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Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range, and the Cultural Landscapes that Surround Them

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DECISION OF THE WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE: Excerpt from the Report of the 28th Session of the World Heritage Committee Criterion (ii): The monuments and sites that form the cultural landscape of the Kii Mountains are a unique fusion between Shintoism and Buddhism that illustrates the interchange and development of religious cultures in East Asia. Criterion (iii): The Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples in the Kii Mountains, and their associated rituals, bear exceptional testimony to the development of Japan’s religious culture over more than a thousand years. Criterion (iv): The Kii Mountains have become the setting for the creation of unique forms of shrine and temple buildings which have had a profound influence on the building of temples and shrines elsewhere in Japan. Criterion (vi): Together, the sites and the forest landscape of the Kii Mountains reflect a persistent and extraordinarily well-documented tradition of sacred mountains over the past 1200 years.

BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS

Set in the dense forests of the Kii Mountains overlooking the Pacific Ocean, three sacred sites - Yoshino and Omine, Kumano Sanzan, and Koyasan - linked by pilgrimage routes to the ancient capital cities of Nara and Kyoto, reflect the fusion of Shinto, rooted in the ancient tradition of nature worship in Japan, and Buddhism, which was introduced to Japan from China and the Korean peninsula. The sites (495.3-ha) and their surrounding forest landscape reflect a persistent and extraordinarily well-documented tradition of sacred mountains over 1,200 years. The area, with its abundance of streams, rivers and waterfalls, is still part of the living culture of Japan and is much visited for ritual purposes and hiking, with up to 15 million visitors annually. Each of the three sites contains shrines, some of which were founded as early as the 9th century. 1.b State, Province or Region: Mie, Nara and Wakayama Prefectures 1.d Exact location: N33 50 13.0 E135 46 35.0
 Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range, and the Cultural Landscapes that Surround Them 2003
Agency for Cultural Affairs and Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan
WORLD HERITAGE LIST NOMINATION
Name of Property , and the Cultural Landscapes that Surround Them State Party Japan Prepared by Agency for Cultural Affairs and Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan Date January 2003
 Contents
CONTENTS
Main Text [File No.1]
?. Identification of the Property
a. Country 1
b. State, Province or Region 1
c. Name of property 1
d. Location 1
e. Boundary of area proposed for inscription and of buffer zone 3 f. Area of property proposed for inscription and of buffer zone 3 ?. Justification for Inscription a. Statement of significance 5 b. Comparative analysis 10
c. Authenticity 11
d. Criteria under which inscription is proposed 16 ?. Description
a. Description of property 21
b. History 47
c. Form and date of most recent records of property 58 d. Present state of conservation 65
e. Policies and programs related to the presentation and promotion of the property 78 ?. Management
a. Ownership 79
b. Legal status 80
c. Protective measures and means of implementing them 85 d. Agencies with management authority 90 e. Level at which management is exercised and name and address of responsible person for contact purposes 90 f. Agreed plans related to property 91 g. Sources and levels of finance 91
h. Sources of expertise and training in conservation and management techniques 92 i. Visitor facilities and statistics 93 j. Property management plan and statement of objectives 93 k. Staffing levels 96 ?. Factors Affecting the Property a. Development pressures 101
b. Environmental pressures 101
c. Natural disasters and preparedness 101 d. Visitor / tourism pressures 102
e. Number of inhabitants within property and buffer zone 103 ?. Monitoring
a. Key indicators for measuring state of conservation 105 b. Administrative arrangements for monitoring property 106 c. Results of previous reporting exercises 106 ?. Documentation a. Photographs, slides and video 129 b. Address where inventory, record and archives are held 129 ?. Signature on behalf of the State Party


 Contents Appendices [File No.2]

b. The location in the Kinki Area
c. The location in the Kii Peninsula
d-1. Yoshino and Ômine
d-2. Kumano Sanzan
d-3. Kôyasan
d-4. Pilgrimage routes
d-5. Pilgrimage routes
2. Map indicating the nominated property and the surrounding natural and built environment [File No.3]

3. Maps indicating the extent of the nominated property and the buffer zone a. The extent of the nominated property and the buffer zone with indication of the zones of legal protection b. The distribution of main buildings included in the nominated property [File No.4] 4. Inventory of cultural assets; copies of the official designation notices a. Inventory of the monuments and sites included in the nominated property b. Copies of the official notices 5. Drawings of major buildings a. Drawings of major buildings (National Treasures and Important Cultural Properties) b. Drawings of the cultural assets (major components of pilgrimage routes) c. Drawings of the cultural assets (major components of the sites) d. Drawings of the cultural assets (drawings and related materials about conservation repair works) e. Calendar of major events related to the property 6. Chronological table of history in relation to the nominated property 7. Plans indicating locations of fire prevention systems 8. Summary of laws and regulations which control the nominated property and the buffer zone [File No.5] 9. Map of the area relevant to agreed plans related to the nominated property 10. Chronological table of conservation work 11. Plans indicating locations of the cultural assets for which conservation work has been completed 12. Plans indicating locations of support facilities and facilities for visitors
 Contents Additional Reference Materials [File No.1]
1. Conclusions and Recommendations of the UNESCO Thematic Expert Meeting on Asia-Pacific Sacred Mountains
2. Laws and regulations
a. The Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties b. National Park System based on Natural Parks Law 3. Comprehensive Preservation and Management Plan [File No.8] 4. Color slides [Files No. 9 and No.10]
5. Videotape production
1. Identification of the Property
1. Identification of the Property
1. Identification of the
Property
a. Country Japan
b. State, Province or Region
Mie Prefecture, Nara Prefecture and Wakayama Prefecture c. Name of property

The nominated cultural property, “Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range, and the Cultural Landscapes that Surround Them”, is a group of cultural assets consisting of three sacred sites, i.e. “Yoshino and Ômine”, “Kumano Sanzan” and “Kôyasan”, and the pilgrimage routes linking them in the Kii Mountain Range lying to the south of two of Japan's ancient capital cities, Nara and Kyoto. The specific locations of the cultural assets included in the nominated property are listed below and their geographical presentations are given in Appendix 1. Name of cultural asset Location A. Yoshinoyama

B.Yoshino
Mikumari-jinja
C. Kimpu-jinja
D. Kimpusen-ji
E. Yoshimizu-jinja
1. Yoshino Yoshino-chô, Yoshino-gun, Nara Pref. and Ômine
F. Ôminesan-ji Tenkawa-mura, Yoshino-gun, Nara Pref. A. Kumano Hongû
Taisha
Hongû-chô, Higashimuro-gun,
Wakayama Pref.
B. Kumano Hayatama
Taisha
Shingû City, Wakayama Pref.;
Kihô-chô, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Pref.
C. Kumano Nachi
Taisha
D. Seiganto-ji
E. Nachi no Ôtaki
F. Nachi Primeval Forest
d. Location
2. Kumano
Sanzan
G. Fudarakusan-ji
Nachikatsuura-chô, Higashimuro-gun,
Wakayama Pref.
1
 1. Identification of the Property
Name of cultural asset Location
A. Niutsuhime-jinja Katsuragi-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Pref. B. Kongôbu-ji Kôya-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Pref. C. Jison-in 3. Kôyasan
D. Niukanshôfu-jinja
Kudoyama-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama
Pref.
A. Ômine Okugakemichi Yoshino-chô, Kawakami-mura, Kurotaki-mura, Tenkawa-mura,
Kamikitayama-mura,
Shimokitayama-mura, Totsukawa-mura
and Ôtoh-mura, Yoshino-gun, Nara
Pref.;
Hongû-chô and Kumanogawa-chô,
Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Pref.
i Nakahechi Shingû City, Wakayama Pref.; Nakahechi-chô, Nishimuro-gun,
Wakayama Pref.;
Hongû-chô, Kumanogawa-chô and
Nachikatsuura-chô, Higashimuro-gun,
Wakayama Pref.;
Kiwa-chô and Kihô-chô,
Minamimuro-gun, Mie Pref.
ii Kohechi Nosegawa-mura and Totsukawa-mura, Yoshino-gun, Nara Pref.;
Kôya-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Pref.;
Hongû-chô, Higashimuro-gun,
Wakayama Pref.
iii Ôhechi
Shirahama-chô, Hikigawa-chô and
Susami-chô, Nishimuro-gun, Wakayama
Pref.
B. Kumano
Sankeimichi
iv Iseji Owase City and Kumano City, Mie Pref.; Ôuchiyama-mura, Watarai-gun, Mie
Pref.;
Kiinagashima-chô and Miyama-chô,
Kitamuro-gun, Mie Pref.;
Mihama-chô, Kiwa-chô, Kihô-chô and
Udono-mura, Minamimuro-gun, Mie
Pref.;
Hongû-chô and Kumanogawa-chô,
Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Pref.
4.
Pilgrimage
routes
C. Kôyasan Chôishimichi Kudoyama-chô, Katsuragi-chô, and Kôya-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Pref.
2

1. Identification of the Property
Geographical position (location of Kumano Hongû Taisha) Latitude: 33°50' 13 N
Longitude: 135°46' 35 E
Appendix 1. Maps indicating the location of the nominated property a. The location in Japan
b. The location in the Kinki Area
c. The location in the Kii Peninsula
d-1. Yoshino and Ômine
d-2. Kumano Sanzan
d-3. Kôyasan
d-4. Pilgrimage routes
d-5. Pilgrimage routes
e. Boundary of area proposed for inscription and of buffer zone
Maps showing the boundaries of the areas proposed for inscription and of their buffer zones are submitted herewith: Appendix 2. Map indicating the nominated property and the surrounding natural and built environment
Appendix 3. Maps indicating the extent of the nominated property and the buffer zone
a. The extent of the nominated property and the buffer zone with indication of the zones of legal protection b. The distribution of main buildings included in the nominated property The area of the property proposed for inscription, i.e. the nominated property, and the area of the buffer zones are as follows: Total area of the nominated property 495.3 ha
Total area of the buffer zones
11,370 ha
Name of cultural asset Nominated area
(ha)
Area of buffer
zone (ha)
A. Yoshinoyama 33.7
B. Yoshino Mikumari-jinja 0.9
C. Kimpu-jinja 1.1
D. Kimpusen-ji 0.9
E. Yoshimizu-jinja 0.8
7.4
1. Yoshino and
Ômine
Total 44.8
916
A. Kumano Hongû Taisha 10.8
B. Kumano Hayatama Taisha 47.6
C. Kumano Nachi Taisha 0.3
D. Seiganto-ji 0.2
E. Nachi no Ôtaki 2.5
F. Nachi Primeval Forest 32.7
G. Fudarakusan-ji 0.1
f. Area of property
proposed for inscription
and of buffer zone
2. Kumano Sanzan
Total 94.2
752
F. Ôminesan-ji
3
A. Ômine Okugakemichi
 1. Identification of the Property
A. Niutsuhime-jinja 1.6
B. Kongôbu-ji 61.4
C. Jison-in 0.04
D. Niukanshôfu-jinja 0.1
3. Kôyasan
Total 63.1
582
149.3 (86.9 km)
1. Nakahechi 47.1 (88.8 km)
2. Kohechi 4.9 (43.7km)
3. Ôhechi 1.8 (10.0 km)
4. Iseji 75.8 (54.2 km)
B. Kumano
Sankeimichi
Sub-total 129.6 (196.7 km)
C. Kôyasan Chôishimichi 14.3 (24.0 km) 4. Pilgrimage routes
Total 293.2 (307.6 km)
9,120
Grand total 495.3 11,370
4
2. Justification for Inscription
 2. Justification for Inscription
2. Justification for
Inscription
a. Statement of significance
In the southernmost part of mainland Japan lies the Kii Peninsula, jutting out to the south into the Pacific Ocean along the 136-degree line of east longitude; most of the peninsula is a forested area known as the "Kii Mountain Range", where mountain ridges reaching an altitude of 1,000-2,000 m run in all directions and where rich, dense forests grow, nurtured by the abundant water supply from the annual precipitation exceeding 3,000 mm. Since ancient times, the Kii Mountain Range has nurtured the spirit of nature worship, in which mountains, rocks, forests, trees, rivers, and waterfalls are deified and revered as objects of worship. Located to the south of the Nara Basin, site of one of Japan's ancient capitals, this region came to be revered by people in the capital as well, recognized as a sacred place where gods descend and reside. With such a background, after Buddhism was introduced into Japan in the 6th century and became a religion for national peace and stability in the latter half of the 7th century, the Kii Mountain Range became the central place for Buddhist ascetic practices; the Shingon sect of esoteric Buddhism, which was introduced in the 9th century, also established itself choosing this area as the place for their ascetic practices. From the mid-10th century to the 11th century, the Shugen sect of ascetic Buddhism was established as an indigenous religion of Japan, combining elements of pre-Buddhist mountain worship, esoteric Buddhism called Mikkyô and Taoist beliefs in immortal Hsien, which was introduced from China. The goal of the Shugen sect was to attain supernatural abilities through ascetic practices in the mountains, and the followers of this sect chose the Kii Mountain Range, especially the Ômine Mountains, as the principal site for their practices. During the 9th and 10th centuries, as the influence of Buddhism was growing stronger, the Shinto-Buddhist syncretism, or the unique belief that Japanese traditional gods are the incarnations of Buddhist deities, spread widely and the Kii2. Justification for Inscription Mountain Range attracted increased attention as the sacred place for this religious movement.

On the other hand, in the 10th and 11th centuries, as an extension of Buddhist eschatological thought in which it was believed that the Buddha’s divine powers were to decline became prevalent, the belief in “Jôdo” (literally, pure land) which is the Pure Land of Amida (Amitabha) where dead people can be re-born was widely accepted by aristocrats and also by the general public. At that time, people came to believe that in the Kii Mountain Range, located to the south of the ancient capital, was the Pure Land where Buddhist deities reside, further consolidating the status of this region as a sacred site. The desperate search for the paradise did not stop at the mountain range, and it came to be believed before long that further to the south beyond the mountains and the sea was the Buddhist paradise called Fudaraku Jôdo, where Kannon-bosatsu (Avalokitesvara) resides. Such was the seriousness with which people clung to this notion that some Buddhist priests went so far as to take out a boat from the Kii Peninsula toward the southern sea, dreaming of reaching the paradise by sea. The sacredness of this region which has developed in close association with the Buddhist concept of the Pure Land can reasonably be ascribed to the unique geographical features of the region characterized by the dense mountains overlooking the southern sea and the strong contrast between the two distinct landscapes. On the strength of the diversity of religious beliefs and activities which have been nurtured by the region’s unique geological features, climate and vegetation, the three outstanding sacred sites of “Yoshino and Ômine”, “Kumano Sanzan” and “Kôyasan”, and the pilgrimage routes linking them have developed as important heritage areas in the Kii Mountain Range. “Yoshino and Ômine”, located in the northernmost part of the Kii Mountain Range, is accordingly the northernmost site among the three sacred sites. This sacred site includes two core areas: the “Yoshino” area and the “Ômine” area. In 2. Justification for Inscription the Yoshino area, the Kimpu mountains which were believed to be controlling the water supply and were therefore closely associated with agricultural activities, and which produced gold and other minerals were revered as the major objects of worship. On the other hand, the Ômine area, which is located to the south of the Yoshino area, has developed as a primary stage for mountain ascetic practices. This sacred site continued to expand in importance as the central place of Shugen ascetic practices until the mid-10th century, and the reputation of “Yoshino and Ômine” as one of the most sacred mountains in Japan reached as far as China. Many people came to visit this area from various places around Japan to undertake ascetic practices, and in an attempt to reproduce “Yoshino and Ômine”, similar sacred mountain sites were developed in other places around Japan. “Kumano Sanzan” is located in the southeastern part of the Kii Mountain Range. In this single area, there are three Shinto shrines, Kumano Hongû Taisha, Kumano Hayatama Taisha, and Kumano Nachi Taisha, located 20 to 40 km apart, and two Buddhist temples, Seiganto-ji and Fudarakusan-ji. Originally, each of the three Shinto shrines had its own distinctive form of nature worship; later in the late 10th century, they started to give worship to all of the three guardian deities at the same time under the influences of Buddhism. Since then, the sacred site came to be revered as the dwelling place of the trine deities of Kumano whose power was believed to be the strongest in Japan. Seiganto-ji and Fudarakusan-ji were constructed in close relation to Kumano Nachi Taisha, as the fusion between Shintoism and Buddhism deepened. Fudarakusan-ji was famous in association with the Buddhist priests’ martyrdom by setting sail for the Fudaraku Pure Land that they believed to exist in the southern sea. Kumano Sanzan became a pilgrimage destination in the 11th century, as pilgrimage parties of the imperial family members and aristocrats visited the site frequently under the guidance of Shugen ascetics. By the late 15th century, the majority of the pilgrims who visited the site were commoners, a trend which was further stimulated by the propagation of Buddhist nuns called Kumano Bikuni in the 16th century. Such was the 7 2. Justification for Inscription enthusiasm of the faithful pilgrims swarming to the sacred site that people later referred to the pilgrimages to Kumano Sanzan as "ant processions". On the other hand, the shrine buildings of Kumano Sanzan introduced a unique architectural style which had not been seen in other shrine structures of the time; they served as the architectural model for more than 3,000 shrines dedicated to the Kumano deity, which were to be built throughout Japan in the following years. “Kôyasan”, located approximately 30km to the west-southwest of Yoshino and Ômine, is the sacred site closely associated with the Buddhist temple, Kongôbu-ji. The temple was founded in 816 by the high priest, Kûkai (774 - 835), as the stage for mountain ascetic practices for the Shingon sect of esoteric Buddhism, which he introduced to Japan from China. Kûkai is one of the most famous high priests of Buddhism in the history of Japan and Kongôbu-ji is still now an object of worship for contemporary admirers of the priest. The temple’s complex is designed in accordance with the doctrine of the Shingon sect, combining a main building called a Hondô with esoteric pagodas called Tahôtô in a unique fashion. The architectural style served as the model for and greatly influenced approximately 4,000 temples of the Shingon sect existing throughout Japan. Kôyasan was also introduced as one of the six major scholastic centers in Japan in one of the letters written in 1549 to the Society of Jesus at Goa in India by Francis Xavier, who introduced Christianity to Japan. As the three sacred sites drew more and more religious attention and worship, the number of people who underwent ascetic practices there or who visited them for a pilgrimage increased, leading to the construction of three pilgrimage routes, i.e. the “Ômine Okugakemichi”, the “Kumano Sankeimichi” and the “Kôyasan Chôishimichi”. In the course of a pilgrimage, people were required to reduce the amount of food they eat, for the purpose of purifying their body and spirit.

The fact indicates that these routes themselves were the very place for ascetic practices, leading people spiritually from the secular world to the sacred places where gods dwelt. In this regard, these routes were quite different in their function from 8 2. Justification for Inscription ordinary roads which were constructed in other parts of Japan. As has been stated above, the sacred sites in the Kii Mountain Range consist of the three areas: “Yoshino and Ômine”, the religious center of the ascetic Shugen sect; “Kumano Sanzan”, the religious center for the worshipers of Kumano deities; and “Kôyasan”, the fundamental religious base for the esoteric Shingon sect. Together with the pilgrimage routes connecting them, those three sacred sites have attracted worship from innumerable people over the past 1000 years, and as such have been playing an important role as an active stage for spiritual and cultural development and interchange in Japan. On the other hand, Japan’s indigenous nature worship beliefs are based upon the notion that natural objects and places such as deep evergreen woods, mountains covered with formidable rocks, singular rocks exposed on the mountain body, waterfalls with exceptionally affluent torrents of water, and gigantic old-growth trees are revered as sacred entities where gods descend. Among such natural objects contained in the nominated property, the most typical are: “Gotobikiiwa", a gigantic rock in the compound of Kumano Hayatama Taisha; "Hana no Iwaya", a gigantic rock overlooking the Shichirimihama beach running along the Kumano Sankeimichi; “Nachi Primeval Forest”; “Bukkyôgatake Primeval Forest”; and “Nachi no Ôtaki”, a big waterfall. Those consecrated places were to develop into the sanctuaries of Shinto shrines and, gradually blending with the Buddhism introduced from China and the Korean Peninsula, came to be used and revered also as places for ascetic practices for the Shugen sect and other indigenous mountain-worship groups. Invariably situated in extremely deep, natural mountain areas, those places for ascetic practices form outstanding cultural landscapes associated with a powerful sacredness. In September 2001, the “UNESCO Thematic Expert Meeting on Asia-Pacific Sacred Mountains” was held in Wakayama City, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. E 2. Justification for Inscription The meeting defined in its conclusions and recommendations a “sacred mountain” as “a significant natural elevation where the spiritual and physical unite" (Paragraph 2.1.1) and stressed that it is necessary to consider diverse criteria covering tangible and intangible values in addition to cultural and natural values, when evaluating the values of the sacred mountains. Especially with regard to the outstanding universal value of a sacred mountain, the meeting conclusions pointed out that the value “may derive from its role as an outstanding example or paradigm of an important aspect (s) of sacred mountains in general, even though the property itself is not well known internationally” (Paragraph 2.1.6). (Refer to Additional Reference Material 1) In consideration of the deliberations in the above meeting, the nominated property embodying a combination of diverse – tangible and intangible - cultural elements concerning religious activities and natural elements can be considered to be a paradigm of important aspects of sacred mountains. As such, the nominated property has extremely high value as one of the sacred mountains in Asia and the Pacific region. b. Comparative analysis In the nominated property, three types of sacred sites coexist in a single mountain area: the sacred site of esoteric Buddhism, which was introduced to Japan from China; that of Shinto-Buddhist fusion born out of a combination between Japan’s indigenous religious elements such as Shinto or mountain worship and foreign elements such as Buddhism and Taoism introduced from China and the Korean Peninsula; and that of the Shugen sect of ascetic Buddhism. In addition, those sacred sites, together with the pilgrimage routes linking them, form outstanding cultural landscapes characterized by dense mountains. It is not possible to make a direct comparison with similar properties elsewhere, as there are hardly any other such examples. c. Authenticity
10
2. Justification for Inscription

Each of the monuments and sites included in the nominated property clearly shows well-preserved outstanding value as cultural heritage in terms of design, material, workmanship and setting, thanks to appropriate maintenance and management by the property owners and by the national and local governments. The cultural landscapes surrounding and composing integral parts of the monuments and sites included in the nominated property are also maintained in a good condition of conservation in harmony with the religious activities, livelihood and daily lives of the local people. In particular, as part of the repair works undertaken under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties, preliminary academic investigations are carefully prepared and carried out, including historical research, archeological excavations of underground materials, and surveys for the existence and causes of any damage. On the basis of the findings and results of those investigations, a conservation committee composed of property owners, experienced academic experts and administrative representatives, etc. is established to discuss and decide upon the principles of repair works to be implemented; the committee also provides technical guidance as necessary. For any acts altering or affecting the existing condition which are proposed for restoration or other purposes, prior permission from the national government is required based on a detailed examination by the Council for Cultural Properties, which includes many members of ICOMOS Japan. In order to preserve the cultural landscapes, alteration to the existing landscape is restricted and controlled not only by the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties, but also by the Natural Parks Law, the Forest Law, and other regulations including prefectural ordinances regarding natural parks, and municipal regulations concerning the protection of cultural landscapes. The nominated property and the surrounding cultural landscapes remain in a good condition, and the authenticity of the monuments and sites composing the nominated property and the authenticity and integrity of cultural landscapes are 11
 2. Justification for Inscription assured as follows:
1) Authenticity concerning the monuments and sites i) Authenticity of design
Many of the monuments included in the nominated property are wooden structures or stone structures such as stone stupas, which have repeatedly undergone repair and reconstruction works in order to address the damage caused by aging, natural disasters, collapse and other factors. All through those efforts, their original design can be considered to have been truthfully and precisely maintained since the Medieval Period of Japan. Although various types of reinforcement or minor, partial modifications had been made in repair works which were carried out before the Early Modern Period, the very elements representing the historic values of the buildings and other structures, such as layout, structure, and exterior design, remain unaltered since their foundation. In some cases of conservation repair works carried out in the Modern Period and later, architectural parts or structural members which had been improperly introduced in previous repair works or remodeling works were removed or replaced with authentic materials, as otherwise they would undermine the value of the cultural properties. And there are other cases where missing parts or members were substituted with newly-made supplementary parts. For all such works, the prior permission from the national government is required, subject to close, strict examination by the Council for Cultural Properties, which takes into consideration the information, gathered by an expert who is stationed on a full-time basis at the site of the repair work, on the materials used and the architectural techniques together with reference information from experience of similar repair works done in the past. On the other hand, the pilgrimage routes are well preserved in their original conditions, as is illustrated in the sections where newer roads have been constructed avoiding those historical routes. Day-to-day maintenance work has been carried 12 2. Justification for Inscription out such as weeding, removal of fallen trees, and small-scale repair works to treat rain-damaged parts. For any alteration to the existing condition which might affect the value of the cultural property, prior permission from the national government based on the examination by the Council for Cultural Properties is required, as is the case with the monuments. ii) Authenticity of materials Since the Kii Mountain Range lies in a region with high temperatures and abundant precipitation, most of the wooden structures included in the nominated property have been continuously exposed to the threat of deterioration and substantial damage by decay, insects, rain, and wind. However, the type of deterioration or damage that creeps on over time, unlike the catastrophic damage caused by natural disasters, has a tendency of starting first from peripheral members such as roofs or pillar ends and progressing slowly to other parts. Therefore, even when repair work is necessary, what is required is basically no more than the replacement of the deteriorated or damaged parts or materials. The repair methods to be taken and the timing of implementation in the larger repair works involving complete or partial dismantling, roofing replacement, or painting repair are carefully planned well in advance, so that the existing original materials can be left in place to the greatest possible. In cases in which there is no alternatives but to substitute new materials for the original materials, only homogeneous materials are used; at the same time, when the removed part is important as original architectural materials or evidence showing the construction time or the history of the monument concerned, it will be kept and stored separately. With regard to repair works for stone structures such as stone stupas and pavement stones and stone signposts of pilgrimage routes, the authenticity of materials is carefully maintained through thorough implementation of the anastylosis methodology. iii) Authenticity of Workmanship 13
 2. Justification for Inscription
The authenticity of workmanship is deeply associated with that of materials. In Japan, the traditional repair method of dismantling, repairing and reassembling the damaged structure has been developed and evolved in tandem with the architectural structure suitable for such a repairing method. This is made possible by the unique characteristics of Japanese wooden architecture, which is based upon the pillar-and-beam structural framework system and the interlocking joint connections of structural members. It is this joint connection system that makes it possible to dismantle, repair, and reassemble a structure without undermining the originally used materials or workmanship. On the occasion of reassembling a dismantled structure, the original workmanship used for designing and decorating structural members is closely investigated so as to be applied in finishing the replacing parts. In addition, when it is necessary to replace irreparably decayed or damaged structural members or to introduce substitute parts for missing parts, the greatest possible effort is made to maintain the authenticity of workmanship, by adopting traditional repair methods such as underpinning (for the rotten part at the pillar end) and grafting (for damaged parts). iv) Authenticity of Setting Each of the components of the monuments and sites which are included in the nominated property is kept at the location of its foundation, and archeological remains of religious significance that have been found through excavation surveys are also strictly preserved at the original locations as important archeological and historical materials. In addition, a wide range of the surrounding environment that covers shrine precincts, temple compounds, and pilgrimage routes has been well preserved so as to continue to maintain the awe- inspiring divine atmosphere. The authenticity of setting pertaining to the monuments concerned is sufficiently maintained. 14 2. Justification for Inscription
2) Authenticity and integrity concerning the cultural landscapes Among the sites included in the nominated property, cultural landscapes of sacred mountains contain various types of “sacred places” which have historically been revered as of extremely high divine influence, ranging from religious structures such as groups of historic buildings in the compounds of shrines and temples and stone stupas to natural places and objects such as mountains covered by deep evergreen forests or formidable rocks, singular rocks exposed on the mountain body, waterfalls with exceptionally affluent torrents of water and gigantic old-growth trees. Besides them, pilgrimage routes including rivers and religious remains still standing along them are the in-between types of sacred place. At those “sacred places” , various religious rituals and practices mainly related to Shintoism, Buddhism, and Shugendô (the Shugen sect) have been continually carried out; they are the active stages for those activities still now. Those “sacred places”, in terms of not only tangible elements but also such intangible elements as is represented by those religious activities, retain an extremely high degree of authenticity. Furthermore, the vast natural, mountain environment nurturing the nominated property contains primeval forests and habitats to unique, naturally-occurring species of animals and plants that are designated as Natural Monuments, and Natural Places of Scenic Beauty, as is exemplified by the view of blankets of cherry trees covering rows of mountains, which have been sources of artistic and esthetic inspiration to many poets and painters in Japan since early times. The authenticity of their unique characteristics and components is extremely high. As is stated above, the elements of cultural landscapes included in the nominated property cover a wide range of values from the natural to the cultural; because they remain in a “balanced” state of ecological systems, aesthetic, cultural, religious or artistic associations” (as is stated in paragraph 2.5.2. of the Conclusion and Recommendations made by the Thematic Expert Meeting on Sacred Mountains in the Asia-Pacific Region), the integrity of the cultural landscapes meets the required standards. 15 2. Justification for Inscription
On the other hand, the Kii Mountain Range has a history of active forestry-industry production, which has nurtured Japanese cedar trees and cypress trees covering a large extent of the existing forests extending along the pilgrimage routes and rivers. The said forestry industry that has been sustained for a long period of time is one of the important local industries supporting the sacred mountains economically. In addition, the landscapes of those plantations are the essential components of the cultural landscapes of the sacred mountains along with the pilgrimage routes and rivers. Those areas are included in the buffer zones for the nominated property and appropriate conservation measures have been and will continuously be taken, ensuring that in the entire area of the buffer zones, in unity with the nominated property itself, the integrity of the cultural landscapes will be sufficiently preserved. d. Criteria under which inscription is proposed
The nominated property ", and the Cultural Landscapes that Surround Them" includes “monuments” and “sites”, prescribed in Article 1 of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, and “associative cultural landscape”, prescribed in Paragraph 39 of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (hereinafter referred to as the Operational Guidelines). The pilgrimage routes and rivers included in the nominated property also correspond to the “long linear areas which represent culturally significant transport and communication networks”, noted in Paragraph 40 of the Operational Guidelines. The nominated property is proposed for inscription on the World Heritage List under evaluation criteria C (ii), (iii), (iv) and (vi), as is explained in detail below. Kôyasan, where the high priest, Kûkai, after studying Buddhism in China, established his temple as the stage of his esoteric Shingon Buddhism practices, has many Buddhist buildings and other outstanding structures that have been . Justification for Inscription maintained in a good condition of preservation; in Yoshino and Ômine and Kumano Sanzan, there are Buddhist temple buildings and Shinto shrine buildings of unique style remaining in groups, which were constructed as an embodiment of Shinto-Buddhist fusion amalgamating Buddhism and the ancient tradition of nature worship in Japan. These areas are also characterized by outstanding cultural landscapes of the sacred sites and the mountain landscapes enshrouded by deep evergreen forests. Through the pilgrimage routes, this image was disseminated to near and far parts of Japan as the prototypical model for the sacred site, leading to the formation of local sacred sites in various parts of Japan. The monuments and the sites that form the cultural landscapes included in the nominated property are the unique productions of fusion between Shinto, rooted in the ancient tradition of nature worship in Japan, and Buddhism, introduced to Japan from China and the Korean Peninsula. They are a group of peerless outstanding examples illustrating the interchanges and developments of religious cultures in East Asia. In this sense, the nominated property meets the standard of evaluation criterion C (ii). In each compound of the shrines and temples included in the nominated property there are archeological remains of wooden or stone structures that are now underground, structures that have already been lost and which cannot be seen aboveground anywhere together with archeological materials related to religious rituals. Similarly, there are several places along the pilgrimage routes where many outstanding archeological materials illustrating certain stages of transition and development in religious culture are buried underground. In particular, the three sacred sites in the Kii Mountain Range were interpreted as the Pure Land in the Buddhist doctrine; as the notion that the eschatological age had come after a certain period following the death of Shaka-nyorai (Sakyamuni), the founder of Buddhism, was prevailing in the 12th century, people buried sutras in those sacred sites as a token of a prayer for salvation through the descent of Buddha’s disciple, 17 2. Justification for Inscription Miroku-bosatsu (Maitreya). Many sutra mounds thus made still remain in those areas. Along the pilgrimage routes are a number of Ôji shrines which are dedicated to the child gods of the Kumano deity. Those shrines also still now contain lost archeological religious remains underground. Still today those places are spiritual centers where visitors gather and continually participate in religious activities, contributing significantly to the succession of the religious culture. In this manner, the sites in the compounds of Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples and the sites distributed along the pilgrimage routes bear exceptional testimony, in terms of Japan’s religious culture, to the compound existence of the tradition which has already disappeared and the tradition which is still living. Therefore, the sites included in the nominated property meet the standard of evaluation criterion C (iii). Many of the temple buildings and shrine buildings included in the nominated property are representative examples of wooden religious architecture, whose historic and artistic value is extremely high. Especially, the shrine buildings of Kumano Sanzan show outstanding wooden architectural styles that have no comparative examples. Their value also lies in the fact that they served as the model for following shrine buildings that were to be constructed in many places throughout Japan in dedication to the Kumano deity. In addition, in the Early Modern Period, the feudal lords of the Tokugawa Shogunate built numerous stone stupas in Kôyasan Okuno-in. Those stupas are extremely important remains of the feudal lords’ graves in Early Modern Period Japan because of their large scale and diversity of style, and at the same time, those monuments are outstanding examples illustrating various stages of transition and development of Japan’s unique architectural styles for stone mausolea. In this regard, the monuments included in the nominated property meet the standard of evaluation criterion C (iv). 18 . Justification for Inscription Each of the monuments and sites included in the nominated property is an outstanding example representing the typical elements of religious belief and activity unique to Shinto, Buddhism, and the mountain-worshipping Shugen sect which was formulated as a religious amalgamation between the former two. Sacred natural objects and sacred places in the mountain areas have generated unique cultural landscapes closely associated with religious beliefs. On the other hand, long linear pilgrimage routes and rivers are lined with the cultural landscapes formed by the forestry industry, which originally developed as an important part of the economical infrastructure supporting the sacred mountain area and which continues to this date in close relation with the livelihood and the daily lives of the local communities. In addition, in these areas still now, many Buddhist priests and practitioners of the Shugen ascetic disciplines engage in active religious rituals and activities; even the general public visit those places continually for pilgrimage. In this manner, the nominated property represents a living culture, alive in the spirituality of the Japanese people. These highly sacred natural objects and places, the surrounding landscapes nurtured by forestry, and the continually observed religious rituals and festivals are an excellent and diverse set of tangible and intangible components of the sacred mountains; the nominated property is of outstanding value as a representative example of similar properties in Japan and in East Asia. Therefore, the nominated property meets the standard of evaluation criterion C (vi). 19
3. Description
 3. Description
3. Description
a. Description of property The nominated property, “, and the Cultural Landscapes that Surround Them”, consists of three sacred sites, i.e. “Yoshino and Ômine”, “Kumano Sanzan” and “Kôyasan”, and the pilgrimage routes leading to and linking them, which contain a variety of cultural assets demonstrating the spirituality of those areas. Descriptions of those cultural assets (“monuments”, “sites” and “cultural landscapes”) included in the nominated property follow: 1) Sacred Site, “Yoshino and Ômine” The Shugendô sacred site in the Ômine Mountain Range, which consists of steep mountains reaching altitudes of 1,000 to 2,000 m, extending from the northern part of the central Kii Mountain Range to the middle part, is divided into two parts: “Yoshino”, the northern part and “Ômine”, the southern part. Already in the mid-10th century, the status of the region as the most important sacred mountain in Japan had been established and that its reputation had reached as far as China. “Yoshino”, located to the south of the Nara Basin, where the capital city of Japan was seated from the 7th to the 8th century, had been since ancient times the object of mountain worship. Later as the Shugen sect of ascetic Buddhism became more and more active and influential, this region became the most important sacred place associated with En no Gyôja (7th c. to 8th c.), who is believed by some to be the founder of Shugendô. There remain many monuments and sites related to Shinto and Shugendô still today. “Ômine” is the set of mountains that link “ Yoshino” and “Kumano Sanzan”. Mountain ascetic practices, emphasizing the doctrines of the Shugen sect, put special importance on training called Okugake, also known as Mineiri, in which practitioners confine themselves in the mountain and undergo and complete a series of ascetic practices, proceeding along the pass through the mountain. Ômine is a famous place for such activities. In particular, formidable ridges which are closed with ice and 21 3. Description snow in the winter time have been revered as objects of worship and were chosen as locations for many practice stages, temples and shrines which are connected by the pilgrimage route, the “Ômine Okugakemichi”. 1-A. Yoshinoyama Yoshinoyama is a mountainous area which is located at the northern end of the Ômine Mountain Range. Along its ridgeline extending over 7 km in length there are Shinto shrines, temples of the Shugen sect of Buddhism, shops and hospices for the accommodation of pilgrims. Surrounding them are vast stretches of cherry trees, which were planted after the legend that En no Gyôja carved the principal object of worship out of a cherry tree; since the 10th century, this place has been a symbolic place famous for the beauty of cherry blossoms, typically illustrating the esthetic value of the Japanese people. Written in many Waka poems and drawn in many pictures, it has been a typical cultural landscape associated with religious and artistic activities. 1-B. Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Yoshino Mikumari-jinja is a Shinto shrine which has its origin of worship in ancient worship for the watershed. There remains a record telling that a religious rite was observed in prayer for rain as early as in 698. In the 12th century, under the influence of Shinto- Buddhist fusion, it came to be believed that the shrine deity was an incarnation of Jizo-bosatsu (Ksitigarbha), and accordingly the shrine received high reverence. The Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Shaden (1-B-1), containing the Honden, the Haiden, the Heiden, the Rômon and the Kairô, is a 1604 reconstruction. Among the shrine buildings, the Honden is a typical example of the architectural style characterized by rich decoration, which was popular and prevalent at that time. 22 3. Description
1-C. Kimpu-jinja
Kimpu-jinja is a Shinto shrine which has its origin of worship in ancient worship for minerals including gold. This shrine, together with Yoshino Mikumari-jinja, played a significant role in the Yoshino area coming to be revered as a sacred mountain. As the activities of the Shugen sect of ascetic Buddhism became more active, the four gates which should be cleared by those who undertake ascetic practices in the mountains were established. The Kimpusen-ji Kane no Torii, or the copper Torii gate of Kimpusen-ji, is the first gate of the four, called Hosshimmon, while the third and fourth gates, called Tôgakumon and Myôgakumon, respectively, were placed on Mt Sanjôgatake. The second gate, called Shugyômon, was constructed in front of Kimpu-jinja. The shrine became a significant religious center for the ascetic practices. The first appearance of the shrine in any historical document was in 852. 1-D. Kimpusen-ji
Kimpusen-ji is a central temple for the Shugen sect of ascetic Buddhism. Whereas the Sanjôzaôdô, the main hall of Ôminesan-ji, located on Mt Sanjôgatake, 16km away to the south-southeast of Kimpusen-ji, was revered as a mountaintop temple for Zaô Gongen, the Sangezaôdô, the Hondô of Kimpusen-ji, was revered as the mountain-base temple for Zaô Gongen. It received great reverence as the religious center at Yoshino, the sacred site for the Shugen sect. In the temple compound which extends 70 m east-west and 120m north-south, the monuments including the Hondô and the Niômon still remain, and there are underground archeological remains of the Nitemmon, the Chûmon, the Daitô, the Jikidô and the Kairô, which are in a good condition of preservation. The Kimpusen-ji Hondô (1-D-1), which is the main temple building of Kimpusen-ji, is a 1592 reconstruction, however from historical archives it is known that the building had existed back in 1103. As a wooden structure with a height of 34 m, enshrining three large statues of Zaô Gongen, the chief divinity of the Shugen sect, 23 3. Description
it projects a majestic atmosphere suitable for the central temple of the Shugen sect. On the other hand, in April, when cherry blossoms are in bloom, the traditional ritual called Hanakusempôe, in which cherry blossoms are offered to the chief deity in a prayer for the purging of human sins, is observed annually with great enthusiasm. The Kimpusen-ji Niômon (1-D-2) is the front gate to Kimpusen-ji and is located in the north of the Hondô, facing to the north. Its first appearance in historical documents was in 1339. The existent structure is a 1456 reconstruction; it is a magnificent work of architecture soaring 20 m high on the mountaintop. Complete with the excellent designs and decorations in the details of the structure, it is one of the typical examples of the two-storied gates of the Medieval Japan. The Kimpusen-ji Kane no Torii (1-D-3), standing 300m to the northwest of the Hondô, is the oldest extant example of a Torii gate which is structured with wood pillars as the core members and cylindrical and box-shape structural members of cast copper as exterior materials. This is the first gate for those who undertake ascetic practices to visit on their way to the Ôminesan-ji Hondô on Mt Sanjôgatake, the mountaintop temple dedicated to Zaô Gongen. Also known as Hosshimmon, where people confirm their decision to start on the series of ascetic practices, the gate played a significant role. Its first appearance in historical documents was in 1336. The extant structure is, like the Niômon, a reconstruction from the mid-15th century. 1-E. Yoshimizu-jinja Yoshimizu-jinja has been a Shinto shrine since the Shintoism and Buddhism Separation Decree and the Shugendô Annulment Decree were issued in the 19th century; originally, before that, it had developed as a central temple of the temples affiliated with Kimpusen-ji and provided accommodation to those who undertake ascetic practices or pilgrimage. Its first appearance in historical documents was in 1185. The Yoshimizu-jinja Shoin (1-E-1) consists of the original part that was constructed in the early 15th century and the part that was added in the late 16th 24 3. Description
century. It is valuable as one of the early examples of the architectural style called Shoinzukuri, which is the basic style for Japanese houses. Its first appearance in historic documents was in 1594. 1-F. Ôminesan-ji Ôminesan-ji is a temple of the Shugen sect located on the mountaintop of Mt Sanjôgatake (1719.2m), which has been revered as a sacred mountain since ancient times. It first appeared in historical documents in 905. The temple was constructed in the sacred place where, as legend tells, Zaô Gongen appeared in response to En no Gyôja’s prayer. With the Hondô, revered as the mountaintop shrine for Zaô Gongen in the compound as well as the rock from which Zaô Gongen is believed to have sprung up, the place for ascetic practices on the precipice and remains of sutra mounds, the temple is the most important place among the sacred sites related to the Shugen sect. Two of the four gates which those who undertake ascetic practices are supposed to pass, i.e. Tôgakumon and Myôgakumon (the third gate and the fourth gate), were placed in this important location. The Ôminesan-ji Hondô (1-F-1) burned down in the late 16th century and its reconstruction started in the late 17th century and was completed in 1703. With unusually thick pillars and the low ceiling in consideration of the severe natural environment of the location, it is a distinctive structure built on a high mountain without comparative examples. It is also highly evaluated as one of the rare architectural elements of the sacred site associated with the Shugen sect. As a result of the archeological excavation which was carried out on the occasion of repair work of the main hall from 1983 to 1986, archeological remains related to religious activities, numerous ritual tools, Buddha statues, mirrors, and sutras were found, confirming the fact that the location of the Hondô had already been a stage for religious activities back in the 8th century. 2) Sacred Site, “Kumano Sanzan” 25 3. Description
In this sacred site, there are three shrines – i.e. Kumano Hongû Taisha, located in the central reaches of the Kumano River, which gathers affluent precipitation in the Kii Mountain Range and runs into the Pacific Ocean, Kumano Hayatama Taisha, approximately 40 km downstream at the river mouth, and Kumano Nachi Taisha, approximately 20 km further to the southwest in the Nach Mountains – and two temples – i.e. Seiganto-ji and Fudarakusan-ji. These shrines and temples are connected by the pilgrimage route, the “Kumano Sankeimichi Nakahechi”. Originally, each of the three Shinto shrines had its own distinctive form of nature worship; however, under the influence of the Shinto-Buddhist fusion, they came to be revered as Kumano Sansho Gongen, the trine deities of Kumano. At the same time, as the belief that the Shinto deities are Japanese incarnations or manifestations of Buddhas became prevalent, the deities of the three shrines were considered to be incarnations of Amida-nyorai (Anitabha), Yakushinyorai (Bhaisajyaguru-vaiduryaprabha) and Senju-kannon (Sahasrabhuja), respectively. As such, this sacred site attracted much religious attention and prospered as a pilgrimage destination since ancient times. Although the Kii Mountain Range was worshiped as the Buddhist Pure Land, the enthusiasm of the search for the Buddhist Pure Land went further, and Buddhist priests started to focus on the southern sea to find the Fudaraku Pure Land where Kannon was believed to live. Some priests actually set sail in the search, risking their lives. The shrines and temples that constitute this sacred site are a treasury of valuable monuments and sites related to Shinto, Buddhism, the Shugen sect, and Shinto-Buddhist fusion; they form a cultural landscape in harmony with the surrounding natural environment and objects which gave birth to the religious activity in this region. 2-A. Kumano Hongû Taisha
Kumano Hongû Taisha, formerly known as Kumanoniimasu-jinja, was situated on the sandbank of the Kumano River, running through the basin surrounded 26 3. Description by mountains and hills, since the time of its founding until, suffering from flooding of the river in 1889, the surviving shrine buildings including the main three structures were relocated to the present location for reconstruction in 1891. The shrine first appeared in historical documents in 859. In the late 10th century, it came to enshrine the deities of Kumano Hayatama Taisha and Kumano Nachi Taisha together with its own deity as Kumano Sansho Gongen, the trine deities of Kumano. Later in the 11th century, with the addition of accompanying deities, the shrine held 12 deities as Kumano Jûnisho Gongen and all were objects of worship. The Kumano Hongû Taisha Shaden (2-A-1) still retains most of the structural members from the reconstruction work carried out from 1801 to 1807 before the 1889 flooding of the Kumano River. It is a characteristic of this shrine that a shrine building dedicated to the deities of Kumano Nachi Taisha and Kumano Hayatama Taisha, a shrine building dedicated to its own deity and another shrine building dedicated to the child god of the deity are arranged in one line from east to west. This is the traditional composition that can be seen in the diary of a pilgrimage visitor in the 11th century and in a picture drawn in 1299. The Kumano Hongû Taisha Kyûshachi Ôyunohara, or the former, original site of Kumano Hongû Taisha, is 0.5 km to the southeast of the present location of the shrine, on the sandbank of the Kumano River. Still now, there remains the foundation platform of the 19th century, which is stonework of cut stones. The surrounding forests are also important as an archeological site related to the Shinto-Buddhist fusion, where there used to be Buddhist structures such as stupas and halls for Goma burning rituals. The Sonaezaki Kyôzukagun is a group of the archeological remains of sutra mounds, located in Sonaezaki, to the south of the Kumano Hongû Taisha Kyûshachi Ôyunohara and across the Kumano River. People buried precious sutras and statues of Buddha underground in a prayer for the descendant of Miroku to bring enlightenment, which was believed to happen 5,670 million years after the death of Shaka. As a result of the archeological excavation from 2001 to 2002, many sutra 27 3. Description mounds have been found in an area of some 7 ha. In the 19th century, the largest earthen container of a sutra case in Japan, which had the year of production, 1121, engraved on it, was excavated. In addition, in its vicinity is a random scattering of exposed rocks which are as high as several meters, a scene which brings to the mind of visitors the ancient belief that deities descend to natural rocks and stones. 2-B. Kumano Hayatama Taisha Kumano Hayatama Taisha includes the compound of the shrine where shrine buildings reconstructed in 1951 are standing, the mountain in the background and the ritual sites, Mifunejima and Otabisho, which are about 1 km upstream of the Kumano River. The location of the shrine which adjoins the riverbank of the Kumano River has remained without any change at least since the 12th century, as is confirmed by archeological research and historical documents and drawings. The “Gongenyama” Mountains in the background of the shrine are known for its many cliffs and is compared to Ama no Iwatate (literally, god’s shield) in an ancient myth of Japan. Halfway up the mountain, there is a shrine called Kamikura-jinja, where it is believed that its deity had descended. Around the gigantic rock, called Gotobikiiwa, which has been worshiped as a sacred object, pieces of a religious bronze bell of the 3rd century and many sutra mounds of around the 12th century have been found. In addition, the fire festival called Kumano Otômatsuri, in which a sacred fire is lit at Kamikura-jinja and carried down the mountain on torches, is designated as an Intangible Folk Cultural Property of Wakayama Prefecture as a festival still retaining the ancient religious tradition. The Nagi Tree of Kumano Hayatama Taisha is an old tree of Podocarpus nagi, which is estimated to be 800 years old, to south-southeast of the sacred gate of the shrine. Legend tells that it was planted as a donation by a powerful feudal lord when the shrine buildings were reconstructed in 1159. The tree is treated with the greatest care as a sacred tree even today. 28 3. Description
2-C. Kumano Nachi Taisha
Kumano Nachi Taisha is a Shinto shrine, located halfway up the mountain body of the Nachi Mountains, about 500 m above sea level. It has its religious origin in the ancient nature worship of the large waterfall called Nachi no Ôtaki, which can be seen from some distance away, even from far out on the Pacific Ocean. As part of the Kumano Sanzan, it enshrines Kumano Jûnisho Gongen; in addition, the shrine is dedicated to the deified Nachi no Ôtaki, called Hirô Gongen. The Kumano Nachi Taisha Shaden (2-C-1) is an 1853 reconstruction. However, in comparison with a painting drawn back in 1299, it is clear that the composition and location of the shrine facing the waterfall over the valley between them has remained almost the same without much change. At the first stage, the shrine was located at the foot of the waterfall, which was the object of worship itself, and the fire festival called Nachi no Himatsuri has been continuously observed since the shrine was relocated to the present location in ancient times. The fire festival is a ritual in which 6 m high portable shrines symbolically representing the waterfall are purified with torch fires; it is designated as an Intangible Folk Cultural Property of Wakayama Prefecture. 2-D. Seiganto-ji Legend holds that Seiganto-ji was founded in the early 5th century, when a Buddhist priest from India who drifted ashore in Kumano experienced the revelation of Kannon, and that later another Buddhist priest came from Yamato no Kuni, where the capital was seated until 784, and carved the image of Nyoirin-kannon to install it as the object of worship. Adjoining Kumano Nachi Taisha, it was known as Nyoirindô, and it developed as an integral part of Kumano Nachi Taisha before the 1868 Shintoism and Buddhism Separation Decree. This temple retains the elements of Shinto-Buddhist fusion very well. The Seiganto-ji Hondô (2-D-1) is a gigantic bare wood construction which was reconstructed in 1590 by the feudal lord who united Japan. The building faces Nachi 29 3. Description
no Ôtaki, where, legend tells, its chief deity, Nyoirin-kannon (Cintamani-cakra), made its appearance. This is the first sacred place of “Saigokujunrei”, or pilgrimage to 33 Kannons which was started in 1161, and there is a large space in it where many visitors can assemble to worship. Saigokujunrei was part of the ascetic practice of the Shugen sect to follow Okugake, in pilgrims who undertake the practices visit 33 important sacred places associated with Kannon, following the belief that Kannon heeds people’s wishes, transforming into 33 appearances. After the general public started to participate in Saigokujunrei in the 15th century, the number of pilgrims who visited the temple increased, and by the 17th century when many people from all over Japan were visiting the temple. The Hôkyôintô (2-D-2), a large stone stupa 4.3 m in height, which was constructed by a Buddhist nun in 1322 according to the engraving on it, is valuable as an excellent stone structure from the artistic point of view. 2-E. Nachi no Ôtaki (Nachi Waterfall) Nachi no Ôtaki is the largest waterfall in Japan, 133m high and 13 m wide with its water source in the forests of the Nachi Mountains. The waterfall is the religious origin for Kumano Nachi Taisha and Seiganto-ji and still is the primary object of worship. Having been drawn in the 14th-century “Kumano mandala”, which diagrammatically represents the religious doctrine of Kumano belief, and in the 16th-century “Nachi Sankei mandala”, which was produced in order to explain the doctrine of Nachi worship to the general public, the waterfall is a significant component of the cultural landscape directly associated with religious activity. At the foot of the waterfall are the large scale remains of sutra mounds called Nachi Kyôzuka, where numerous archeological remains related to Buddhism from the 12th and 13th centuries were found in a 1918 excavation. 2-F. Nachi Primeval Forest The Nachi Primeval Forest is a broad-leaf evergreen forest extending over some 32 ha to the east of Nachi no Ôtaki. It retains the key characteristics of a primitive 30 3. Description
forest in the Kumano region, with a mixture of plants and animals unique to both cool regions and warm regions. This forest has been protected since ancient times as the sanctuary of Kumano Nachi Taisha, where common entry and tree cutting were prohibited. It is a typical cultural landscape related to nature worship in Japan. 2-G. Fudarakusan-ji Fudarakusan-ji is located approximately 6 km downstream from Nachi no Ôtaki, near the seacoast where two pilgrimage routes converge. The temple has a legend of origin that is similar to that of Seiganto-ji. It is from this temple that Buddhist priests took out small boats heading toward the southern sea in search of the Buddhist Pure Land called Fudarakusan. The martyrdom was repeated 20 odd times from the 9th century to the 18th century. Being dedicated to Senju-kannon (Sahasrabhuja), which is a Buddhist incarnation of the chief deity of Kumano Nachi Taisha, and adjoining the site of the Hama no Miya, which has been dedicated to the trine deities of Kumano since ancient times, this temple shows a form of Shinto-Buddhist fusion. 3) Sacred Site, “Kôyasan” In the sacred site, Kôyasan, there stands Kongôbu-ji, which was founded in 816 in an alpine basin at an altitude of 800 m, where the temperature goes down to minus 10 degrees centigrade in the winter season. In addition, there are Jison-in, which was constructed at the base of the Kôyasan mountain region as the administrative office of Kongôbu-ji, and its guardian shrine of the land, Niukanshôfu-jinja. Those shrines and temples are connected by the pilgrimage route the Kôyasan Chôishimichi, with Niutsuhime-jinja located at the central point among them. In the compounds of the shrines and temples and around them, the monuments, sites and cultural landscapes related to the Shingon sect of esoteric Buddhism, Shinto, and Shinto-Buddhist fusion remain in a good condition of preservation. Besides them, this sacred site is an active stage for annual festivals and events including rituals dedicated to the deity of the land, the rites of the Shingon sect which retain the 31 3. Description
traditions since the time of the high priest Kûkai, and other annual events such as Mantôkuyôe in which the general public came to participate widely over time in the history of the sacred site. As such, many people including Buddhist priests visit the sacred site still now. 3-A. Niutsuhime-jinja
Niutsuhime-jinja is dedicated to the deity of the land protecting the northwestern area of the Kii Mountain Range, including Kôyasan. The shrine first appeared in historical documents in 855, and its religious origin is said to date back to much earlier times. Its chief deities called Niumyôjin and Kôyamyôjin are, according to legend, the deities who, when Kûkai was looking for the land for the construction of Kongôbu-ji, gave the land to him and guided him, respectively. Those two deities are worshiped in Kongôbu-ji as the guardian deities. In 1208, the shrine started to worship two other deities from Kehi of Tsuruga no Kuni and Itsukushima of Aki no Kuni, whose Shinto shrine buildings were inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1996. Since then, the shrine came to be revered for the quadruple deities of Kôya, called collectively Shishomyôjin. There used to be many Buddhist structures such as Buddhist halls, stupas and priests’ hospices in the compound; however, they were removed when the Shintoism and Buddhism Separation Decree was issued in the 19th century. The close relation that the shrine has maintained with Kongôbu-ji over time is confirmed by historical documents and paintings. And where the compound is connected to the Kôyasan Chôishimichi by Hatchôzaka, a Torii gate called Futatsutorii was constructed as a place for prayer-giving to the shrine. The Niutsuhime-jinja Honden (3-A-1) consists of four shrine buildings dedicated to Shishomyôjin, which are aligned facing the northwest in consideration of the location of Kongôbu-ji. The second hall and the fourth hall were reconstructed in 1469 and the first hall and the third hall were reconstructed in 1715 and in 1901, respectively. However, the small shrine called Kûden, installed in each of the four 32 3. Description shrine buildings to enshrine the object of worship, is the original construction dating back to 1306.
The Niutsuhime-jinja Rômon (3-A-2) is located at the front of the Honden. The existing building is a 1499 reconstruction. Judging from a late 13th century picture in which the gate is drawn as an eight-pillar structure, the gate underwent a structural development into the present two-storied Rômon structure. 3-B. Kongôbu-ji Since its foundation in 816, Kongôbu-ji has attracted worship as the religious base for the Shingon sect of esoteric Buddhism. In Kôyasan, there are a total of 117 temples which form a dense mountaintop religious community with a history of approximately 1,200 years. A religious cultural landscape is produced in harmony with sublime mountain ridges and profound forests. This temple is divided into 6 areas: the Garan area, Okuno-in area, Daimon area, Kongôsammai-in area, Tokugawake Reidai area and Honzan area. Garan Area Since the high priest Kûkai founded his temple as a place for ascetic practices in the mountains, this area has been the religious center of Kôyasan. This temple complex area called Danjôgaran or simply Garan contains not only the monuments included in the nominated property but also the Kompondaitô and the Kondô, which were reconstructed in the Modern Period in compliance with the traditional standards and methodology based upon the Shingon doctrines that have been followed since the time of its founding, and the Miedô, which enshrines the image of the high priest Kûkai. It never ceases to produce an awe-inspiring atmosphere. In particular, the unique style of the temple complex, which is based upon a combination of the Hondô and the Tahôtô in accordance with the Shingon sect’s doctrine, exerted tremendous influence as the architectural model for the Shingon sect temples in Japan, which total roughly 4,000. 33 3. Description
The Kongôbu-ji Sannô-in Honden (3-B-1) is located in the west part of the Garan area and is a 1523 reconstruction. It contains two shrines dedicated to Niu Myôjin and Kôya Myôjin, who were worshiped as guardian deities at the time of the foundation of Kongôbu-ji, and another shrine dedicated to the deities of Kehi and Itsukushima together with 12 child gods and 180 accompanying deities. The building is surrounded by latticed-windowed walls called Sukibei, with a Torii gate. The Kongôbu-ji Fudôdô (3-B-2) was constructed in 1198 under the orders of Hachijô Nyoin, the daughter of Emperor Toba. The extant building is a reconstruction dating from the early 14th century. The exterior design, which looks like that of a residence, is excellent; inside the building, there is a cabinet to enshrine the image of the chief deity, Fudô-myôô (Acalanatha) and the statues of his 8 accompanying deities, and a small room where devout followers confine themselves to give prayer. This structure is precious as one of the few worship buildings on the mountain which were constructed and donated by an Imperial family member that date back to the Medieval Period of Japan. Okuno-in Area This area is 3 km to the east of the Garan area and contains the place where Kûkai decided set aside as a grave-site for himself. Revered as the sacred area where Kûkai, having attained his Buddhist enlightenment in his lifetime, is still living, it holds many large stone stupas constructed by influential feudal lords and tombstones of people who admired Kûkai’s teachings in various times of history. In this area, such stone structures, large and small, which number some 300,000, are densely distributed. In this vicinity there are many remains of sutra mounds; when an excavation investigation was carried out in 1964, remains from the 12th to 13th centuries were found in large quantities. With giant trees as old as 500 years, which have been maintained through efforts to protect the cemetery including its surrounding landscape, this is an especially profound cultural landscape. The Kongôbu-ji Okuno-in Kyôzô (3-B-3) stands to the east of Kûkai ’s grave 34 3. Description
called Gobyô. It was constructed in 1599 for the purpose of storing the sutra, Kôraiban-issaikyô, which was donated by a powerful feudal lord in the Warring States Period in a prayer for the soul of his deceased mother. The Satake Yoshishige Reioku (3-B-4) is a wooden structure built in 1599 by the feudal lord of the region called “Hitachi no Kuni” as his own mausoleum while he was still alive. The architectural style in which 47 wooden five-part stupas called Gorinsotoba are connected to make the wall is impressive and unique. The Matsudaira Hideyasu and Dôhaha Reioku (3-B-5) forms a set of two mausolea in one compound; the first one was built in 1604 by the feudal lord of the region called “Echizen no Kuni” as his mother’s, and the second one was added later in 1607 by his son as the mausoleum of the feudal lord. It is the largest stone mausoleum of a feudal lord. The Uesugi Kenshin Reioku (3-B-6) is the mausoleum of a powerful feudal lord who ruled the region called “Echigo no Kuni”; it was constructed in the early 17th century. This structure is a good example of a colorfully decorated mausoleum and a relatively old one among the wooden mausoleums built in Kôyasan. Daimon Area This area, 0.6 km to the west of the Garan area, is where the main gate of Kongôbu-ji, called Daimon, is located. The Kongôbu-ji Daimon (3-B- 7), which is 25.8 m in height, is one of the largest wooden two-storied gates in Japan. Originally constructed in the 12th century, the gate was damaged or destroyed by fire several times but was repeatedly reconstructed. The present structure is a 1705 reconstruction. Kongôsammai-in Area This area is 1 km to the east-southeast of the Garan area. Kongôsammai-in, which holds central significance in the area, is the temple constructed in 1211 and 1223 by a woman called nun shogun as a donation to solicit for peace for the souls of her 35 3. Description
husband and her son, both of whom died as shogun. This temple, dating back to 1211, is a representative example showing that the development of Kôyasan into a sacred place was promoted through donation or construction of mountaintop facilities for prayer-giving by powerful aristocrats or feudal lords. The Kongôsammai-in Tahôtô (3-B-8) is the oldest esoteric pagoda called Tahôtô in Kôyasan, the first of its kind in the history of Japanese architecture. The total height is 14.9 m and many of the characteristics typical of the earliest esoteric pagodas, which were constructed following examples of Indian stupas, can be seen in its structure. With an excellent architectural design, it is valuable as one of the representative examples of the esoteric pagodas built in the Medieval Period of Japan. The structure has been preserved in a good condition since its foundation in 1223, including the image of its chief deity, Gochi-nyorai (Mahavairocana, Ratnasambhava, Amitayus, and Amoghasiddhi), which is enshrined in the first story, and the colors of the interior of the same story. The Kongôsammai-in Kyôzô (3-B-9) is located on an elevated plateau to the west of the Tahôtô. It was constructed in 1223, the same year as the foundation of the Tahôtô. Being a log-cabin style of architecture called Azekurazukuri, which is Japan’s traditional architectural style for storehouses, the sutra storehouse is highly valuable in consideration of the fact that there were few similar constructions built during that period. The Kongôsammai-in Shishomyôjinsha Honden (3-B-10), located on an elevated plateau to the west of the Kyôzô, was constructed in 1552. This religious structure is an illustrative example showing a characteristic of Shinto-Buddhist fusion, in which the guardian deity of all of Kôyasan, i.e. Shishomyôjin, is enshrined as the guardian deity of a subordinate shrine. The Kongôsammai-in Kyakuden and Daidokoro (3-B-11) is a set of wooden structures which function to provide reception and accommodation to those who visit the temple for pilgrimage. The major part was constructed in the early 17th century 36 3. Description
and the entrance was added in 1758. This is a typical example of a private prayer-giving facility developing into a more open facility to accept pilgrims widely in the Early Modern Period. Tokugawake Reidai Area Located 0.5 km to the north-northeast of the Garan area, this area, among others, contains the two mausoleums for the first and second shoguns the Tokugawa shogunate which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868, and the archeological site of the Ihaidô containing the family ancestral mortuary tablets. The Kongôbu-ji Tokugawake Reidai (3-B-11) is a set of mausoleums constructed in 1641 for the first and the second shoguns of the Tokugawa family. The two mausoleums are separated with a Sukibei or a lattice-windowed wall. With exquisite decorations which are elaborated even in the details of the structure, showing excellent architectural skills and craftsmanship, it is precious as one of the representative examples of the mausoleum architecture of the time like Tôshôgû of Nikko, which is one component of the World Heritage site, “Temples and Shrines of Nikko” (inscribed in 1999). Honzan Area
This area, adjacent to the Garan area on the east-northeast, is the location where Kôzan-ji, which was constructed in 1590 for learning Buddhist priests and Seigan-ji, which was built in 1592 as the sovereign temple to have the entire Kôyasan under its control, used to stand. At present, as the location of the head temple of Kongôbu-ji, which is the principal temple of the Kôyasan Shingon sect, this is the central area for religious administration. Many of the existing buildings are those of Seigan-ji temple, which was reconstructed in 1862. Characterized by the orderly arrangement of buildings such as the Daishuden, the Okushoin, the Kyôzô and the Shôrô, this area forms the largest group of wooden buildings in Kôyasan. 37 3. Description 3-C. Jison-in
Jison-in, located approximately 20 km to the north of Kôyasan, was constructed in the 9th century as an administrative office to facilitate the construction and administration of Kongôbu-ji on the south bank of the Kino River. At the entrance of the pilgrimage route, the “Kôyasan Chôishimichi”, the temple provided accommodation to pilgrims and received religious attention. In its compound there are several Buddhist halls and stupas including the Mirokudô. The Jison-in Mirokudô (3-C-1) is the main hall of Jison-in, enshrining the sedentary image of Miroku-nyorai as the principal object of worship. It is recorded that a religious gathering was held in 826. After that, the Buddha hall has underwent reconstruction repeatedly. The existing structure is a 14th century reconstruction, which was remodeled and enlarged later in 1540. 3-D. Niukanshôfu-jinja Originally, this shrine was dedicated to Niu Myôjin and Kôya Myôjin, the guardian deities of the privileged estates of Kongôbu-ji called Kanshôfushô and later came to enshrine Shishomyôjin including the deities of Kehi and Itsukushima. Until the Shintoism and Buddhism Separation Decree was issued in the 19th century, there used to be Buddhist temple buildings in its compound and this shrine had received worship in tandem with the adjacent Jison-in. This is a property demonstrating the facts related to the Shinto-Buddhist fusion unique to Japan. The Niukanshôfu-jinja Honden (3-D-1), located on an elevated plateau to the south of Jison-in, contains three shrine buildings aligned east-to-west, facing to the north in consideration of Kongôbu-ji’s direction. The first shrine building dedicated to Niu Myôjin and Kôya Myôjin and the second shrine building dedicated to Kehi Myôjin are 1517 reconstructions, and the third shrine building dedicated to Itsukushima Myôjin is a 1541 reconstruction. 4) Pilgrimage Routes 38
 3. Description
The three sacred sites in the Kii Mountain Range had established themselves as the major sacred site of Japan by the 11th or 12th century and had attracted a great number of worshipers from Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan, and many other places throughout Japan. As the enthusiasm increased, three pilgrimage routes which lead to those three sacred sites and connect them were formulated. The pilgrimage routes, i.e. the “Ômine Okugakemichi”, the “Kumano Sankeimichi” and the “Kôyasan Chôishimichi”, are - suitably for roads to sacred sites which developed based upon ancient mountain worship and mountain Buddhism - the stages for unusual experiences to be obtained through contact with severe nature, leading to a state of religious exhilaration. Those who pass the routes on a pilgrimage were required to do so on foot as a principle; the routes were deliberately designed to be tough; and it was believed that the more a person has completed the passage of these routes, the higher the level of religious achievement that person could attain. Most of the routes are as narrow as 1 m wide. There are places where stone pavement or stone steps were constructed, using locally produced materials; however, for the most part, the routes are bare earth. Having been maintained to this date in a good condition of conservation in the harsh but serene natural environment, those pilgrimage routes form cultural landscapes in unity with the mountains and forests around them, which also have been objects of worship and places for ascetic practice. 4-A. Ômine Okugakemichi This pilgrimage route connects the sacred sites, “Yoshino and Ômine” in the north and “Kumano Sanzan” in the south. This is a stage of ascetic practices for Buddhist priests, starting from Yoshinoyama and reaching Kumano Hongû Taisha via Ôminesan-ji and Tamaki-jinja about 80 km. Most of the route passes along severe, undulating mountain ridges between 1,000 m and 2,000 m above sea level, with many places for ascetic practices. In addition, there are natural forests along the road, such as the Bukkyôgatake Primeval Forest and Ôyamarenge Native Growth. Legend 39 3. Description
tells that this pilgrimage route was constructed by En no Gyôja in the early 8th century. To walk through the pilgrimage route is considered to be the most important ascetic practice called “Okugake”. According to a historical document, there were about 120 religious centers called “Shuku” where people on a pilgrimage undertook ascetic practices on their way in the 12th century, which were streamlined into 75 “Nabiki” in the late 17th century. Among them, the “Shô no Iwaya”, the famous cave where ascetics confined themselves in the wintertime, the “Misen”, the place where legend tells that En no Gyôja undertook ascetic practices, and the “Zenki”, a village of the hermit Shugen practitioners called Yamabushi are especially significant places still now. Anyone who undertakes ascetic practices is required to complete Okugake and, because it is considered important to repeat Okugake as many times as possible, there are many groups of people still today who undertake Okugake every year. The Bukkyôgatake Primeval Forest is a natural forest of Veitch’s silver fir trees (Abies veitchii), which extends along the mountain ridges over a distance of about 3 km, including Mt Bukkyôgatake, the highest mountain in the Ômine Mountains (1914.9 m above sea level). Silver firs (Abies veitchii) are the representative species of evergreen coniferous trees that can be seen in the sub-alpine area of the Kii Mountain Range. Out of the vast expanse of the forest, an area of approximately 19 ha is designated as a Natural Monument. Because, as a measure to prevent disturbance to the stage of ascetic practices, it has been prohibited to cut trees standing along the pilgrimage routes since at least as far back as the late 15th century, the natural forest adjoining the Ômine Okugakemichi has been preserved in good condition as cultural landscape associated with religious activities along the route. The Ôyamarenge Native Growth is a habitat of Ôyamarenge (Magnolia sieboldii), which is a plant species of deciduous shrubs. The Japanese common name of the plant, Ôyamarenge, means “lotus-resembling flowers that bloom in Ômine”; the plant is treasured by ascetics as “flowers of celestial nymphs” because its beautiful flowers flourish at the beginning of the summer, keeping time with the opening of the sacred site, Ômine for ascetic practices. Large growths of the plant 40 3. Description
can be seen in the forest beds and forest edges of silver fir forests, including the Bukkyôgatake Primeval Forest. Approximately 108 ha of its habitat is designated as a Natural Monument. Tamaki-jinja (4-A-1) is located immediately below the mountaintop of Mt Tamakisan (1076.4 m above sea level), about 15 km to the north of Kumano Hongû Taisha along the Ômine Okugakemichi. Although the religious origin of the shrine is considered to have been the ancient nature worship of Mt Tamakisan, the shrine is actually dedicated to the same deity as Kumano Hongû Taisha. Before the Shintoism and Buddhism Separation Decree was issued in the 19th century, the shrine enjoyed prosperity as the stage for the Shugen ascetic practices, with 7 residences for priests and 15 temples affiliated to it. In its compound, there is a group of large cedar trees, including the old-growth cedar called Jindaisugi, which is estimated to be as old as 3,000 years. The cultural landscape suitable for the central place of the Shugen sect remains in a good condition of preservation. The Tamaki-jinja Shamusho and Daidokoro were constructed in 1804. The Shamusho was constructed as the main shrine building and the Daidokoro was constructed as the kitchen in the shrine. The bottom floor of the main shrine building is the space in which ascetics confine themselves for religious practices, whereas the top floor is traditional residential architecture, so-called Shoinzukuri, of high quality. 4-B. Kumano Sankeimichi The sacred site, “Kumano Sanzan”, is located in the southeastern part of the Kii Peninsula, which is remote from Kyoto, the capital of Japan at that time, and was difficult to reach from any other places in Japan. This gave rise to several routes starting from different places. The pilgrimage routes that lead to “Kumano Sanzan” can be geographically categorized into three sub-routes. The first one runs on the west coast of the Kii Peninsula, which was introduced in historic documents under the name of Kiji. This route forks into two, i.e., the “Nakahechi”, which traverses the Kii Peninsula over the mountain area, and the “Ôhechi”, which continues along the 41 3. Description
seacoast. The second route is the “Iseji”, which runs on the east coast of the Kii Peninsula; the third is the “Kohechi”, which goes through the central part of the Kii Peninsula, connecting “Kôyasan” and “Kumano Sanzan”. Pilgrimage to Kumano Sanzan started in the early 10th century and continued with enthusiasm until the 15th century. So many people passed along these routes on a pilgrimage as to make long lines, which were likened to “processions of ants”. Afterwards, although pilgrimage destined only to Kumano Sanzan diminished, the pilgrimage route was alive with many people on pilgrimages to sacred sites in Saigoku (literally, western provinces) in the 17th century, when the general public enthusiastically visited shrines and temples for a pilgrimage. At the time of most intense activity, it is said, up to 30,000 people passed along the pilgrimage route in one year. It was the established course of Saigokujunrei to visit Ise Jingû (Ise Shrine) first and to go to Seiganto-ji in Nachisan as the first one of the 33 pilgrimage destinations called Fudasho through the Kumano Sankeimichi Iseji, visiting also Kumano Hayatama Taisha (Shingû), one of the three shrines of Kumano Sanzan, on the way. The Nakahechi was used to continue the pilgrimage to the next destination after Seiganto-ji. People made a visit to Kumano Hongû Taisha for worship on the way. The Kumano Sankeimichi was the most active pilgrimage route used for the pilgrimage to Kumano Sanzan in the Medieval Period of Japan and the pilgrimage to sacred sites in Saigoku, including Kumano Sanzan, in the Early Modern Period. Still today, it is a famous route for people who enjoy visiting shrines and temples. The Kumano Sankeimichi Nakahechi is the pilgrimage route which was most used for the pilgrimage from Kyoto or west Japan to Kumano Sanzan. The route starts from Tanabe on the west coast of the Kii Peninsula and traverses the peninsula to the east toward Kumano Sanzan. There remain many records of pilgrimage on this route, the earliest of which dates back to the early 10th century. The Nakahechi, included in the nominated property, includes the original pilgrimage route from the 42 3. Description early 10th century and the 1.8 km section called Dainichigoe, which extends from Kumano Hongû Taisha to Yunomine Onsen, a hot spring used for the purification rite. The original route begins at the Takijiri-ôji site, which is considered to be the point of entry to the sacred area of Kumano, and leads via Kumano Hongû Taisha, about 40 km to the east, to Kumano Hayatama Taisha, Kumano Nachi Taisha and Seiganto-ji. Except for the section between Kumano Hongû Taisha and Kumano Hayatama Taisha, where many took advantage of the Kumano River and chose to use a boat, the route is a tough mountain path for the most part. The Nakahechi is most distinctively characterized by the remains of Ôji dedicated to child gods of the deity of Kumano, which can be seen in spots along the path. From the 11th century to the 13th century, when retired emperors and aristocrats visited Kumano on a pilgrimage, religious activities such as offerings and sutra reading were carried out, under the influences of the Shinto-Buddhist fusion, at the locations of Ôji under the guidance of those undertaking ascetic practice. In other times, dances, sumo wrestling and Waka (Japanese poetry) were offered. The Nakahechi was also used by those people on the Saigoku pilgrimage, which saw a significant rise in the number of participants in the 15th century and spread to all of Japan after the 17th century. The Yunomine Onsen is a hot spring located approximately 2 km to the southwest of Kumano Hongû Taisha and was used for purification rites. The hot spring, which is said to have been discovered in prehistorical times, is the place for worshiping the Buddha Yakushi or the Buddha of healing on the basis of the spa’s medical efficacy. It is known from the journal of a pilgrim that there was already a bathing booth in the early 12th century at the latest. In relation to the hot spring, there is a temple enshrining as the chief object of worship the statue of Yakushi, which, it is said, was formed naturally as the liquefied particles of the spring water solidified, and the Yunomine-ôji site, which was drawn in a 14th century picture as one of the major Ôji. Being the religious basis for the belief that Kumano Gongen heals incurable diseases, many people visit this place to bathe still today. Six hundred years ago, a rumor that the life of a warrior who came from east Japan was saved due to the 43 3. Description
efficacy of the hot spring spread throughout Japan, a rumor which continues to be, occasionally, on the tongues of contemporary people today. The Kumanogawa is a river with a basin of 2,360 km2, running from its source in the northern part of the Kii Mountain Range over a distance of 183 km to flow into the sea to the south. The part included in the nominated property is the 40 km portion between Kumano Hongû Taisha in the middle reaches and Kumano Hayatama Taisha at the river mouth. When people took the Nakahechi for a pilgrimage to Kumano Sanzan, they most often used ship transportation on their way to and from Kumano Sanzan. This is a precious and peerless example of a “pilgrimage route on the river”. Surrounded by mountains overlooking both riverbanks and spotted with singularly shaped rocks, which were considered with awe to be the “belongings of Kumano Gongen” as early as the 12th century, and given names later after their distinctive shapes, the Kumanogawa is a long linear cultural landscape representing Kumano. The Kumano Sankeimichi Ôhechi is a route about 120 km in length which starts from Tanabe on the west coast of the Kii Peninsula, parts from the Nakahechi and continues along the seacoast to the south until it reaches Kumano Sanzan. Longer than the Nakahechi, the Ôhechi was the route for those who undertook mountain ascetic practices through the Ômine Okugakemichi and the group of religious practitioners who repeated the Saigoku pilgrimage 33 times. However, historical records show that, after the 17th century, Some visitors came for the combined purposes of worship and tourism. Although the original condition has not been well maintained over the entire length of the route, it is valuable still now as a pilgrimage route characterized by distinctively beautiful cultural landscapes formed by the combination of the sea and mountains. The Kumano Sankeimichi Iseji connects Ise Jingû, also known as Ise Shrine, which has been worshiped since earliest times as the Shinto shrine dedicated to the ancestor god of the Imperial Family, and Kumano Sanzan. Judging from a journal written by a pilgrim of the time, the Iseji had been established as a pilgrimage route by the late 10th century. However, it was not until the 17th century that the number of 44 3. Description people using this route increased to a significant level, as pilgrimage to Ise Jingû and the Saigoku pilgrimage starting with Seiganto-ji became popular. The Iseji starts from Tamaru, where it connects to the Ise Honkaidô, the pilgrimage route to Ise Jingû, and forks at the Hana no Iwaya into the “Shichirimihamamichi” leading to Kumano Hayatama Taisha via the Shichirimihama coast and the “Hongûdô”, which is the inland course leading to Kumano Hongû Taisha. The total length of the Iseji is approximately 160 km, out of which about 34 km remains in a fair condition of conservation as a stone paved forest passage. Along the Shichirimihamamichi are excellent cultural landscapes as is represented by the “Kumano no Oniga-jô including Shishiiwa”, a scenic spot well known to people on a pilgrimage. The Shichirimihama is a flat sand and gravel coast which has been serving as an integral part of the pilgrimage route. Originally, people on a pilgrimage walked on the beach; after Japanese black pine trees were planted to make a windbreak in the early 17th century, they came to walk through the forest. However, according to historical documents and other materials, it is known that there were people who traveled on the beach to Kumano Hayatama Taisha even in the late 19th century. The magnificent landscape formed by the arc of the coastline curving over a stretch of 22 km has been treasured and maintained as the best scenic spot of the Iseji in a fair condition of conservation. The Hana no Iwaya is located on the seacoast at the fork into the Shichirimihama and the Hongûmichi of the Iseji. According to legend, it marks the location of the graveyard of Izanami no Mikoto, the deity who created Japan in the myth of Japanese origin. As such, the shrine has been worshiped from generation to generation. The chief object of worship is a gaigantic rock as large as 45 m high, reminding the viewer of the ancient worshiping style at a time when there were no religious constructions for enshrining deities or giving prayers, as can be seen in the contemporary shrines. In a traveler’s journal written around the 10th or 11th century, there is a description to the effect that he visited the Hana no Iwaya for a pilgrimage. An annual event, “Hana no Iwaya no Otsunakakeshinji”, is still observed in February and October in relation 45 3. Description
to the Hana no Iwaya, as a festival retaining the content of ancient rites described in the myth of Japan. The festival is designated by Mie Prefecture as an Important Intangible Folk Cultural Property. The Kumano no Oniga-jô including the Shishiiwa is a natural scenic spot characterized by the unique shapes of geological features that are “works of nature’s art” produced through interactions between quartz trachyte cliffs and the weathering processes of waves and winds. The Kumano no Oniga-jô is a series of terraced caves and the Shishiiwa is a lion-shaped rock. They were introduced as a rare picturesque view in a traveler’s’ guidebook written in the 19th century. This valuable cultural landscape is a scenic spot along the Kumano Sankeimichi that many people on a pilgrimage can enjoy. The Kumano Sankeimichi Kohechi, which runs in the central part of the Kii Peninsula from south to north, is the shortest route connecting “Kumano Sanzan” and “Kôyasan”. This is one of the toughest routes of the Kumano Sankeimichi, with three peaks exceeding the altitude of 1,000 m over its 70 km stretch. In relation to this route, there remains a journal entry written by a samurai who visited Kumano for a pilgrimage on this route from Kôyasan in 1573. Along the route, the remains of small temples and lodgings are distributed together with signposts and stone Buddhist images; there also remain original stone pavements made out of locally produced stones. 4-C The Kôyasan Chôishimichi Among the several pilgrimage routes to Kongôbu-ji, the “Kôyasan Chôishimichi” is the one constructed by the founder of the temple, Kûkai, himself and the one that has been most used. Every Chô, or about 109 m, along the route, stone signposts called Chôishi are installed to show the distance to Danjôgaran, the center of Kongôbu-ji. The route, extending for about 20 km from Jison-in on the mountain foot to the Danjôgaran compound and continuing further about 4 km from the compound to Kûkai’s grave in the Okuno-in, is 24 km in total length. . Description
A Chôishi is a five-tiered stupa with a square granite head, carved out of stone into a structure about 3.5 m from top to bottom and weighing as much as 750 kg. Since the base is set into the ground, a Chôishi stands about 2 m aboveground. On the sides of its body are engraved not only the distance in Chô from the Danjôgaran compound but also the Sanskrit names of 36 Buddhas of Kongôkai (Diamond Realm in the doctrine of esoteric Buddhism) and 180 Buddhas of Taizôkai (Womb Realm in the doctrine of esoteric Buddhism), the name of the donor, and the date and purpose of the construction. Originally, Chôishi signposts had been wooden structures but they were replaced with stone structures in 1285 through efforts and donations by the Imperial family, high officers of the feudal government and the general public, over a period of 20 years after the Buddhist priest of Kôyasan, Kakukyô, first advocated the idea in 1265. Out of the 220 Chôishi signposts, 179 are the original structures that have witnessed countless people on a pilgrimage as they proceed toward the mountaintop with faith and determination which becomes ever stronger with each Chô. Appendix 4. Inventory of cultural assets; copies of the official designation notices a. Inventory of the monuments and sites included in the nominated property b. Copies of the official notices
b. History
The outstanding value of the nominated property, “, and the Cultural Landscapes that Surround Them”, comes from the history of religious development and interchange, in which a variety of religious groups - Shintoism, which is an indigenous religion of Japan, Buddhism, which was imported to Japan, Shinto-Buddhist fusion, which is a combination of these two, and the Shugen sect of ascetic Buddhism, which incorporates elements from all of the others as well as elements from Taoism, another imported religion – established themselves in close relation with the lavishly thriving 47 3. Description natural environment of the Kii Mountain Range and underwent unique development while interacting with each other. The Kii Mountain Range, located to the south of Nara and Kyoto, ancient capitals of Japan from the 6th century to 1868, and characterized by the sublime and formidable mountains, has been considered to be a special area where deities have dwelt since prehistoric times. The formation and development of the sacred sites has always been a close reflection of the history of the whole of Japan. From the 3rd century B.C. to the 2nd century B.C., when rice culture was brought to Japan and disseminated, people began to settle in the lowlands and small communities called “Mura” and larger communities called “Kuni” were formed throughout Japan. In those communities, the worship of natural objects such as mountains, forests, rocks and trees burgeoned and those entities came to be revered as land gods before long. The shrines and temples included in the nominated property have their religious origins in such primitive worship offered to land gods, all dating back to prehistory. Each one of them has kept its unique and locally developed religious style up to this day. As a religious style closely associated with mountain environments, those ancient worship activities inspired the formation of sacred sites in mountain areas under the influence of Buddhist mountain worship. From the descriptions of prehistoric periods in the “Kojiki” (Japan Record of Ancient Matters) and the “Nihon Shoki” (Chronicle of Japan), which were compiled by the ancient government of Japan in the 8th century, it is indicated that the gods of Yoshinoyama and Kumano were not simply the land gods revered by local people but were also gods which were getting attention from the people living in the ancient capital city, which can be considered to have been the very beginning of the consecration of these areas. For instance, legend tells that Yoshinoyama is the dwelling place of the deity controlling the supply of water, which is essential to rice fields, for the ancient capital area or the deity controlling precious minerals such as gold ore, while the sacred mountain of Kumano Hayatama Taisha, which stands behind the shrine, is the place where the deities of Kumano descended and also the dwelling place of the land god 48 3. Description who guided the legendary first Emperor of Japan to build the first government of Japan in Nara.
After the age characterized by worship of land gods had continued for a long period of time, Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the mid-6th century from the Korean Peninsula. At that time, the ancient government of Japan had just begun to construct a centralized government system based on Ritsuryô law, following the examples of more advanced nations in Continental China and the Korean Peninsula. For that purpose, the government adopted Buddhism as the guardian religion of the nation. As a result, the construction of Buddhist temples started in the capital and spread to major regional cities by the late 7th century. In the middle of the 8th century, provincial temples and provincial convents, called Kokubun-ji and Kokubuni-ji respectively, were built in each province throughout Japan, and the system of Buddhism as the national religion was established, placing Tôdai-ji, constructed in the capital, as the center of the system. Many of these temples were built in the lowlands not far from the human settlements, as was also the case with the Kii Peninsula at that time. At the same time, the Buddhist concept of the Pure Land called “Jôdo”, where Nyorai and bodhisattvas reside, began to receive more and more religious attention, so much so that in the 8th century there appeared people who undertook religious training in the Kii Mountain Range, associating the area with the Pure Land. En no Gyôja, who is considered by people in the following generations to be the founder of the Shugen sect, was one of the very first people who pursued this religious training; the Ôminesan-ji Hondô was constructed in the place where, legend tells, the chief deity of the Shugen sect, Zaô Gongen, made its appearance in response to the prayer of En no Gyôja. At the Ôminesan-ji Hondô many religious materials dating back to the late 8th century were excavated as pieces of evidence to show that religious activities had been carried out on that spot since ancient times. On the other hand, festivals and rites dedicated to gods were continuously observed; for instance, in 698 the national government made prayers for rain to the god of Yoshinoyama and in 766 Kumano Musubishin and Hayatamashin, two of the chief deities of the 49 3. Description Kumano Sanzan shrines, were awarded Fûko, or the territories, as financial resources to support religious rites, by the national government as the first attempt of this kind. Although the capital was moved to Kyoto at the end of the 8th century, the Buddhist temples in Nara kept their influence and did not leave the former capital. There was no change to the policy of the national government to look to the overseas for new knowledge including Buddhism, and delegations to China, which had been sent continually since the 7th century, brought back to Japan the esoteric Buddhism called Mikkyô in the 9th century, which was to have a great influence on the religious society of Japan in the following periods. According to the doctrine of Mikkyô, mountains are considered to be the place for religious training to attain Satori (awakening). Therefore, many of the temples of Mikkyô were constructed on mountains, as is typically exemplified by Kongôbu-ji, which was constructed in 816 by Kûkai, a member of the delegation, as the stage for religious training on the mountain for the Shingon sect of esoteric Buddhism. According to legend, the Kôyasan Chôishimichi was constructed by Kûkai to connect Jison-in at the mountain foot, which was the administration office constructed as the base for the construction and maintenance of Kongôbu-ji, to the mountaintop, and installed wooden stupas symbolizing deities of Mikkyô along the route, intending that they would also serve as signposts. The Kii Mountain Range, which had been revered as the place where deities resided or the Pure Land, became the attractive place even to Buddhist priests following the doctrine of Mikkyô and enjoyed prosperity with more people gathering for religious training than ever before. The society at that time was still founded on the centralized Ritsuryô system; however, the tradition of the government’s ownership of land and people, which is the heart of the system, was gradually undermined and there appeared aristocrats privatizing land ownership and acquiring relationship with the Imperial family through marriages who gained much wealth and eventually political power. Mikkyô, not only attracting the curiosity of those intellectuals as a new religion but also receiving worship from that powerful class of society, came to share the role of the 50 3. Description
religion to guard the nation. Among the people who converted to Mikkyô, there were some that entered the mountain areas. Reflecting the social spirit of the time, the Emperor or a retired Emperor as one person embodying the nation hosted a variety of religious rites for different purposes at the three sacred sites of the Kii Mountain Range. It is considered that these activities led to construction of relatively small shrine buildings and other structures, as is indicated by the existence of remains of those structures dating back to the 9th century, which were excavated in great quantities from the ground under the Ôminesan-ji Hondô. In addition, Mikkyô and Shintoism interacted with each other as religious groups based in mountain areas, accelerating the trend of Shinto-Buddhist fusion that had been anticipated since the 8th century. The Shinto-Buddhist fusion would be inherited as a unique religious style of Japan until the end of 19th century, when the national government implemented the policy to separate Shintoism and Buddhism. During this period, the deity of Niutsuhime-jinja, worshiped as the deity of the land, was enshrined on the mountaintop as the guardian god of Kongôbu-ji in Kôyasan. At Kumano Sanzan in the mid-10th century, deities who had never been expressed as substantial entities before came to be expressed visually as statues under the influence of Buddhism; in addition, three deities who have their religious origins in different nature worship traditions came to be worshiped collectively. As is stated above, the period from the 9th century to the 10th century was the formative period of sacred sites. A journal written by a pilgrim at that time describes how, as the degree of social unrest around the capital was escalating, the number of people who visited those sacred sites for religious purposes increased and the transportation of goods became more frequent, resulting in the gradual formation and improvement of the pilgrimage routes leading to those sacred sites. The following two centuries, the 11th and 12th centuries, saw development of a unique cultural style called Kokufû Bunka (literally, domestic cultural style) in Japan as a result of the national government’s decision to stop sending delegations to China. During this period, the consecration of the three sacred sites in the Kii Mountain 51 3. Description
Range made substantial progress. It was because in Japan it was believed, in a climate of fear, that the eschatological age known as “Mappô” would begin in 1052, in which the Buddha’s power would decline and hardship would plague society incessantly. Frequent conflicts and struggles fought by samurais, who began to seek and achieve political power, caused a seriously unstable social condition which had never been experienced before. In such a situation, people desperately sought Buddha’s help on various occasions in their lifetime, admission to the Pure Land of Amida after death, and future rebirth in a new world where Miroku would descend. So much so that they made serious efforts to conduct as many religiously good deeds as possible, believing that it would guarantee the realization of their wishes regardless of their condition of wealth in the secular world. The most typical example of such efforts is the construction of shrine and temples which were carried out on a large scale by the Imperial family, the aristocracy, and the powerful samurais. The number of those constructions completed during this period in the capital and other places in Japan is extremely high. As a result, in a variety of areas such as architecture, carving, painting and handicrafts, the highest skills and greatest talents were generously invested so that many exquisite works of extremely high quality were produced, marking an epoch in the history of Japanese culture. This social situation drew people’s attention to pilgrimage to sacred sites as a religious activity that would produce more direct effects; however, it was the dream of a lifetime for many people in a time when long-distance travel was not easily achievable. Still, in the early 11th century, the most powerful aristocrat of the time visited the sacred site, “Yoshino and Ômine”, and a retired Emperor made his first pilgrimage to “Kôyasan” and “Kumano Sanzan” in the late 11th century. These visits stimulated the pilgrimage to the three sacred sites and enthusiasm grew rapidly. Especially pilgrimages to Kumano Sanzan by retired Emperors were repeated almost 100 times until the early 13th century. Among them, a retired Emperor’s visit to Kumano Sanzan was the paramount even. His visit could be described as follows: before he left Kyoto, he started by 52 3. Description
purifying his spirit and body by confining himself for a certain period to a small house called Shôjinya, which had been constructed for this purpose and for that particular pilgrimage. Then, he went down the Yodo River to Osaka, continued to the south along the west coast of the Kii Peninsula, and took the Kumano Sankeimichi Nakahechi to the destination of pilgrimage, “Kumano Sanzan”, spending almost the whole of one month by the time he returned to Kyoto. People on a pilgrimage were supposed to go on foot, as a matter of principle, when they were heading for the sacred area. In addition, they repeatedly undertook religious rites of Shinto-Buddhist fusion and purified their spirit and body by pouring water on themselves on their way. There were times when they had to proceed in the dark by night. It was without doubt a severe and rigorous experience. The number of people in a party could be as large as 200 to 300, including the retired Emperor and his attendants such as aristocrats, guards and porters. Shugen sect ascetics also accompanied the party on a pilgrimage as guides and gave instructions for the religious rites to be undertaken on the pilgrimage route or at sacred sites, contributing to the prosperity of the Shugen sect and reinforcing the mountain region’s characteristics as sacred sites. As these large- scale pilgrimages were repeated ever more frequently, Kumano Sanzan and other sacred sites underwent improvement and shrine buildings and accommodation facilities were constructed and improved one after another. It was around this time that the scale and the basic layout of the major buildings constituting the sacred sites were consolidated. Similarly, with regard to the pilgrimage routes, many Ôji were constructed as places of prayer on the way to the pilgrimage destination and the route was established as the major pilgrimage route of the Kumano Sankeimichi Nakahechi. On the other hand, in the Ômine Okugakemichi, the route for Okugake ascetic practice was established, in which ascetic practice undertakers were required to visit Shuku, or formidable peaks on the mountain ridges which were considered to be places where deities descend, to carry out ascetic practices at these places. As the development of the sacred sites went on this way, 53 3. Description organizations to support these sites came into existence. The budget for employing the staff members of those organizations and for maintaining shrine buildings and other structures was dependent upon the Imperial family, aristocrats and powerful samurais, who made donations as a token of their religious devotions. As a result, the three sacred sites in the Kii Mountain Range enjoyed a prosperity that far surpassed that of other sacred sites; likewise, the numbers of worshipers far exceeded those in other areas. The area was revered not only as the original religious center for Shintoism, the Shugen sect of ascetic Buddhism, the Shingon sect of esoteric Buddhism, and Shinto-Buddhist fusion, but also as the holy area related to Kannon worship, the best place to build sutra mounds, and the place for graves. Its reputation as an area of peerless sacred mountain sites was established firmly, to the extent that it became a matter of common knowledge in society at large, an accepted view which would not change in following generations. At the end of the 12th century, the ruling authority was taken over by the feudal government, which placed the seat of government called Bakufu (shogunate) in Kamakura, far away from Kyoto. Nevertheless, the Imperial Court in Kyoto still retained a great amount of influence and the Imperial family and the aristocracy continued pilgrimage to the sacred sites until the 13th century. However, after the attempt by the retired Emperor Gotoba to reclaim the ruling power from the feudal government failed in 1221, the kind of large-scale pilgrimages that had been repeatedly carried out since the 11th century decreased significantly, but the pilgrimages did continue on a more modest scale with support coming mainly from aristocrats and powerful samurais. For instance, Kongôsammai-in, which was constructed in Kôyasan in the early 13th century, is a precious mountaintop prayer-giving structure donated by samurais; the stone signposts of the Kôyasan Chôishimichi, which was revitalized and restored in 1285, were donations not only from aristocrats including Imperial family members, but also from powerful samurais and ordinary citizens. When those religious structures were newly constructed or reconstructed, fund-raising campaigns were conducted to solicit for donations called 54 Description “Kanjin”. These activities contributed to propagating the sacred sites more widely to various classes of society. From the 14th century to the16th century, the samurais kept a grip on the ruling authority while on various levels the struggles for power, continued between the Imperial family and the aristocracy, who plotted to regain the authority. The three sacred sites which had always had close relation with the imperial capital suffered rather significantly as a result. In particular, in the period from 1336 to 1392, when two Emperors stood in competition for legitimacy, Yoshinoyama was chosen as the seat of the “Southern” Imperial Court and was therefore attacked by the opposing group. Many shrines and temples in the sacred sites suffered from the flames of war. From the late 15th century to the late 16th century, the power of the feudal government weakened significantly, and without strong central government control many of the feudal lords called Daimyô around Japan fought on a large scale against each other in pursuit of larger territories and the ruling power of the nation. During this period, land owned by shrines and temples in the sacred sites as their financial basis was substantially taken over by those feudal lords. However, the religious authority of the sacred sites was widely respected even by those at odds for political reasons, and donations continued from whoever was “on the winning side” at any given time with those in power changing one after another, and also from the rich citizens whose numbers were on the increase in the 15th century thanks to the improved production capability and the progress of the monetary economy that the society at that period was experiencing. Therefore it remained possible for the architectural structures of the sacred sites, large or small, to be reconstructed and maintained. It was also during this period that the custom of carrying out pilgrimages to the sacred sites spread from samurais to the general public, and the Kumano Sankeimichi Kohechi and the Ôhechi started to appear in historical documents together with other major pilgrimage routes. From the 17th century until the late 19th century (1868), the powerful feudal government that was established in Edo, which was later to become Tokyo, continued to rule for nearly 270 years and during that period a relatively peaceful 55 3. Description social situation was maintained under the dominance of the samurais. Shrines and temples in the sacred sites lost much of their land that had earlier provided a financial basis for them and were absorbed into the religious system controlled by the feudal government. However, their religious influence did not wane, continually receiving support from the government and the general public. On the other hand, owing to the further development of monetary economy, ordinary people living in the urban areas became rich; at the same time, construction of roads progressed, making travel much easier. These factors contributed to further promoting the pilgrimage to sacred sites by the general public. There were not only the devout, religiously-motivated people who focus on specific destinations but also the increasing number of people who visit several sacred sites at a time or tour around scenic spots and historical spots for sightseeing. Reflecting such a social trend, publications such as a drawing of sacred sites with indications and background explanations of sightseeing spots were made available. Particularly in the Kii Mountain Range, people whose main interest was in Ise Jingû or Saigokujunrei increased; in response, the number of shrines and temples with accommodation facilities increased. On the other hand, along the pilgrimage routes, signposts marking the direction or the distance to the destination sacred site and stone Buddhist images to console the souls of those who died on their way were donated and constructed by private donations. These stone structures remain still today together with long linear pilgrimage routes, forming a cultural landscape as its significant element. In 1868, the ruling authority was returned from the feudal government to the Emperor and the capital was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo. Japan was to evolve quickly into a modern state to be competitive with the Western countries. The new government took new measures to control the religions in Japan and issued the Shintoism and Buddhism Separation Decree in 1868 and the Shugendô Annulment Decree in 1872 as part of those efforts. Under the binding legal power of those decrees to prohibit religious activities related to the Shinto-Buddhist fusion and the Shugen sect that had been inherited from generation to generation, the three sacred 56 3. Description
sites in the Kii Mountain Range could not be an exception; statues of Buddha and Buddhist ritual instruments were removed from the shrine buildings and Buddhist structures were broken down or subordinated to the shrines under new names. However, many major temple buildings were to survive because of the strong religious authority acknowledged widely by the society; the Shugen sect, which had a historical linkage with Mikkyô, the esoteric Buddhist sect,--both Shugen and Mikkyô having coexisted as religious groups based in the mountains--was to merge into esoteric Mikkyô as its subordinate. After that, as losses of cultural properties in Japan and as the outflow of cultural properties to other countries increased to a seriously problematic extent, the National Government started to protect cultural properties by enacting the Ancient Shrines and Temples Preservation Law in 1897 and strengthened it by enacting another law, the National Treasures Preservation Law in 1929. In 1919, the Law for the Preservation of Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty and Natural Monuments had been also been put in place to extend the protection beyond shrines and temples to cover scenic spots and natural monuments. As a result, half of the cultural properties distributed in the three sacred sites were placed under the protection of the national government, not because of their association with guardian deities of the nation but because of their historical and cultural value on the national level. In addition, the National Parks Law was enacted in 1931 and the area of natural scenic beauty including “ Yoshino and Ômine”, “Kumano Sanzan”, and the “Kumano Sankeimichi” was designated as Yoshino Kumano National Park in 1936 and placed under the protection of the law. Major rituals and festivals that have a long tradition and distinctive characteristics, although they faced a difficult time on the verge of discontinuation, have survived until today thanks to the faith and devoted efforts of devout supporters of the sacred sites. After Japan lost World War II in 1945, Japan made a fresh start as a democratic state and, after the initially chaotic social situation, quickly succeeded in revitalizing its economy. As a result, the number of visitors to the sacred sites of the Kii Mountain Range, which had decreased during the war, increased again, bringing 57 3. Description
prosperity back to these areas. On the other hand, the Shugen sect, which had been officially subordinated to esoteric Mikkyô, regained its status as an individual religious body. In 1950, the National Treasures Preservation Law and the Law for the Preservation of Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty and Natural Monuments were combined into the present “Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties”, under which all of the monuments and sites included in the nominated property are given legal protection by the national government through designation of Cultural Properties. On the other hand, in relation to cultural landscapes, which are a significant part of the value of the nominated property, the drastic surge in demand for timber during the economic recovery after World War II led to replacement of natural forests with afforestation to some extent; however, the prosperity of forestry as a key industry contributed to protecting the forest-covered areas surrounding the three sacred sites and the pilgrimage routes from development pressures. In 1957, the National Parks Law was improved into the Natural Parks Law, in which the system of natural parks was established; under this framework, the Kôya Ryûjin Quasi-national Park (designated in 1967) and several other Prefectural Natural Parks have been established in the Kii Mountain Range. As a result, the nominated property is protected together with the surrounding natural environment. In addition, the relevant municipal governments have passed ordinances in order to include the cultural landscapes extending over a wide range under the scope of protection. As a result, the appropriate control measures are in place to prevent the value of the nominated property from being undermined. Not only such official protection measures but also the direct involvement of the shrines and temples included in the nominated property play a significant role in keeping alive their true value as the sacred mountain sites that have been developing since ancient times, by actively undertaking religious activities including traditional annual events such as festivals and rites. 58
 3. Description
Appendix 6. Chronological table of history in relation to the nominated property
c. Form and date of most
recent records of property
There are numerous books, articles, scientific reports, and other sources of literature on the nominated property. The following is a list of particularly important reference materials on the nominated property. i) Publications on the history of the region (in order of publication) Taro, Wakamori. Shugendô-shi Kenkyû [Study on the History of the Shugen Sect of Ascetic Buddhism). Heibonsha, 1943. Shigeru, Gorai. Yoshino Kumano Shinkô no Kenkyû [Study on Yoshino and Kumano worship]. Meicho Shuppan, 1976. Nara National Museum. Kyôzuka Ihô (Sutra Mounds, Treasury of History]. Tokyo Bijutsu, 1977.
Shinjô, Hinonishi. Shinkô Kôya Shunjû Hennen Shûroku [Revised Collection of Historical Records of Kôyasan]. Iwata Shoin, 1982. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Wakayamaken no Mukei Minzoku [Intangible Folk Cultures of Wakayama Prefecture]. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education, 1983. Hitoshi, Miyake. Shugendô Jiten [[[Wikipedia:Encyclopedia|Encyclopedia]] of the Shugen Sect of Ascetic Buddhism). Tokyodo Shuppan, 1986. Nara National Museum. Sangakushinkô no Ihô [Treasury of Mountain Worship]. 1985.
Hitoshi, Miyake. Mitake Shinkô [Mountain Worship]. 1985. Hitoshi, Miyake. Ômine Shugendô no Kenkyû [Study on the Shugen Sect of Ascetic Buddhism in Ômine]. 1988. Mie Prefectural Board of Education. Mieken no Minzoku Geinô [[[Wikipedia:Folk|Folk]] Art of Mie Prefecture]. Mie Prefectural Board of Education, 1994. Saiku Historical Museum. Kumano Shinkô no Sekai (World of Kumano Worship]. Saiku Historical Museum, 1994. Hitoshi, Miyake. Shugendô Soshiki no Kenkyû [Study on Organizations of the Shugen Sect of Ascetic Buddhism). Shunjusha, 1999. Mainichi Shimbun. En no Gyôja to Shugendô no Sekai – Sangaku Shinkô no Hihô [En no Gyôja and the World of the Shugen sect of Ascetic Buddhism – Secret Treasures of Mountain Worship]. Mainichi Shimbun, 1999. 5
. Description
Meicho Shuppan. Naraken-shi [History of Nara Prefecture]. Meicho Shuppan, 1985 to 1999.
Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Wakayamaken no Maturi Gyôji [[[Wikipedia:Festivals|Festivals]] and Other Events of Wakayama Prefecture]. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education, 2000. Yasunori, Koyama. Kumano Kodô [Old Paths of Kumano). Iwanami Shoten, 2000. ii) Publications regarding the nominated property a. On Yoshino and Ômine (in order of publication) Mosaku, Ishida. Kimpusen Kyôzuka Ibutsu no Kenkyû [Study on the Remains of Sutra Mounds in Kimpusen]. 1937. Totsukawa Village. Totsukawa Gakujutsu Chôsa Hôkokusho [Report of Academic Research in Totsukawa]. Totsukawa Village, 1956. Yoshino Town. Yoshino-chô-shi [History of Yoshino Town]. Yoshino Town, 1967. Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Jûyô Bunkazai Kimpusen-ji Kane no Torii Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Kimpusen-ji Kane no Torii”], Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1967. Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Jûyô Bunkazai Yoshimizu-jinja Shoin Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Yoshimizu-jinja Shoin”], Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1972. Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Jûyô Bunkazai Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Haiden Heiden Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Properties, “ Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Haiden” and “Heiden”], Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1975. Tenkawa Village. Tenkawa-son-shi [History of Tenkawa Village]. Tenkawa Village, 1981. Gangô-ji Bunkazai Kenkyûsho. Yoshinoyama Shugendô Kankeishiryô Chôsa Hôkokusho [Research Report on Documentation regarding the Shugen Sect of Ascetic Buddhism in Yoshinoyama]. Gangô-ji Bunkazai Kenkyûsho, 1983. Nara Kenritsu Minzoku Hakubutsukan. Yama no Shinkô to Yoshino Shugen [Mountain Worship and the Shugen Sect of Ascetic Buddhism in Yoshino). 1983. Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Kokuhô Kimpusen-ji Hondô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the National Treasure, “Kimpusen-ji Hondô”]. Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1984. Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Jûyô Bunkazai Ôminesan-ji Hondô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Ôminesan-ji Hondô”]. Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1986. Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Jûyô Bunkazai Yoshino Mikumari-jinja . Description
Rômon Kairô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Properties, “Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Rômon” and “Kairô”]. Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1987 Nara-ken Sangaku Iseki Kenkyûkai and Kamikitayama Village Board of Education. Shô no Iwaya [Shô no Iwaya]. 1996. b. On Kumano Sanzan (in order of publication) Kumano Nakahechi Kankôkai. Kumano Nakahechi Saijiki [Four Seasons of the Kumano Nakahechi]. Kumano Nakahechi Kankokai, 1971. Kumano Nakahechi Kankôkai. Kumano Nakahechi Densetsu [[[Wikipedia:Legends|Legends]] of the Kumano Nakahechi]. Kumano Nakahechi Kankokai, 1972. Kumano Nakahechi Kankôkai. Kumano Nakahechi Kodô to Ôjisha [Old Paths and Ôji shrines of the Kumano Nakahechi]. Kumano Nakahechi Kankokai, 1973. Ise Minzoku Gakkai. Mie (Ise, Iga, Shima, Kumano) no Bunka Denshô [[[Wikipedia:Cultural|Cultural]] Traditions of Mie (Ise, Iga, Shima and Kumano)]. Ise Minzoku Gakkai, 1978. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Research Report on Historic Routes]. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education, 1979. Mie Prefectural Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Research Report on Historic Routes]. Mie Prefectural Board of Education, 1981. Wakayamaken Minwa no Kai. Kumano Hongû no Minwa [[[Wikipedia:Folklore|Folklore]] of Kumano Hongû]. Wakayamaken Minwa no Kai, 1981. Kumano Nakahechi Kankôkai. Kumano Nakahechi Ishi no Hotoketachi [Stone Buddha Statues of the Kumano Nakahechi]. Kumano Nakahechi Kankokai, 1984 Nachisan Seiganto-ji and Wakayamaken Bunkazai Center. Jûyô Bunkazai Nachisan Seiganto-ji Hondô Hôkyôintô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Properties, "Seiganto-ji Hondô” and “Hôkyôintô"]. 1987. Kumano Kinenkan Shiryô Shûshû Chôsa Iinkai Shizen Rekishi Bukai. Kumano Kodô Kohechi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Research Report on the Kumano Sankeimichi Kohechi]. 1987. Kumano Nakahechi Kankôkai. Kumano Nakahechi Rekishi to Fûdo [History, Customs and Cultures of the Kumano Nakahechi]. Kumano Nakahechi Kankokai, 1991 Wakayamaken Bunkazai Center. Kumano Hongû Taisha Kyûshachi Ôyunohara Shikutsu Chôsa Hôkokusho [Report on Excavation Investigation of Ôyunohara of the former site of Kumano Hongû Taisha]. 1996. Sonaezaki Kyozukagun Hakkutsu Chôsa Iinkai and Hongu Town Board of Education. Kumano Hongû Sonaezaki Kyôzukagun Hakkutsu Chôsa Hôkokusho [Report on Excavation Investigation of Kumano Hongû Sonaezaki Kyôzukagun (a group of sutra mounds)]. 2002. 61
 Description
c. On Kôyasan (in order of publication) Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Kongôbu-ji Tokugawake Reidai Ieyasu Reioku, Hidetada Reioku Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Properties, “Kongôbu-ji Tokugawake Reidai Ieyasu Reioku” and “Hidetada Reioku”]. 1962. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Kokuhô Kongôbu-ji Fudôdô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the National Treasure, “Kongôbu-ji Fudôdô”]. 1963. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Uesugi Kenshin Reioku Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Uesugi Kenshin Reioku”]. 1967. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Kongôsammai-in Kyakuden oyobi Daidokoro, Shishomyôjinsha Honden, Tahôtô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Properties, “Kongôsammai-in Kyakuden and Daidokoro”, “Shishomyôjinsha Honden”, and “Tahôtô”]. 1969. Niukanshôfu-jinja and Wakayamaken Bunkazai Kenkyûkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Niukanshôfu-jinja Honden Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Niukanshôfu-jinja Honden”]. 1976. Niutsuhime-jinja and Wakayamaken Bunkazai Kenkyûkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Niutsuhime-jinja Honden Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Niutsuhime-jinja Honden”]. 1977. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Kongôbu-ji Okuno-in Kyôzô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Kongôbu-ji Okuno-in Kyôzô”]. 1978. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Kongôbu-ji Sannô-in Honden Hoka Hattô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Sannô-in Honden”, and Eight Other Structures]. 1980. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Kongôbu-ji Daimon Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Daimon”]. 1986. Wakayamaken Bunkazai Center. Kongôbu-ji Iseki Hakkutsu Chôsa Gaihô [Summary Report of Excavation Investigation of the Historic Sites of Kongôbu-ji]. 1991 and 1992. Niutsuhime-jinja and Wakayamaken Bunkazai Center. Jûyô Bunkazai Niutsuhime-jinja Rômon Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Niutsuhime-jinja Rômon”]. 1994. d. On Pilgrimage routes (in order of publication) Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Shiseki Kôyasan Chôishi, Kongôbu-ji Keidai Hozon Kanri Keikaku Sakutei Hôkokusho [Report on the Preparation of the Plan of Preservation and Maintenance for the Historic Sites, “Kôyasan Chôishi” and “Kongôbu-ji Keidai”]. Wakayama Prefectural Board of 62 3. Description
Education, 1977.
Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Kinsei Kôtsû Iseki Bumpu Chôsa Ryakuhô (Kumano Sankeimichi to Ôjisha) [Summary Research Report on the Distribution of Transportation-related Archeological Remains in the Early Modern Period (The Kumano Sankeimichi and Ôji)]. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education, 1978. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Hôkokusho (I) Kumano Sankeimichi to Sono Shûhen [Research Report on Historic Routes (I). The Kumano Sankeimichi and its vicinity]. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education, 1979. Mie Prefectural Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Hôkokusho (I) Kumano Kaidô [Research Report on Historic Routes (I). The Kumano Kaidô]. Mie Prefectural Board of Education, 1981. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Hôkokusho (V) Ryûjin Kaidô [Research Report on Historic Routes (V). The Ryûjin Kaidô]. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education, 1982. Hongu Town Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Kumanomichi Seibi Hôkokusho [Report of the Improvement Work of the Historic Route, the “Kumanomichi”]. Hongu Town Board of Education, 1983. Nachikatsuura Town Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Kumanomichi Seibi Hôkokusho [Report of the Improvement Work of the Historic Route, the “Kumanomichi”]. Nachikatsuura Town Board of Education, 1983. Nakahechi Town Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Kumanomichi Seibi Hôkokusho [Report of the Improvement Work of the Historic Route, the “Kumanomichi”]. Nakahechi Town Board of Education, 1983. Kumanogawa Town Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Kumanomichi Seibi Hôkokusho [Report of the Improvement Work of the Historic Route, the “Kumanomichi”]. Kumanogawa Town Board of Education, 1983. Owase City and Miyama Town. Rekishi no Michi Kumano Kaidô Magosetôge Seibi Jigyô Hôkokusho [Report of the Improvement Work of the Historic Route, the “Kumano Kaidô” (Magosetôge section)]. Owase City and Miyama Town, 1999. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Kumano Ôhechi no Matsuri [[[Wikipedia:Festivals|Festivals]] of the Kumano Ôhechi]. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education, 1984. Wakayama Prefectural Museum. Kumano Moude (Pilgrimage to Kumano). Wakayama Prefectural Museum, 1985.
Kumano Kinenkan Shiryô Shûshû Chôsa Iinkai Shizen Rekishi Bukai. Kumano Kodô Kohechi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Research Report on the Kumano Sankeimichi Kohechi]. 1987. Katsuragi Town Board of Education. Kunishitei Shiseki Kôyasan Chôishi Hozonshûri Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Conservation Restoration of the National Historic Site, “Kôyasan Chôishi”]. 1999. Kudoyama Town Board of Education. Kunishitei Shiseki Kôyasan Chôishi Hozonshûri Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Conservation Restoration of the 63 3. Description
National Historic Site, “Kôyasan Chôishi”]. 1999. Koya Town Board of Education. Kunishitei Shiseki Kôyasan Chôishi Hozonshûri Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Conservation Restoration of the National Historic Site, “Kôyasan Chôishi”]. 1999. Kumano Rekishi Kenkyûkai. Kumano Kodô Ôhechi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Research Report on the Kumano Sankeimichi Ôhechi]. 1999. Kinan Bunkazai Kenkyûkai. Kumano Kodô Ôhechi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Research Report on the Kumano Sankeimichi Ôhechi]. 2001 Mie Kumanogaku Kenkyûkai. Kumano Dôchûki (Kumano: Traveler’ s Journal]. 2001. Mie Kumanogaku Kenkyûkai. Kumano no Minzoku to Matsuri [[[Wikipedia:Folk|Folk]] Culture and Festivals of Kumano). 2002. Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Nara-ken Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Kumano Kodô Kohechi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Nara Prefecture’s Research Report on the Historic Route, the “Kumano Sankeimichi Kohechi”]. 2002. Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Nara-ken Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Ômine Okugakemichi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Nara Prefecture’s Research Report on the Historic Route, the “Ômine Okugakemichi”]. 2002. . iii) Academic books and papers regarding the nominated property Hakeda, Yoshihito. Kukai and his Major Works. Colombia University Press, 1972. Bernbaum, Edwin. Sacred Mountains of the World. University of California Press, 1997.
Swanson, Paul L. Shugendo and the Yoshino-Kumano Pilgrimage: an Example of Mountain Pilgrimage. 1981.
Koyama, Yasunori. “The History and Cultures of Yoshino, Koya and Kumano”. UNESCO Thematic Expert Meeting on Asia-Pacific Sacred Mountains. UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Agency for Cultural Affairs of Japan and Wakayama Prefectural Government, 2001. Miyake, Hitoshi. Shugendo: Essays on the Structure of Japanese Folk Religion. The University of Michigan, 2001.
Eds. Peter F. Kornicki and I.J. McMullen. “Rethinking Japanese Folk Religion: a Study of Kumano Shugen”. Religion in Japan. Arrows to Heaven and Earth (University of Cambridge Oriental Publications, 50). Cambridge University Press, 1996. Darling, Leonard Bruce, Jr. “ The Transformation of Pure Land Thought and the Development of Shino Shrine Mandala Paintings: Kasuga and Kumano”. Ph. D. University of Michigan, 1986. Takemoto, Tadao. Andre Malraux et la Cascade de Nachi: la Confidence de l’univers. Julliard, 1989. Buichiro, Watanabe. "Attaining Enlightenment with this Body: Primacy of 64
3. Description
Practice in Shingon Buddhism at Mount Koya, Japan”. Ph. D. Thesis; State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1999. Jesse, Bernd. Die Vorgeschichte der Götter von Kumano: Das Nara-ehon “Kumano no Honji” aus der Sammlung Voretzsch im Besits des Museums für Kunsthandwerk, Frankfurt am Main: Edition, Ubersetzung und Textkritische Studien. Harrassowitz Verlag, 1997. In addition, there are descriptions related to the nominated property not only in text books of Japanese history used in Japan but also in a number of encyclopedias and books published throughout the world, which are listed below. a. Working languages of the United Nations English language Cultural Atlas of Japan. Equinox (Oxford) Ltd., 1988 written in English. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 1991, written in English. French language
Grand Dictionnaire Encyclopédique Larousse. Libraire Larousse 1984, written in French.
Le Japon. Dictionnaire et Civilisation. Robert Larront, 1996, written in French
Russian language
??????? ????????? ????????????, ????????????, written in Russian.
b. Other languages
German language
Japan Handbuch. Franz Steiner Verlag, 1981, written in German. Jesse, Bernd. Die Vorgeschichte der Gotter von Kumano: Das Nara-ehon ‘Kumano no honji” aus der Sammlund Voretzsch im Besitz des Museums fur Kunsthandwerk, Frankfurt am Main: Edition, Ubersetzung und textkritische Studien. Verlag Wiesbaden, 1997, written in German. d. Present state of conservation
The “monuments”, designated as National Treasures or Important Cultural Properties, and “sites (including cultural landscapes)”, designated as Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty, or Natural Monuments, have been adequately protected in a good condition of conservation through the protection provided under the Ancient 65 3. Description Shrines and Temples Preservation Law (1897), the Law for the Preservation of Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty and Natural Monuments (1919) and the National Treasures Preservation Law (1929). After World War II, the above-mentioned laws were improved and combined into the current Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (1950), in compliance with which thorough conservation management has been undertaken for the nominated property up to the present time. At the same time, part of the nominated property and the surrounding natural environment are under the protection of the Natural Parks Law (1957). As will be described in detail below, each of the assets included in the nominated property has been maintained in an extremely good condition of conservation through adequate implementation of a considerable number of repair works and other conservation works. For the buildings, the compounds, pilgrimage routes and related facilities where those special repair works or other conservation works were not carried out, the owners have been undertaking appropriate day-to-day care and have successfully maintained their value. In addition, the Boards of Education of Mie Prefecture, Nara Prefecture and Wakayama Prefecture appoint Cultural Property Protection Instructors to make periodical rounds for the protection of cultural properties and to give advice for day-to-day maintenance work and protection by local people. In this manner, efforts are being made to ensure that the well-preserved value of the property will be sustained long into the future. <National Treasures and Important Cultural Properties> Most of the “monuments” included in the nominated property are wooden structures built in mountain areas with high precipitation; depending upon the degree of damage suffered, several types of repair works are conducted including dismantling repair in which the building in question is completely dismantled in the process (and carefully reassembled after the repair), partial dismantling repair in which only walls or roofs are dismantled and repaired without dismantling the main structures, and minor or partial repair works such as roofing repair and painting 66 3. Description repair, which are conducted periodically. In addition, in order to protect the cultural properties from fire, all the buildings designated as National Treasures or Important Cultural Properties are equipped with automatic fire alarm systems, fire extinguishing equipment and lightning conductors. Fire prevention operations and the emergency measures to follow in case a fire occurs have also been determined and preparations are in place. Many of the buildings included as “monuments” in the nominated property have occasionally suffered damage due to natural disasters; however, each time such damage has happened, it has been restored to the original condition and the historic and artistic value of the nominated property has been successfully preserved up to the present time. Before the Meiji Period (1868 to 1912), most shrines and temples had their own staff engineers for repair work, who exercised high-level expertise in periodical repair works and ad hoc restoration works following disaster occurrences. Now, on the other hand, Nara Prefecture has its own government officers and Wakayama Prefecture has a full-time staff affiliated with a nonprofit organization established by the prefectural government, who work to carry out the necessary research and design for repair works and to supervise the actual implementation of those works mentioned above. For each repair work, a report is prepared and published. Appendix 7. Plans indicating locations of fire prevention systems <Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty and Natural Monument> The “sites”, including cultural landscapes, in the nominated property are designated as Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty, or Natural Monuments; the Boards of Education of the three prefectural governments have worked through consultation with the Agency for Cultural Affairs, owners and municipal Boards of Education as custodians of the relevant cultural properties, to prepare a comprehensive plan for preservation and management of the entire nominated property. Based on the comprehensive plan, local governments have worked out 67 3. Description
individual plans for preservation and management for each of the Historic Sites, the Places of Scenic Beauty and the Natural Monuments which are tailored to meet specific needs varying from property to property depending upon its scale, form, characteristics, location and other factors. Adequate preservation and management are ensured in this manner, and accordingly the cultural value of these Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty and Natural Monuments and the cultural landscapes which are inseparable from them have been maintained in a good state of conservation. On the other hand, when any of the pilgrimage routes or archeological remains distributed along them, which are designated as Historic Sites, need repair work or restoration work, special attention is paid and academic investigations including excavation, as necessary, are conducted before the work is commenced. The findings of those investigations are fully taken into consideration and there is careful and sufficient discussion by a committee comprised of experts in relevant fields; before the final decision is made, and the repair work is started. Places of Scenic Beauty characterized by natural elements and Natural Monuments are, as a rule, to be preserved in their natural conditions; however, removal of dead trees, pest controlling treatments against insect-caused damage and diseases, supplementary plantation of trees of the existing species, and preventive measures against animal-caused damage are carried out as part of the preservation and management. The present state of conservation of each cultural asset included in the nominated property is given below together with information on past repair works and other conservation works. With regard to buildings designated as National Treasures or Important Cultural Properties, a separate table is given (in Table 1). <History of Repair Works and Conservation Works for the Nominated Property> 1. Yoshino and Ômine 1-A. Yoshinoyama
Forests of cherry trees, which are the important component of the relevant 68
 3. Description
Historic Sites and Places of Scenic Beauty, have been maintained in an extremely good state of conservation through continual care-taking activities by Nara Prefecture, Yoshino Town and a non-profit organization, Yoshinoyama Hoshôkai, such as removal of dead trees, preventive measures against pest insects and diseases, and the supplementary planting of new trees of the identical cherry species. 1-B. Yoshino Mikumari-jinja From 1926 to 1927, repair work with partial dismantling was carried out for the Honden and in 1928 dismantling repair work was carried out for the Heiden. In 1951, repair work for the Honden to treat typhoon-caused damage was done. From 1973 to 1975, roofing repair and partial repair were carried out for the Heiden and the Haiden. From 1986 to 1987, the Rômon and the Kairô were dismantled completely and given thorough repair, in which room partitions and inter-pillar structural members that had at some point been changed from the original state were restored. As a result, the shrine’s buildings and compound are currently in an extremely good state of conservation. 1-C. Kimpu-jinja
Kimpu-jinja is located nearly as high as on the mountain top of Yoshinoyama, and consists of the Honden in the compound and the Shugyômon, also known as Ninotorii, in front as the gate facing the Ômine Okugakemichi. No repair work has been carried out so far; the shrine ’s compound is in an extremely good state of conservation. 1-D. Kimpusen-ji
As for the Hondô, dismantling repair work was carried out from 1916 to 1924; repair work of the roofs of both upper and lower stories (replacement of cypress bark thatching) was carried out together with improvement of disaster protection facilities from 1980 to 1984. As for the Niômon, dismantling repair work was carried out 69 3. Description from 1949 to 1951. As for the Kane no Torii, dismantling repair work was conducted from 1966 to 1967 and thorough treatment was given to the entire structure including the structural foundation. As a result, the temple’s compound and the above-mentioned buildings are in an extremely good state of conservation. 1-E. Yoshimizu-jinja From 1941 to 1943, the Shoin was thoroughly repaired through dismantling repair work. From 1971 to 1972, the pillars of the Shoin’s platform were replaced and reinforcement of its floor structure was done. As a result, the shrine’s compound is in an extremely good state of conservation. 1-F. Ôminesan-ji From 1983 to 1986, dismantling repair work of the Hondô and its excavation investigation for underground archeological materials were carried out. The inner chamber of the Hondô was partially dismantled and the outer chamber was completely dismantled for repair. Base stones were replaced for both chambers in the process. On the occasion of the dismantling repair work, an underground excavation survey was conducted and information regarding the architectural transition over time was obtained. The excavated archeological materials were re-buried for preservation after the completion of investigation and repair work; the temple’s buildings and compound are in an extremely good state of conservation. 2. Kumano Sanzan 2-A. Kumano Hongû Taisha
Most of the shrine buildings were lost due to the 1889 flooding of the Kumano River, except for the existing Honden, which had been reconstructed back in the Kyûshachi Ôyunohara on the original site of the shrine from 1801 to 1807. Those buildings of the Honden that barely survived the flooding were relocated to the present location in 1891. Both the present compound and the former site are in an 70 3. Description extremely good state of conservation.
2-B. Kumano Hayatama Taisha
The shrine was just recently designated as a Historic Site in 2002, and up to now neither repair of buildings nor any other conservation work has been carried out. The forests of the Kamikura Mountains in the background of the shrine and the shrine compound, including the Gotobikiiwa, and the Nagi Tree which is designated as a Natural Monument, are all in an extremely good state of conservation. 2-C. Kumano Nachi Taisha Roofing repair started in 2002 and is planned to be completed in 2004 for the Honden, the Hasshaden, the Miyagata- jinja, the Suzumon and the Sukibei. The shrine’s buildings and compound are in an extremely good state of conservation. 2-D. Seiganto-ji In 1924, dismantling repair work was conducted. In 1962 and 1987, roofing repair work was carried out and cypress bark thatching was replaced, using traditional materials. The temple’s buildings and compound are in an extremely good state of conservation. 2-E. Nachi no Ôtaki As Nachi no Ôtaki, which is the object of worship, is a natural entity, neither repair nor any other conservation work has been conducted. In terms of the quantity and quality of water, the waterfall is in an extremely good condition of conservation together with the surrounding forests. 2-F. Nachi Primeval Forest
Having long been protected as a forbidden area, the Nachi Primeval Forest is in an extremely good state of conservation. 71
 3. Description
3. Kôyasan
3-A. Niutsuhime-jinja
In 1932, the Rômon was dismantled and repaired. In 1963, roofing repair and partial repair were done and in 1993 partial dismantling repair was carried out. In 1977, roofing and painting of the Honden were repaired. The shrine buildings and the compound are in an extremely good state of conservation. 3-B. Kongôbu-ji The Fudôdô underwent dismantling repair in 1908, partial dismantling repair in 1963, partial repair of disaster-caused damage in 1991, and dismantling repair coupled with structural reinforcement as a protective measure against earthquakes from 1996 to 1998. The Okuno-in Kyôzô underwent partial repair in 1963, partial dismantling repair in 1978, roofing repair and partial repair in 1979, and partial repair of disaster-caused damage in 1991. The Tokugawake Reidai was partially dismantled in 1962 for repair of damage caused by a disaster to the mausoleums of Tokugawa Ieyasu and Tokugawa Hidetada. The Sannô-in Honden underwent repair work in 1979, in which two of the three shrine buildings, i.e. Niumyôjinsha Shaden and Kôyamyôjinsha Shaden, were partially dismantled and the other shrine building, the Sôja Shaden was completely dismantled together with the Torii and the Sukibei. The Daimon underwent dismantling repair work in 1986. The Kongôsammai-in Tahôtô underwent partial repair in 1906, roofing repair in 1949, partial repair in 1969, and roofing repair and partial repair in 1979. The Kongôsammai-in Kyôzô underwent roofing repair and partial repair in 1979 and roofing repair again in 2001. The roofing of the Kyakuden and the Daidokoro were replaced, using traditional materials, in 1969, and the Shishomyôjinsha Honden 72 3. Description underwent dismantling repair in 1969 and roofing repair in 1995. The Matsudaira Hideyasu and Dôhaha Reioku, which is a pair of stone mausoleums remaining in Okuno-in, underwent dismantling repair in 1967 and partial repair work on disaster-caused damage in 1979; The Uesugi Kenshin Reioku, which is a wooden mausoleum, underwent dismantling repair work for disaster-caused damage in 1966 and roofing repair and partial repair in 1995. Another wooden mausoleum, the Satake Yoshishige Reioku, underwent roofing repair and partial repair for disaster-caused damage in 1965 and roofing repair in 2001. With regard to historic buildings as components of Historic Sites, which are not designated as National Treasures nor Important Cultural Properties, the following repair works have been carried out. From 1988 to 1989, dismantling repair work and excavation investigation were carried out for the Shinzendô, which is located in the Honzan area of Kongôbu-ji; from 1994 to 1998, roofing repair was conducted for the Daishûden, the Okusho-in, the Kyôzô, the Shôrô, the Gomadô, the Sammon, the Egemon; from 1994 to 1998, roofing repair and partial repair were conducted for the Kagobei. As a result, the temple buildings and the compound are in an extremely good state of conservation. 3-C. Jison-in In 1972, the Mirokudô underwent roofing repair and partial repair, followed again by roofing repair in 1993. The temple buildings and the compound are in an extremely good state of conservation. 3-D. Niukanshôfu-jinja In 1976, dismantling repair work was carried out, followed by roofing repair and painting repair in 2001. The shrine buildings and the compound are in an extremely good state of conservation. 73 3. Description
4. Pilgrimage Routes
4-A. Ômine Okugakemichi
Even now, being the active stage for the ascetic mountain practices, called Mineiri, of the Shugen sect, it retains the original characteristics very well. Not only are the route itself, the places for ascetic practices and hospice sites along the route, the archeological remains related to transportation and the religious activities strictly protected under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties, but also the natural environment is conserved in a good condition as part of Yoshino Kumano National Park under the Natural Parks Law. The Bukkyôgatake Primeval Forest is an evergreen forest of sub-alpine Veitch’s silver fir (Abies veitchii), extending over an area of approximately 19 ha on the southeastern side of the ridgeline between Mt Hakkenzan (a.k.a. Hakkyôgatake) and Mt Misen. Having been designated as a Natural Monument in 1922 and included in the Special Protection Zone of Yoshino Kumano National Park, it has been strictly protected and preserved. The Ôyamarenge Native Growth is an area of approximately 108 ha on the col of the ridgeline from Mt Misen through Mt Hakkenzan to Mt Myôjôgatake. It was designated as a Natural Monument in 1928. As the area is also included in the Special Protection Zone of Yoshino Kumano National Park, facilities to protect the native growth of Magnolia sieboldii from Japanese deer have been installed since 1996. Tamaki-jinja is a Shinto shrine built near the mountaintop of Mt Tamaki, located at in the southern end of the Ômine Mountains. The Shamusho and Daidokoro of the shrine are architectural structures that are highly useful in understanding the practical patterns of religious activities of the ascetic Shugen Buddhism. As such, the shrine was designated as an Important Cultural Property in 1988. So far, neither building repair nor any other conservation work in the compound has been carried out, whereas day-to-day management has been adequately taken care of by the owners of 3. Description the relevant cultural properties. The shrine buildings and the compound are in a good state of conservation.
4-B. Kumano Sankeimichi
Restoration work and installation of service facilities were carried out for the Kumano Sankeimichi Nakahechi from 1978 to 1982 and from 1997 to 1998 and for the Kumano Sankeimichi Kohechi from 2001 to 2002. With regard to the Kumano Sankeimichi Iseji, research was carried out in 1980 for the pilgrimage route itself and related cultural assets such as milestones called Ichirizuka, historical signposts and archeological remains of teahouses; based upon the research result, the repair and restoration of the passage and the installation of new support facilities and interpretation boards were carried out from 1997 to 2002. It is planned that similar improvement works will be conducted continually for those pilgrimage routes. The Kumanogawa and the Shichirimihama are cultural landscapes of natural objects, i.e. a river and a seacoast, serving as part of the pilgrimage route. Similarly, the Hana no Iwaya and the Kumano no Oniga-jô, including the Shishiiwa (lion-shaped rock) as its essential component, comprise unique cultural landscapes that are integral parts of ancient sacred places and scenic spots consisting of giant natural rocks and uniquely shaped rocks. These resources are in an extremely good condition of conservation, although no special measures including repair work have been carried out so far. 4-C. Kôyasan Chôishimichi
From 1986 to 1998 and from 2000 to 2002, restoration of Chôishi, or stone signposts which are placed at an interval of one Chô (approximately 109 m), were carried out together with repair and restoration of the passage and installation of new rest stops, etc. The pilgrimage route and the stone signposts are in an extremely good condition of conservation. 75
 3. Description
Table 1. Repair Works for the Buildings Included in the Nominated Property Name of the cultural asset Year and type of repair* A Yoshinoyama B Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Honden 1926 – 1927 (PDmtl), 1951 (D/Rf), 1961 (Rf/P), 1964 (Rf)
Haiden 1951 (D/Rf), 1973 – 1975 (Rf/P) Heiden 1928 (Dmtl), 1973 – 1975 (Rf/P) Rômon 1951 (Rf), 1986 – 1987 (Dmtl) Kairô 1951 (Rf), 1986 – 1987 (Dmtl)
D Kimpusen-ji
Hondô 1916 – 1924 (Dmtl), 1965 (D/P),1980 – 1984 (Rf/P) Niômon 1949 – 1951 (Dmtl), 1970 (P)
Kane no Torii 1966 – 1967 (Dmtl)
E Yoshimizu-jinja
Shoin 1941 – 1943 (Dmtl), 1971 – 1972 (Rf/P) F Ôminesan-ji
1 Yoshino and Ômine
Hondô 1983 – 1986 (Dmtl)
A Kumano Hongû Taisha
Shaden 1891 (Relocation)
C Kumano Nachi Taisha
Shaden 2002 – 2004 (Rf)
D Seiganto-ji
2 Kumano Sanzan
Hondô 1924 (Dmtl), 1962 (Rf), 1987 (Rf) A Niutsuhime-jinja
Honden 1977 (Rf/Pt)
Rômon 1932 (Dmtl), 1963 (Rf/P), 1993 (PDmtl) Garan area
Kongôbu-ji Sannô-in Honden 1979 (Dmtl/P) Kongôbu-ji Fudôdô 1908 (Dmtl), 1963 (PDmtl), 1991 (D/P), 1996 – 1998 (Dmtl) Okuno-in area
Kongôbu-ji Okuno-in Kyôzô 1963 (P), 1978 (PDmtl), 1979 (Rf/P), 1991 (D/P) Satake Yoshishige Reioku 1965 (D/Rf), 2001 (Rf/Pt) Matsudaira Hideyasu and Dôhaha Reioku 1967 (Dmtl), 1979 (D/P)
Uesugi Kenshin Reioku 1966 (D/Dmtl), 1995 (Rf/P) Daimon area
Kongôbu-ji Daimon 1986 (Dmtl)
Kongôsammai-in area
Kongôsammai-in Tahôtô 1906 (Dmtl), 1949 (Rf), 1969 (P),1979 (Rf/P) Kongôsammai-in Kyôzô 1979 (Rf/P), 2001 (Rf) Kongôsammai-in Shishomyôjinsha Honden 1969 (Dmtl), 1995 (Rf)
Kongôsammai-in
Kyakuden and Daidokoro
1969 (Rf)
Tokugawake Reidai area
Kongôbu-ji Tokugawake Reidai 1962 (PDmtl) B Kongôbu-ji
Honzan area 1988 – 1989 (Dmtl), 1994 – 1998 (Rf/P) C Jison-in
Mirokudô 1972 (Rf), 1993 (Rf)
D Niukanshôfu-jinja
3 Kôyasan
Honden 1976 (Dmtl), 2001 (Rf)
. Description
Type of repair work:
Dmtl: Repair with dismantlement
In cases in which the entire structure has suffered damage, the structure is dismantled and the damaged structural members are repaired, or replaced with new materials only when necessary. After the completion of repair, the repaired members are reassembled in the original location using the original architectural construction method. PDmtl: Repair with partial dismantlement Part of the structure is dismantled for repair without dismantling the major structural members. P: Partial repair Carried out for treatment of minor damage. Rf: Roofing repair
When damage to roofing tiles and roofing materials such as cedar bark occurs, the damaged parts or the entire roofing area is replaced. Pt: Painting repair Carried out when the painting or lacquerwork of the asset is discolored or damaged. D: Disaster repair
Carried out for treatment of disaster-caused damage. e. Policies and
programs related
to the preservation
and promotion of
the property
The “monuments” and “sites” (including cultural landscapes) included in the nominated property are under high standards of protection, having been designated as National Treasures, Important Cultural Properties, Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty and Natural Monuments under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties; in addition, parts of those cultural assets are also included in a National Park or a Quasi-national Park and given further protection. Repair work for National Treasures and Important Cultural Properties, which are “monuments” in the framework of the World Heritage program, is planned and carried out under the guidance of the Agency of Cultural Affairs and with financial support from the national government. The same is true for repair work and utilization of Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty, and Natural Monuments, which are “sites” (including cultural landscapes) in the framework of the World Heritage program. Efforts are being made successfully to ensure the appropriate implementation of those activities and to maintain the high level of technical skills by organizing periodical workshops and seminars every year. Repair works for National Treasures and Important Cultural Properties are planned by their owners and the Prefectural Governments together with the Agency for Cultural Affairs, and implemented by the Prefectural Board of Education in Nara Prefecture under contract with the property owners and by the Wakayamaken Bunkazai Center (the Foundation for the Protection of Cultural Properties of Wakayama Prefecture) in Wakayama Prefecture under contract with the property owners or municipal governments responsible as custodial bodies. The preservation and management of Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty and Natural Monuments are adequately carried out by their owners and the local governments appointed as custodial bodies; any alterations to the existing condition or any activities with potentially adverse effects in terms of conservation within the designated area are strictly controlled by 77 3. Description
the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties. It is the role of municipal governments, which are the custodial bodies of the Historic Sties, to plan the repair work and improvement work for the pilgrimage routes and the related stone structures such as Chôishi and excavation investigations of archeological remains such as sutra mound remains in consideration of the future needs for maintenance and utilization of the site in an adequate manner. Financial and technical support is provided by the Agency for Cultural Affairs and the Prefectural Boards of Education to assist them for this purpose. In addition, the Boards of Education of Mie Prefecture, Nara Prefecture and Wakayama Prefecture have prepared their own comprehensive plans for the conservation and utilization of the pilgrimage routes, religious archeological remains along them and the compounds of shrines and temples within their administrative boundaries, so that the conservation, utilization and promotion of the site can be best attained with clear vision and in coordination with similar efforts by local people. Already now, non-profit organizations (NPOs) are taking the initiative with various programs and activities for the utilization and promotion of the pilgrimage routes. Furthermore, “monument” buildings as well as the “sites” including cultural landscapes, which are Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty, and Natural Monuments under the domestic law of Japan, are made open to the public throughout the year by their owners; works of fine arts and crafts owned by shrines and temples are also open in exhibition facilities. In this manner, adequate measures for promotion of the nominated property are in operation. As is stated above, strict protection is provided to the nominated property under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties, the Natural Parks Law and other regulations, and this protection is further strengthened through various measures by owners, the national government, prefectural governments and other local governments of relevant cities, towns, and villages for preservation, conservation, utilization and promotion of the property. On the strength of these measures, the value of the nominated property as a Cultural Heritage is to be maintained and passed over to future generations. 78 4. Management 4. Management
4. Management
Ownership of the nominated property is shown in Table 2. Table 2. Owners and Locations of the Nominated Property Name of cultural asset Owner Location Yoshinoyama Private owners and local governments Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Yoshino
Mikumari-jinja
Kimpu-jinja Kimpu-jinja Kimpusen-ji Kimpusen-ji Yoshimizu-jinja Yoshimizu-jinja Yoshino-chô, Yoshino-gun, Nara Pref. Ôminesan-ji Ôminesan-ji Tenkawa-mura, Yoshino-gun, Nara Pref. Kumano Hongû Taisha Kumano Hongû
Taisha
Hongû-chô, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Pref. Kumano Hayatama Taisha
Kumano Hayatama Taisha and national government Shingû City, Wakayama Pref.; Kihô-chô, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Pref. Kumano Nachi Taisha
Kumano Nachi
Taisha
Seiganto-ji Nachisan Seiganto-ji Nachi no Ôtaki Nachi Primeval Forest
Kumano Nachi
Taisha
Fudarakusan-ji Nachisan Seiganto-ji Nachikatsuura-chô, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Pref. Niutsuhime-jinja Niutsuhime-jinja and national government Katsuragi-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Pref. Kongôbu-ji Kongôbu-ji and Kongôsammai-in Kôya-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Pref. Jison-in Jison-in Niukanshôfu-jinja Niukanshôfu-jinja Kudoyama-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Pref. a. Ownership Ômine
Okugakemichi
Private owners, national government and local governments
Yoshino-chô, Kawakami-mura, Kurotaki-mura, Tenkawa-mura, Kamikitayama-mura, Shimokitayama-mura, Totsukawa-mura and Ôtoh-mura, Yoshino-gun, Nara Pref.; Hongû-chô and Kumanogawa-chô, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Pref.. Management Name of cultural asset Owner Location
Kumano
Sankeimichi
Private owners, national government and local governments
Shingû City, Wakayama Pref.; Kôya-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Pref.; Shirahama-chô, Nakahechi-chô, Hikigawa-chô, Susami-chô, Nishimuro-gun, Wakayama Pref.; Nachikatsuura-chô, Kumanogawa-chô and Hongû-chô, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Pref.; Owase City and Kumano City, Mie Pref.; Ôuchiyama-mura, Watarai-gun, Mie Pref.; Kiinagashima-chô and Miyama-chô, Kitamuro-gun, Mie Pref.; Kiwa-chô, Kihô-chô, Mihama-chô and Udono-mura, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Pref.; Nosegawa-mura and Totsukawa-mura, Yoshino-gun, Nara Pref. Kôyasan Chôishimichi
Private owners, national government and local governments
Kudoyama-chô, Katsuragi-chô, and
Kôya-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Pref.
N.B. “Private owners” include private corporations and shared ownership. b. Legal status
The nominated property consists of monuments and sites including cultural landscapes, which are designated as National Treasures, Important Cultural Properties, Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty or Natural Monuments under Article 27 or Article 69 of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (promulgated on May 30, 1950, combining the former 1919 and 1929 laws; the original law was enacted in 1897) (hereinafter referred to as the “designated sites"; see Appendix 4 for the inventory of the cultural assets included in the nominated property and the copies of the official designation notices). Detailed information regarding the designated sites is given in Table 3. In principle, it is the owners or custodial bodies of the designated sites that manage, repair and open them to the public for promotion purposes in an appropriate manner. Alterations to the existing state of designated sites are legally restricted and any such alteration requires the prior permission of the national government (under Articles 43 and 80 of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties). 80 4. Management
The national government, when necessary, subsidizes the cost of repair and management of the designated sites and provides technical guidance (under Articles 35, 47, and 73 (2) ). As for the Historic Sites, the compounds of Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples are owned by religious organizations or individuals, whereas pilgrimage routes are owned by individuals or national or local governments. Places of Scenic Beauty and Natural Monuments are owned by private owners (private corporations) or national or local governments. In areas designated as a Special Protection Zone or a Special Zone of National Park or Quasi-national Park, neither any activities such as remodeling of an existing building or structure neither remodeling of an existing building or structure nor cutting of a standing tree or bamboo will be allowed without prior permission from the Minister of the Environment or the Prefectural Governor in a National Park or a Quasi-national Park, respectively (under Articles 13 and 14 of the Natural Parks Law). The management of Natural Parks can be assigned to custodial bodies other than the national government and prefectural governments, which are appointed under the provisions of the Natural Parks Law (under Articles 9 and 10). 81 Table.3. Classifications of the Cultural Assets Included in the “, and the Cultural Landscapes that Surround Them” under the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage and under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties World Heritage Classification Monument Site (Including Cultural Landscape) Classification under the Domestic Law*
Name of the Cultural Asset
National Treasure Important Cultural Property Historic Site Place of Scenic Beauty Natural Monument A Yoshinoyama ? ? ? B Yoshino Mikumari-jinja ? ?Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Shaden ?Yoshinoyama ? C Kimpu-jinja ? - ?Ômine Okugakemichi ? ? D Kimpusen-ji ?Kimpusen-ji Hondô ?Kimpusen-ji Kane no Torii ? ?Kimpusen-ji Niômon ?Yoshinoyama E Yoshimizu-jinja ? ?Yoshimizu-jinja Shoin ? 1 Yoshino and Ômine
F Ôminesan-ji ? ?Ôminesan-ji Hondô ?Ôminesan-ji (compound) [Ôminesan-ji Keidai]**
? ?
A Kumano Hongû Taisha ? ?Kumano Hongû Taisha Shaden ? ? B Kumano Hayatama Taisha ? ? ? ?Nagi tree of Kumano Hayatama Taisha (Kumano Hayatama-jinja no Nagi)
C Kumano Nachi Taisha ? ?Kumano Nachi Taisha Shaden ?Kumano Sanzan ? ? D Seiganto-ji ? ?Seiganto-ji Hondô ? ? ?Seiganto-ji Hôkyôintô E Nachi no Ôtaki ? ? ? ?Nachi no Ôtaki ? F Nachi Primeval Forest ? ? ? ? ?Nachi Primeval Forest [Nachi Genshirin] 2 Kumano Sanzan
G Fudarakusan-ji ? ? ?Kumano Sanzan ? ? A Niutsuhime-jinja ? ?Niutsuhime-jinja Honden ? ? ?Niutsuhime-jinja Rômon
?Niutsuhime-jinja (compound)
[Niutsuhime-jinja Keidai]
B Kongôbu-ji ?Kongôbu-ji Fudôdô ?Kongôbu-ji Sannô-in Honden ?Kongôsammai-in Tahôtô ?Kongôbu-ji Okuno-in Kyôzô ?Satake Yoshishige Reioku ?Matsudaira Hideyasu and Dôhaha Reioku [Matsudaira Hideyasu oyobi Dôhara Reioku] ?Kongôbu-ji (compound) [Kongôbu-ji Keidai]
? ?
?Uesugi Kenshin Reioku
?Kongôbu-ji Daimon
?Kongôsammai-in Kyôzô
?Kongôsammai-in Shishomyôjinsha Honden ?Kongôsammai-in Kyakuden and Daidokoro [Kongôsammai-in Kyakuden oyobi Daidokoro] ?Kongôbu-ji Tokugawake Reidai C Jison-in ? ?Jison-in Mirokudô ? ? 3 Kôyasan
D Niukanshôfu-jinja ? ?Niukanshôfu-jinja Honden ?Kôyasan Chôishimichi [Kôyasan Chôishi]
? ?
?Bukkyôgatake Primeval Forest
[Bukkyôgatake Genshirin]
A Ômine Okugakemichi ? ?Tamaki-jinja Shamusho and Daidokoro [Tamaki-jinja Shamusho oyobi Daidokoro] ?Ômine Okugakemichi ? ?Ôyamarenge Native Growth
[Ôyamarenge Jiseichi]
Nakahechi ? ? ? ?
Kohechi ? ? ?Kumano Sankeimichi ? ?
Ôhechi ? ? ? ?
B Kumano
Sankeimichi
Iseji ? ? ?Kumano no Oniga-jô including Shishiiwa (Kumano no Oniga-jô tsuketari Shishiiwa ] 4 Pilgrimage
routes
C Kôyasan Chôishimichi ? ? ?Kôyasan Chôishimichi [Kôyasan Chôishi]
? ?
Total number of “Cultural Properties” designated under the domestic law
4 23 Historic Site: 8, Place of Scenic Beauty:3, Natural Monument: 5 (including one duplicate designation of Historic Site and Place of Scenic Beauty and one duplicate designation of Natural Monument and Place of Scenic Beauty) Total number of the cultural assets included in the nominated property 27 14

  • Domestic law: the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties
    • When there is difference between the name of the asset in the nomination dossier and the Japanese name of the asset as registered under the domestic law, the Japanese name is added in brackets. N.B. 1A?F, 2A?F, 4A, and part of 4B are included in the Yoshino Kumano National Park; 3B and part of 4B are included in the Kôya Ryûjin Quasi-national Park. The locations of all the cultural assets designated as National Treasures or Natural Monuments are protected as part of Historic Sites or Places of Scenic Beauty. 4. Management c. Protective measures and

means of implementing
them i) The Nominated Property
The monuments and sites (including cultural landscapes) which comprise the nominated property are protected and preserved on the property as National Treasures, Important Cultural Properties, Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty or Natural Monuments designated by the national government under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties. In those areas, any alteration to the existing condition is prohibited without prior permission from the national government. Covering not only buildings designated as a National Treasure or an Important Cultural Property but also other cultural properties designated as a Historic Site, a Place of Scenic Beauty or a Natural Monument, the Boards of Education of Mie Prefecture, Nara Prefecture, and Wakayama Prefecture in sufficient coordination with the Agency for Cultural Affairs and municipal boards of education, which are custodial bodies of the individual cultural assets, have prepared a comprehensive preservation and management plan for the entire nominated property so as to implement preservation and management in a comprehensive and well-balanced manner. Based on and in compliance with the plan, each of the educational boards of the relevant municipal governments and prefectural governments has prepared its own individual preservation and management plan for practical measures of preservation and management. In addition, as a measure to ensure the implementation of the planned measures, the three prefectural boards of education are to establish specialized sections in their secretariat or staff full-time officers in charge of the preservation and management of the World Heritage and are to host coordination meetings with the educational boards of the municipal governments that are the legal custodial bodies of the individual cultural properties so that the preservation and management can be achieved in good cooperation with them. It is also incorporated in the comprehensive plan that each of the relevant municipal 85 4. Management governments, expected to take over the central role for the preservation and management in the future, establishes a specialized sections of its own for the preservation and management in consultation with prefectural governments. With regard to technical measures for protection of the nominated property, special attention is paid to fire prevention in consideration of the fact that most of the “monuments” included in the nominated property are wooden structures. To be specific, wooden structures designated as National Treasures or Important Cultural Properties are all equipped with automatic fire alarm systems and further protection is provided by fire extinguishing systems and lightning conductors. In addition, training is given regarding the operation of those the facilities and equipment and the emergency measures to be taken when a fire actually occurs. In the areas included in the Special Zone or the Special Protection Zone of a National Park or Quasi-national Park, the National Government and the Prefectural Governments are taking all necessary measures for the protection of the scenic beauty under the Natural Parks Law. ii) The Buffer Zone
The buffer zones surrounding the nominated property are regulated through various applicable laws and local governments’ ordinances to ensure that the historic and natural settings and scenic beauty and natural environment of these areas will be conserved in harmony with the nominated property. The protection of the buffer zone is to be implemented through concerted efforts by the Agency for Cultural Affairs and the Ministry of the Environment in full coordination with other related ministries and agencies. In step with these efforts, each prefectural government, especially its educational board, will work for the protection of the buffer zones in coordination with related prefectural departments and bureaus. 86 4. Management Name of the cultural asset
included in the nominated
property
Legal instruments / measures for protection within the buffer zone
Yoshinoyama
Yoshino Mikumari-jinja
Kimpu-jinja
Kimpusen-ji
Yoshimizu-jinja
Ôminesan-ji
Through designations of Special Protection Zone, Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 Special Zones (under the Natural Parks Law), Reserved Forest (under the Forest Law), and Landscape Conservation Area (under the Yoshino Town Historic Landscape Conservation Ordinance), the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Kumano Hongû Taisha Through designations of Class 2 Special Zone (under the Natural Parks Law) and Landscape Conservation Area (under the Hongû Town Landscape Conservation Ordinance), cutting of standing trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Kumano Hayatama Taisha Through designations of Class 1 and Class 2 Special Zones (under the Natural Parks Law), Reserved Forest (under the Forest Law), and Landscape Conservation Area (under the Shingu City Historic Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, and the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Kumano Nachi Taisha Seiganto- ji Nachi no Ôtaki Nachi Primeval Forest
Through designations of Special Protection Zone, Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 Special Zones (under the Natural Parks Law), Reserved Forest (under the Forest Law), and Landscape Conservation Area (under the Nachikatsuura Town Historic Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Fudarakusan-ji Through designation of Landscape Conservation Area (under the Nachikatsuura Town Historic, Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Niutsuhime-jinja Through designation of Class 3 Special Zone (under the Wakayama Prefectural Natural Parks Ordinance), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Kongôbu-ji Through designations of Class 1 and Class 2 Special Zones (under the Natural Parks Law), Reserved Forest (under the Forest Law) , Town Landscape Formation Zone and Natural Landscape Conservation Zone (under the Kôya Town Ordinance for Historic and Cultural Resources and the Formation of Town Landscape and Natural Landscape), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Jison-in Niukanshôfu-jinja Through designations of Class 3 Special Zone (under the Wakayama Prefectural Natural Parks Ordinance) and Cultural Landscape Protection Area (under the Kudoyama Town Ordinance Concerning Conservation of Landscapes around Kôyasan Chôishimichi), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. 87 4. Management Name of the cultural asset included in the nominated
property
Legal instruments / measures for protection within the buffer zone
Ômine Okugakemichi Through designations of Special Protection Zone, Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 Special Zones (under the Natural Parks Law), Reserved Forest (under the Forest Law), Special Zone for Conservation of the Natural Environment (under the Nara Prefecture Natural Environment Conservation Ordinance), and Landscape Conservation Areas (under the Hongû Town Landscape Conservation Ordinance, the Kumanogawa Town Historic Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance, the Yoshino Town Historic Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance, the Kawakami Village Ordinance Concerning Conservation of Historic Cultural Landscapes of the Ômine Okugakemichi, the Kurotaki Village Ordinance Concerning Conservation of Historic Cultural Landscapes of the Ômine Okugakemichi and Totsukawa Village Ordinance Concerning Conservation of Historic Cultural Landscapes of the Kumano Kodô Kohechi and the Ômine Okugakemichi), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Kumano Sankeimichi Nakahechi Through designations of Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 Special Zones (under the Natural Parks Law), Reserved Forest (under the Forest Law), and Landscape Conservation Areas (under the Nakahechi Town Historic Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance, the Hongû Town Landscape Conservation Ordinance, the Kumanogawa Town Historic Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance, the Nachikatsuura Town Historic Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance, and the Shingu City Historic Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance). cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Kumanogawa Through designations of Class 2 and Class 3 Special Zones (under the Natural Parks Law), River Zone (under the River Law) and Landscape Conservation Areas (under the Hongû Town Landscape Conservation Ordinance, and the Shingu City Historic Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Kohechi Through designations of Class 2 and Class 3 Special Zones (under the Natural Parks Law), Reserved Forest (under the Forest Law), Natural Landscape Conservation Zone (under the Kôya Town Ordinance for Historic and Cultural Resources and the Formation of Town Landscape and Natural Landscape), and Landscape Conservation Areas (under the Hongû Landscape Conservation Ordinance, the Nosegawa Village Ordinance Concerning Conservation of Historic Cultural Landscapes of the Kumano Kodô Kohechi and the Totsukawa Village Ordinance Concerning Conservation of Historic Cultural Landscapes of the Kumano Kodô Kohechi and the Ômine Okugakemichi), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. 88 4. Management Name of the cultural asset included in the nominated
property
Legal instruments / measures for protection within the buffer zone
Ôhechi Through designations of Reserved Forest (under the Forest Law), River Zone (under the River Law), Class 3 Special Zone (under the Wakayama Prefectural Natural Parks Ordinance) and Cultural Landscape Protection Areas (under the Shirahama Town Ordinance Concerning Protection of Cultural Landscapes around the Kumano Kodô Ôhechi Tondazaka, the Hikigawa Town Ordinance Concerning Protection of Cultural Landscapes around the Kumano Kodô Ôhechi Tondazaka and Hotokezaka and the Susami Town Ordinance Concerning Protection of Cultural Landscapes around the Kumano Kodô Ôhechi), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Iseji Through designations of Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 Special Zones (under the Natural Parks Law), Seacoast Conservation Area (under the Seacoast Law), Port Area (under the Port and Harbor Law), River Zone (under the River Law), Reserved Forest (under the Forest Law), Cultural Landscape Conservation Areas (under the Ouchiyama Village Ordinance Concerning Protection of Cultural Landscapes of the Kumano Sankeimichi Iseji, the Kiinagashima Town Ordinance Concerning Protection of Cultural Landscapes of the Kumano Sankeimichi Iseji, the Miyama Town Ordinance Concerning Protection of Cultural Landscapes of the Kumano Sankeimichi Iseji, the Owase City Ordinance Concerning Protection of Cultural Landscapes of the Kumano Sankeimichi Iseji, Kumano City Ordinance Concerning Protection of Cultural Landscapes of the Kumano Sankeimichi Iseji, Mihama Town Ordinance Concerning Protection of Cultural Landscapes of the Kumano Sankeimichi Iseji, the Kiwa Town Ordinance Concerning Protection of Cultural Landscapes of the Kumano Sankeimichi Iseji, the Hongû Town Landscape Conservation Ordinance, and the Kumanogawa Town Historic Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. Kôyasan Chôishimichi Through designations of Class 1 and Class 3 Special Zones (under the Natural Parks Law), Reserved Forest (under the Forest Law), Class 3 Special Zone (under the Wakayama Prefectural Natural Parks Ordinance), Cultural Landscape Protection Area (under the Kudoyama Town Ordinance Concerning Conservation of Landscapes around Kôyasan Chôishimichi) and Natural Landscape Conservation Zone (under the Kôya Town Ordinance for Local Historic and Cultural Resources and the Formation of Town Landscape and Natural Landscape), cutting of trees, alteration to the existing land configuration, the height, design and color of buildings, etc. are controlled. 89
 4. Management
Appendix 3. Maps indicating the extent of the nominated property and the buffer zone
a. The extent of the nominated property and the buffer zone with indication of the zones of legal protection b. The distribution of main buildings included in the nominated property Appendix 8. Summary of laws and regulations which control the nominated property and the buffer zone
Additional Reference Material 2. Laws and regulations a. The Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties b. Natural Park System based on Natural Parks Law d. Agencies with management authority Agency for Cultural Affairs 3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo Ministry of the Environment 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo e. Level at which management is exercised
and name and address of
responsible person for
contact purposes
The maintenance and management of the cultural assets included in the nominated property is the responsibility of the local governments which are the custodial bodies appointed under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties. Not only ordinary maintenance work including day-to-day patrol of the nominated property and cleanups but also installations of fire protection facilities, signs, and instruction signboards are carried out by them, as appropriate. Any alterations to or activities with adverse effects on the existing condition of the cultural properties designated under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties require prior permission from the Commissioner of the Agency for Cultural Affairs; small-scale repair or restoration for maintenance purposes also requires prior submission of notification. In response, the Agency for Cultural Affairs provides the necessary technical instructions, so that the high standard of preservation and management has been maintained. The names and addresses of responsible persons for contact purposes are listed in Chapter 6.
90
 4. Management
f. Agreed plans related to
property
Agreed plans related to the cultural assets included in the nominated property and their buffer zones are summarized as follows: Kumano Sankeimichi (Kumanogawa) There is a plan for road improvement of the Route 168 along the Kumano River, or Kumanogawa. However, most of the construction will be conducted outside the buffer zone. In addition, the construction shall be planned and conducted with due attention to the preservation of the value of the natural environments surrounding the nominated property in compliance with the Natural Parks Law. Accordingly, the value of the nominated property will be sufficiently preserved. Kumano Sankeimichi (Nakahechi) In the buffer zone near Jûjôtôge (in Nakahechi-chô), construction of forestry roads is planned. The construction shall be planned and conducted with due attention to the preservation of the values of the natural environments and historic cultural landscapes surrounding the nominated property in compliance with the Nakahechi Town Historic Cultural Landscape Conservation Ordinance. Accordingly, the value of the nominated property will be sufficiently preserved. Kumano Sankeimichi (Ôhechi and Iseji) There is a plan for construction of the Kinki Motorway Kisei Line. However, the relevant sections in the nominated area and the buffer zone are planned to pass deeply underground in a tunnel. The construction of the tunnel will be done with no significant adverse effects against underground remains. Accordingly, the value of the nominated property will be sufficiently preserved. g. Sources and levels of finance It is a general rule that the owners and custodial bodies of the cultural properties included in the nominated property are responsible for essential day-to-day maintenance and management in terms of manpower and finance. On the other hand, in the case of repair work and conservation on the monuments, the owners 91 4. Management and custodial bodies can receive financial support, when approved necessary, from the national government, which subsidizes 50 % to 85 % of the total cost. In the case of restoration work on sites (including cultural landscapes) or in the case of improvement of their natural and cultural setting, the owners and custodial bodies can receive financial support, when approved necessary, from the national government, which subsidizes 50 % of the total cost. When it is a religious organization or an individual instead of a local government that carries out those works, additional financial supports can be available from prefectural governments and municipal governments. In addition, similar financial support is provided for the installation of disaster prevention facilities as well. From the viewpoint of appropriate utilization of natural parks, the national government subsidizes 50 % of the necessary cost for the local governments’ projects contributing to the improvement of National Parks or Quasi-national Parks. h. Sources of expertise and training in conservation
and management
techniques
As a measure for adequate preservation and management of the nominated property, the educational boards of the three related prefectural governments and other related organizations staff full-time officers and professional engineers with technical skills and experiences of the high standard necessary for conservation and maintenance of cultural properties in order to assist municipal governments in the management of cultural properties. For the purpose of improving their skills, these organizations take active measures to promote opportunities for the engineers to participate in training seminars, such as those held by the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties. 92 4. Management
i. Visitor facilities and
statistics
The nominated property and the surrounding area, including the national park area and other scenic spots, shows the seasonally changing beauty of the natural landscapes, attracting many visitors all through the year. A large number of people enjoy walking on the pilgrimage routes. Approximately 15 million tourists visit the nominated area and its vicinity every year, of whom about 26,000 are tourists from outside of Japan. For the convenience of those tourists, explanatory signboards and signposts are set up. In addition, mainly in the buffer zones, visitors' service facilities such as car parking, lavatories and museums are installed. Appendix 12. Plans indicating locations of support facilities and facilities for visitors j. Property management plan and statement of
objectives
The list of the management plans is given in Table 4 below. Among the listed management plans, the “Comprehensive Preservation and Management Plan for the , and Cultural Landscapes that Surround Them” has been prepared by the educational boards of Mie Prefecture, Nara Prefecture and Wakayama Prefecture in close coordination with the Agency for Cultural Affairs and educational boards of the municipal governments for the purpose of organizing and implementing comprehensive preservation and management for the entire nominated property. Based on this plan, individual preservation and management plans are prepared for practical preservation and management works by the educational boards of prefectural governments or municipal governments that are the legal custodial bodies of the individual Historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty and Natural Monuments. As a measure to put those plans into practice, each educational board of the three related prefectures establishes a specialized section in its secretariat or staffs 4. Management
full-time officers and hosts coordination meetings to ensure sufficient coordination with the educational boards of the municipal governments. The educational boards of the relevant municipal governments, which are expected to take over the central role in the preservation and management in the future, are also to establish their own specialized section for the preservation and management in consultation with the prefectural governments. For the area included in Yoshino Kumano National Park, from the viewpoints of the protection and management of natural parks, the Ministry of the Environment (Kinki Regional Office for Nature Conservation, Nature Conservation Bureau) has prepared management plans through discussions of experienced academic experts and related local governments. Table 4. List of Management Plans
Name of cultural asset Management plan Responsible agency Entire nominated property Comprehensive Preservation and Management Plan for the , and Cultural Landscapes that Surround Them Mie Prefectural BoE. Nara Prefectural BoE. Wakayama Prefectural BoE. Yoshinoyama, Yoshino
Mikumari-jinja, Kimpusen-ji, and Yoshimizu-jinja Preservation and Management Plan for the Historic Site and Place of Scenic Beauty, Yoshinoyama Nara Prefectural BoE. Kimpu-jinja Yoshino Town Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi Yoshino Town BoE. Ôminesan-ji Tenkawa Village Preservation and Management Plan for the compound of Ôminesan-ji Tenkawa Village BoE. Kumano Hongû Taisha, Kumano Hayatama Taisha,
Kumano Nachi
Taisha,
Seiganto-ji, and Fudarakusan-ji Preservation and Management Plan for Kumano Sanzan, and Preservation and Management Plan for the Historic Site, the “Kumano Sankeimichi”, the Historic Site, “Kumano Sanzan (Mifunejima)”, and the Natural Monument and Place of Scenic Beauty, “Kumano no Oniga-jô inc. Shishiiwa” Wakayama Prefectural BoE. Mie Prefectural BoE. Sonaezaki kyôzukagun Wakayama Prefecture Preservation and Management Plan for Pilgrimage Routes Wakayama Prefectural BoE. 4. Management Nachi no Ôtaki and Nachi Primeval Forest Preservation and Management Plan for Nachi no Ôtaki and Nachi Primeval Forest Wakayama Prefectural BoE. Niutsuhime-jinja and Kongôbu-ji Preservation and Management Plan for the Compounds of Kongôbu-ji and Niutsuhime-jinja Wakayama Prefectural BoE. Jison-in and Niukanshôfu-jinja Wakayama Prefecture Preservation and Management Plan for Pilgrimage Routes Wakayama Prefectural BoE. Ômine Okugakemichi Wakayama Prefecture Preservation and Management Plan for Pilgrimage Routes, Yoshino Town Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi, Kawakami Village Town Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi, Kurotaki Village Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi, Tenkawa Village Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi, Ôtoh Village Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi, Kamikitayama Village Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi, Shimokitayama Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi, and Totsukawa Village Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi, Wakayama Prefectural BoE. Yoshino Town BoE. Kawakami Village BoE. Kurotaki Village BoE.
Tenkawa Village BoE.
Ôtoh Village BoE. Kamikitayama
Village BoE.
Shimokitayama
Village BoE.
Totsukawa Village BoE.
Tamaki-jinja Totsukawa Village Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi, Totsukawa Village BoE. Ôyamarenge Native Growth
Tenkawa Village Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi and Ôtoh Village Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi Tenkawa Village BoE. Ôtoh Village BoE. Bukkyôgatake Primeval Forest Kamikitayama Village Preservation and Management Plan for the Ômine Okugakemichi Kamikitayama Village BoE.
Kumano Sankeimichi Nakahechi Wakayama Prefecture Preservation and Management Plan for Pilgrimage Routes Wakayama Prefectural BoE. 95 4. Management
Kumanogawa Preservation and Management Plan for Kumano Sanzan, and Preservation and Management Plan for the Historic Site, the “Kumano Sankeimichi”, the Historic Site, “Kumano Sanzan (Mifunejima)”, and the Natural Monument and Place of Scenic Beauty, “Kumano no Oniga- jô inc. Shishiiwa” Mie Prefectural BoE. Kohechi Wakayama Prefecture Preservation and Management Plan for Pilgrimage Routes, Nosegawa Village Preservation and Management Plan for the Kumano Sankeimichi Kohechi, and Totsukawa Village Preservation and Management Plan for the Kumano Sankeimichi Kohechi Wakayama
Prefectural BoE. Nosegawa Village BoE.
Totsukawa Village BoE.
Ôhechi Wakayama Prefecture Preservation and Management Plan for Pilgrimage Routes Wakayama
Prefectural BoE. Iseji Wakayama Prefecture Preservation and Management Plan for Pilgrimage Routes, and Preservation and Management Plan for the Historic Site, the “Kumano Sankeimichi”, the Historic Site, “Kumano Sanzan (Mifunejima)”, and the Natural Monument and Place of Scenic Beauty, “Kumano no Oniga-jô inc. Shishiiwa” Wakayama
Prefectural BoE. Mie Prefectural BoE. Kôyasan
Chôishimichi
Wakayama Prefecture Preservation and Management Plan for Pilgrimage Routes Wakayama
Prefectural BoE. N.B. BoE: Board of Education k. Staffing levels
The professional staff, including staff researchers and technical engineers affiliated with the organization listed below, is in charge of the management of the nominated property. The local governments of relevant cities, towns, and villages are to take the necessary measures to maintain and improve the professional management staff, whereas the national government and the relevant prefectural governments will strengthen support for those local governments in their efforts in this regard. In addition, close exchange of technical information on management among the national government, prefectural governments and municipal governments shall be 96 4. Management maintained.
(1) For matters pertinent to the whole nominated property Agency for Cultural Affairs
3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
Mie Prefectural Board of Education
13 Hiroaki-chô, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture Nara Prefectural Board of Education
30 Noboriôji-chô, Nara City, Nara Prefecture Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education 1-1 Komatsubaradôri, Wakayama City, Wakayama Prefecture (2) For matters pertinent to individual cultural assets included in the nominated property Name of cultural asset
Organization Contact Address
Yoshinoyama,
Yoshino
Mikumari-jinja,
Kimpu-jinja,
Kimpusen-ji, and
Yoshimizu-jinja
Yoshino Town BoE 80-1 Kamiichi, Yoshino-chô, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Ôminesan-ji Tenkawa Village BoE 60 Sawatani, Tenkawa-mura, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Kumano Hongû
Taisha
Hongu Town BoE.
Kyûshachi
Ôyunohara and
Sonaezaki
Kyôzukagun
Hongu Town BoE.
219 Hongû, Hongû-chô,
Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Shingu City BoE. 1-1 Kasuga, Shingû City, Wakayama Prefecture
Kumano Hayatama
Taisha
Kiho Town BoE. 656 Narukawa, Kihô-chô, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture
Kumano Nachi
Taisha,
Seiganto-ji,
Fudarakusan-ji,
Nachi no Ôtaki, and
Nachi Primeval Forest
Nachikatsuura Town
BoE.
1185-1 Temma,
Nachikatsuura-chô,
Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Niutsuhime-jinja Katsuragi Town BoE. 2160 Chônomachi, Katsuragi-chô, Ito-gun,
Wakayama Prefecture
Kongôbu-ji Koya Town BoE. 636 Kôyasan, Kôya-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
97
 4. Management
Jison-in and
Niukanshôfu-jinja
Kudoyama Town
BoE.
1190 Kudoyama, Kudoyama-chô,
Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Yoshino Town BoE. 80-1 Kamiichi, Yoshino-chô, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Kawakami Village
BoE.
590-1 Sako, Kawakami-mura,
Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Kurotaki Village
BoE.
77 Terado, Kurotaki-mura,
Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Tenkawa Village
BoE.
60 Sawatani, Tenkawa-mura,
Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Otoh Village BoE. 41 Tsujidô, Ôtoh-mura, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Kamikitayama
Village BoE.
330 Kawai, Kamikitayama-mura,
Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Shimokitayama
Village BoE.
983 Teragaito,
Shimokitayama-mura,
Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Totsukawa Village
BoE.
225-1 Ohara, Totsukawa-mura,
Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Kumanogawa Town
BoE.
350 Hitari, Kumanogawa-chô,
Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Ômine Okugakemichi
Hongu Town BoE. 219 Hongû, Hongû-chô, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Tamaki-jinja, Totsukawa Village
BoE.
225-1 Ohara, Totsukawa-mura,
Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Tenkawa Village
BoE.
60 Sawatani, Tenkawa-mura,
Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Ôyamarenge
Native Growth,
Otoh Village BoE. 41 Tsujido, Ôtoh-mura, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Bukkyôgatake
Primeval Forest
Kamikitayama
Village BoE.
330 Kawai, Kamikitayama-mura,
Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Kumano Sankeimichi
Shingu City BoE. 1-1 Kasuga, Shingû City, Wakayama Prefecture
Nakahechi Town
BoE.
396-1 Kurisugawa,
Nakahechi-chô, Nishimuro-gun,
Wakayama Prefecture
Nachikatsuura Town
BoE.
1185-1 Temma,
Nachikatsuura-chô,
Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Kumanogawa Town
BoE.
350 Hitari, Kumanogawa-chô,
Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Nakahechi
Hongu Town BoE. 219 Hongû, Hongû-chô, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Kiwa Town BoE. 82 Itaya, Kiwa-chô,
Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture
Kiho Town BoE. 656 Narukawa, Kihô-chô, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture
Shingu City BoE. 1-1 Kasuga, Shingû City, Wakayama Prefecture
Kumanogawa
Kumanogawa Town
BoE.
350 Hitari, Kumanogawa-chô,
Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
98
 4. Management
Hongu Town BoE. 219 Hongû, Hongû-chô, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Nosegawa Village
BoE.
84 Kitamata, Nosegawa-mura,
Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Totsukawa Village
BoE.
225-1 Ohara, Totsukawa-mura,
Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture
Koya Town BoE. 636 Kôyasan, Kôya-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Kohechi
Hongu Town BoE. 219 Hongû, Hongû-chô, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Shirahama Town
BoE.
1600 Shirahama-chô,
Nishimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Hikigawa Town BoE. 980-1 Hiki, Hikigawa-chô, Nishimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Ôhechi
Susami Town BoE. 4120-1 Susami, Susami-chô, Nishimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Owase City BoE. 10-50 Nakamura-chô, Owase City, Mie Prefecture
Kumano City BoE. 796 Ido-chô, Kumano City, Mie Prefecture
Ouchiyama Village
BoE.
849-3 Ouchiyama-mura,
Watarai-gun, Mie Prefecture
Kiinagashima Town
BoE.
2141 Nagashima,
Kiinagashima-chô,
Kitamuro-gun, Mie Prefecture
Miyama Town BoE. 495-8 Aiga, Miyama-chô, Kitamuro-gun, Mie Prefecture
Mihama Town BoE. 6120-1 Atawa, Mihama-chô, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture
Kiwa Town BoE. 82 Itaya, Kiwa-chô,
Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture
Kiho Town BoE. 656 Narukawa, Kihô-chô, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture
Udono Village BoE. 324 Udono-mura,
Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture
Kumanogawa Town
BoE.
350 Hitari, Kumanogawa-chô,
Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Iseji
Hongu Town BoE. 219 Hongû, Hongû-chô, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Katsuragi Town BoE. 2160 Chônomachi,
Katsuragi-chô, Ito-gun,
Wakayama Prefecture
Kudoyama Town
BoE.
1190 Kudoyama, Kudoyama-chô,
Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
Kôyasan Chôishimichi
Koya Town BoE. 636 Kôyasan, Kôya-chô, Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture
N.B. BoE: Board of Education
Detailed information relevant to this section is given in an appendix of Chapter 6. 99
5. Factors Affecting the Property
 5. Factors Affecting the Property
5. Factors Affecting the
Property
a. Development pressures
Any future construction activities in the nominated area or the buffer zones are to be controlled under the provisions of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties, the Natural Parks Law, the Forest Law, local governments’ landscape conservation ordinances and other regulations in terms of scale, shape and structure including building height, color and exterior design, so that there will be no development that would undermine the value of the nominated property. In addition, efforts will be made to utilize the nominated property in school education, as appropriate, and to carry out awareness-raising activities targeted at local people, tourists and related industries for the purpose of the protection of the nominated property and historic cultural landscapes and natural landscapes and encouraging the voluntary participation of local people so as eventually to promote further the protection and conservation of the nominated property and the buffer zones. b. Environmental pressures At present, no environmental changes or pressures that would significantly undermine the value of the nominated property are expected. In case that any such environmental change should occur, prompt countermeasures shall be taken. c. Natural disasters and preparedness Major natural disasters which could occur in the location of the nominated property include damage to pilgrimage routes caused by typhoons or heavy rains such as tree blowdowns and landslides. However, from the viewpoints of the protection of cultural properties and the environmental improvement in the buffer zones, legislative instruments and working organizations have been put in place to take prompt restoration measures in case any disaster occurs. Therefore, the value of the nominated property will not be undermined. . Factors Affecting the Property
In addition, as preventive measures against damage by earthquakes and fire, structural reinforcement and installation of fire protection facilities such as automatic fire alarms, fire extinguishing systems and lightning conductors have been completed. d. Visitor / tourism pressure
For the pilgrimage routes running through mountain areas, it is necessary to install the minimum visitor facilities and service facilities including rest stops, toilets, overlooks, emergency shelters and emergency phones. Those facilities have been installed for the part of the pilgrimage routes where the repair works and conservation works have been completed. As for the remaining parts, they are planned to be installed in the future. On the other hand, villages, accommodations or refuge shelters are accessible within one day’s walk from any point in the route and the nominated area except for the Ômine Okugakemichi is widely covered by the mobile phone service area, making new installations of emergency shelters unnecessary in most of the nominated area. In the residential areas adjoining the compounds of shrines and temples, new construction or the remodeling of shops or other structures are controlled under the provisions of the Natural Parks Law and the cultural landscape conservation ordinances by related municipal governments and appropriate measures will be taken so that there will not be any significant deterioration of the value of the nominated property and the surrounding settings. With regard to the potential increase of waste due to a larger number of tourists, the related local governments will take the appropriate measures in cooperation with local people. In addition, as a measure to mitigate the tourism pressure against the nominated property, awareness-raising campaigns and the installation of explanatory signboards will be carried out in order to encourage and maintain the adequate level of utilization. 102
 5. Factors Affecting the Property
e. Number of inhabitants
within property and buffer
zone Number of inhabitants within the nominated property and the buffer zones Name of the cultural asset Population within the nominated property Population within the
buffer zone
Yoshinoyama 2
Yoshino Mikumari-jinja 0
Kimpu-jinja 0
Kimpusen-ji 3
Yoshimizu-jinja 2
843
Ôminesan-ji 0 0
Kumano Hongû Taisha 0 377
Kumano Hayatama Taisha 11 595
Kumano Nachi Taisha
Seiganto-ji
Nachi no Ôtaki
Nachi Primeval Forest
0 145
Fudarakusan-ji 0 41
Niutsuhime-jinja 0 23
Kongôbu-ji 23 2,197
Jison-in
Niukanshôfu-jinja
6 208
Ômine Okugakemichi 1 0
Kumano Sankeimichi
Nakahechi 0 1,489
Kumanogawa 0 0
Kohechi 0 77
Ôhechi 2 33
Iseji 0 5
Kôyasan Chôishimichi 0 31
103
6. Monitoring
 6. Monitoring
6. Monitoring
a. Key indicators for
measuring state of
conservation The monuments and sites (including cultural landscapes) included in the nominated property and their buffer zones are monitored periodically and systematically for the purpose of building the capacity and ensuring technical improvement for repair, restoration, maintenance, disaster prevention and risk control, according to the three indicators listed below. Specific items for measurement are given in Annexed Table 1. Key Indicator 1: the state of conservation in terms of the significance of the property and the authenticity of the property, as stated in Chapter 2 on the justification for inscription. Key Indicator 2: the effectiveness of the management system, as stated in Chapter 4 on management. Key Indicator 3: the effects of affecting factors (visitor / tourism pressures, environmental pressures, natural disasters, development pressures etc.) upon the nominated property and the buffer zone, in relation to Chapter 5 on factors affecting the property. In addition, in recognition of the spirit of the 1972 World Heritage Convention and in light of the high value of the nominated property in the context of contemporary society, a fourth key indicator is set to realize a comprehensive preservation plan which would not interfere with the development of the region and which could even help promote it. Specific items for measurement are given in Annexed Table 2. Key Indicator 4: the degree of achievement in development of the region including the nominated property together with the buffer 105 6. Monitoring zones and vicinity toward an internationally-oriented resort in harmony with natural settings and cultural tradition (as stated in Chapter 5). b. Administrative arrangements for
monitoring property The monitoring, including periodic reporting, will be carried out under the supervision of the Agency for Cultural Affairs, by the educational boards of the three related prefectures and other municipal governments, as is shown in section 1-c of Annexed Table 1. In accordance with Paragraph 72 of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (1999), the condition of the property is recorded every fiscal year and a periodic report is compiled every six years to be submitted (in English) to the World Heritage Committee via the UNESCO World Heritage Centre. In the implementation of the monitoring including periodic reporting, consultation and coordination will be sought as necessary with the Ministry of the Environment and other related organizations. c. Results of previous reporting exercises
Reports and other published documents related to the monuments and sites included in the nominated property are listed in Annexed Table 3. 106 Annexed Table 1. Items for measurement of key indicators 1, 2 and 3. Key Indicator 1: the state of conservation in terms of the significance of the property and the authenticity of the property. Key Indicator 2: the effectiveness of the management system. Key Indicator 3: the effects of affecting factors (visitor / tourism pressures, environmental pressures, natural disasters, development pressures etc.) upon the nominated property and the buffer zone. Category Sub-category Target Index 1) Management a) Conservation Nominated property 1. Owners or responsible organizations (with names and titles of representatives): Yoshinoyama: Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YAWATA Chuichi). Yoshino Mikumari-jinja:
Yoshino Mikumari-jinja. Representative: representative director (YAMAMOTO Kiyohisa). Kimpusen-ji:
Kimpusen-ji. Representative: representative director (GOJO Junkyo). Yoshimizu-jinja:
Yoshimizu-jinja. Representative: representative director (SATO Kazuhiko). Ôminesan-ji:
Ôminesan-ji. Representative: representative director (OKADA Etsuo). Tenkawa Village Board of Education. Representative: deputy director (NISHIOKA Moriyuki). Kumano Hongû Taisha: Kumano Hongû Taisha. Representative: chief priest (KUKI Ietaka). Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Kumano Hongû Taisha (Sonaezaki Kyôzukagun): Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Kumano Hayatama Taisha: Kumano Hayatama Taisha. Representative:chief priest (UENO Akira). Shingu Municipal Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (NAKAMURA Hiroshi). Kiho Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KATO Kiyomitsu). Kumano Nachi Taisha: Kumano Nachi Taisha. Representative: chief priest (ASAHI Yoshihide). Seiganto-ji:
Nachisan Seiganto-ji. Representative: chief priest (TAKAGI Ryokyo). Fudarakusan-ji:
Fudarakusan-ji. Representative: chief priest (TAKAGI Ryokyo). Nachi no Ôtaki:
Kumano Nachi Taisha. Representative: chief priest (ASAHI Yoshihide). Nachi Primeval Forest:
Kumano Nachi Taisha. Representative: chief priest (ASAHI Yoshihide). Niutsuhime-jinja:
Niutsuhime-jinja. Representative: priest (NAKATANI Kensei). Katsuragi Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (UCHIDA Katsumi). Kongôbu-ji: Kongôbu-ji. Representative: executive officer (HABUKAWA Shodo). Koyasan Society for the Preservation of Cultural Properties: Representative: chairperson (HABUKAWA Shodo). Jison-in: Jison-in. Representative: chief priest (ANNEN Seiho). Niukanshôfu-jinja: Niukanshôfu-jinja. Representative: chief priest (MIYAZAKI Shiro). Kudoyama Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (UEURA Noboru). Ômine Okugakemichi: Yoshino Town Board of Education. Representative:head of the education dept. (OKAMOTO Akira). Kawakami Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (TATSUMI Takemi). Kurotaki Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KITA Kazuo). Tenkawa Village Board of Education. Representative: deputy director (NISHIOKA Moriyuki). Otoh Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (ITO Tadashi). Kamikitayama Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (NAKAOKA Takayuki). Category Sub-category Target Index Shimokitayama Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (HIGASHI Kusuki). Totsukawa Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YAMAMOTO Chusuke). Kumanogawa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KIMURA Yasufumi). Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Ômine Okugakemichi (Tamaki-jinja): Tamaki-jinja. Representative: representative director (SATO Masashi). Totsukawa Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YAMAMOTO Chusuke).Ômine Okugakemichi (Ôyamarenge Native Growth): Tenkawa Village Board of Education. Representative: deputy director (NISHIOKA Moriyuki). Otoh Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (ITO Tadashi). Ômine Okugakemichi (Bukkyôgatake Primeval Forest): Kamikitayama Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (NAKAOKA Takayuki). Kumano Sankeimichi (Nakahechi): Shingu Municipal Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (NAKAMURA Hiroshi). Nakahechi Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept.(NISHI Takashi) Nachikatsuura Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (SHIMOSAKI Hiromichi). Kumanogawa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KIMURA Yasufumi). Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Kumano Sankeimichi (Nakahechi: Kumanogawa): Kiwa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (MATSUDA Masamichi). Kiho Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KATO Kiyomitsu). Shingu Municipal Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (NAKAMURA Hiroshi). Kumanogawa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KIMURA Yasufumi). Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Kumano Sankeimichi (Kohechi): Nosegawa Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (TSUCHIDA Shiro). Totsukawa Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YAMAMOTO Chusuke). Koya Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OGURA Masaharu). Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Kumano Sankeimichi (Ôhechi): Shirahama Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (ISHIDA Takeo). Hikigawa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OIYA Gitaro). Susami Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (FURUTA Koji). Kumano Sankeimichi (Iseji): Owase Municipal Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (HIGASHI Toshizo). Kumano Municipal Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (SUZUKI Shozo). Ouchiyama Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OUCHI Musubu). Kiinagashima Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OGURA Hajimu). Miyama Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KITA Takeshi). Mihama Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (HIZUKURI Isao). Kiwa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (MATSUDA Masamichi). Kiho Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KATO Kiyomitsu). Udono Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OOKA Haruo). Kumanogawa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KIMURA Yasufumi). Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Kôyasan Chôishimichi: Katsuragi Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (UCHIDA Katsumi). Kudoyama Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (UEURA Noboru). Koya Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OGURA Masaharu). Category Sub-category Target Index 2.Supervising organizations: Organization: the Agency for Cultural Affairs. Representative: commissioner (KAWAI Hayao). Staff in charge: director of the monuments and sites division (OKI Takahito). 3. Advisory organization: Organization: Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OZEKI Youji). Staff in charge: director of the education division (OTA Yuzo). Organization: Mie Prefectural Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (DOBASHI Nobuyoshi). Staff in charge: manager of the protection of cultural properties (KOMADA Toshiharu). a) Conservation Nominated property Organization: Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YAWATA Chuichi). Staff in charge: director of the division of the protection of cultural properties (ISHIMOTO Takao). 1. Organizations and persons in charge of fire prevention and leaders of fire fighting squads. Yoshinoyama: Yoshino Regional Fire Department: head of the office: fire chief (NAKANO Satoshi). Person in charge: Leader of fire fighting squad: captain of Yoshino 1st division, Yoshino Town fire brigade (YAMAMOTO Eiji). 1) Management b) Fire prevention Nominated property
Yoshino Mikumari-jinja:
Yoshino Regional Fire Department: head of the office: fire chief (NAKANO Satoshi). Person in charge: representative director (YAMAMOTO Kiyohisa). Leader of fire fighting squad: representative director (YAMAMOTO Kiyohisa). Kimpusen-ji: Yoshino Regional Fire Department: head of the office: fire chief (NAKANO Satoshi). Person in charge: administration director general / executive officer (TANAKA Riten). Leader of fire fighting squad: captain of the Kimpusen-ji private fire brigade (TANAKA Riten). Yoshimizu-jinja: Yoshino Regional Fire Department: head of the office: fire chief (NAKANO Satoshi). Person in charge: representative director (SATO Kazuhiko). Leader of fire fighting squad: representative director (SATO Kazuhiko). Ôminesan-ji: Nakayoshino Regional Fire Department, Shimoichi Fire Office: head of the office (MIYAMOTO Osamu). Person in charge: representative director (OKADA Etsuo). Leader of fire fighting squad: representative director (OKADA Etsuo). Kumano Hongû Taisha: Hongu Town Fire Department: head of the office (KOKADO Harumi). Person in charge: priest (IGUCHI Shigeaki). Leader of fire fighting squad: chief priest (KUKI Ietaka). Category Sub-category Target Index 1) Management b) Fire prevention Nominated property Kumano Hayatama Taisha: Shigu City Fire Office: head of the office (OISHI Akira). Person in charge: chief priest (UENO Akira). Leader of fire fighting squad: chief priest (UENO Akira). Kumano Nachi Taisha: Nachikatsuura Town Fire Office: head of the office (MORIMOTO Keishi). Person in charge: chief priest (ASAHI Yoshihide). Leader of fire fighting squad: chief priest (ASAHI Yoshihide). Seiganto-ji: Nachikatsuura Town Fire Office: head of the office (MORIMOTO Keishi). Person in charge: vice chief priest (TAKAGI Ryoei). Leader of fire fighting squad: chief priest (TAKAGI Ryokyo). Nachi no Ôtaki: Nachikatsuura Town Fire Office: head of the office (MORIMOTO Keishi). Person in charge: chief priest (ASAHI Yoshihide). Leader of fire fighting squad: chief priest (ASAHI Yoshihide). Nachi Primeval Forest: Nachikatsuura Town Fire Office: head of the office (MORIMOTO Keishi). Person in charge: chief priest (ASAHI Yoshihide). Leader of fire fighting squad: chief priest (ASAHI Yoshihide). Fudarakusan-ji: Nachikatsuura Town Fire Office: head of the office (MORIMOTO Keishi). Person in charge: (SEGAWA Shinichiro). Leader of fire fighting squad (SEGAWA Shinichiro). Niutsuhime-jinja:
Ito Fire Office: head of the office (USUI Shigehiro). Person in charge: priest (NAKATANI Kensei). Leader of fire fighting squad: (TAMIYA Toshio). Kongôbu-ji: Koya Town Fire Office: head of the office (SHIRAHAMA Kazuaki). Person in charge: executive officer (HABUKAWA Shodo). Leader of fire fighting squad: captain of the Kongôbu-ji private fire brigade (NISHINO Motoasa). Jison-in: Ito Fire Office: head of the office (USUI Shigehiro). Person in charge: chief priest (ANNEN Seihou) Leader of fire fighting squad: chief priest (ANNEN Seihou). Niukanshôfu-jinja: Ito Fire Office: head of the office (USUI Shigehiro). Person in charge: chief priest (MIYAZAKI Shiro). Leader of fire fighting squad: chief priest (MIYAZAKI Shiro). Category Sub-category Target Index 1) Management c) Monitoring Nominated property and buffer zone
1. Organization in charge of monitoring: ?Yoshinoyama?
Organization: Yoshino Town.
Representative: mayor (FUKUI Ryomei).
Staff in charge: technical expert of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (TANAKA Toshio) director of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (MASUMOTO Yasushige) Address: 80-1 Yoshino-chô Kamiichi, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. ?Yoshino Mikumari-jinja? Organization: Yoshino Town.
Representative: mayor (FUKUI Ryomei).
Staff in charge: technical expert of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (TANAKA Toshio) director of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (MASUMOTO Yasushige) Address: 80-1 Yoshino-chô Kamiichi, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. ?Kimpu-jinja? Organization: Yoshino Town.
Representative: mayor (FUKUI Ryomei).
Staff in charge: technical expert of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (TANAKA Toshio) director of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (MASUMOTO Yasushige) Address: 80-1 Yoshino-chô Kamiichi, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. ?Kimpusen-ji? Organization: Yoshino Town.
Representative: mayor (FUKUI Ryomei).
Staff in charge: technical expert of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (TANAKA Toshio) director of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (MASUMOTO Yasushige) Address: 80-1 Yoshino-chô Kamiichi, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. ?Yoshimizu-jinja? Organization: Yoshino Town.
Representative: mayor (FUKUI Ryomei).
Staff in charge: technical expert of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (TANAKA Toshio) director of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (MASUMOTO Yasushige) Address: 80-1 Yoshino-chô Kamiichi, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. ?Ôminesan-ji? Organization: Tenkawa Village Board of Education. Representative: head of deputy director (NISHIOKA Moriyuki). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education (SARATANI Takahiko) director of deputy director (NISHIOKA Moriyuki) Address: 60 Tenkawa-mura Sawatani, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Category Sub-category Target Index 1) Management c) Monitoring Nominated property and buffer zone ?Kumano Hongû Taisha?
Organization: Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) director of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) Address: 219 Hongû-chô Hongû, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Kumano Hongû Taisha: Sonaezaki Kyôzukagun? Organization: Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) director of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) Address: 219 Hongû-chô Hongû, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Kumano Hayatama Taisha? Organization: Shingu Municipal Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (NAKAMURA Hiroshi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(YAMAMOTO Shigeo) director of the Board of Education(YAMAMOTO Shigeo) Address: 1-1 Kasuga, Shingû City, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Kiho Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KATO Kiyomitsu). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(TANAKA Fumio) director of the Board of Education(TANAKA Fumio) Address: 656 Kihô-chô Narukawa, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture. ?Kumano Nachi Taisha? Organization: Nachikatsuura Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (SHIMOSAKI Hiromichi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SAKAI Yoshimi) director of the Board of Education(SAKAI Yoshimi) Address: 1185-1 Nachikatsuura-chô Temma, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Seiganto-ji? Organization: Nachikatsuura Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (SHIMOSAKI Hiromichi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SAKAI Yoshimi) director of the Board of Education(SAKAI Yoshimi) Address: 1185-1 Nachikatsuura-chô Temma, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Category Sub-category Target Index 1) Management c) Monitoring Nominated property and buffer zone ?Fudarakusan-ji?
Organization: Nachikatsuura Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (SHIMOSAKI Hiromichi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SAKAI Yoshimi) director of the Board of Education(SAKAI Yoshimi) Address: 1185-1 Nachikatsuura-chô Temma, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Nachi no Ôtaki? Organization: Nachikatsuura Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (SHIMOSAKI Hiromichi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SAKAI Yoshimi) director of the Board of Education(SAKAI Yoshimi) Address: 1185-1 Nachikatsuura-chô Temma, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Nachi Primeval Forest? Organization: Nachikatsuura Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (SHIMOSAKI Hiromichi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SAKAI Yoshimi) director of the Board of Education(SAKAI Yoshimi) Address: 1185-1 Nachikatsuura-chô Temma, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Niutsuhime-jinja? Organization: Katsuragi Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (UCHIDA Katsumi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(MATSUOKA Atsuo) director of the Board of Education(OKAMOTO Noriyoshi) Address: 2160 Katsuragi-chô Chônomachi, Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Kongôbu-ji? Organization: Koya Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OGURA Masaharu). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(KURAMOTO Fumikazu) director of deputy director (MAENISHI Kazuo) Address: 636 Kôya-chô Kôyasan, Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Jison-in? Organization: Kudoyama Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (UEURA Noboru). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(MATSUYAMA Takeshi) director of the Board of Education(IKEDA Yoshitaka) Address: 1190 Kudoyama-chô Kudoyama, Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Category Sub-category Target Index 1) Management c) Monitoring Nominated property and buffer zone ?Niukanshôfu-jinja?
Organization: Kudoyama Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (UEURA Noboru). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(MATSUYAMA Takeshi) director of the Board of Education(IKEDA Yoshitaka) Address: 1190 Kudoyama-chô Kudoyama, Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Ômine Okugakemichi? Organization: Yoshino Town.
Representative: mayor (FUKUI Ryomei).
Staff in charge: technical expert of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (TANAKA Toshio) director of the division of culture, tourism, commerce and industry (MASUMOTO Yasushige) Address: 80-1 Yoshino-chô Kamiichi, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Organization: Kawakami Village Board of Education. Representative: head of head of the education dept. (TATSUMI Takemi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(NISHIURA Akira) director of deputy director (ONISHI Kazuo) Address: 590-1 Kawakami-mura Sako, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Organization: Kurotaki Village. Representative: mayor (TOKUOKA Junji).
Staff in charge: technical expert of the division of planning and industry (MASUDA Gensaku) director of the division of planning and industry (MASUDA Gensaku) Address: 77 Kurotaki-mura Terado, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Organization: Tenkawa Village Board of Education. Representative: head of deputy director (NISHIOKA Moriyuki). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SARATANI Takahiko) director of deputy director (NISHIOKA Moriyuki) Address: 60 Tenkawa-mura Sawatani, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Organization: Otoh Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept . (ITO Tadashi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(OTANI Makoto) director of the Board of Education(OTANI Makoto) Address: 41 Ôtoh-mura Tsujidô, Yoshino- gun, Nara Prefecture. Organization: Kamikitayama Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (NAKAOKA Takayuki). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(IWAMOTO Chiaki) director of deputy director (MORIMOTO Harumi) Address: 330 Kamikitayama-mura Kawai, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Category Sub-category Target Index 1) Management c) Monitoring Nominated property and buffer zone Organization: Shimokitayama Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (HIGASHI Kusuki). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SUGIMOTO Yosuke) director of the Board of Education(NAKAMURA Yoshiyuki) Address: 983 Shimokitayama-mura Teragaito, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Organization: Totsukawa Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YAMAMOTO Chusuke). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(ONO Yasushi) director of the Board of Education(TANIMUKAI Yasuyuki) Address: 225-1 Totsukawa-mura Ohara, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Organization: Kumanogawa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KIMURA Yasufumi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SHIMODA Joji) director of the Board of Education(SHIMODA Joji) Address: 350 Kumanogawa-chô Hitari, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) director of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) Address: 219 Hongû-chô Hongû, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Ômine Okugakemichi: Tamaki-jinja? Organization: Totsukawa Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YAMAMOTO Chusuke). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(ONO Yasushi) director of the Board of Education(TANIMUKAI Yasuyuki) Address: 225-1 Totsukawa-mura Ohara, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. ?Ômine Okugakemichi: Ôyamarenge Native Growth? Organization: Tenkawa Village Board of Education. Representative: head of deputy director (NISHIOKA Moriyuki). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SARATANI Takahiko) director of deputy director (NISHIOKA Moriyuki) Address: 60 Tenkawa-mura Sawatani, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Organization: Otoh Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (ITO Tadashi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(OTANI Makoto) director of the Board of Education(OTANI Makoto) Address: 41 Ôtoh-mura Tsujidô, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Category Sub-category Target Index 1) Management c) Monitoring Nominated property and buffer zone ?Ômine Okugakemichi: Bukkyôgatake Primeval Forest? Organization: Kamikitayama Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (NAKAOKA Takayuki). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(IWAMOTO Chiaki) director of deputy director (MORIMOTO Harumi) Address: 330 Kamikitayama-mura Kawai, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. ?Kumano Sankeimichi: Nakahechi? Organization: Shingu Municipal Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (NAKAMURA Hiroshi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(YAMAMOTO Shigeo) director of the Board of Education(YAMAMOTO Shigeo) Address: 1-1 Kasuga, Shingû City, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Nakahechi Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (NISHI Takashi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(TAUE Kazuo) director of the Board of Education(TAUE Kazuo) Address: 396-1 Nakahechi-chô Kurisugawa, Nishimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Nachikatsuura Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (SHIMOSAKI Hiromichi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the division of social education (SAKAI Yoshimi) director of the division of social education (SAKAI Yoshimi) Address: 1185-1 Nachikatsuura-chô Temma, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Kumanogawa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KIMURA Yasufumi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SHIMODA Joji) director of the Board of Education(SHIMODA Joji) Address: 350 Kumanogawa-chô Hitari, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) director of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) Address: 219 Hongû-chô Hongû, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Kumano Sankeimichi: Nakahechi <Kumanogawa>? Organization: Kiwa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (MATSUDA Masamichi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(KAMIDAIRA Kazuo) director of the Board of Education(KAMIDAIRA Kazuo) Address: 82 Kiwa-chô Itaya, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture. Category Sub-category Target Index 1) Management c) Monitoring Nominated property and buffer zone Organization: Kiho Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KATO Kiyomitsu). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(TANAKA Fumio) director of the Board of Education(TANAKA Fumio) Address: 656 Kihô-chô Narukawa, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture. Organization: Shingu Municipal Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (NAKAMURA Hiroshi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(YAMAMOTO Shigeo) director of the Board of Education(YAMAMOTO Shigeo) Address: 1-1 Kasuga, Shingû City, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Kumanogawa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KIMURA Yasufumi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SHIMODA Joji) director of the Board of Education(SHIMODA Joji) Address: 350 Kumanogawa-chô Hitari, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) director of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) Address: 219 Hongû-chô Hongû, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Kumano Sankeimichi: Kohechi? Organization: Nosegawa Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (TSUCHIDA Shiro). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(YOSHII Yoshitsugu) director of the Board of Education(YOSHII Yoshitsugu) Address: 84 Nosegawa-mura Kitamata, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Organization: Totsukawa Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YAMAMOTO Chusuke). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(ONO Yasushi) director of the Board of Education(TANIMUKAI Yasuyuki) Address: 225-1 Totsukawa-mura Ohara, Yoshino-gun, Nara Prefecture. Organization: Koya Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OGURA Masaharu). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(KURAMOTO Fumikazu) director of the Board of Education(MAENISHI Kazuo) Address: 636 Kôya-chô Kôyasan, Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) director of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) Address: 219 Hongû-chô Hongû, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Category Sub-category Target Index 1) Management c) Monitoring Nominated property and buffer zone ?Kumano Sankeimichi: Ôhechi?
Organization: Shirahama Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (ISHIDA Takeo). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(FUJIYABU Shigenori) director of the Board of Education(FUJIYABU Shigenori) Address: 1600 Shirahama- chô, Nishimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Hikigawa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OIYA Gitaro). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SHIMIZU Kikuo) director of the Board of Education(URAMOTO Takao) Address: 980-1 Hikigawa-chô Hiki, Nishimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Susami Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (FURUTA Koji). Staff in charge: technical expert of the public hall (NODA Keigo) director of the public hall (NODA Keigo) Address: 4120-1 Susami-chô Susami, Nishimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Kumano Sankeimichi: Iseji? Organization: Owase Municipal Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (HIGASHI Toshizou). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(HAMAGUCHI Teiya) director of the Board of Education(HAMAGUCHI Teiya) Address: 10-50 Nakamura-chô, Owase City, Mie Prefecture. Organization: Kumano Municipal Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (SUZUKI Syozo). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(AKANE Masanori) director of the Board of Education(AKANE Masanori) Address: 796 Ido-chô, Kumano City, Mie Prefecture. Organization: Ouchiyama Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OUCHI Musubu). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(HATTORI Katsu) director of the Board of Education(HATTORI Katsu) Address: 849-3 Ôuchiyama-mura, Watarai-gun, Mie Prefecture. Category Sub-category Target Index 1) Management c) Monitoring Nominated property and buffer zone
Organization: Kiinagashima Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OGURA HAJIMU). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(AZECHI Akira) director of the Board of Education(AZECHI Akira) Address: 2141 Kiinagashima-chô Nagashima, Kitamuro-gun, Mie Prefecture. Organization: Miyama Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KITA Takeshi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(MATSUNAGA Kenji) director of the Board of Education(MATSUNAGA Kenji) Address: 495-8 Miyama-chô Aiga, Kitamuro-gun, Mie Prefecture. Organization: Mihama Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (HIZUKURI Isao). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(NAKAMICHI Shinya) director of the Board of Education(NAKAMICHI Shinya) Address: 6120-1 Mihama-chô Atawa, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture. Organization: Kiwa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (MATSUDA Masamichi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(KAMIDAIRA Kazuo) director of the Board of Education(KAMIDAIRA Kazuo) Address: 82 Kiwa-chô Itaya, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture. Organization: Kiho Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KATO Kiyomitsu). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(TANAKA Fumio) director of the Board of Education(TANAKA Fumio) Address: 656 Kihô-chô Narukawa, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture. Organization: Udono Village Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OOKA Haruo). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(OGURA Kakuichi) director of the Board of Education(OGURA Kakuichi) Address: 324 Udono-mura, Minamimuro-gun, Mie Prefecture. Organization: Kumanogawa Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (KIMURA Yasufumi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(SHIMODA Joji) director of the Board of Education(SHIMODA Joji) Address: 350 Kumanogawa-chô Hitari, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Category Sub-category Target Index Organization: Hongu Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YABUNAKA Takashige). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) director of the Board of Education(YASUI Kenta) Address: 219 Hongû-chô Hongû, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. ?Kôyasan Chôishimichi? Organization: Katsuragi Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (UCHIDA Katsumi). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(MATSUOKA Atsuo) director of the Board of Education(OKAMOTO Noriyoshi) Address: 2160 Katsuragi-chô Chônomachi, Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Kudoyama Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (UEURA Noboru). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(MATSUYAMA Takeshi) director of the Board of Education(IKEDA Yoshitaka) Address: 1190 Kudoyama-chô Kudoyama, Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. Organization: Koya Town Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OGURA Masaharu). Staff in charge: technical expert of the Board of Education(KURAMOTO Fumikazu) director of the Board of Education(MAENISHI Kazuo) Address: 636 Kôya-chô Kôyasan, Ito-gun, Wakayama Prefecture. 2. Supervising organization: Organization: the Agency for Cultural Affairs. Representative: commissioner (KAWAI Hayao). Staff in charge: director of the monuments and sites division (OKI Takahito). Address: 3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. 3. Advisory organization: Organization: Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (OZEKI Youji). Staff in charge:director of the education division (OTA Yuzo). Address: 1-1 Komatsubaradori, Wakayama City, Wakayama Prefecture Organization: Mie Prefectural Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (DOBASHI Nobuyoshi). Staff in charge: manager of the protection of cultural properties (KOMADA Toshiharu). Address: 13 Kômê-chô, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture 1) Management c) Monitoring Nominated property and buffer zone Organization: Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Representative: head of the education dept. (YAWATA Chuichi). Staff in charge: director of the division of the conservation of cultural properties (ISHIMOTO Takao). Address: 30 Noboriôji-chô, Nara City, Nara Prefecture (Annexed Table 1. Items for measurement of key indicators 1, 2 and 3.) Category Sub-category Target Index 1. Environmental pressures.
2. Natural disasters.
3. Visitor / tourism pressures.
a) State of conservation Nominated Property 4. Other (degree of deterioration by aging etc.) b) Records of permitted actions to alter the
existing state or actions
to affect conservation
Nominated Property 1. Actions to alter the existing state and actions to affect preservation permitted by the Commissioner of the Agency for Cultural Affairs under the provision of Article 80 of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties. 1. Name of the repair work 2. Contractor.
3. Cost.
4. Duration of work.
5. Details of expenses.
6. Name and descriptive data of the building or site for which conservation work is conducted. 7. List and evaluation of preceding conservation repair work / conservation construction work. 8. Content and principles of conservation repair work / conservation construction work. 9. Contractor-designer and supervising contractor (supervisor of repair work, senior engineer) Technical advisor 10. Sub-contractor. c) Records of
conservation repair
work and conservation
construction work
Nominated Property
11. Availability of reports.
1. Name of the construction work/ repair work. 2. Contractor.
3. Cost.
4. Duration of work.
5. Details of expenses.
6. Name of the building or site related to the construction work / repair work. 7. Year of construction and records or repair work. 8. Content and principles of construction work / repair work. 9. Contractor-designer and supervising contractor. d) Records of construction work and
repair work on disaster
prevention facilities
Nominated Property
10. Sub-contractor.
1. Name of the disaster prevention facility. 2. Year of construction.
3. Records of repair work.
4. Date of inspection.
5. Results of inspection.
6. Name of the inspector
7. Name of the observer
e) Results of inspection
of disaster prevention
facilities
Nominated Property
8. Other. (Report on malfunctions of the automatic fire alarm system etc.) Nominated Property 1. Content of maintenance work / construction work. 2) State of conservation of the nominated
property
f) Conservation of the
surrounding
environment
Facilities for the
conservation of the
surrounding environment
2. Content of maintenance work / construction work. (Annexed Table 1. Items for measurement of key indicators 1, 2 and 3.) Category Sub-category Target Index 1. Environmental pressures. 2. Natural disasters.
3. Visitor / tourism pressures.
a) State of conservation Buffer Zone
4. Other. (Human impact etc.)
1. Construction work by private corporations regulated under applicable laws and regulations. 3) State of
conservation of
the buffer zone
b) Alteration to the existing state Buffer Zone 2. Public works.
1. Date of the seminar / training.
2. Host / sponsor.
3. Content.
4. Participants / trainees.
5. Number of participants.
6. Cost.
a) Seminars and on-site training etc. Nominated Property 7. Availability of reports.
1. Name of the holder of the designated traditional conservation technique. 2. Assistance and support for the conservation of the designated traditional conservation technique. 4) Conservation and transmission of
conservation
techniques
b) Designation of traditional
conservation techniques under the Law
for the Protection of Cultural
Properties
Nominated Property
3. Availability of records on the designated traditional conservation technique. Annexed Table 2. Items for measurement of key indicator 4. Key Indicator 4: the degree of achievement toward the ideal vision, "an internationally oriented resort in harmony with natural settings and cultural tradition". Category Sub-category Target Index a) Number of visitors Relevant municipalities 1. Number of visitors. 2. Number of visitors from abroad. 1. Number of accommodation facilities. (Hotels etc.) 2. Number of users of accommodations. (Number of hotel guests etc.) 3. Shops. (Number of shops and value of sales.) b) Tourist industry Relevant municipalities 4. Restaurants. (Number of restaurants.) 1. Business hours. 2. Admission fee.
c) Tourist facilities Buffer zones
3. Number of customers.
1. Tourist maps.
1) Tourism
d) Tourist information system Relevant municipalities 2. Tourist information centers.
1. Population.
2. Total number of households.
3. Average number of family members per household. a) Structure of residents Relevant municipalities 4. Population by gender and age group. b) Labor force by industry Relevant municipalities 1. Labor force by gender. c) Local industry Relevant municipalities 1. Business type. 1. Business type. 2. Scale.
d) Major corporations Relevant municipalities 3. Location.
Nominated property and
buffer zones
1. Map indicating the zones of legal protection designated under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties, the Natural Parks Law, the Forest Law, the River Law, the Seacoast Law, the Port and Harbor Law, and other applicable laws and municipal ordinances. 2) Socio-economic condition in relation to the nominated
property
e) Land use and roads.
Mie Prefecture, Nara Prefecture, and Wakayama Prefecture
2. Traffic amount.
Annexed Table 3. List of reports and other published documents related to the monuments and sites included in the nominated property. 1-B. Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Jûyô Bunkazai Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Haiden Heiden Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Properties, “Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Haiden” and “Heiden”], Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1976. Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Jûyô Bunkazai Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Rômon Kairô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Properties, “Yoshino Mikumari-jinja Rômon” and “Kairô”]. Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1987 1-D. Kimpusen-ji Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Jûyô Bunkazai Kimpusen-ji Kane no Torii Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Kimpusen-ji Kane no Torii”], Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1967. Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Kokuhô Kimpusen-ji Hondô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the National Treasure Property, “Kimpusen-ji Hondô”], Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1984. 1-E. Yoshimizu-jinja Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Jûyô Bunkazai Yoshimizu-jinja Shoin Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Yoshimizu-jinja Shoin”], Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1972. 1-F. Ôminesan-ji Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Jûyô Bunkazai Ôminesan-ji Hondô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Ôminesan-ji Hondô”]. Nara Prefectural Board of Education, 1986. 2-D. Seiganto-ji Nachisan Seiganto-ji. Jûyô Bunkazai Nachisan Seiganto-ji Bôsaishisetsu Kôji Hôkokusho [Report of the Disaster Prevention Facilities Installation for the Important Cultural Property, "Seiganto-ji”]. 1964. Nachisan Seiganto-ji and Wakayamaken Bunkazai Center. Jûyô Bunkazai Nachisan Seiganto-ji Hondô Hôkyôintô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Properties, "Seiganto-ji Hondô” and “Hôkyôintô"]. 1987. 3-A. Niutsuhime-jinja Niutsuhime-jinja and Wakayamaken Bunkazai Kenkyûkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Niutsuhime-jinja Honden Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Niutsuhime-jinja Honden”]. 1977. Niutsuhime-jinja and Wakayamaken Bunkazai Kenkyûkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Niutsuhime-jinja Rômon Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Niutsuhime-jinja Rômon”]. 1994. 3-B. Kongôbu-ji Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Kongôbu-ji Tokugawake Reidai Ieyasu Reioku, Hidetada Reioku Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Properties, “Kongôbu-ji Tokugawake Reidai Ieyasu Reioku” and “Hidetada Reioku”]. 1962. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Kokuhô Kongôbu-ji Fudôdô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the National Treasure, “Kongôbu-ji Fudôdô”]. 1963 and 1999. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Matsudaira Hideyasu oyobi Dôhaha Reioku Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Matsudaira Hideyasu and Dôhaha Reioku”]. 1967. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Kongôsammai-in Kyakuden oyobi Daidokoro, Shishomyôjinsha Honden, Tahôtô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Properties, “Kongôsammai-in Kyakuden and Daidokoro”, “Shishomyôjinsha Honden”, and “Tahôtô”]. 1969. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Kongôbu-ji Okuno-in Kyôzô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Kongôbu-ji Okuno-in Kyôzô”]. 1978. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Kongôbu-ji Sannô-in Honden Hoka Hattô Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Sannô-in Honden”, and Eight Other Structures]. 1980. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Fugen-in Shikyakumon sonota Nitô (Kongôsammai-in Shishomyôjinsha Honden ? Uesugi Kenshin Reioku) Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Fugen-in Shikyakumon and Two Other Structures (Kongôsammai-in Shishomyôjinsha Honden and Uesugi Kenshin Reioku”]. 1996. Kôyasan Bunkazai Hozonkai. Jûyô Bunkazai Kongôbu-ji Daimon Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Kongôbu-ji Daimon”]. 1986. Wakayamaken Bunkazai Center. Kongôbu-ji Iseki Hakkutsu Chôsa Gaihô [Summary Report of Excavation Investigation of the Historic Sites of Kongôbu-ji]. 1991 and 1992. 3-D. Niukanshôfu-jinja Niukanshôfu-jinja and Wakayamaken Bunkazai Center. Jûyô Bunkazai Niukanshôfu- jinja Honden Shûrikôji Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Restoration of the Important Cultural Property, “Niukanshôfu-jinja Honden”]. 1976. 4-A. Ômine Okugakemichi Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Nara-ken Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Ômine Okugakemichi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Nara Prefecture’s Research Report on the Historic Route, the “Ômine Okugakemichi”]. 2002. Sonaezaki Kyozukagun Hakkutsu Chôsa Iinkai and Hongu Town Board of Education. Kumano Hongû Sonaezaki Kyôzukagun Hakkutsu Chôsa Hôkokusho [Report on Excavation Investigation of Kumano Hongû Sonaezaki Kyôzukagun (a group of sutra mounds)]. 2002. 4-B. Kumano Sankeimichi (Nakahechi) Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Kinsei Kôtsû Iseki Bumpu Chôsa Ryakuhô (Kumano Sankeimichi to Ôjisha) [Summary Research Report on the Distribution of Transportation-related Archeological Remains in the Early Modern Period (the Kumano Sankeimichi and Ôji)]. 1978. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Hôkokusho (I) Kumano Sankeimichi to Sono Shûhen [Research Report on Historic Routes (I). The Kumano Sankeimichi and its vicinity]. 1979. Hongu Town Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Kumanomichi Seibi Hôkokusho [Report of the Improvement Work of the Historic Route, the “Kumanomichi”]. 1983. Nachikatsuura Town Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Kumanomichi Seibi Hôkokusho [Report of the Improvement Work of the Historic Route, the “Kumanomichi”]. 1983. Nakahechi Town Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Kumanomichi Seibi Hôkokusho [Report of the Improvement Work of the Historic Route, the “Kumanomichi”]. 1983. Kumanogawa Town Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Kumanomichi Seibi Hôkokusho [Report of the Improvement Work of the Historic Route, the “Kumanomichi”]. 1983. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Kôya and Kumano Sankeimichi Seibi Katsuyô Keikaku [Plan for Improvement and Promotion of Pilgrimage Routes of the Kôya and Kumano Sankeimichi]. 2002. 4-B. Kumano Sankeimichi (Iseji)
Mie Prefectural Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Hôkokusho (I) Kumano Kaidô [Research Report on Historic Routes (I). The Kumano Kaidô]. 1981. Mie Prefectural Board of Education. Mie-ken Rekishi no Michi Seibi Katsuyô Sôgô Keikaku (I) [Mie Prefecture Comprehensive Plan for the Improvement and Promotion of the Kumano Sankeimichi Iseji]. 1998. Owase City and Miyama Town. Rekishi no Michi Kumano Sankeimichi Magosetôge Seibi Jigyô Hôkokusho [Report of the Improvement Work of the Historic Route, the “Kumano Sankeimichi” (Magosetôge section)]. 1999. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Kôya and Kumano Sankeimichi Seibi Katsuyô Keikaku [Plan for the Improvement and Promotion of the Kôya and Kumano Sankeimichi”]. 2002. 4-B. Kumano Sankeimichi (Kohechi) Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Hôkokusho (V) Ryûjin Kaidô [Research Report on Historic Routes (V). The Ryûjin Kaidô]. 1982. Kumano Kinenkan Shiryô Shûshû Chôsa Iinkai Shizen Rekishi Bukai. Kumano Kodô Kohechi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Research Report on the Kumano Sankeimichi Kohechi]. 1987. Nara Prefectural Board of Education. Nara-ken Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Kumano Kodô Kohechi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Nara Prefecture’s Research Report on the Historic Route, the “Kumano Sankeimichi Kohechi”]. 2002. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Kôya and Kumano Sankeimichi Seibi Katsuyô Keikaku [Plan for the Improvement and Promotion of the Kôya and Kumano Sankeimichi”]. 2002. 4-B. Kumano Sankeimichi (Ôhechi) Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Kinsei Kôtsû Iseki Bumpu Chôsa Ryakuhô (Kumano Sankeimichi to Ôjisha) [Summary Research Report on the Distribution of Transportation-related Archeological Remains in the Early Modern Period (the Kumano Sankeimichi and Ôji)]. 1978. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Rekishi no Michi Chôsa Hôkokusho (I) Kumano Sankeimichi to Sono Shûhen [Research Report on Historic Routes (I). The Kumano Sankeimichi and its vicinity]. 1979. Kumano Rekishi Kenkyûkai. Kumano Kodô Ôhechi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Research Report on the Kumano Sankeimichi Ôhechi]. 1999. Kinan Bunkazai Kenkyûkai. Kumano Kodô Ôhechi Chôsa Hôkokusho [Research Report on the Kumano Sankeimichi Ôhechi]. 2001 Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Kôya and Kumano Sankeimichi Seibi Katsuyô Keikaku [Plan for the Improvement and Promotion of the Kôya and Kumano Sankeimichi]. 2002. 4-C. Kôyasan Chôishimichi Katsuragi Town Board of Education. Kunishitei Shiseki Kôyasan Chôishi Hozonshûri Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Conservation Restoration of the National Historic Site, the “Kôyasan Chôishi”]. 1999. Kudoyama Town Board of Education. Kunishitei Shiseki Kôyasan Chôishi Hozonshûri Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Conservation Restoration of the National Historic Site, the “Kôyasan Chôishi”]. 1999. Koya Town Board of Education. Kunishitei Shiseki Kôyasan Chôishi Hozonshûri Hôkokusho [Documentation on the Conservation Restoration of the National Historic Site, the “Kôyasan Chôishi”]. 1999. Wakayama Prefectural Board of Education. Kôya and Kumano Sankeimichi Seibi Katsuyô Keikaku [Plan for the Improvement and Promotion of the Kôya and Kumano Sankeimichi]. 2002. 7. Documentation 7. Documentation 129
7. Documentation
a. Photographs, slides and
video
Appendix. List of photographs
Appendix. Photographs and maps indicating the places where the photographs were taken (taken in 2002)
Additional reference material.
Color slides (taken in 2002; copyright agreement attached) Additional reference material.
Videotape production (filmed in 2002)
b. Address where
inventory, records and
archives are held Agency for Cultural Affairs 3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
Ministry of the Environment
1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
Kinki Regional Office for Nature Conservation 2-1-2 Ôtemae, Chûô-ku, Osaka










































































































34
Kii Mountain Range (Japan)
No 1142
1. BASIC DATA
State Party: Japan
Name of property: , and the
Cultural Landscapes that surround them
Location: Mie, Nara and Wakayama Prefectures Date received: 27 January 2003
Category of property:
In terms of the categories of cultural property set out in Article 1 of the 1972 World Heritage Convention, this is a site. In terms of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, paragraph 39, this is a cultural landscape Brief description: Set in dense forests in the Kii Mountains overlooking the Pacific Ocean, three sacred sites, Yoshino and Omine, Kumano Sanzan, and Koyasan, linked by pilgrimage routes to the ancient capital cities of Nara and Kyoto, reflect a unique fusion between Shinto, rooted in the ancient tradition of nature worship in Japan, and Buddhism introduced to Japan from China and the Korean peninsula. Together, the sites and the forest landscape that surrounds them reflect a persistent and extraordinarily welldocumented tradition of sacred mountains over the past 1200 years. 2. THE PROPERTY
Description
The nominated site consists of three sacred sites in the heavily forested Kii Mountains, a peninsula jutting into the Pacific Ocean, and a complex pattern of tracks and paths which link the sites together and to the ancient capitals of Nara and Kyoto to the north, which flourished from the 6th century to 1868. The steep and rugged mountains of the Kii peninsula rise to between 1,000 and 2,000 metres and are heavily wooded. The area is wet; the high rainfall of over 3,000 mm feeds an abundance of streams, rivers and waterfalls between the mountains. The natural beauty of the area, and its harsh but serene mountain environment, has probably been revered since pre-historic times. The three specific sites had become established as major sacred sites as early as the 11th or 12th centuries, attracting a great number of worshippers. The area is still part of the living culture of Japan and the sites are heavily visited and used for ritual purposes, and for hiking, with up to an estimated 15 million people visiting annually. In all, the nominated site covers 495.3 ha. This is made up of the three main sites, which cover 44.8, 94.2, and 63.1 ha respectively, and 307.6 km of pilgrimage routes, which together cover 293.2 ha. The pilgrim routes nominated are not all contiguous as there are sections excluded where they have been influenced by modern development. All parts of the nominated site are protected by a buffer zone, which varies in extent from element to element – some of the routes only being protected by a very narrow zone. The whole buffer zone covers 11,370ha. The nominated site consists of the following cultural qualities:
?? The forested mountains
?? Three main shrines:
o Yoshino and Omine
o Kumano Sanzan
o Koyasan
?? Pilgrim routes
?? Association with Shinto and Buddhism ?? Diaspora effect – the sites as models for other shrines, temples and sacred sites ?? Inspiration for poets and painters
?? Documented use of the mountains
These are dealt with in turn:
The forested mountains
The forested mountains underpin the significances of the whole site, for it is the beauty and drama of the mountains and their contrast with the seascape to the south, which has attracted people for at least 2000 years. The nomination does not describe in detail the mountains or their forest cover or the differing patterns and profiles of the woods in various parts of the site. It gives details of the following specific sites: ?? Vast stretches of cheery trees, planted and revered since the 10th century in Yoshinoyama, and around Kimpusen-ji Hondo where they form part of an annual ritual in April when cherry blossoms are offered to the deity ?? An ancient Podocarpus nagi at Kumano Hayatmam Taisha, planted according to legend in 1159 ?? The Nchi primeval forest part of the Kumnao complex; protected since ancient times as sanctuary
?? Giant trees up to 500 years old surrounding the cemetery in Koyasan site
?? Natural forest of silver fir trees alongside one of the pilgrim routes Omine Okugakemichi, and which have been traditionally protected since the 15th century ?? Large clumps of Magnolia Sieboldi of which 108 ha are protected near the silver fir trees 35 ?? A group of ancient cedar trees said to be 3,000 years old, in the compound for the shrine immediately below the top of Mt Tamakisan ?? Japanese black pine trees planted in the 17th century as a wind break along the coastal pilgrims’ route In the immediate aftermath of the Second World War there was a huge surge in demand for timber, which led to loss of trees over the mountains generally. This in turn prompted the protection of areas immediately surrounding the three main sites and the main pilgrimage routes. Three main shrines: Each of the three shrines contains both buildings and objects, such as temples, shrines, statues and stupas, as well as revered natural elements such as trees, waterfalls, rocks etc. Within the three main sites are 17 major groups of properties comprising 35 individual properties. The built structures are nearly all of wood, constructed in a post and pillar construction similar to Japanese houses. Many have been successively re-built – see the conservation section below. There is no overall assessment of the key architectural characteristics in the dossier, although the uniqueness of certain structures is stressed. ?? Yoshino and Omine This is the northernmost site near to Nara. The Yoshino or northern part of the site was by the mid 10th century known as the most important sacred mountain in Japan and its reputation had reached China. It was the object of mountain worship, Shinto, in the 7th and 8th centuries and later in the 8th century became one of the prime sacred places for the Shugen sect of ascetic Buddhism. Omine, the southern part, was also associated with the Shugen sect and, in particular, with ascetic practices connected to the harsh mountain environment. This site consists of groups of buildings in what is said to be a unique architectural style constructed, as an embodiment of Shinto-Buddhist religious fusion. Particular monuments include: ?? Yoshinoyama ridge with shrines, temples, and hospices for pilgrims surrounded by large numbers of cherry trees ?? Yoshino Mikumari-jinja shrine – a Shinto shrine documented as early as 698.
?? Kimpu-jinja originally a Shinto shrine associated with gold mining and later a Shugen shrine with four gates; it is first documented in 852. ?? The Kimpusen-ji temple - the large main building was reconstructed in 1592. The front gate was reconstructed in 1456; it stands 20m high and is a fine example of two-stored ‘medieval’ gatehouse. ?? Ominesan-ji temple on the mountaintop at around 1710m, first documented in 906 Kumano Sanzan
This site is the furthest south. It stretches from the coast inland some 60km. The shrine buildings are said to show outstanding wooden architectural styles that have no comparators. Within the site are three main shrines, and two temples, connected by a pilgrims' route. They reflect Shinto and the Shugen sect of Shinto-Buddhism, and were also closely associated with the search for the pure Buddhist land in the southern sea – see below: ?? Kumano Honu Taisha Originally on sandbanks at the edge of the Kumano River, this shrine was first documented in 859. It was moved to higher level in 1891 after damage from flooding. It still reflects its traditional form as documented in a pilgrim’s diary in the 11th century and drawn in 1299. ?? Kumano Hayatama Taisha Thus shrine was reconstructed in 1951. The shrine complex includes the Gongenyama mountain with its many cliffs known as ‘god’s shield’, a gigantic rock Gotobikiiwa, revered as a sacred object, the site of a fire festival, Kumano Otomatsuri, and the ancient Podocarpus nagi tree which legend says was planted in 1159. ?? Kumano Nachi Taisha
This shrine is sited near a large waterfall, Nachi no Otaki, originally the object of worship, and is associated with a fire festival, Machi no Himasuri, linked to the waterfall. The shrine was reconstructed in 1853. Nearby to the east is the Nachi Primeval Forest extending to around 32ha, which has been sacred since ancient times. ?? Seiganto-ji
Legend suggests this temple was founded in the early 5th century. The present large building was constructed in 1590 and reconstructed in 1924. It is part of a pilgrimage to 33 sacred Kannons started in 1161. Nearby is a large stone stupa constructed in 1322 by a Buddhist nun. ?? Fudarakusan-ji
The temple, near the sea-coast, is associated with the search for the pure Buddhist land in the Southern Sea, which led to the martyrdom of around 20 Buddhist priests who set sail in small boats between the 9th and 18th centuries. Koyasan This site south of Nara is partly in an ‘Alpine’ basin at an altitude of 800m and partly at the foot of the mountains. It is actively used for annual festivals and rituals dedicated to the deity of the land and the rites of the Buddhist Shingon sect. The site includes the following: ?? Niutsuhime-jinja
This shrine is first documented in 855 but is said to have a much earlier origin. It formerly contained many Buddhist structures such as halls, stupas and hospices, but these were moved after the 19th Buddhist Separation Decree - see below. Of the remaining halls, two were constructed in 1469, and two reconstructed in 1715 and 1901, but each contain small shrines, Kuden, of original construction dating to 1306. Alongside is a building dating from 1499. 36 ?? Kongobu-ji Since its foundation in 816, the shrine has been associated with the Shingon sect of Buddhism. The shrine is divided into six areas and includes 117 temples, densely sited on the mountaintop between ‘sublime’ ridges and ‘profound’ forests. The temple buildings, and particularly the Garan complex in a unique style, had a profound influence on other Shingon temples. The main buildings include halls, which are a 1523 reconstruction and a 14th century reconstruction of a building built in 1198, a pagoda dating from 1223, and a log construction sutra storehouse also constructed in 1223. An area known as Okuno-in some 3km to the east houses an extensive collection of some 300,000 stone stupas, mausolea for feudal lords, and a few wooden buildings, the whole sheltered by 500-year-old trees. ?? Jison-in This complex some 20km to the north of the main shrines was constructed in the 9th century as administrative offices and accommodation for pilgrims. It was repeatedly reconstructed – the existing main hall is a 14th century reconstruction, enlarged in 1540. ?? Niukanshofu-jinja
The three shrine buildings on a plateau to the south of Jison-in were reconstructed in the 16th century. Pilgrim routes As the sacred sites became established and well visited in the 11th or 12th centuries, a series of pilgrim routes were developed linking the sites to Kyoto and to other places throughout Japan – some based on earlier tracks. The routes in the mountains were designed to be arduous and the journey over them part of the religious experience, rather than a means to an end. Most of the routes are no more than a metre wide and of earth; in a few places stone steps or stone pavements were constructed, such as the 34km stretch of stone paving through the forest, part of the Kumano Sankeimichi route between Kumano Sanzen and Ise Jungu (see below). There are three main pilgrim routes: ?? Omine Okugakemichi, linked the northern and southern sites of Yoshino and Omine, and Kumano Sanzan. This route was used as a stage in ascetic practices by Buddhist priests. It passes along high mountain ridges between 1000 and 2000 metres above sea level. Legend suggests that it was first constructed in the early 8th century. In the 12th century there were 120 delineated significant places along the route such as caves or villages; by the 17th century these had been reduced to 75. The route passes through a forest of silver fir trees, groves of Magnolia and a group of ancient cedar trees. ?? Kumano Sankeimichi, linked the southernmost site, Kumano Sanzen, with Kyoto and other parts of Japan. It basically consists of three sub-routes: along the coast of the peninsula; across the peninsula, and north to Koyasan. These routes started in the 10th century and were used by large numbers of people until the 15th. At the height of its use, it is said that as many as 30,000 people passed along each year. Along the route are the Yunomine hot spring, revered for its healing properties, and a huge rock some 45m high, Hana no Iwaya, which according to legend marks the grave of the deity who created Japan. ?? Koyasan Choishmichi is a short route of 24km created by the founder of the temple at Kongobu-ji , Kukai, to connect the temple with Jison-ji, the administrative buildings, (both part of the Koyasan site). Every 109 m (known as Cho) along the route are stone signposts called Choishi, five tiered stupas, erected in 1285 with donations by the Imperial family to replace wooden posts. Out of 220 Choishi, 179 are original. Association with Shinto and Buddhism
The Shinto religion which nurtures the spirit of nature worship has been practised in Japan since ancient times. In the 6th century Buddhism was introduced into Japan, and adopted as a religion for peace and national stability in the second half of the 7th century. It did not supplant Shintoism. Instead, over the centuries a unique form of Shinto-Buddhism evolved, based on the belief that Japanese traditional gods are the incarnations of Buddhist deities. The Kii Mountains became the centre for this religious movement in the 9th and 10th centuries. Two Buddhist sects were also closely associated with the Kii Mountains. The Shingon sect of esoteric Buddhism was introduced in the 9th century from China, and from the mid 10th to the 11th century the Shugen sect was established which combined elements of pre-Buddhist mountain worship, esoteric Buddhism called Mikkyo and Taoist beliefs introduced from China. The goal of this sect was to attain supernatural abilities through ascetic practices in the mountains. In the 10th and 11th centuries, as an extension of Buddhist thought, the Kii Mountains became associated with the ‘Pure Land’ where Buddhist deities were thought to reside and where dead people could be re-born. In time the Southern Sea was absorbed into this belief as the paradise called Fudaraku Jodo. Diaspora effect – the sites as models for other shrines, temples and sacred sites
The shrine buildings of Kumano Sanzan developed a unique architectural style and came to serve as models for more than 3,000 shrines dedicated to the Kumano deity built throughout Japan. The dossier does not explain the characteristics of this unique style. Similarly the Garan complex of buildings, part of the Kongobu-ji mountain shrine in Koyasan, came to act as architectural models for the Shingon sect temples throughout Japan which number around 4,000. Again the characteristics of these temples are not described. The mountain landscapes shrouded by deep evergreen forests which pilgrims encountered on the pilgrims routes, 37 and in particular the natural sacred sites, also came to influences the formation of local sacred sites in various parts of Japan. Inspiration for poets and painters Although only mentioned briefly in the dossier, it is clear that the Kii Mountain sacred landscape provided inspiration for many artists and poets. The groves of cherry trees, for instance, surrounding temples in Yoshinoyama, part of the Yoshino and Omine site, were written into Waku poems and drawn by many artists. Elsewhere it is mentioned that the Kumano Hongu Taisha Shaden shrine, part of Kumano Sanzen, was drawn as early as 1299. And as tourists begun to visit the shrines in the late 18th century publications of drawings and description of sites were made available – as was happening in Europe at the same time. More discussion on the influence of writings and paintings would have been valuable. Documented use of the mountains
One exceptional aspect of the group of shrines and routes is their very full documentation stretching back to the 8th century and detailing precise dates for construction and reconstruction of buildings, those who commissioned work, the planting of trees, and impressions of pilgrims and travellers. The nature and extent of the written archives is not detailed in the dossier, although the Kojiki, the Japan Record of Ancient Matters, and the Nihon Shoki, the Chronicle of Japan, compiled in the 8th century are two key sources. History
From the 3rd to the 2nd century BC, when rice culture was introduced into Japan and settlements began to develop in the lowlands, the Shinto religion, in which natural features such as mountains, forests, rocks and trees were revered as gods, came to be embraced – perhaps as a link to ancient dwelling sites in the hills. The mountain gods were thought to control water, essential for rice growing in the plains, and gold ore, needed as towns developed. It was also believed that the god who guided the first Emperor to build Nara the first capital resided in the mountains. Thus the Shinto religion came to be influential not only in rural areas but also in the towns as they were formed. The introduction of Buddhism in the mid 6th century coincided with the development by the government of a centralised system of laws, following examples in China and the Korean peninsula. The government adopted Buddhism as the guardian religion for the nation and in the mid 8th century temples were built in each province of Japan. At the same time the concept of the Pure Land associated with the Kii Mountains begun to gain ground and people started to undertake training in the mountains. In the 8th century the capital was moved to Kyoto and in the following century the esoteric Buddhist sect Mikkyo was brought to Japan from China. This stressed the belief that mountains are places for training to attain awakening. Out of this developed the local Shingon sect and many new temples were constructed in the Kii Mountains. The rise of Mikkyo/Shingon coincided with the rise in power of aristocrats whose authority was based on land ownership. They embraced this new sect, as did the Emperor who hosted various religious rites in what were coming to be seen as the sacred Kii Mountains. The new sect also interacted with Shintoism, a fusion that had been in existence since the 8th century and from this interaction the uniquely Japanese Shinto-Buddhist religion emerged which was to be a powerful force until the 19th century. The growth of pilgrims visiting sites in the Kii Mountains seems to have coincided with the rise of social unrest around the capital in the 9th to the 10th centuries. It was at this time that many of the pilgrim routes were laid out. In the following two centuries, 11th and 12th, the distinctly Japanese flowering of Buddhist practices, and the buildings that were associated with these beliefs, were strengthened by the government's decision to stop sending delegations to China. The consecration of the three main sites in the Kii Mountains were all progressed, and gained considerable support from people who were wanting escape from the worsening social conditions characterised by conflict between samurai. The Imperial family, aristocrats and samurai all became benefactors of new temples and land to support them, as a means of guaranteeing a better life in the hereafter and a retired Emperor made a first pilgrimage to Koyasan and Kumano Sanzan in the late 1tth century – stimulating others to follow in ever larger numbers. This prompted the development of hospices, the improvement of shrines and temples, the construction of Oji shrines along the main routes, and the funding by the Imperial family and aristocrats of people to manage the sites. The Kii Mountain sites were thus established by the end of the 12th century as the main sacred mountain site in Japan, and attained a status which would persist to the present day. At the end of the 12th century the government was moved to Kamkura –although the ruling family remained in Kyoto. From the 14th to the 16th century conflict between Imperial factions, the grip on power by the samurai and battles between feudal lords meant a weakening of Imperial and centralised authority, but at the same time the growth of a monetary economy and improved methods of production led to a new rich class. Pilgrimages were now extended to anyone who could afford the journey. From the 17th until 1868 a powerful feudal government was established in Edo (later Tokyo) and much of the land associated with temples was absorbed by the government. Support however for the temples continued form the government and ordinary people. At the same time improved roads made travel easier and the number of pilgrims begun to increase, as did those wanting to travel as tourists. In 1868 the Emperor took control from the feudal government and the Imperial capital was moved to Tokyo. The new government introduced measures to control religions in Japan, and issued the Shintoism and Buddhism Separation Decree in 1868. This prohibited activities related to the Shinto-Buddhist fusion and statues of Buddha were removed from shrines. However because of the strong support by society at large for the Kii Mountains and their shrines, many survived. Such was the outflow of cultural properties from Japan as a result of the law that in 1897 the government brought in the Ancient Shrines and 38 Temples Preservation Law, strengthening it is 1929, and extending it in 1919 to include natural sites. After World War II, with the revitalising of the economy, visitors once again returned to the Kii Mountains and still visit in large numbers. Management regime Legal provision:
The Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties, 1950, is the main legal framework. All the key cultural sites are designated as national treasures or important cultural properties, historic sites, places of scenic beauty or natural monuments. These are listed in the dossier and total 41 in all. Any alteration to, or activities with adverse effects on the existing condition of, cultural properties designated under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties, is only permitted with prior permission from the Commissioner of the Agency for Cultural Affairs. In addition, small-scale repair or restoration for maintenance purpose also requires prior submission of notification. However, minor alterations without prior permission or notice are found in some properties. Natural sites in the nominated property and its buffer zones are located within the boundary of the Special Zone or the Special Protection Zone of the Yoshino-Kumano National Park, which is designated by the Natural Park Law. Management structure: The Agency for Cultural Affairs in the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology is in charge of cultural properties including World Heritage sites. The owners or custodial bodies manage, repair and open them to the public. The national government, where necessary, subsidises the cost of repair and management of the designated sites and provides technical guidance. Shinto shrines and Buddhist Temples are owned by religious organisations or by individuals. Pilgrimage routes are owned by individuals or by national or local governments. Places of Scenic Beauty and Natural Monuments are owned by private owners or corporations or by national or local governments. A Management Plan has been produced by the Boards of Education of Mie, Nara and Wakayama Prefectures, in collaboration with the Agency for Cultural Affairs, and this was submitted with the nomination. This sets out: ?? Basic Principles, Identification of the Components of the Property, (to be undertaken); ?? Methodology for Appropriate Preservation and Management – (this is general and does not indicate who will be advising or where specialist advice will be obtained); ?? Preservation of the Surrounding Environment (this covers the need for ordinances to protect those areas currently unprotected); ?? Conservation and Utilisation Plans (a list of subjects to be covered by such plans is given including the need to promote knowledge of the site and provide adequate facilities for visitors); ?? Organisation and Institutionalisation for the Implementation of Preservation and Management of the Property (this sets out the need to reinforce existing staff and appoint fulltime officers as custodians, improve coordination between Prefectures and the national agency, and provide training). It is also stated in the dossier that each of the educational boards has prepared its own individual preservation and management plan for ‘practical preservation and management’. These were not submitted nor were they available for inspection during the mission. The Three- Prefectures Council to Promote World Heritage Registration, which was established to pursue the nomination, is maintaining liaison and coordination among related organisations and operating effectively and cooperatively. Resources: No extra resources have yet been put in place for the management of the site if inscribed, but as stated above the Prefectures are committed to providing adequate trained staff. Justification by the State Party (summary) The site is put forward for its outstanding universal value related to the way the Kii Mountain Range: ?? Has nurtured the spirit of nature worship since ancient times ?? Is the central place for Buddhist ascetic practices ?? Developed a unique Shinto-Buddhist syncretism ?? Is associated with the Buddhist idea of the Pure Land ?? Developed three main shrine sites which became the key mountain sites in Japan
?? Influenced the development of shrine and temple building throughout Japan
?? Houses important and extensive pilgrim routes which are part of religious practices
3. ICOMOS EVALUATION
Actions by ICOMOS
An ICOMOS evaluation mission visited the site in October 2003.
ICOMOS has also consulted its International Scientific Committee on Historic Gardens / Cultural Landscapes. 39
Conservation
State of conservation:
Many of the key sites have been protected since 1897 under the Ancient Shrines and Temples Preservation Law upon which later laws were based. Details of the state of conservation of the main cultural sites are given in the dossier and generally the individual components are in a very good state of repair. Most of the monuments are wooden structures and are susceptible to the wet climate. Many of the structures have been dismantled and reconstructed several times and others have been completely renewed. Although complete renewal would not now be carried out, complete dismantling and partial dismantling are still carried out as a continuation of a long tradition of repair. The number and complexity of the main shrines, and the need for regular maintenance and repair, led to the formation of groups of skilled craftsmen attached to the shrines before 1868. Now the Nara and Wakayama prefectures have officers who give advice on repairs. Many of the pilgrimage routes are maintained by a non-profit organisations, as are the forests of cherry trees. Management: The management regimes listed above appear to work satisfactorily. Although it is stated in the management plan that there is a need to improve coordination between prefectures and the national agency, in view of the vast scale of the nominated site and its complexity, covering both cultural and natural assets, it is suggested that a more sophisticated management system is required to address these challenges, perhaps involving a coordinator or coordinating committee. Moreover given the size of the challenge, ways of involving local communities in sustainable management practices would seem to be desirable. The dossier does not mention any programmes to gain the support of or involve local communities in the overall management of the site. However during the evaluation mission mention was made of efforts to involve NGOs and various civic groups and thus mobilised support from older people in Japan who are increasing in number. Risk analysis: The nomination lists the following threats: Development pressures: Although the nominated property is amidst the largest concentration of urban settlement in the whole archipelago, development is said to be sufficiently controlled by existing laws. Environmental pressures: No detrimental environmental changes are envisaged. However there is no mention in the dossier of damage to forests by water or fire, nor environmentally sound waste disposal for visitors. Natural disasters and preparedness: Satisfactory mitigation measures for typhoons, heavy rain or landslide have been put in place. Fire detection systems are in place in all the major monuments as are lightning conductors. Visitor/Tourism pressure: There appear to be no measures to control the numbers of visitors. Arrangements for ensuring that facilities are adequate and appropriate are in place. Other threats are: Car parking: In some sites parking conflicts with pedestrians such as near the Kimpusen-ji temple and in villages near Koyasan.. A visitor management strategy needs to be developed to consider these issues. Overhead wires: Electricity and telephone wires are mostly overground and exert a negative influence on some monuments. Consideration should be given to undergrounding these wires. Inappropriate visitor facilities: These were noted at several sites. The management plan needs to consider this issue and determines how support can be given to make arrangements for visitors more appropriate. Authenticity and integrity Authenticity:
The main issues relating to authenticity is the reconstruction of monuments. However as stated above, there is a long tradition of reconstructing and renewing the wooden fabric of buildings: the idea, design and location of the building are considered crucial, whereas the individual components may or may not be original. Hence what is being put forward are buildings that in most case are not the original structures but nevertheless are considered worthy of veneration for their association with the ideals and ideas of their founders. Two secondary issues are visitor facilities and overhead wires. Inappropriate facilities can be detrimental to the overall authenticity of the site as can overhead wires. In both instances arrangements need to be put in place to reverse development which impinges on authenticity. Integrity: There is one issue connected to integrity: the discontinuity of the nominated pilgrim routes. What has been nominated is only those parts of the pilgrim routes which are still relatively intact in terms of the condition of the track and its setting. Where development has intervened negatively the track has been excluded. This means that the pilgrim routes are in some place a series of short stretches. If the discontinuity is to be understood by visitors, then measures need to be put in place to allow an understanding of the links between disconnected pieces of the routes. Comparative evaluation The dossier states that the nominated property is unique and therefore it is impossible to make direct comparisons with similar properties elsewhere. Certainly the association of the Kii Mountains with Shinto- Buddhism is a unique phenomenon as is the precise way that social and economic forces have influenced the development of the shrines. However the idea of mountains attaining sacred qualities revered by a nation, and persisting over a long time span is not unique. Similar perception of mountains exist in China where mountains are thought to guard the edges of the Empire and where miniature mountains decorate gardens and offer individual protection. There the way mountains are perceived, painted and climbed is subject to well-defined principles 40 which have persisted for generations. One could argue that the spiritual association between man and mountains is as strong in China as in Japan. However what is different is the way that in Japan the Kii Mountains became accessible not just to Emperors, priests, aristocrats and samurai but to ordinary peoples – who could work to attain enhancement through walking the pilgrims' routes. Outstanding universal value General statement:
The Sacred sites and pilgrim routes of the Kii Mountains are of outstanding universal value for the combination of the following cultural qualities: The Kii Mountains: ?? Have come to be seen as the national repository of Shinto beliefs – linking the present day population of Japan with prehistoric times ?? Have absorbed and developed the Buddhist beliefs to create a unique Shinto-Buddhist religion which fostered ascetic practices closely related to the topography and climate of the mountains ?? Become the setting for the creation of unique forms of shrine and temple buildings which have had a profound influence on the building of temples and shrines elsewhere in Japan ?? Developed an extensive network of pilgrim routes which are part of the ritual of worship ?? Have fostered the conservation of ancient trees, forests, glades natural features, revered for their religious associations ?? Are strongly associated with long-lasting intangible cultural traditions related to natural forces
?? Are extraordinarily well documented in terms of the way they have been perceived and used over the past 1200 years. Evaluation of criteria:
The property is nominated on the basis of criteria ii, iii, iv and vi.
Criterion ii: The monuments and sites that form the cultural landscape are a unique fusion between Shinto and Buddhism that illustrates the interchange and development of religious cultures in East Asia. Criterion iii: The sites of the Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples, the way they have evolved and their associated rituals, bear exceptional testimony to the development of Japan’s religious culture over more than a thousand years. Criterion iv: The wooden shrine buildings in the nominated site are representative of the highest forms of their genre; they also served as models for shrines constructed throughout Japan in dedication to the