), Tsongkhapa clarified this by explaining that an extreme outlook is a disturbing, deluded discriminating awareness that focuses on the conventional “me” that the previous disturbing attitude identified with a transitory network.
It considers the conventional “me” either as having this identity permanently or as not having continuity in future lives. According to Vasubandhu, an extreme outlook views the samsara-producing aggregate factors themselves as either lasting eternally or ending totally at death, with no continuity in future lives.
(3) Holding a deluded outlook as supreme (lta-ba mchog-tu ‘dzin-pa, an outlook of false supremacy) regards as supreme one of our deluded outlooks and the samsara-perpetuating aggregates based on which the deluded outlook is produced.
Tsongkhapa specified that the outlook at which this disturbing, deluded discriminating awareness aims may be our deluded outlook of a transitory network, our extreme outlook, or our distorted outlook.
According to Vasubandhu, this disturbing attitude may regard the samsara-perpetuating aggregates, based on which any of the above three deluded outlooks is produced, with the discordant attention that they are totally clean by nature or a source of true happiness.
(4) An outlook of holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme (tshul-khrims-dang brtul-zhugs mchog-tu ‘dzin-pa) regards as purified, liberated, and definitely delivered some deluded morality, some deluded conduct, and the samsara-perpetuating aggregate factors that give rise to the deluded morality and conduct.
It regards the deluded morality and conduct as a path that purifies (‘dag-pa) us from negative karmic force (sdig-pa, negative potentials), liberates (grol-ba) us from disturbing emotions, and definitely delivers (nges-par ‘byin-pa) us from samsara (uncontrollably recurring rebirth).
Tsongkhapa explained that deluded morality is ridding ourselves of some trivial manner of behavior that is meaningless to give up, such as standing on two feet. Deluded conduct is decisively to engage our way of dressing and our bodies and speech in some trivial manner that is meaningless to adopt, such as the ascetic practice of standing naked on one foot in the hot sun.
According to Tsongkhapa and the Gelug-Prasangika school, a distorted outlook may also regard a false cause, a false effect, a false functioning, or a nonexistent phenomenon as true or existent. Thus, it may also be accompanied by an interpolation, for example, that primal matter (gtso-bo) or the Hindu god Ishvara is the cause or creator of limited beings.
(3) Concealment of having acted improperly (‘chab-pa) is a part of naivety and is to hide and not admit, either to others or to ourselves, our uncommendable actions (kha-na ma-tho-ba). These may be naturally uncommendable actions (rang-bzhin-gyi kha-na ma-tho-ba), such as the destructive action of killing a mosquito. Alternatively, they may be formulated uncommendable actions (bcas-pa’i kha-na ma-tho-ba) – neutral actions that Buddha prohibited for certain individuals and which we vowed to refrain from, such as eating after noon if we are a full monk or nun.
(5) Jealousy (phrag-dog) is a part of hostility and is a disturbing emotion that is unable to bear others’ good qualities or good fortune, due to excessive attachment to our own gain or to the respect we receive. Thus, jealousy is not the same as the English word envy. Envy wishes, in addition, to have these qualities or good fortune ourselves and often has the wish for the other person to be deprived of them.
(6) Miserliness (ser-sna) is a part of longing desire and is an attachment to material gain or respect and, not wanting to give up any possessions, clings to them and does not want to share them with others or use them ourselves. Thus, miserliness is more than the English word stinginess. Stinginess is merely unwillingness to share or to use something we possess. It lacks the aspect of hoarding that miserliness possesses
(7) Pretension (sgyu) is in the categories of longing desire and naivety. Because of excessive attachment to our material gain and the respect we receive, and activated by wanting to deceive others, pretension is pretending to exhibit or claiming to have a good quality that we lack.
(8) Concealment of shortcomings (g.yo) is a part of longing desire and naivety. Because of excessive attachment to our material gain and the respect we receive, this is the state of mind to hide our shortcomings and faults from others.
(9) Smugness or conceit (rgyags-pa) is a part of longing desire. From seeing signs of a long life or of any other samsaric glory, based of being healthy, young, wealthy, and so on, smugness is a puffed-up mind that feels happy about and takes pleasure in this.
- Hooliganism (snying-rje-ba med-pa) is a cruel lack of compassion with which we wish to cause mischief or harm to others.
- Self-destructiveness (snying-brtse-ba med-pa) is a cruel lack of self-love with which we wish to cause mischief or harm to ourselves.
- Taking perverse pleasure (brtse-ba med-pa) is cruelly rejoicing when seeing or hearing of others’ suffering.
(11) No moral self-dignity (ngo-tsha med-pa, no sense of honor) is a part of any of the three poisonous emotions. It is the lack of any sense to refrain from destructive behavior because of caring how our actions reflect on ourselves. According to Vasubandhu, this subsidiary awareness means having no sense of values. It is a lack of respect for positive qualities or persons possessing them.
(12) No care for how our actions reflect on others (khrel-med) is a part of any of the three poisonous emotions. It is the lack of any sense to refrain from destructive behavior because of caring how our actions reflect on those connected to us. Such persons may include our family, teachers, social group, ethnic group, religious order, or countrymen. For Vasubandhu, this subsidiary awareness means having no scruples, and is a lack of restraint from being brazenly negative. This and the previous subsidiary awareness accompany all destructive states of mind.
(13) Foggymindedness (rmugs-pa) is a part of naivety. It is a heavy feeling of body and mind that makes the mind unclear, unserviceable, and incapable either of giving rise to a cognitive appearance of its object or of apprehending the object correctly. When the mind actually becomes unclear, due to foggymindedness, this is mental dullness (bying-ba).
(14) Flightiness of mind (rgod-pa) is a part of longing desire. It is the subsidiary awareness that causes our attention to fly off from its object and to recollect or think about something attractive that we have previously experienced instead. Thus, it causes us to lose our peace of mind.
- Disbelieving a fact, such as the good qualities of the Three Jewels of Refuge, such that it causes our mind to become muddied with disturbing emotions and attitudes and to become unhappy.
- Disbelieving a fact, such as the existence of the possibility for us to attain liberation, such that we have no interest in it and no aspiration to attain it.
(16) Laziness (le-lo) is a part of naivety. With laziness, the mind does not go out to or engage with something constructive because of clinging to the pleasures of sleep, lying down, relaxing, and so on. There are three types:
- Lethargy and procrastination (sgyid-lugs), not feeling like doing something constructive now and putting off until later because of apathy toward the uncontrollably recurring sufferings of samsara, clinging to the pleasure of being idle, or craving sleep as an escape.
- Clinging to negative or trivial activities or things (bya-ba ngan-zhen), such as gambling, drinking, friends who are bad influences on us, going to parties, and so on.
- Feelings of inadequacy (zhum-pa).
(17) Not caring (bag-med, carelessness, recklessness). Based on longing desire, hostility, naivety, or laziness, not caring is the state of mind not to engage in anything constructive and not to restrain from activities tainted with confusion. It is not taking seriously and thus not caring about the effects of our behavior
(18) Forgetfulness (brjed-nges). Based on recollection of something toward which we have a disturbing emotion or attitude, forgetfulness is losing our object of focus so that it will wander to that disturbing object. Forgetfulness serves as the basis for mental wandering (rnam-par g.yeng-ba).
(19) Being unalert (shes-bzhin ma-yin-pa) is a disturbing, deluded discriminating awareness associated with longing desire, hostility, or naivety, that causes us to enter into improper physical, verbal, or mental activity without knowing correctly what is proper or improper. Thus, we do not take steps to correct or prevent our improper behavior.
(20) Mental wandering (rnam-par g.yeng-ba) is a part of longing desire, hostility, or naivety. It is the subsidiary awareness that, due to any of the poisonous emotions, causes our mind to be distracted from its object of focus. If we are distracted due to longing desire, the object of our desire need not be something we are already familiar with, as in the case of flightiness of mind.
Asanga listed four types of subsidiary awarenesses that have changeable ethical status. They can be constructive, destructive, or unspecified, depending on the ethical status of the cognition with which they share five congruent features.
(1) Sleep (gnyid) is a part of naivety. Sleep is a withdrawal from sensory cognition, characterized by a physical feeling of heaviness, weakness, tiredness, and mental darkness. It causes us to drop our activities.
Because grasping for true existence (bden-‘dzin) interpolates an impossible mode of existence to its object, it is neither a primary nor a subsidiary awareness, although it accompanies both of them. Moreover, because it is not a subsidiary awareness, it is also not a disturbing emotion or attitude.
It also does not accompany the moment of conceptual cognition of voidness of someone with an applying pathway mind (sbyor-lam, path of preparation) the moment before he or she attains a seeing pathway mind (mthong-lam, path of seeing) with nonconceptual cognition of voidness.
Similarly, the deep awareness of total absorption on voidness (mnyam-bzhag ye-shes) and the deep awareness of the subsequent attainment (rjes-thob ye-shes, post-meditation wisdom) are neither primary nor subsidiary awarenesses, although they accompany both of them.