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Si-yu-ki, Buddhist records of the Western world

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SI-YU-KI.

BUDDHIST RECORDS OF THE WESTERN WORLD,

TRANSLATED FROM THE CHINESE oF HiUEN TSIANG}(A.D. 629}. c H 5 oia vv -Usavtef a

BY

SAMUEL BEAL,

B.A. (TRIX. COL. CAMB.), R.N. (RETIRED CHAPLAIN AND N.I.), PROFESSOR OF (HIM ;:SITY COLLEGE, LONDON ; RECTOE OF WARK, NORTHUMBERLAND, ETC.

IN TWO VOLUMES. VOL. I.

LONDON: TKUBNER & CO., LU D G AT E '11 I L I.. 1884. [AH riyld* rctcrvcd.]

I;ALLANTYNE, HANSON AND ca EDINBURGH AND LONDON

 ZTbcse Volumes ARE DEDICATED (BY GRACIOUS PERMISSION) TO H.R.H. ALBERT EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES.

CONTENTS.

PAGE INTRODUCTION ....... ix Shih Fa-hiaii ...... xi Sung-Yun ....... xv Hiuen Tsiang ...... xviii Buddhist Literature in China . . . . xx TRAVELS OF FA-HIAN, or Fo-kwQ-ki .... xxiii Tin; MISSION OF SUNG-YUN AND HWEI-SANG . . Ixxxiv \CE TO THE " TA-T'ANG-SI-YU-KI," BY CHANG YUEH . i BOOK I. THIRTY-FOUR COUNTRIES .... 7-68 INTRODUCTION BY CHANG YUEH .... 7 1. Country of '0-ki-ni (Akni) . . . .17 2. Kingdom of K'iu-rhi (Kucha) . . .19 3. l'oh-luh-kia(BAluka or Aksu) ... 24 4. Nu-chih-kion (Nujkcnd) . . . .29 5. Che-ahi (01 hkand) . . . -30 6. Fci-han (Fer-Lanah) ..... 30 7 Su-tu-li-ssc-iui (Sutri.-hna) . . . .31 8. S. ::iarkaii(l) . . . .32 9. Hi-mo-ho (Maghian) . . . . -33 10. K'i<--i><>-ta-iia (Kclaul) . . . -33 11. K'iuli-.-h\vaii^-ni-kia (K . . 34 ii ( Kuan) . . . . .34 34 ik) . . . . . -35 :/iu) . . -35 16. Ki-.-lnvni: ::) . . . . . 36

viii CONTENTS. BOOK I. continued PAGE 17. Ta-nii (Termed) .... 38 1 8. Ch'i-ngoh-yen-na (Chaghanian or Saghanian) . 39 19. Hwuh-lo-mo (Garma) .... 39 20. Su-man (Suinaii and Kulfib) ... 40 21. Kio-ho-yen-na (Kubadian) .... 40 22. Hu-sha (Wakhsh) ..... 40 23. Kho-to-lo (Khotl) ..... 40 24. Kiu-mi-to (Kumidha or Darwaz and Roshan) . 41 25. Fo-kia-lang (Baghlan) .... 43 26. Hi-lu-sih-inin-kien (Riti-Samangan) . . 43 27. Ho-lin (Khulm) . . . . . 43 28. Po-ho or Fo-ho-lo (Balkh .... 43 29. Jui-mo-to (Jumadha) .... 48 30. Hu-shi-kien (Ju/gana) .... 48 31. Ta-la-kien (Talikan) .... 48 32. Kie-chi (Gachi or Gaz) .... 49 33. Fan-yen-na (Bamiyuu) .... 49 34. Kia-pi-shi (Kapis'a) . . , . 54 BOOK II. THREE COUNTRIES .... 69-118 (1) Names of India ..... 69 (2) Extent of India, Climate, &c. ... 70 (3) Measures of Length .... 70 (4) Astronomy, the Indian Calendar, &c. . . 71 (5) Towns and Buildings .... 73 (6) Seats, Clothing, &c. . . . -75 (7) Dress, Habits, &c. . . . -75 (8) Cleanliness, Ablutions, &c. ... 77 (9) Writing, Language, Literature, theVedas, Study . 77 (10) Buddhist Schools, Books, Discussions, Discipline 80 (i i ) Castes, Marriage ..... 82 (12) Royal Race, Troops, Weapons ... 82 (13) Manners, Justice ..... 83 (14) Forms of Politeness .... 85 (15) Medicines, Funeral Customs, &c. ... 86 (16) Civil Administration, Revenues, &c. . . 87 (17) Plants and Trees, Cultivation, Food, Drink, &c. . 88 (18) Commercial Transactions .... 89 1. Country of Lan-po (Lamghan) ... 90 2. Na-kie-lo-ho (Nagarahara) . . . .91 3. Kien-t'o-lo (Gandhara) .... 97

CONTENTS. ix PAGE BOOK III. EIGHT COUNTRIES . . . 119-164 1. U-chang-na (Udyana) . . . .119 2. Po-lu-lo (Bolor) . . . . .135 3. Ta-ch'a-shi-lo (Takshasila) . . . .136 4. Sani,'-lio-pu-lo (Siihhapura) . . . .143 5. Wu-la-shi (Urasa) ..... 147 6. Kia-shi-mi-lo (Kas'mir) . . . .148 7. Pun-nu-tso (Punacha) . . . .163 8. Ho-lo-she-pu-lo (Rajapuri) . . . .163 BOOK IV. FIFTEEN COUNTRIES . . . 165-205 1. Tseh-kia (Takka) 165 2. Chi-ua-po-ti (Chinapati) . . . 173 3. She-lau-t'o-lo (Jilahdhara) . . . .175 4. K'iu-lu-to (Kulutu) . . . . .177 5. She-to-t'u-lu (6atadru) . . . .178 6. Po-li-ye-to-lo (Paryatra) . . . .179 7. Mo-t'u-lo (Matlmia) . . . .179 8. Sa-t'a-ni-shi-fa-lo (Sthanesvara) . . .183 9. Su-lo-k'in-na (Srughna) . . . .186 10. Mo-ti-pu-lo (Matipura) .... 190 11. P'o-lo-hih-mo-pu-lo (Bralimamini) . . . 198 12. Kiu-pi-shwang-na (Govi&ma ?) . . . 199 13. '0-hi-chi-ta-lo (Ahikslietra) . ... 200 14. Pi-lo-.-han-iia, (Virasana?) .... 201 15. Kii-pi-ta (Kapitha) ..... 202 BOOK V. S -TRIES .... 206-240 1. Kie-jo-kio-she-kAvo (Kaiiyakulya) . . . 206 2. J 0-yu-t'o (AymlhvA) ..... 224 3. '0-ye-niu-kliic (flayainukha) . . . 229 4. I'o-ln-yc-kia (Piayil^a) .... 230 5. K j-ini (Kau.s'uiibi) .... 235 6. Pi-so-kia (Vaisaka) ..... 239 ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS . . . .241

INTRODUCTION.

THE progress which has been made in our knowledge of Northern Buddhism during the last few years is due very considerably to the discovery of the Buddhist literature of China. This literature (now well known to us through the catalogues already published) l contains, amongst other valuable works, the records of the travels of various Chinese Buddhist pilgrims who visited India during the early centuries of our era. These records embody the testimony of independent eye-witnesses as to the facts related in them, and having been faithfully preserved and allotted a place in the collection of the sacred books of the country, their evidence is entirely trustworthy. It would be impossible to mention seriatim the various points of interest in these works, as they refer to the geography, history, manners, and religion of the people of India. The reader who looks into the pages that fol- low will find ample material for study on all these ques- tions. But there is one particular that gives a more than usual interest to the records under notice, and that is the evident sincerity and enthusiasm of the travellers them- selves. Never did more devoted pilgrims leave their native country to encounter the perils of travel in foreign and (i -lid disciples more ardently <le- nn tht- cs of tli ion ; never by desert, mountain, 1st Tripl', ujio. b

x INTRODUCTION. and sea than these simple - minded earnest Buddhist priests. And that such courage, religious devotion, and power of endurance should be exhibited by men so slug- gish, as we think, in their very nature as the Chinese, this is very surprising, and may perhaps arouse some con- sideration. Buddhist books began to be imported into China during the closing period of the first century of our era. From these books the Chinese learned the history of the founder of the new religion, and became familiar with the names of the sacred spots he had consecrated by his presence. As time went on, and strangers from India and the neigh- , bourhood still flocked into the Eastern Empire, some of the new converts (whose names have been lost) were urged by curiosity or a sincere desire to gaze on the mementoes of the religion they had learned to adopt, to risk the perils of travel and visit the western region. We are told by I-tsing (one of the writers of these Buddhist re- cords), who lived about 670 A.D., that 500 years before his time twenty men, or about that number, had found their way through the province of Sz'chuen to the Mahfi- bodhi tree in India, and for them and their fellow- countrymen a Maharaja called Srigupta built a temple. The establishment was called the " Tchina Temple." In I-tsing's days it was in ruins. In the year 290 A.D. we find another Chinese pilgrim called Chu Si-hing visiting Khotan ; another called Fa-ling shortly afterwards pro- ceeded to North India, and we can hardly doubt that others unknown to fame followed their example. At any rate, the recent accidental discovery of several stone tablets with Chinese inscriptions at Buddha Gaya, 2 on two of which we find the names of the pilgrims Chi-I and Ho- yun, the former In company "with some other priests," shows plainly that the sacred spots were visited from time to time by priests from China, whose names indeed are unknown to us from any other source, but who were 2 See /. R. A. ., N.S., vol. xiii. pp. 552-572.

INTRODUCTION. xi impelled to leave their home by the same spirit of reli- gious devotion and enthusiasm which actuated those with whom we are better acquainted. The first Chinese traveller whose name and writings have come down to us is the Sakyaputra Fa -hi an. He is the author of the records which follow in the pages of the present Introduction. His work, the Fo-kwo-ki, was first known in Europe through a translation 3 made by M. Abel Eemusat. But Klaproth claimed the discovery of the book itself from the year i8i6, 4 and it was he who shaped the rough draft of Remusat's translation from chap. xxi. of the work in question to the end. Of this translation nothing need be said in this place; it has been dealt with elsewhere. It will be enough, therefore, to give some few particulars respecting the life and travels of the pilgrim, and for the rest to refer the reader to the transla- tion which follows. Sinn FA-HI AX. A.D. 400. In agreement with early custom, the Chinese mendicant priests who adopted the Buddhist faith changed their names at the time of their leaving their homes (ordina- tion), and assumed the title of Sakyaputras, sons or men- dicants of Sakya. So we find amongst the inscriptions at Matlmni 5 the title Sakya Bhikshunyaka or Sakya Bhik- ulded to the religious names of the different bene- factors there mentioned. The pilgrim Fa-hi an, therefore, whose original namr* was IVUIILT, when IK; assumed the ais title by which he is known to us, took also the :i of Shih or the Sakyaputra, the disciple or son I a native, of Wu-Yiing, of the district of P: , in the province of Shai:-i. He left his home rs of age. II: a Fof kouf . 5 Arch. 8nrwy / ///.//,!. vi.I. iii M. -. J. / :. v. j.j.. i.sj if.

xii INTRODUCTION. early history is recorded in the work called Ko-sang-chuen, written during the time of the Liang dynasty, belonging to the Suh family (502-507 A.D.) But so far as we are now concerned, we need only mention that he was moved by a desire to obtain books not known in China, and with that aim set out in company with other priests (some of whom are named in the records) from Chang'an, A.D. 399, and after an absence of fourteen years returned to Nan- kin, where, in connection with Buddhabhadra (an Indian Sramana, descended from the family of the founder of the Buddhist religion), he translated various works and com- posed the history of his travels. He died at the age of eighty-six. Fa-hian's point of departure was the city of Chang'an in Shen-si ; from this place he advanced across the Lung district (or mountains) to the fortified town of Chang-yeh in Kan-suh; here he met with some other priests, and with them proceeded to Tun-hwang, a town situated to the south of the Bulunghir river, lat. 39 30' N., long. 95 E. Thence with four companions he pushed forward, under the guidance, as it seems, of an official, across the desert of Lop to Shen-shen, the probable site of which is marked in the map accompanying the account of Prejevalsky's journey through- the same district; according to this map, it is situated in lat. 38 K, and long. 87 E. It corre- sponds with the Cherchen of Marco Polo. Fa-hian tells us that Buddhism prevailed in this country, and that there were about 4000 priests. The country itself was rugged and barren. So Marco Polo says, " The whole of this pro- vince is sandy, but there are numerous towns and vil- lages." 6 The Venetian traveller makes the distance from the town of Lop five days' journey. Probably Fa-hian did not visit the town of Cherchen, but after a month in the kingdom turned to the north-west, apparently follow- ing the course of the Tarim, and after fifteen days arrived in the kingdom of Wu-i or Wu-ki. This kingdom seems 6 Marco Polo, cap. xxxviii.

INTRODUCTION* xiii to correspond to Karsliar or Karasharh, near the Lake Tenghiz or Bagarash, and is the same as the '0-ki-ni of Hiuen Tsiang. 7 Prejevalsky took three days in travelling from Kara-moto to Koiia, a distance of about 42 miles, 8 so that the fifteen days of Fa-hian might well represent in point of time the distance from Lake Lob to Karasharh. Our pilgrims would here strike on the outward route of Hiuen Tsiang. It was at this spot they fell in with their companions Pao-yun and the rest, whom they had left at Tun-hwang. These had probably travelled to Karasharh by the northern route, as it is called, through Kamil or Kamul to Pidshan and Turfan ; for we read that whilst Fa-hian remained at Karasharh, under the protection of an important official, some of the others Vent back to Kao-chang (Turfan), showing that they had come that way. From Karasharh Fa-hian and the others, favoured by the liberality of Kung siin (who was in some way connected with the Prince of Ts'in), proceeded south-west to Khotan. The route they took is not well ascertained ; but probably they followed the course of the Tarim and of the Khotan rivers. There were no dwellings or people on the road, and the difficulties of the journey and of crossing the rivevs " ex- ceeded power of comparison." After a month and five days they reached Khotan. This country has been iden- tified with Li-yul of the Tibetan writers. 9 There is some reason for connecting this " laud of Li " with the Lich- chhuvis of Yaisfili. It is said by Csoma Korb'si "that the t ii writers derive their first king (about 250 B.C.) from the Litsabyis or Lichavyis." 10 The chief prince or ruler of the LichchhavU \\a- railed the. " pvut lion" or " the noble lion." 11 This is probably the explanation of -li, used by Spi-nce Hardy as "the name of the king of the Lichawis." 12 Khotan would thus be the land of the 1. xix. p. 50. hill. w Al 282. r 'im,p. 23

xiv INTRODUCTION. lion-people (Simhas). Whether this be so or not, the polished condition of the people and their religious zeal indicate close connection with India, more probably with Baktria. The name of the great temple, a mile or two to the west of the city, called the Nava-sanghiirama, or royal " new temple," is the same as that on the south-west of Balkh, described by Hiuen Tsiang; 13 and the introduc- tion of Vaisravana as the protector of this convent, and his connection with Khotan, the kings of that country being descended from him, 14 indicate a relationship, if not of race, at least of intercourse between the two kingdoms. After witnessing the car procession of Khotan, Fa-hian and some others (for the pilgrims had now separated for a time), advanced for twenty-five days towards the country of Tseu-ho, which, according to Klaproth, corresponds with the district of Yangi-hissar, from which there is a caravan route due south into the mountain region of the Tsung- ling. It was by this road they pursued their journey for four days to a station named Yu-hwui, or, as it may also be read, Yu-fai ; here they kept their religious fast, after which, journeying for twenty-five days, they reached the country of Kie-sha. I cannot understand how either of the last-named places can be identified with Ladakh. 15 Yu-hwui is four days south of Tseu-ho ; 16 and twenty-five days beyond this brings the pilgrims to the country of Kie-sha, in the centre of the Tsung-ling mountains. Nor can we, on the. other hand, identify this kingdom of Kie-sha (the symbols are entirely different from those used by Hiuen Tsiang, ii. p. 306, for Kashgar) with that of the Kossaioi of Ptolemy, the Khasas of Manu, and the Khasakas of the Vishnu Picrdna. 17 These appear to have been related to the Cushites of Holy Scripture. 3 Vol. i. p. 44. introduction), p. xL n. 2. 14 Inf., vol. ii. p. 309. 16 So we read in Fa-hian's text. 15 See Laidlay's note, Fa-hian, p. ^SeeEiiel, Handbook, s.v.Khac/ta; 26, n. 6, and Wood's Oxus (Yule's Laidlay's Fa-hian, p. 31.

INTRODUCTION. xv Advancing for a month across the Tsung-ling range towards India, the pilgrims reached the little country of To-li, that is, the valley of Darail in the Dard country. This valley is on the right or western bank of the Indus, long. 73 44' E., and is watered by a river Daril. 18 Still advancing south-west for fifteen days, they strike the Indus (or probably the Swat river), crossing which, they enter on the kingdom of Udyana, where they found Bud- dhism in a flourishing condition. Concerning this country and its traditions, we have ample records in Hiuen Tsiang, Book iii. (p. 119). Here then we may leave Fa-hian; his farther travels may be followed by the details given in his own writings, and to these we refer the reader. SUNG YUN. A.D. 518. This pilgrim was a native of Tun-hwang, in what is sometimes called Little Tibet, lat. 39 30' N., long. . He seems to have lived in a suburb of the city of Lo-yang (Honan-fu) called Wan-I. He was sent, A.D. 518, by the Empress of the Northern Wei dynasty, in company with Hwui Sang, a Bhikshu of the Shung-li temple of Lo-yang, to the western countries to seek for books. They brought back altogether one hundred and seventy volumes or sets of the Great Development series. They seem to have taken the southern route from Tun- hwung tu Khotan, and thence by the same route as Fa- liian and his companion across the Tsung-ling mountains. Ve-tha (Ephthalites) were now in possession of the old country of the Yue-chi, and had recently conqnnvd Gandhfira. They are described as having no walh-d towns, but keeping order by means of a standing army that moved here and there. They used felt (lent her; garments, had no written character, nor any knowledge 1 Vld 134, n. 37.

xvi INTRODUCTION. of the heavenly bodies. On all hands it is plain the Ye-tha were a rude horde of Turks who had followed in the steps of the Hiung-nu ; they were, in fact, the Eph- thalites or Huns of the Byzantine writers. " In the early part of the sixth century their power extended over Western India, and Cosmas tells us of their king Gollas who domineered there with a thousand elephants and a vast force of horsemen." 19 Sung-yun also names the power of the king whom the Ye-tha had set up over Gandhara. He was of the Lae-lih dynasty, or a man of Lae-lih, which may perhaps be restored to Lara. Acc6rding to Hiuen Tsiang, 20 the northern Lara people belonged to Valabhi, and the southern Liiras to ^Ifiluva. It was one of these Lara princes the Ye-tha had set over the king- dom of Gandhara. It may have been with the Gollas of Cosmas that the Chinese pilgrims had their inter- view. At any rate, he was lording it over the people with seven hundred war-elephants, and was evidently a fierce and oppressive potentate. The Ye-tha, according to Sung-yun, had conquered or received tribute from more than forty countries in all, from Tieh-lo in the south to Lae-lih in the north, east- ward to Khotan, westward to Persia. The symbols Tieh-lo probably represent Tirabhukti, the present Tirhut, the old land of the Vrljjis. The Vrljjis themselves were in all probability Skythian invaders, whose power had reached so far as the borders of the Gauges at Patna, but had there been checked by Ajata^atru. They had afterwards been driven north-east to the mountains bordering on Nepal. 21 The Ye-tha also extended their power so far as this, and northward to Lae-lih, i.e., Malava. As these conquests had been achieved two gene- rations before Sung-yun's time, we may place this in- vasion of India therefore about A.D. 460. The notices of the country of Udyana by Sung-yun 19 Yule, Wood's Oxus, xxvii. 2 Vol. ii. pp. 260, 266, notes 56, 71. 21 V. de St. Martin, Mtmoire, p. 368.

INTRODUCTION. xvii vie with those found in Hiuen Tsiang for abundance of detail and legendary interest. It is singular that the supposed scene of the history of Yessantara, " the giving king" of Hiuen Tsiang and the Pi-lo of Sung-yun, should be placed in this remote district. The Vcssantara JdtaJca (so called) was well known in Ceylon in Fa-hian's time ; 22 it forms part of the sculptured scenes at Amaravati and Sanehi ; it is still one of the most popular stories amongst the Mongols. How does the site of the history come to be placed in Udyana ? There are some obscure notices connected with the succession of the Maurya or Moriya sovereigns from the Sakya youths who fled to this district of Udyana -which may throw a little light on this subject. The Buddhists affirm that Asoka belonged to the same family as Buddha, because he was descended from Chan- dragupta, who was the child of the queen of one of the sovereigns of Moriyanagara. This Moriyanagara was the city founded by the Sakya youths who fled from Kapi- lavastu; so that whatever old legends were connected with the Sakya family were probably referred to Udyana by the direct or indirect influence of Asoka, or by his popularity as a Buddhist sovereign. But, in any case, the history of Udyana is mixed up with that of the t family, and Buddha himself is made to acknow- ledge Uttarasena as one of his own kinsmen. 23 We may suppose then that these tales did actually take their rise some local or family association connected with :ia, and found their way thence into the legends of other countries. Hence while we have in the Southern account mention made of the elephant that could bring rain from h< a\vn, which was the cause of Vessantani's .iii<-iit, in the Northern accounts this is, apparently, with the peacock (inni/nra) that brought water But the subject need not be pursued r in tiiis place; it is suilicieiit to note the fact that* . 38. * Inf., vol. i. ] .p. ijl f. /., vol. i. j..

xviii INTRODUCTION. many of the stones found in the Northern legends are somehow or other localised in this pleasant district of Udyana. Sung-yun, after reaching so far as Peshawar and Nagarahara, returned to China in the year A.D. 521. HIUEN TSIANG. A.D. 629. This illustrious pilgrim was born in the year 603 A.D., at Ch'in Liu, in the province of Ho-nan, close to the pro- vincial city. He was the youngest of four brothers. At an early age he was taken by his second brother, Chang- tsi, to the eastern capital, Lo-yang. His brother was a monk belonging to the Tsing-tu temple, and in this com- munity Hiuen Tsiang was ordained at the age of thirteen years. 25 On account of the troubles which occurred at the end of the dynasty of Sui, the pilgrim in company with his brother sought refuge in the city of Shing-tu, the capital of the province of Sz'chuen, and here at the age of twenty he was fully ordained as a Bhikshu or priest. After some time he 'began to travel through the provinces in search of the best instructor he could get, and so came at length to Chang'an. It was here, stirred up by the re- collection of Fa-hian and Chi-yen, that he resolved to go to the western regions to question the sages on points that troubled his mind. He was now twenty-six years of age. He accordingly set out from Chang'an in company with a priest of Tsing-chau of Kan-suh, and having reached that city, rested there. Thence he proceeded to Lan-chau, the provincial city of Kan-suh. He then advanced with a magistrate's escort to Liang- chau, a prefecture of Kan-suh, beyond the river. This city was the entrepot for mer- chants from Tibet and the countries east of the Tsung- ling mountains ; and to these Hiuen Tsiang explained the sacred books and revealed his purpose of going to the kingdom of the Brahmans to seek for the law. By them 25 That is, became a novice or Sramariera.

INTRODUCTION. xix he was amply provided with means for his expedition, and, notwithstanding the expostulation of the governor of the city, by the connivance of two priests he was able to proceed westward as far as Kwa-chau, a town about ten miles to the south of the Hu-lu river, which seems to be the same as the Bulunghir. From this spot, going north in company with a young man who had offered to act as his guide, he crossed the river by night, and after escaping the treachery of his guide, came alone to the first watch-tower. Five of these towers, at intervals of 100 li, stretched towards the country of I-gu (Kamul). We need not recount the way in which the pilgrim prevailed on the keepers of the first and fourth tower to let him proceed ; nor is it necessary to recount the fervent prayers to Kwan-yin and his incessant invocation of the name of this divinity. Suffice it to say, he at last reached the confines of I-gu, and there halted. From this place he was summoned by the prince of Kao- chang (Turf an), who, after vainly attempting to keep him in his territory, remitted him to '0-ki-ni, that is, Kara- sharh, from which he advanced to Kuche. Here the nar- rative in the pages following carries us on through the territory of Kuche to Baluka, or 13ai, in the Aksu dis- trict, from whence the pilgrim proceeds in a northerly direction across the Icy Mountains (Muzart) into the well-watered plains bordering on the Tsing Lake (Issyk- kul) ; he then proceeded along the fertile valley of the Su-yeh river (the Chu or Chui) to the town of Taras, and thence to Nujkeiul and Tashkand. It is not necessary to follow the pilgrim's route farther than this, as the particulars given in the translation fol- lowing, and tin; notes thereto, will sufliricntly set forth ivance. : Voni his Indian travels across miir and through Kashmir and the Khotan districts, id been away from China since A.D. 629; he returned r >.\^. He brought back with him

xx INTRODUCTION. 1. Five hundred grains of relics belonging to the body (flesh) of Tathagata. 2. A golden statue of Buddha on a transparent pede- stal. 3. A statue of Buddha carved out of sandal- wood on a transparent pedestal. This figure is a copy of the statue which Udayana, king of KauSambi, had made. 4. A similar statue of sandal-wood, copy of the figure made after Buddha descended from the Trayastririisas heaven. 5. A silver statue of Buddha on a transparent pedestal. 6. A golden statue of Buddha on a transparent pedestal. 7. A sandal-wood figure of Buddha on a transparent pedestal. 8. One hundred and twenty-four works (sdtras) of the Great Vehicle. 9. Other works, amounting in the whole to 520 fasci- culi, carried by twenty-two horses. There are many interesting particulars given in the "Life of Hiuen Tsiang" by Hwui-lih, which need not be named here, respecting the work of translation and the pilgrim's death at the age of sixty-five. They will be fully set forth in the translation of that memoir, which it is hoped will follow the present volumes. We will simply add, that of all the books translated by Hiuen Tsiang, there are still seventy-five included in the collection of the Chinese Tripitaka. The titles of these books may be seen in the catalogue prepared by Mr. Bun- yiu Nanjio, coll. 435, 436. BUDDHIST LITERATURE IN CHINA. Although it was known that there were copies of trans- lations of the Buddhist Tripitaka in the great monasteries in China, no complete set of these books had been brought to England until the Japanese Government furnished us with the copy now in the India Office Library in the year

INTRODUCTION. xxi 1875. Respecting these books I will extract one passage from the report which was drawn up by direction of the Secretary of State for India : "The value of the records of the 'Chinese pilgrims' who visited India in the early centuries of our era, and the account of whose travels is contained in this collec- tion, is too well understood to need any remark. I regret that none of the books referred to by M. Stas. Julien, in his introduction to the ' Vie deHioucn Thsang} and which he thought might be found in Japan, are contained in this collection ; but there is still some hope that they may be found in a separate form in some of the remote monasteries of that country, or more probably in China itself." 26 To that opinion I still adhere. I think that if searching inquiry were made at Honan-fu and its neighbourhood, we might learn something of books supposed to be lost. And my opinion is grounded on this circumstance, that efforts which have been made to get copies (in the ordi- nary way) of books found in the collection of the Tripitaka have failed, and reports furnished that such works are lost. M. Stas. Julien himself tells us that Dr. Morrison, senior, reported that the Si-yu-ki (the work here 'trans- lated) could not be procured in China. And such is the listlessness of the Chinese literati about Buddhist books, and such the seclusion and isolation of many of the JHul- dhist establishments in China, that I believe books may still exist, or even original manuscripts, of which we know nothing at present. It would be strange if such were not the case, consi .hat has taken place in respect of : les of fragments or entire copies of MSS. of our own sacred scriptures in remote monasteries of Christendom. In conclusion, I desire to express the debt I owe, in the execution of this and other works, to the learning and * Deal's Catalogue, j>. i.

xxii INTRODUCTION. intimate knowledge of the Chinese language possessed by M. Stas. Julien. I should not have attempted to follow in his steps had his own translation of the Si-yu-ki been still procurable. But as it had long been out of print, and the demand for the book continued to be urgent, I have attempted to fur- nish, an independent translation in English of the Chinese pilgrim's travels. I am very largely indebted to James Burgess, LL.D., for assistance in carrying these volumes through the press. His close acquaintance with Buddhist archaeology and literature will give . value to many of the notes which appear on the pages following, and his kind supervision of the text and preparation of the index attached to it demand my thanks and sincere acknowledgments. I am also under great obligations to Colonel Yule, C.B., and to Dr. E. Host, for their ever-ready help and advice, especially during my visits to the Library of the India Office. I have not overlooked the remarks of various writers who have honoured me by noticing my little book (Buddhist Pilgrims), published in 1869. I venture, how- ever, to hope that I have by this time established my claim to be regarded as an independent worker in this field of literature. I have not therefore quoted instances of agreement or disagreement with the writers referred to; in fact, I have purposely avoided doing so, as my object is not to write a chapter of grammar, but to contri- bute towards the history of a religion ; but I have suffered no prejudice to interfere with the honesty of my work. I shall now proceed to the translation of the travels of Fa-hian and Sung-yun, referring the student to the original edition of my Buddhist Pilgrims for many notes and explanations of the text, which want of space forbids me to reproduce in these volumes.

( xxiii )

THE TRAVELS OF FA-HIAN. BUDDHIST-COUNTRY-RECORDS. By Fa-hian, the S'dkya of the Sung (Dynasty). [DATE, 400 A.D.] I. FA-HIAX, when formerly residing at Ch'ang-an, 1 re- gretted the imperfect condition of the Vinaya pitaka. Whereupon, afterwards, in the second year of Hung-shi, the cyclic year being Chi-hai* he agreed with Hwui-king, Tao-ching, Hwui-ying, Hwui-wu, and others, to go .to India for the purpose of seeking the rules and regulations. (of the Vinaya). : ting on their way from Ch'ang-an, they crossed the Lung (district) and reached the country of K'ien-kwei ; 3 here they rested during the rains. The season of the rains being over, going forward, they came to the country of Xiu-t'an; 4 crossing the Yang-lu hills, they reached Chang-yeh, 5 a military station. Chang-yeh at this time was much disturbed, and the roadways were not open. The king 6 of Chang-yeh being anxious, kept them there, himself entertaining them. Thus they met Chi-yen, Hwui-kin, Sang-shau, Pao-yun, Sang-king, and others; pleased that they were like-minded, they kept the rainy (MI capital of the pro- 4 This Is also tin- nann- of a prim-.'. :m-fu. and iic.t of a c-.untiy. ]{> nil. d <>\ IT . iistrii-t i-allc-l H-.-.-i, " tin- o. tint rv acter* A"" 400-401 (Tan^ut). * Ch.i; still ina; * Thin if the n:n ITUM-.- the Chinese maps just within th.- who ru. 1 M<.rth\\.,i ,-\tr, mity t.f tlj. ..th, to Wall. Kin, a /</( to\vn 6 ( 1 all<l Tun nirlj, \\ho di'd .\.n. 401 (C/i. i

xxtv

INTRODUCTION.

season together. The rainy season being over, they again pressed on to reach Tun-hwang. 7 The fortifications here are perhaps 80 li in extent from east to west, and 40 li from north to south. They all stopped here a month and some days, when Fa-hian and others, five men in all, set out first, in the train of an official, and so again parted with Pao-yun and the rest. The prefect of Tun-hwang, called Li-ho, provided them with means to cross the desert (sand -river). 8 In this desert are many evil demons and hot winds ; when encountered, then all die without exception. There are no flying birds above, no roaming beasts below, but everywhere gazing as far as the eye can reach in search of the onward route, it would be impos- sible to know the way but for dead men's decaying bones, which show the direction. Going on for seventeen days about 1 500 li, they reached the country of Shen-shen. 9 II. This land is rugged and barren. The clothing of the common people is coarse, and like that of the Chinese people ; only they differ in respect to the serge and felt. The king of this country honours the law (of Buddha). There are some 4000 priests, all of the Little Vehicle belief (learning). The laity and the Sramanas of this country wholly practise the religion of India, only some are refined and some coarse (in their observances). From this proceeding westward, the countries passed through are all alike in this respect, only the people differ in their lan- guage (Hu words). The professed disciples of Buddha, however, all use Indian books and the Indian lan^ua<^e. 7 C? O Kemaining here a month or more, again they went north- west for fifteen days and reached the country of AVu-i (Wu-ki?). 10 The priests of Wu-i also are about 4000 men ; 7 A frontier town of considerable king of the Liang dynasty" (Ch. military importance, 39 30' N. lat., Ed.) 95 E. long. (Prejevalsky's Map). 8 The desert of Lop (Marco Polo). This town was wrested from Tim- 9 The kingdom of Shen-sh- n or nieh in the third month of this year Leu-Ian (conf. Richtofen in 1'rt-je- by Li Ho, or more properly Li Ko, valsky's Kulja, p. 144, and j>. who ruled as the " illustrious warrior 10 The pilgrims probably followed

FO-KWO-KI. CH. in. xxv all (belong to) the Little Vehicle (school of) learning ; their religious rules are very precise (arranged mctJiodi- cally). "When Sramanas of the Ts'in land arrive here, they are unprepared for the rules of the priests. Fa-hian obtaining the protection of Kung-sun, an official (king t'ang) of the Fti (family), remained here two months and some days. Then he returned to Pao-yun and the others. 11 In the end, because of the want of courtesy and propriety on the part of the Wu-i people, and be- cause their treatment of their guests was very cool, Chi-yen, Hwui-kin, and Hwui-wu forthwith went back towards Kao-chang, in order to procure necessaries for the journey. Fa-hian and the others, grateful for the presents they received of Fu Kung-sun, forthwith jour- neyed to the south-west. On the road there were no dwellings or people. The sufferings of their journey on account of the difficulties of the road and the rivers (water) exceed human power of comparison. They were on the road a month and five days, and then managed to reach Khotan. 12 III. This country is prosperous and rich (happy) ; the people are very wealthy, and all without exception honour the law (of Buddha). They use religious music for mutual entertainment. The body of priests number even several myriads, principally belonging to the Great Vehicle. They all have food provided for them (church-food, commons) ; the people live here and there. Before their house doors they raise little towers, the least about twenty feet ii. There are priests' houses for the entertainment of foreign priests and for providing them with what they need. The ruler of the country lodged Fa-hian and the rest in n <lma. The name of tin; xnii'jluin'iHut \.

r Tarim. (For 12 Called inTil>et:in works Li-vul, i see infra, j>. 17, n. 52.) or the land <>f Li. It i-; pottifelethftt 11 It would aj'penr fn-in this tli.it the word Li (which menus lull-mittd Fft-hian had reach- d \Vu i l>y tin* in Til"t:m) may l>r . .. ith Irer // in / ^ 'oinjpun- Sj" I v.) C

xxvi INTRODUCTION. Gomati. This is a temple of the Great Vehicle with three thousand priests, who assemble to eat at the sound of the ghantd. On entering the dining-hall, their carriage is grave and demure, and they take their seats in regular order. All of them keep silence ; there is no noise with their eating-bowls ; when the attendants (pure men) give more food, they are not allowed to speak to one another, but only to make signs with the hand. Hwui-king, Tao- ching, Hwui-ta set out in advance towards the Kie-sha country, but Fa-hian and the rest, desiring to see the image-procession, remained three months and some days. In this country there are fourteen great sanghdrdmas, not counting the little ones. From the first day of the fourth month they sweep and water the thoroughfares within the city and decorate the streets. Above the city gate they stretch a great awning and use every kind of adornment. This is where the king and the queen and court ladies take their place. The Gomati priests, as they belong to the Great Vehicle, which is principally honoured by the king, first of all take their images in procession. About three or four li from the city they make a four-wheeled image-car about thirty feet high, in appearance like a moving palace, adorned with the seven precious sub- stances. They fix upon it streamers of silk and canopy curtains. The figure is placed in the car 13 with two Bodhisattvas as companions, whilst the Devas attend on them ; all kinds of polished ornaments made of gold and silver hang suspended in the air. When the image is a hundred paces from the gate, the king takes off his royal cap, and changing his clothes for new ones, proceeds bare- footed, with flowers and incense in his hand, from the city, followed by his attendants. On meeting the image, he bows down his head and worships at its feet, scattering the flowers and burning the incense. On entering the city, the queen and court ladies from above the gate-tower 13 For some curious details about Simpson, J.R.A. S., N. S., vol. xvi. the Rath-ydtrds, or car- festivals, see pp. 13 ff.

FO-KWO-KI. CH. iv. xxvii scatter about all kinds of flowers and throw them down in wild profusion. So splendid are the arrangements for worship. The cars are all different, and each saiighdrdma has a day for its image-procession. They begin on the first day of the fourth month and go on to the fourteenth day, when the processions end. The processions ended, the king and queen then return to the palace. Seven or eight li to the west of the city there is a sanghdrdnia called the Eoyal-new-temple. It was eighty years in finishing, and only after three kings (reigns] was it completed. It is perhaps twenty chang in height (290 feet}. It is adorned with carving and inlaid work, and covered with gold and silver. Above the roof all kinds of jewels combine to perfect it. Behind the tower there is a hall of Buddha, magnificent and very beautiful. The beams, pillars, doors, and window-frames are all gold-plated. Moreover, there are priests' apartments, also very splendid, and elegantly adorned beyond power of description. The kings of the six countries east of the Ling give many of their most valuable precious jewels (to this monastery), being seldom used (for personal adornment), [or, they seldom give things of common use]. IV. After the image-procession of the fourth month, Sang-shau, one of the company, set out with a Tartar (Hu) pilgrim towards Ki-pin. 14 Fu-hian and the others pressed on towards the Tseu-ho country. 15 They were iv. five days on the road, and then they arrived at this king- dom. The king of the country is earnest (in his piety), a thousand priests and more, principally belong- le, I Living stojMH'.l hen: iifteen days, they then went south for four days 10 and entered the -.'-ling mountains. Arriving al Yu-hwui. they kept tfl rest; the religious rest being over, they 1 tlie : t. Yarkan.l ri

xxvm

INTRODUCTION.

journeyed on twenty-five days to the Kie-sha 17 country, where they rejoined Hwui-king and the rest. V. The king of this country keeps the Pan-che-yue-sse. The Pan-clie-yue-sse (Panchavarshd, parishad) in Chinese words is " the great five-yearly assembly;" At the time of the assembly he asks Sramanas from the four quarters, who come together like clouds. Being assembled, he decorates the priests' session place; he suspends silken flags and spreads out canopies; he makes gold and silver lotus flowers ; he spreads silk behind the throne, and arranges the paraphernalia of the priests' seats. The king and the ministers offer their religious presents for one, two, or three months, generally during spring-time. The king-made assembly being over, he further exhorts his ministers to arrange their offerings ; they then offer for one day, two days, three days, or five days. The offerings being finished, the king, taking from the chief officer of the embassy and from the great ministers of the country the horse he rides, with its saddle and bridle, mounts it, and then (taking) white taffeta, jewels of various kinds, and things required by the Sramanas, in union with his ministers he vows to give them all to the priests ; having thus given them, they are redeemed at a price from the priests. The country is hilly and cold; it produces no variety of grain; only wheat will ripen. After the priests have received their yearly dues the mornings become frosty; the king, therefore, every year induces the priests to make the wheat ripen, and after that to receive their yearly portion. There is a stone spitting-vessel in this country belonging to Buddha, of the same colour as his alms-dish. There is also a tooth of Buddha; the people of the country have built a sttipa on account of this tooth. There are a thousand priests and more, all belong- 17 For some remarks on this coun- cerning the Kossaioi or Kassai, as a try see voL ii. p. 298, n. 46. As very ancient people, see Mr. T. ( I. stated on p. xiv., a people called Pinches' remarks, J. A'. A. &. N.S., Kossaioi are noticed by Ptolemy, vol. xvi. p. 302. But they seem to be Cushites. Con-

FO-A'irO-A'7. CH. vi. vn. xxix ing to the Little Vehicle. From the mountains eastward the common people wear garments made of coarse stuff, as in the Ts'in country, but with respect to felt and serge they are different. The religious practices of the Sramanas are so various and have increased so, that they cannot be recorded. Tins country is in the middle of the Ts'ung- ling range ; from the Ts'ung-ling onwards the plants, trees, and fruits are all different (from those before met witJi), except the bamboo, the an-shih-lau (pomegranate ?), and the sugar-cane. VI. From this going onwards towards North India, after being a month on the road, we managed to cross Ts'ung- ling. In Ts'ung-ling there is snow both in winter and summer. Moreover there are poison-dragons, who when evil-purposed spit poison, winds, rain, snow, drifting sand, and gravel-stones ; not one of ten thousand meeting these calamities, escapes. The people of that land are also called Snowy-mountain men (Tukharas ?). Having crossed (Ts'ung)-ling, we arrive at North India. On entering the borders there is a little country called To-li, 18 where there :dn a society of priests all belonging to the Little Vehicle. There was formerly an Arhat in this country who by magic power took up to the Tusita heaven a skilful carver of wood to observe the length and breadth (size), the colour and look, of Maitivya I'.odlii- , that returning below he might carve wood and make his image (that is, carve a wooden image of him). First and last he made three ascents for observation, and i the figure. Its length is 80 feet, and its upturned foot 8 feet; .ays it ever shines brightly. of tin- countries round vie with earn other in it. Now, as 01 is in this conn: VII. lv 3pmgaloag(Ts'aag)<4ing,theyjomnM7ed south- west : i was diilicnlt and broken, 18 Called the va i i-1,, l.y '" For an account of this image

xxx INTRODUCTION. with steep crags and precipices in the \vay. The moun- tain-side is simply a stone wall standing up 10,000 feet. Looking down, the sight is confused, and on going forward there is no sure foothold. Below is a river called Sin- t'u-ho. In old days men bored through the rocks to make a way, and spread out side-ladders, of which there are seven hundred (steps?) in all to pass. Having passed the ladders, we proceed by a hanging rope-bridge and cross the river. The two sides of the river are something less than 80 paces apart, as recorded by the Kiu-yi ; 20 but neither Chang-kin nor Kan-ying of the Han arrived here. The body of priests asked Fa-hian whether it was known when the eastward passage of the religion of Buddha began. Hian replied, " When I asked the men of that land, they all said there was an old tradition that from the time of set- ting up the image of Maitreya Bodhisattva, and after- wards, there were Sramanas from India who dispatched the dharma-vinaya beyond this river." The setting up of the image took place rather more than three hundred years after the Nirvdna of Buddha, in the time of Ping- wang of the Chau family. 21 According to this, we may say that the extension of the great doctrine began from this image. If, then, Maitreya Mahasattva be not the suc- cessor of Sakya, who is there could cause the three gems to spread everywhere, and frontier men to understand the law ? As we certainly know that the origin of the open- ing of the mysterious revolution is not man's work, so the dream of Ming Ti was from this also. VIII. Crossing the river, we come to the country of Wu-chang. 22 The country of Wu-chang commences North India. The language of Mid-India is used by all. Mid-India is what they call the middle country. The dress of the people, their food and drink, are also the same as in the middle country. The religion of Buddha is very flourishing. The places where the priests stop and lodge 20 A topographical description of the empire. 21 770A.D. a Udyana.

FO-KWO-KL CH. ix. x. xxxi they call saiigMramas. In all there are five hundred saig- as; they belong to the Little Vehicle without excep- tion. If a strange Bhikshu arrives here, they give him full entertainment for three days; the three days being over, then they bid him seek for himself a place to rest permanently. Tradition says : When Buddha came to North India, he then visited' this country. Buddha left here as a bequest the impression of his foot. The footprint is sometimes long and sometimes short, according to the thoughtfulness of a man's heart : it is still so, even now. Moreover, the drying-robe-stone in connection with the place where he converted the wicked dragon still remains. The stone is ifj and four-tenths high, and more than two ekany across. It is smooth on one side. Three of the pilgrims, H will-king, Tao-ching, and Hwui-ta, went on ahead towards Buddha's shadow and Xagarahara. Fa-hian and the rest stopped in this country during the rains ; when over, they went down south to the country of Su-ho-to. 23 IX. In this country also the law of Buddha flourishes. This is the place where, in old days, Sakra, ruler of Devas, made apparitionally the hawk and dove, in order to try B6d- hisattva, who cut off his flesh to ransom the dove. Buddha, when he perfected wisdom, going about with his disciples, spoke thus : " This is the place where, in a former birth, I cut my flesh to ransom the dove." From this the people of the country getting to know the fact, built a stdpa on the spot, and adorned it with gold and silver. X. From this, descending eastward, journeying for five days, we arrive at the country of Gandhara (Kien-to-wei). is the place which Dharmayarddhana, the son of i, governed. Buddha also in this country, when lu- was a Bodhisattva, gave his eyes in charily fur the sake of a man. On this spot also they have raised a stdpa, adorned with silver and iiold. The people of this mostly study the Lit; le. XI. From this going east seven days, there is a country s

xxxii INTRODUCTION. called Chu-ch'a-shi-lo 4 24 Chu-ch'a-shi-lo in Chinese words is " cut-off head." Buddha, when he was a Bodhisattva, gave his head in charity to a man in this place, and hence comes the name. Again going eastwards for two days, we come to the place where he gave his body to feed the starving tiger. On these two spots again are built great sttipas, both adorned with every kind of precious jewel. The kings, ministers, and people of the neighbouring countries vie with one another in their offerings, scattering flowers and lighting lamps without intermission. These and the two stilpas before named the men of that district call " the four great stdpas" XII. From the country of Gandhara going south for four days, we come to the country of Fo-lu-sha. 25 Buddha in former days, whilst travelling with his disciples here and there, coming to this country, addressed Ananda thus : " After my death (parinirvdna), a king of the country called Ki-ni-kia (Kanika or Kanishka) will raise on this spot a stilpa" After Kanishka's birth, he was going round on a tour of observation. At this time Sakra, king of Devas, wishing to open out his purpose of mind, took the form of a little shepherd-boy building by the roadside a tower. The king asked and said, " What are you doing ? " Replying, he said, " Making a Buddha-tower." The king said, " Very good." On this the king built over the little boy's tower another tower, in height 40 chang and more, adorned with all precious substances. Of all stupas and temples seen by the travellers, none can compare with this for beauty of form and strength. Tradition says this is the highest of the towers in Jambudvipa. When the king had completed his tower, the little tower forth- with came out from the side on the south of the great tower more than three feet high. The alms-bowl of Buddha is still in this country. For- merly a king of the Yue-chi, swelling 26 with his army, came 24 Taksha,4ila, vid. infra, p. 138. think the symbol ta should be placed :c Purushapura (Peshawar). before Yue-chi ; it would thus refer 26 This is a forced translation. I to the Great Yue-chi.

FO-A'irO-AY. CH. xii. xxxiii to attack this country, wishing to carry off Buddha's alms- bowl. Having subdued the country, the king of the Yue- clii, deeply reverencing the law of Buddha, wished to take the bowl and go ; therefore he began his religious offer- ings. The offerings made to the three precious ones being finished, he then caparisoned a great elephant and placed the bowl on it. The elephant then fell to the ground and was unable to advance. Then he made a four-wheeled carriage on which the dish was placed; eight elephants were yoked to draw it, but were again unable to advance. The king then knew that the time of his bowl-relationship ::ot come. So filled with shame and regrets, he built on this place a stupa and also a sa/'if/Jiardma ; moreover, he left a guard to keep up every kind of religious offer- ing. There are perhaps 700 priests. At the approach of noon the priests bring out the alms-bowl, and with the .kas make all kinds of offerings to it; they then eat their mid-day meal. At even, when they burn incense, they again do so. It is capable of holding two pecks and more. It is of mixed colour, but yet chiefly black. The four divisions are quite clear, each of them being about two-tenths thick. It is glistening and bright. Poor people with few flowers cast into it, fill it; but some very rich people, wishful with many flowers to make their offerings, though they present a hundred thousand myriad of pecks, yet in the end fail to fill it. Pao-yun and Sang-king only made their offerings to the lisli of r.ucidha and then went back. Hwui-kini:. -ta, and Tao-ching had previously gone on to tin- country to offer their common worship to Inddha - shadow, his tooth and skull -bone, llwui- fnll sick, and Tao-chinij remained to look H vui-ta alone went hack to Fo-lu-sha, where lie , ith the others, and then 1 [\vni- i.ui'i. II-.vu; .:ig in tl.' .: la's ulms-buwl, died ; I

xxxiv INTRODUCTION. From this Fa-hian went on alone to the place of Buddha's skull-bone. XIII. Going west 16 yojanas, (Fa-hian) reached the country of Na-kie (Nagarahara). On the borders, in the city of Hi-lo, 27 is the vihdra of the skull-bone of Buddha ; it is gilded throughout and adorned with the seven pre- cious substances. The king of the country profoundly reverences the skull- bone. Fearing lest some one should steal it, he appoints eight men of the first families of the country, each man having a seal to seal (the door) for its safe keeping. In the morning, the eight men having come, each one inspects his seal, and then they open the door. The door being opened, using scented water, they wash their hands and bring out the skull-bone of Buddha. They place it outside the vihdra on a high throne; taking a circular stand of the seven precious substances, the stand is placed below (it), and a glass bell as a cover over it. All these are adorned with pearls and gems. The bone is of a yellowish- white colour, four inches across and raised in the middle. Each day after its exit men of the vi/nirtf at once mount a high tower, beat a large drum, blow the conch, and sound the cymbal. Hearing these, the king goes to the vihdra to offer flowers and incense. The offer- ings finished, each one in order puts it on his head (wor- ships it) and departs. Entering by the east door and leaving by the west, the king every morning thus offers and worships, after which he attends to state affairs. Householders and elder-men also first offer worship and then attend to family affairs. Every day thus begins, without neglect from idleness. The offerings being all done, they take back the skull-bone. In the vihdra there is a final-emancipation tower (a tower shaped like a ddyaba) which opens and shuts, made of the seven precious sub- stances, more than five feet high, to receive it. Before the gate of the vihdra every morning regularly, . 57 Hidda.

FO-K1VO-KI. CH. xin. xxxv there are sellers of flowers and incense ; all who wish to make offerings may buy of every sort. The kings of the countries round also regularly send deputies to make offerings. The site of the vilidra is forty paces square. Though heaven should quake and the earth open, this spot would not move. Going from this one yojana north, we come to the capital of Nagarahftra. This is the place where Bodhis- attva, in one of his births, gave money in exchange for five flowers 28 to offer to Dipankara Buddha. In the city there is, moreover, a Buddha-tooth tower, to which re- ligious offerings are made in the same way as to the skull-bone. Xorth-east of the city one yojana we come to the opening of a valley in which is Buddha's religious staff, where they have built a vihdra for making offerings to it. The staff is made of ox-head sandal-wood ; its length is a cluing and six or seven tenths ; it is enclosed in a wooden sheath, from which a hundred or a thousand men could not move it. Entering the valley and going west four days, there is the vihdra of Buddha's sanglidti, to which they make religious offerings. When there is a drought in that country, the magistrates and people of the country, coming together, bring out the robe for worship and offer- ings, then Heaven gives abundant rain. Half a ydjana to the south of the city of Nagarahfira there is a cavern (stone dwelling) ; it is on the south-west side of a high mountain. Buddha left his shadow here. At a distance of ten paces or so we see it, like the true form of Buddha, gold colour, with the marks and signs perfectly clear i lining. On going nearer to it or farther off, it be- < less and less like the reality. Tin; kings of the ;iu^ ruiiniri.js have sent able artists to copy the likeness, but they have not been able (to do so). M <>:< r;iiiti<m according to which tin- no flowers are generally n- IT *tem (Tree and Serpent presented an growing on one stalk pi. 1.)

xxxvi INTRODUCTION. thousand Buddhas will here leave their shadows. About five hundred paces to the west of the shadow, when Buddha was alone, he cut his hair and pared his nails. Then Buddha himself with his disciples together built a tower about seven or eight chang high, as a model for all towers of the future. It still exists. Beside it is a temple ; in the temple are 700 priests or so. In this district there are as many as a thousand towers in honour of Arhats and Pratyeka Buddhas. XIV. After remaining here during two months of winter, Fa-hian and two companions went south across the Little Snowy Mountains. The Snowy Mountains, both in summer and winter, are covered (heaped) with snow. On the nortli side of the mountains, in the shade, excessive cold came on suddenly, and all the men were struck mute with dread ; Hwui-king alone was unable to proceed onwards. The white froth came from his mouth as he addressed Fa-hian and said, "I too have no power of life left; but whilst there is opportunity, do you press on, lest you all perish." Thus he died. Fa-hian, caressing him, exclaimed in pite- ous voice, " Our purpose was not to produce fortune !"- Submitting, he again exerted himself, and pressing for- ward, they so crossed the range ; on the south side they reached the Lo-i 30 country. In this vicinity there are 3000 priests, belonging both to the Great and Little Vehicle. Here they kept the rainy season. The season past, de- scending south and journeying for ten days, they reached the Po-na 31 country, where there are also some 3000 priests or more, all belonging to the Little Vehicle. From this journeying eastward for three days, they again crossed the Sin-tu river. Both sides of it are now level. XV. The other side of the river there is a country named Pi-t'u. 32 The law of Buddha is very flourishing; they belong both to the Great and Little Vehicle. When they 29 Or, to be a fortunate one. 31 Bannu. 30 Rohi, i.e., Afghanistan. 3 - Bhida.

FO-KWO-KL CH. xvi. xxxvii pilgrims from China arrive, they were much affected and spoke thus, " How is it that men from the frontiers are able to know the religion of family-renunciation and come from far to seek the law of Buddha ?" They liber- ally provided necessary entertainment according to the rules of religion. XVI. Going south-east from this somewhat less than 80 yojanas, we passed very many temples one after another, with some myriad of priests in them. Having passed these places, we arrived at a certain country. This country is called Mo-tu-lo. 33 Once more we followed the Pu-na 34 river. On the sides of the river, both right and left, are twenty sailghdrdmas, with perhaps 3000 priests. The law of Buddha is progressing and flourishing. Beyond the deserts are the countries of Western India. The kings of these countries are all firm believers in the law of Buddha. They remove their caps of state when they make offerings to the priests. The members of the royal household and the chief ministers personally direct the food-giving ; when the distribution of food is over, they spread a carpet on the ground opposite the chief seat (the president's seat) and sit down before it. They dare not sit on couches in the presence of the priests. The rules relating to the almsgiving of kings have been handed down from the time of Buddha till now. Southward from this is the so-called middle-country (Madhyades*a). The climate of this country is warm and equable, without frost or snow. The people are very well off, without poll- or official restrictions. Only those who till the royal lands return a portion of proiit of the land. If they ire to go, they go; if they like to stop, they stop. kings govern without corporal punishment; criminals <:ording to circumstances, lightly or heavily. u in cases of repeated rebel lion they only cut off the 1 alien- hints, who inwrd him on ' and left, have . Tlmnigh- ** Mathur/L * 4 Ju

xxxviii INTRODUCTION. out the country the people kill no living thing nor drink wine, nor do they eat garlic or onions, with the excep- tion of Chandalas only. The Chandalas are named " evil men " and dwell apart from others ; if they enter a town or market, they sound a piece of wood in order to sepa- rate themselves ; then men, knowing who they are, avoid coming in contact with them. In this country they do not keep swine nor fowls, and do not deal in cattle ; they have no shambles or wine-shops in their market-places. In selling they use cowrie shells. The Chandalas only hunt and sell flesh. Down from the time of Buddha's Nirvdna, the kings of these countries, the chief men and householders, have raised viJidras for the priests, and provided for their support by bestowing on them fields, houses, and gardens, with men and oxen. Engraved title- deeds were prepared and handed down from one reign to another ; no one has ventured to withdraw them, so that till now there has been no interruption. All the resident priests having chambers (in these vihdras) have their beds, mats, food, drink, and clothes provided without stint; in all places this is the case. The priests ever engage themselves in doing meritorious works for the purpose of religious advancement (karma building up their religious character), or in reciting the scriptures, or in meditation. When a strange priest arrives, the senior priests go out to meet him, carrying for him his clothes and alms-bowl. They offer him water for washing his feet and oil for rubbing them; they provide untimely (vikdla) food. Having rested awhile, they again ask him as to his seniority in the priesthood, and according to this they give him a chamber and sleeping materials, arrang- ing everything according to the dharma. In places where priests reside they make towers in honour of Sariputra, of Mudgalaputra, of Ananda, also in honour of the Alhi- dharma, Vinaya, and Siltra. During a month after the season of rest the most pious families urge a collection for an offering to the priests ; they prepare an untimely meal

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xvn. xxxix for them, and the priests in a great assembly preach the law. The preaching over, they offer to Sariputra's tower all kinds of scents and flowers ; through the night they burn lamps provided by different persons. Sariputra originally was a Brahman ; on a certain occasion he went to Buddha and requested ordination. The great Mudgala and the great Kasyapa did likewise. The Bhikshunis^ principally honour the tower of Ananda, because it was Ananda who requested the lord of the world to let women take orders ; SramanOras mostly offer toRahula; the masters of the Alhidharma offer to the Abhidharma ; the masters of the >/a offer to the Vinaya. Every year there is one offer- ing, each according to his own day. Men attached to the Mahavana offer to Prajna-pdramitd, Manjus'ri, and Avalo- ira. When the priests have received their yearly dues, then the chief men and householders and Brahmans bring every kind of robe and other things needed by the priests to offer them ; the priests also make offerings one to another. Down from the time of Buddha's death the rules of conduct for the holy priesthood have been (thus) handed down without interruption. After crossing the Indus, the distance to the Southern Sea of South India is from four to five myriads of li; the land is level throughout, without great mountains or val- leys, but still there are rivers. X VII. South-east from this, after going 18 ydjanas, there is a country called Samka^ya. This is the place where Buddha descended after going up to the Trayastririi&is a to preach the law during three months for his mother's benefit. AVhen Buddha went up to the Ti is heaven by the exercise of his miraculous power r of miracle), he contrived that his disciples should not know (of his proceeding). Seven days before the completion (oj tt months) he broke the so that Aniruddha, usiiiL: his divine sii;ht, hrhclil the Lord and forthwith addressed tin- .ilaputra, " You can go and salute the

xl INTRODUCTION. Lord of the world." Mudgalyayana accordingly went, and bowing down, worshipped the foot and exchanged friendly greetings. The friendly meeting over, Buddha said to Mud- galyayana, " After seven days are over I shall descend to Jambudvlpa." Mudgalyayana then returned. On this the great kings of the eight kingdoms, the ministers and people, not having seen Buddha for a long time, were all desirous to meet him. They assembled like clouds in this country to meet the Lord of the world. At this time UtpaLa Bhikshuni thought thus with herself: "To-day the kings of the countries and the ministers and people are going to worship and meet Buddha. I am but a woman ; how can I get to see him first ? " Buddha forth- with by his miraculous power made her, by transforma- tion, into a holy Chakravartti king, and as such she was the very first to worship him. Buddha being now about to come down from the Trayastrim^as heaven, there ap- peared a threefold precious ladder. The middle ladder was made of the seven precious substances, standing above which Buddha began to descend. Then the king of the Brahma heavens (Brahmakayikas) caused a silver ladder to appear, on which he took his place on Buddha's right hand, holding a white chauri. Then Sakra, king of Devas, caused a bright golden ladder to appear, on which he took his place on the left, holding in his hand a precious parasol. Innumerable Devas were in attendance whilst Buddha descended. After he had come down, the three ladders disappeared in the earth, except seven steps, which re- mained visible. In after times As*6ka, wishing to discover the utmost depths to which these ladders went, employed men to dig down and examine into it. They went on digging till they came to the yellow spring (the earth's foundation), but yet had not come to the bottom. The king, deriving from this an increase of faith and reverence, forthwith built over the ladders a vihdra, and facing the middle flight he placed a standing figure (of Buddha) six- teen feet high. Behind the vihdra he erected a stone pillar

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xvn. xli thirty cubits high, and on the top placed the figure of a lion. Within the pillar on the four sides are figures of Buddha ; both within and without it is shining and bright as glass. It happened once that some heretical doctors had a contention with the Sramanas respecting this as a place of residence. Then the argument of the Sramanas failing, they all agreed to the following compact : " If this place properly belongs to the Sramanas, then there will be some supernatural proof given of it." Immediately on this the lion on the top of the pillar uttered a loud roar. Witnessing this testimony, the unbelievers, abashed, with- drew from the dispute and submitted. The body of Buddha, in consequence of his having par- taken of divine food during three months, emitted a divine fragrance, unlike that of men. Immediately after his descent he bathed himself. Men of after ages erected in this place a bath-house, which yet remains. There is also a tower erected on the spot where the Bhikshuni Utpala was the first to adore Buddha. There is also a tower on the spot where Buddha when in the world cut his hair and his nails, and also on the following spots, viz., where the three former Buddhas, as well as Sakyamuni Buddha, sat down, and also where they walked for exercise, and also where there are certain marks and impressions of the different Buddhas. These towers still remain. There is also one erected where Brahma, Sakra, and the Devas at- i Buddha when he came down from heaven. There are perhaps a thousand male and female disciples who have their meals in common. They belong promiscuously to ystems of the Great and Little Vehicle, and dwell er. A white-oared dragon is the patron of this body of priests. He causes fertilising and seasonable showers .1 to fall within their country, and preserves it from ;<js and calamities, and so causes the priesthood to in security. The priests, in gratitude for theso erected a dragon-chapel, and within ii placed a resting-place (scat) for his accomni".'. d

xlii INTRODUCTION. Moreover, they make special contributions, in the shape of religious offerings, to provide the dragon with food. The body of priests every day select from their midst three men to go and take their meal in this chapel. At the end of each season of rain, the dragon suddenly assumes the form of a little serpent, both of whose ears are edged with white. The body of priests, recognising him, place in the midst of his lair a copper vessel full of cream ; and then, from the highest to the lowest, they walk past him in procession as if to pay him greeting all round. He then suddenly disappears. He makes his appearance once every year. This country is very productive : the people are very prosperous, and exceedingly rich beyond comparison. Men of all countries coming here are well taken care of and obtain what they require. Fifty ydjanas to the north of this temple there is a temple called " Fire Limit," which is the name of an evil spirit. Buddha him- self converted this evil spirit, whereupon men in after ages raised a vihdra on the spot. At the time of the dedication of the vihdra an Arhat spilt some of the sacred water, poured on his hands, and let it fall on the earth, and the place where it fell is still visible; though they have often swept the place to remove the mark, yet it still remains and cannot be destroyed. There is, besides, in this place a tower of Buddha which a benevolent spirit ever keeps clean and waters, and which (was built) without a human architect. There was once an heretical king who said, " Since you can do this, I will bring a great army and quarter it here, which shall accumulate much filth and refuse. Will you be able to clear all this away, I wonder ? " The spirit immediately caused a great tem- pest to rise and blow over the place, as a proof that he could do it. In this district there are a hundred small towers ; a man might pass the day in trying to count them without succeeding. If any one is very anxious to discover the right number, then he places a man by the side of each tower and afterwards numbers the men:

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xvm. xix. xliii but, even in this case, it can never be known how many or how few men will be required. There is also a M.iujhdrdma here containing about 600 or 700 priests. In this is a place where a Pratyeka Buddha ate 35 (the fruit) ; the spot of ground where he died is just in size like a chariot- wheel ; all the ground around it is covered with grass, but this spot produces none. The ground also where he dried his clothes is bare of vegetation ; the traces of the impress of the clothes remain to this day. XVIII. Fa-Hian resided in the dragon vihdra during the summer rest. After this was over, going south-east seven yfijanas, he arrived at the city of Ki-jou-i (Kanauj). This city borders on the Ganges. There are two saii;//td- nniifts here, both belonging to the system of the Little Vehicle. Going from the city six or seven li in a westerly direction, on the north bank of the river Ganges, is the place where Buddha preached for the good of his disciples. Tradition says that he preached on impermanency and sorrow^, and also on the body being like a bubble and foam. On this spot they have raised a tower, which still remains. Crossing the Ganges and going south three yojanas, we arrive at a forest called A-lo. Here also Buddha preached the law. They have raised towers on this spot, and also where he sat down and walked for exercise. X I X. Going south-east from this place ten yojanas, we arrive at the great country of Sha-chi. Leaving the southern L f ate of the capital city, on the east side of the road is a place where Buddha once dwelt. Whilst here he bit (a piece from] the willow stick and iixed it in the earth ; liately it L r re\v up seven feet hi^h, neither more or less. unbelievers and r.rahnian.s, filled with jealousy, cut vii and .scattered the leaves far and wide, hut yet it i.hvay.-? sprung up a-jain in : place as Here on places whi-n- tin- four lliuMhas walked for e.v \vn. The ruins still in f..r " itint." H may be in tin- i'i - nt iu-t. r a

xliv INTRODUCTION. XX. Going eight yojanas southwards from this place, we arrive at the country of Kiu-sa-lo (Kosala) and its chief town She- wei (Sravasti). There are very few inhabi- tants in this city, altogether perhaps about 200 families. This is the city which King Prasenajit governed. Towers have been built in after times on the site of the ruined mhdra of Mahaprajapati, also on the foundations (of the house) of the lord Sudatta, also on the spot where the Angulimalya was burnt, who was converted and entered nirvana; all these towers are erected in the city. The unbelieving Brahmans, from jealousy, desired to destroy these various buildings, but on attempting to do so, the heavens thundered and the lightnings flashed, so that they were unable to carry out their design. Leaving the city by the south gate and proceeding 1200 paces on the road, on the west side of it is the place where the lord Sudatta built a mhdra. This chapel opens towards the east. The principal door is flanked by two side cham- bers, in front of which stand two stone pillars ; on the top of the left-hand one is the figure of a wheel, and on the right-hand one the image of an ox. The clear water of the tanks, the luxuriant groves, and numberless flowers of variegated hues combine to produce the picture of what is called a Jetavana mhdra. When Buddha ascended into the Trayastrirhshas heavens to preach for the sake of his mother, after ninety days' absence, King Prasenajit desir- ing to see him again, carved out of the sandal- wood called Gosirshachandana (ox-head) an image of the Buddha and placed it on Buddha's throne. When Buddha returned and entered the vihdra t the image, immediately quitting its place, went forward to meet him. On this Buddha addressed these words to it : " Eeturn, I pray you, to your seat. After my Nirvana you will be the model from which my followers (four schools or classes) shall carve their images." On this the figure returned to its seat. This image, as it was the very first made of all the figures of Buddha, is the one which all subsequent ages have fol-

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xx. xlv lowed as a model. Buddha then removed and dwelt in a small rihdra on the south side of the greater one, in a place quite separated from that occupied by the image, and about twenty paces from it. The Jetavana vihdra origi- nally had seven stages. The monarchs of the surrounding countries and the people vied with each other in presenting religious offerings at this spot. They decked the place with flags and silken canopies ; they offered flowers and burnt incense, whilst the lamps shone continually from evening till daylight with unfading splendour. A rat taking in his mouth the wick of a lamp caused it to set fire to one of the hanging canopies, and this resulted in a general conflagration and the entire destruction of the seven storeys of the rihdra. The kings and people of the surrounding countries were deeply grieved, thinking that the sandal- wood figure had also been consumed. Four or five days afterwards, on opening the door of the eastern little chapel, they were surprised to behold the original figure there. The people were filled with joy, and they agreed to rebuild the chapel. Having completed two stages, they removed the image from its new situation back to where it was before. When Fa-Hian and To-Ching arrived at this chapel of the Jetavana, they reflected that this was the spot in which the Lord of men had passed twenty-five years of his life ; they themselves, at the risk of their lives, were now dwelling amongst foreigners ; of those who had with like purpose travelled through a succession of coun- tries with them, some had returned home, some were : and now, gazing on the place where Buddha once ^ no longer to be seen, their hearts were. iili very lively regret. Whereupon the priests belonging to that community came forward and addressed and To-felling) thus: what country have you come ? " To which they replied, " We come from the land - those priests, in astonishment, ex- . derfiil ! to think that men from the fro:. earth should come so far as this from a dc-siro to

xlvi INTRODUCTION. search for the law ; " and then talking between themselves they said, " Our various superiors and brethren, who have succeeded one another in this place from the earliest time till now, have none of them seen men of Han come so far as this before." Four li to the north-west of the vihdra is a copse called " Be covered- sight." Originally there were 500 blind men dwelling on this spot beside the chapel. On one occasion Buddha declared the law on their account ; after listening to his sermon they immediately recovered their sight. The blind men, overcome with joy, drove their staves into the earth and fell down on their faces in adoration. The staves forthwith took root and grew up to be great trees. The people, from a feeling of reverence, did not presume to cut them down, and so they grew and formed a grove, to which this name of " Kecovered-sight " 3G was given. The priests of the chapel of the Jetavana resort in great numbers to this shady copse to meditate after their mid-day meal. Six or seven li to the north-east of the Jetavana vihdra is the site of the chapel which Mother ViSakha built, 37 and invited Buddha and the priests to occupy. The ruins are still there. The great garden enclosure of the Jetavana vilaim has two gates, one opening towards the east, the other towards the north. This garden is the plot of ground which the noble Sudatta bought after covering it with gold coins. The chapel is in the middle of it ; it was here Buddha resided for a very long time, and expounded the law for the salvation of men. Towers have been erected on the various spots where he walked for exercise or sat down. These towers have all distinctive names given them, as, for example, the place where Buddha was accused of murdering (the harlot} Sundari. 38 Leaving the Jetavana 36 Kestored by Stan. Julien to Ap- 37 This chapel of Mother Visakha tanetravana (tome ii. p. 308), and by is placed by Cunningham south-east Cunningham to Aptakshivana (A rch. from the Jetavana (Arch. Sun:, vol. jSurr., vol. i p. 344, n.) Cf. vol. ii. i. p. 345,11.) The text may be wrong. p. 12. 38 See vol. ii. p. 7.

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xx. xlvii by the eastern gate, and going north seventy paces, on the west side of the road is the place where Buddha formerly held a discussion with the followers of the ninety-six heretical schools. The king of the country, the chief ministers, the landowners and people, all came in great numbers to hear him. At this time a woman who was an unbeliever, called Chinchiniana, 39 being filled with jeal- ousy, gathered up her clothes in a heap round her person so as to appear with child, and then accused Buddha in a meeting of priests of unrighteous conduct. On this Sakra, the king of Devas, taking the appearance of a white mouse, came and gnawed through her sash ; on this the whole fell down, and then the earth opened and she herself went down alive into hell. Here also is the place where Deva- datta, having poisoned his nails for the purpose of destroy- ing Buddha, went down alive into hell. Men in after times noted these various places for recognition. Where the discussion took place they raised a chapel more than six / (70 feet) high, with a sitting figure of Buddha in it. To the east of the road is a temple (Dfodlaya) belonging to the heretics, which is named " Shadow-covered." It is opposite the vihdra erected on the place of the discussion, and of the same height. It has received the name of "Shadow-covered" because when the sun is in the west, the shadow of the vihdra of the Lord of the World covers the temple of the heretics ; but when the sun is in the east, the shadow of the latter is bent to the north, and does not over- shadow the chapel of Buddha. 40 The heretics constantly ap- pointed persons to take care of their temple, to sweep and water it, to burn incense and light lamps for religious .ip ; towards the approach of morning their lamps dis- appeared, and were discovered in the middle of the Buddhist chapeL On this the Biahmans, bc'in^ an^ry, said, These take our lamps for their own religious worship ; " upon the Brahmans set a Ugh t-watch, and then they \vn L r '"ls take the lamps and move round r.uddhu's Vol. ii. p. 9, i Vol. ii. p. 10.

xlviii INTRODUCTION. chapel three times, after which they offered the lamps and suddenly disappeared. On this the Brahmans, recognising the greatness of Buddha's spiritual power, forsook their families and became his disciples. Tradition says that about the time when these things happened there were ninety sailgJidrdmas surrounding the Jetavana chapel, all of which, with one exception, were occupied by priests. In this country of Mid-India there are ninety-six heretical sects, all of whom allow the reality of worldly phenomena. Each sect has its disciples, who beg their food, but do not carry alms-dishes. They also piously build hospices by the side of solitary roads for the shelter of travellers, where they may rest, sleep, eat and drink, and are supplied with all necessaries. The followers of Buddha, also, as they pass to and fro, are entertained by them, only different arrangements are made for their convenience. Devadatta also has a body of disciples still existing ; they pay reli- gious reverence to the three past Buddhas, but not to Sakyamuni Buddha. 41 Four li to the south-east of Sravasti is the place where the Lord of men stood by the side of the road when King Virudhaka 42 (Liu-li) wished to destroy the country of the Sakya family ; on this spot there is a tower built. Fifty li to the west of the city we arrive at a town called To-wai;* 3 this was the birthplace of Ka^yapa Buddha. Towers are erected on the spot where he had an interview with his father and also where he entered Nirvdna. A great tower has also been erected over the relics of the entire body of Ka^yapa Tathfigata. XXI. Leaving the city of ravasti, and going twelve yojanas to the south-east, we arrived at a town called Na- pi-ka. This is the birthplace of Krakuchchhanda 44 Buddha. There are towers erected on the spots where the interview between the father and son took place, and also where he 41 This is an important notice, as 42 See vol. ii. p. 1 1. it indicates the character of Deva- ^ Tadwa, see vol. ii. p. 13. datta's position with reference to ** See vol. ii. p. 1 8. Buddha.

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xxii. xlix entered Xin-tina. Going north from this place less than one ydjana, we arrive at a town where Kanakaniuni Buddha was born ; 45 there are towers also erected here over similar places as the last. XXII. Going eastward from this less than a yujana, we arrive at the city of Kapilavastu. In this city there is neither king nor people ; it is like a great desert. 40 There is simply a congregation of priests and about ten families of lay people. On the site of the ruined palace of Su- ddhodana there is a picture of the prince's mother, whilst the prince, riding on a white elephant, is entering the womb. Towers have been erected on the following spots : where the royal prince left the city by the eastern gate ; where he saw the sick man ; and where he caused his chariot to turn and take him back to his palace. There are also towers erected on the following spots : at the place where Asita observed the marks of the royal prince ; where Ananda and the others struck the elephant, drew it out of the way, and hurled it ; where the arrow, going south-east 30 li, entered the earth, from which bubbled up a fountain of water, which in after generations was used as a well for travellers to drink at ; also on the spot where Buddha, after arriving at supreme wisdom, met his father ; where the 500 Sakyas, having embraced the faith, paid reverence to Upali ; at the place where the earth shook six times ; at the place where Buddha ex- pounded the law on behalf of all the Devas, whilst the four heavenly kings guarded the four gates of the hall, so that his father could not enter : at the place where MaMprajapatl presented Buddha with a saii'/fid/i whilst > sitting under a Nya^iudlm tree with his face to the east, which tree still exists; at the place \vln_-re hnku-rfija killed the oil'spring of the Sakyas who had previous! d on the path Sn> ! . All rs are still in existence. 47 A few li to the north- ii. I>. 19. c Compare tho accounts given by L ii. I-. 14 ; ami nnf. V- r- Him-n Tsiang, Book vi. gunon's A rcha< 1 1 o.

1 INTRODUCTION. east of the city is the royal field where the prince, sitting underneath a tree, watched a ploughing-match. Fifty li to the east of the city is the royal garden called Lum- bini ; it was here the queen entered the bath to wash herself, and, having come out on the . northern side, ad- vanced twenty paces, and then holding a branch of the tree in her hand, as she looked to the east, brought forth the prince. When born he walked seven steps ; two dragon-kings washed the prince's body, the place where this occurred was afterwards converted into a well, and here, as likewise at the pool, the water of which came down from above for washing (the child), the priests draw their drinking water. All the Buddhas have four places univer- sally determined for them: (i.) The place for arriving at supreme wisdom ; (2.) The place for turning the wheel of the law; (3.) The place for expounding the true principles of the law and refuting the heretics ; (4.) The place for descending to earth after going into the Trayastrim^as heaven to explain the law to their mothers. Other places are chosen according to existing circumstances. The country of Kapilavastu is now a great desert ; you seldom meet any people on the roads for fear of the white elephants and the lions. It is impossible to travel negligently. Going east five ydjanas from the place where Buddha was born, there is a country called Lan-mo (Ramagrama). 48 XXIII. The king of this country obtained one share of the relics of Buddha's body. On his return home he built a tower, which is the same as the tower of Eamagrama. By the side of it is a tank in which lives a dragon, who constantly guards and protects the tower and worships there morning and night. When King A66ka was living he wished to destroy the eight towers and to build eighty- four thousand others. Having destroyed seven, he next proceeded to treat this one in the same way. 49 The dragon therefore assumed a body and conducted the king within 48 Vol. ii. p. 26. Cf. Fah-hian, * Cf. Fo-sho-Ung-tian-l-inrj, v. p. 89, n. i. 2298 ; also infra, vol. ii. p. 27.

FO-KWO-KL CH. xxm. xxiv. li his abode, and having shown him all the vessels and ap- pliances he used in his religious services, he addressed the king and said : " If you can worship better than this, then you may destroy the tower. Let me take you out ; I will have no quarrel with you." King A6ka, knowing that these vessels were of no human workmanship, imme- diately returned to his home. This place having become desert, there was no one either to water it or sweep, but ever and anon a herd of elephants carrying water in their trunks piously watered the ground, and also brought all sorts of flowers and perfumes to pay religious worship at the tower. Some pilgrims from different countries used to come here to worship at the tower. On one occasion some of these met the elephants, and being much frightened, concealed themselves amongst the trees. Seeing the elephants perform their service according to the law, they were greatly affected. They grieved to think that there was no temple here or priests to per- form religious service, so that the very elephants had to water and sweep. On this they gave up the great precepts and took upon them the duties of Sr&maite v raa They began to pluck up the brushwood and level the ground, and arrange the place so that it became neat and clean. They urged the king of the country to help make residences for the priests. Moreover, they built a temple in which priests still reside. These things occurred re- cently, since which there lias been a regular succession (of priests), only the superior of the temple has always been a Srfunanera. 50 Three yuj<in<i.^ east of this place is the spot where the royal prince dismissed his charioteer ;aka ami the royal horse, previous to their return. X X I V. ( i.in;^ eastward from this place four //<}/'" H"*, we s-tower. 51 Here also is a sahylKi/ <tnas eastward, \\v arrive at the town u4inagara. To the north of this town, where the Lord VoL ii. p. 27. l Vol. ii. r . 31.

Hi INTRODUCTION. of the World, lying by the side of the Hiranyavati river, with his head to the north and a sal tree on either side of him, entered Nirvdna ; also in the place where Subhadra 52 was converted, the very last of all his disciples ; also where for seven days they paid reverence to the Lord of the World lying in his golden coffin; also where Vajrapani 53 threw down his golden mace, and where the eight kings divided the relics ; in each of the above places towers have been raised and sdiighdrdmds built, which still exist. In this city also there are but few inhabitants ; such families as there are, are connected with the resident congregation of priests. Going south-east twelve ydjanas^ from this place, we arrive at the spot where the Lie hchh avis, desiring to follow Buddha to the scene of his Nirvdna, were forbidden to do so. On account of their affection for Buddha they were unwilling to go back, on which Buddha caused to appear between them and him a great and deeply-scarped river, which they could not cross. He then left with them his alms- bowl as a memorial, and exhorted them to return to their houses. On this they went back and erected a stone pil- lar, on which this account is engraved. XXV. From this going five yojanas eastward, we arrive at the country of Vai&tli. 55 To the north of the city of Vaisali there is the vihdra of the great forest, 56 which has a two- storied tower. This chapel was once occupied by Buddha. Here also is the tower which was built over half the body of Ananda. Within this city dwelt the lady Amrapali, 57 (who 52 Cf. Fo-sho., p. 290. ham identifies it with the present 53 Or does this refer to the Besarh, twenty miles north of Haji- Mallas throwing down their maces piir. (hammers) ? M This chapel was situated in the 54 Laidlay has by mistake trans- neighbourhood of the present village lated the French S.\V. instead of of Bakhra, about two miles N.X.W. S.E. But the French editors have of Besarh. It is alluded to in the also mistranslated the distance, Singhalese records as the Mahfi- which is twelve ydjanas, and not vano Vih&ro. From Burnouf we twenty. We have thus nineteen find it was built by the side of a ydjanas between Kusinagara (Kasia) tank known as the Markatahrada, and Vaisali (Besarh), which is as or Monkey tank (Introd. Buddh. In- nearly correct as possible. dien, p. 74), (Man. Bud., p. 356). 65 VaisAli, a very famous city in OT Cf. Fo-sho., p. 253. the Buddhist records. Cunning-

FO-KWO-KL CH. xxv. liii built) a tower for Buddha ; the ruins still exist. Three li to the south of the city, on the west side of the road, is the garden which the lady Amrapali gave to Buddha as a resting-place. When Buddha was about to enter Nirvdna, accompanied by his disciples, he left Vais'ali by the west- ern gate, and turning his body to the right, 58 he beheld the city and thus addressed his followers : " In this place I have performed the last religious act of my earthly career." Men afterwards raised a tower on this spot. Three li to the north-west of the city is a tower called " the tower of the deposited bows and clubs." The origin of this name was as follows : 59 On one of the upper streams of the Ganges there was a certain country ruled by a king. One of his concubines gave birth to an unformed foetus, where- upon the queen being jealous, said, " Your conception is one of bad omen." So they closed it up in a box of wood and cast it into the Ganges. Lower down the stream there was another king, who, taking a tour of observation, caught sight of the wooden box floating on the stream. On bringing it to shore and opening it, he found inside a thousand children very fair, well formed, and most unique. The king hereupon took them and brought them up. When they grew up they turned out to be very brave and war- like, and were victorious over all whom they went to attack. In process of time they marched against the kingdom of the monarch, their father, at which he was filled with consternation. On this his concubine asked the king why he was so terrified; to whom he replied, " The king of that country has a thousand sons, brave and warlike beyond compare, and they are coming to attack my country ; this is why I am alarmed." To this the concubine replied, " Fear not ! but erect on the east of the city a high tower, and when the rebels come, place me on it; 1 will re-strain them/' The kimj; did su ? ami when the invaders iirrivcil, the mncubine addressed them 18 Cf. Fo-do., v. 1930 and n. 3. * For another accou: ii. p. 71.

liv INTRODUCTION. from the tower, saying, " You are my children. Then, why are you rebellious ? " They replied, " Who are you that say you are our mother ? " The concubine replied, " If ye will not believe me, all of you look up and open your mouths." On this the concubine, with both her hands, pressed her breasts, and from each breast proceeded five hundred jets of milk, which fell into the mouths of her thousand sons. On this the rebels, perceiving that she was indeed their mother, immediately laid down their bows and clubs. The two royal fathers, by a consideration of these circumstances, were able to arrive at the condition of Pratyeka Buddhas, and the tower erected in their honour remains to this day. In after times, when the Lord of the World arrived at supreme rea- son, he addressed his disciples in these words, " This is the place where I formerly laid aside my bow and my club/' Men in after times, coming to know this, founded a tower in this place, and hence the name. The thousand children are in truth the thousand Buddhas of this Bhadra- kalpa. Buddha, when standing beside this tower, ad- dressed Ananda thus, " After three months I must enter Nirvdna" on which occasion Mara-rfija so fascinated the mind of Ananda that he did not request Buddha to remain in the world. Going east from this point three or four li there is a tower. One hundred years after the Nirvdiia of Buddha there were at Vai&ili certain Bhikshus who broke the rules of the Vinaya in ten particulars, 60 saying that Buddha had said it was so, at which time the Arhats and the orthodox Bhikshus, making an assembly of 700 ecclesiastics, compared and collated the Vinaya Pitala afresh. Afterwards men erected a tower on this spot, which still exists. XXVI. Going four yojanas east, we arrive at the conflu- ence of the five rivers. When Ananda was going from the country of Magadha towards Vai&ili, desiring to enter Nir- 60 For an account of this council (rule-holding Bhikshus), which may see Abstract of Four Lectures, Lect. ii. either be enclitic, or mean " a mixed There is an expression fan fu after multitude." the words " orthodox Bhikshus "

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xxvii. lv the Devas acquainted King Ajatas*atru of it. The king immediately set out after him at the head of his troops, and arrived at the banks of the river. The Lichchhavis of Yaisali, hearing that Ananda was coming, likewise set out to meet him and arrived at the side of the river. Ananda then reflected that if he were to advance, King Ajata&itru would be much grieved, and if he should go back, then the Lichchhavis would be indignant. Being perplexed, he forthwith entered the Samddhi called the " brilliancy of flame," consuming his body, and entered Nirvdna in the midst of the river. His body was divided into two parts ; one part was found on either side of the river ; so the two kings, taking the relics of half his body, returned and erected towers over them. 61 XXVII. Crossing the river, and going south one yojana, we arrive at Magadha and the town ofPataliputra (Pa- lin-fu). This is the town in which King A6ka reigned. In the city is the royal palace, the different parts of which he commissioned the genii (demons) to construct by piling up the stones. The walls, doorways, and the sculptured designs are no human work. The ruins still exist. The younger brother of King A6ka having arrived at the dignity of an Arhat, was in the habit of residing in the hill Grldhrakuta, finding his chief delight in silent con- templation. The king respectfully requested him to come to his house to receive his religious offerings. His bro- ther, pleased with his tranquillity in the mountain, de- clined the invitation. The king then addressed his brother, saying, "If you will only accept my invitation, I will for you a hill within the city." Then the king, pro- ._: all sorts of meat and drink, invited the genii, and ssed them thus, " I beg you to accept my invitation for to-morrow ; but as HUT.- arc DO 86at8, I must iv<[uest to liriiiLr his own." On the morrow the great came, each one bringing with him a great stone, four thia account and generally about Vaiii&lt, cf. vol. ii. book vii.

Ivi INTRODUCTION. or five paces square. After the feast (the session}, he deputed the genii to pile up (their seats) and make a great stone mountain ; and at the base of the mountain with five great square stones to make a rock chamber, in length about 35 feet and in breadth 22 feet and in height 1 1 feet or so. In this city (i.e., of Pataliputra or Patna) once lived a certain Brahman called Badha-Svami (?) (Lo-tai-sz-pi-mi), of large mind and extensive knowledge, and attached to the Great Vehicle. There was nothing with which he was un- acquainted, and he lived apart occupied in silent medita- tion. The king of the country honoured and respected him as his religious superior. If he went to salute him, he did not dare to sit down in his presence. If the king, from a feeling of esteem, took him by the hand, the Brah- man thoroughly washed himself. For something like fifty years the whole country looked up to this man and placed its confidence on him alone. He mightily extended the influence of the law of Buddha, so that the heretics were unable to obtain any advantage at all over the priesthood. By the side of the tower of King A6ka is built a san- ghdrdma belonging to the Great Vehicle, very imposing and elegant. There is also a temple belonging to the Little Vehicle. Together they contain about 600 or 700 priests; their behaviour is decorous and orderly. Here one may see eminent priests from every quarter of the world ; Sramanas and scholars who seek for instruction all flock to this temple. The Brahman teacher is called Maiijus'ri. The great Sramanas of the country, and all the Bhikshus attached to the Great Vehicle, esteem and reverence him ; moreover he resides in this saiighdrdma. Of all the kingdoms of Mid-India, the towns of this coun- try are especially large. The people are rich and prosper- ous ; they practise virtue and justice. Every year on the eighth day of the second month there is a procession of images. On this occasion they construct a four-wheeled car, and erect upon it a tower of five stages, composed of bamboos lashed together, the whole being supported by a

FO-KWO-KL CH. xxvn. Ivii centre-post resembling a large spear with three points, in height twenty-two feet and more. So it looks like a pagoda. They then cover it over with fine white linen, which they afterwards paint with gaudy colours. Having made figures of the devas, and decorated them with gold, silver, and glass, they place them under canopies of embroidered silk. Then at the four corners (of the car) they construct niches (shrine*), in which they place figures of Buddha in a sitting posture, with a Bodhisattva standing in attend- ance. There are perhaps twenty cars thus prepared and differently decorated. During the day of the procession both priests and laymen assemble in great numbers. There are games and music, whilst they offer flowers and incense. The Brahmacharis come forth to offer their invi- tations. The Buddhas, then, one after the other, enter the city. After coming into the town again they halt. Then all night long they burn lamps, indulge in games and music, and make religious offerings. Such is the custom of all those who assemble on this occasion from the different countries round about. The nobles and householders of this country have founded hospitals with- in the city, to which the poor of all countries, the destitute, cripples, and the diseased, may repair. They receive every kind of requisite help gratuitously. Physicians inspect their diseases, and according to their cases order them food and drink, medicine or decoctions, everything in fact that may contribute to their ease. When cured they depart at their convenience. King A6uka having destroyed seven (of the original) pagodas, constructed 84,000 others. The very first which he built is the great tower which stands about three li to the south of this city. In front of this pagoda is an impression of UinUha's foot, (or they , i.sed a chapel, the gate of which faces the north. To the south of the to- tone pillar, ; a chant/ and a half in girth (18 fret), and tl,: or so in height (35 fret). On the surface of this pillar 13 an inscription to the following died : " Kin^ Asuka VOL. I.

Iviii INTRODUCTION. presented the whole of Jambudvipa to the priests of the four quarters, and redeemed it again with money, and this he did three times." Three- or four hundred paces to the north of the pagoda is the spot where A6ka was born (or resided). On this spot he raised the city of Ni-li, and in the midst of it erected a stone pillar, also about 35 feet in height, on the top of which he placed the figure of a lion, and also engraved an historical record on the pillar giving an account of the successive events connected with Ni-li, with the corresponding year, day, and month. 62 XXVIII. From this city proceeding in a south-easterly direction nine ydjanas, we arrive at a small solitary stone hill, on the top of which is a stone cell. 63 The stone cell faces the south. On one occasion, when Buddha was sit- ting in this cell, Sakra Deva, taking the divine musician Faiichasikha, 64 caused him to sound a strain in the place where Buddha was. Then Sakra Deva proposed forty- two questions to Buddha, drawing some traces upon a stone with his finger. The remains of the structure and tracings yet exist. There is a sanyMrdma built here. Going south-west from this one yujaiw., we arrive at the village of Na-lo. 65 This was the place of Sariputra's birth. Sdriputra returned here to enter Nirvdna. A tower there- fore was erected here, which is still in existence. Going west from this one yojana, we arrive at the new 1 l:\ja- rrriha. This was the town which King Ajfitaatru built. There are two sailghdrdmas in it. Leaving this town by the west gate and proceeding 300 paces, (we arrive at) the tower which King Ajata^atru raised over the share of Buddha's relics which he obtained. Its height is very imposing. Leaving the south side of the city and proceeding southwards four li, we enter a valley 62 For an account of Magadha, see Manual of Buddhism, pp. 289, cf. vol. ii. p. 82 if. 290 ; also Childers' Pall Diet., sub 63 The Indra-sila-grtha of Hiuen voc. Paiicasikhn. Tsiiuig, see vol. ii. p. I So. 65 The Kulapinaka of Hiuen 54 .For an account of this event, Tsiang, voL ii. p. 177.

FO-KWO-KL CH. xxix. lix situated between five hills. These hills encircle it com- pletely like the walls of a town. This is the site of the old town of King Bimbisara. From east to west it is about five or six li, from north to south seven or eight li. Here Sariputra and Mudgalyayana first met Asvajit/" 3 Here also the Nirgrantha made a pit with fire in it, and poisoned the food which he invited Buddha to eat. Here also is the spot where King Ajatasatru, intoxicating a black elephant, desired to destroy Buddha. 07 To the north-east of the city, in a crooked defile, (tlie inn) Jivaka 68 erected a vihdra in the garden of Amba- pali, and invited Buddha and his 1250 disciples to receive her religious offerings. The ruins still exist. "Within the city all is desolate and without inhabitants. XXIX. Entering the valley and striking the mountains Is the south-east, ascending 15 li we arrive at the hill called Grldhrakuta, Three li from the top is a stone cavern facing the south. Buddha used in this place to sit in meditation. 69 Thirty paces to the north-west is another stone cell in which Ananda practised meditation. The iK'va Mara Pisuna, having assumed the form of a vulture, took his place before the cavern and terrified Ananda. Buddha by his spiritual power pierced the rock, and with his outstretched hand patted Ananda's shoulder. 70 On this his fear was allayed. The traces of id and of the hand-hole are still quite plain; on this account the hill is called "The Hill of the Vulture ' In front of the cave is the place where the four lias sat down. Each of the Arhats likewise has a where he sat in meditation. Altogether there are .1 hundreds of these. 1 !<:< also, when I'.uduha was 1 fro from east to west in front of his cell, I i, from between the northern einineiiees of the * F ; <e vol. ii. p. r!l T .tees see vol. ii. p. 53 t 8ee/b/to., pp. H p. 15.;. i. p. 152.

Ix INTRODUCTION. mountain, rolled down athwart his path a stone which wounded Buddha's toe. The stone is still there. The hall in which Buddha preached has been destroyed ; the foundations of the brick walls 71 still exist, however. The peaks of this mountain are picturesque and imposing ; it is the loftiest of the five mountains. Fa-Hian having bought flowers, incense, and oil and lamps in the new town, procured the assistance of two aged Bhikshus as guides. Fa-Hian, ascending the Gridhrakuta mountain, offered his flowers and incense and lit his lamps for the night. Being deeply moved, he could scarcely restrain his tears as he said, " Here it was in bygone days Buddha dwelt and delivered the &ura1iga.ma SUtra. Fa-Hian, not privileged to be born when Buddha lived, can but gaze on the traces of his presence and the place which he occu- pied." Then he recited the Surangama 72 in front of the cave, and remaining there all night, he returned to the new town. XXX. Some 300 paces north of the old town, on the west side of the road, is the Kalandavenuvana vihdra. It still exists, and a congregation of priests sweep and water it. Two or three li to the north of the chapel is the Shi-mo- she-na (Samasana), which signifies " the field of tombs for laying the dead." Striking the southern hill and pro- ceeding westward 300 paces, there is a stone cell called the Pippala 73 cave, where Buddha was accustomed to sit in meditation after his mid- day meal. Still west five or six li there is a stone cave situated in the northern shade of the mountain and called Che-ti. 74 This is the place where 500 Arhats assembled after the Nirvdna of Buddha to arrange the collection of sacred books. At the time when the books were recited three vacant seats 71 It was, therefore, a structural the top of the Gridhrakuta hill, and building, not a cave. how he was attacked by tigers, in 72 This Stitra must not be con- the "history of the high priests" fused with the expanded one of the (Ko-sang-chucri). same name. There is a full account 73 Vol. ii. p. 156. of this perilous visit of Fa-hian to 74 Vol. ii. p. 161.

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xxxr. ki were specially prepared and adorned. The one on the left was for Sariputra, the one on the right for Mud- galyfiyana. The assembly was yet short of 500 by one Arhat ; and already the great Kas*yapa was ascend- ing the throne when Ananda stood without the gate unable to find admission ; 75 on this spot they have raised a tower which still exists. Still skirting the mountain, we find very many other stone cells used by the Arhats for the purpose of meditation. Leaving the old city and going north-east three li, we arrive at the stone cell of Devadatta, fifty paces from which there is a great square black stone. Some time ago there was a Bhikshu who walked forward and backward on this stone meditating on the impermanency, the sorrow, and vanity of his body Thus realising the character of impurity, loathing himself, he drew his knife and would have killed himself. But then he reflected that the Lord of the World had forbidden self-murder. But then again he thought, " Al- though that is so, yet I am simply anxious to destroy the three poisonous thieves (evil desire, hatred, ignorance)." Then again he drew his knife and cut his throat. On the first gash he obtained the degree of Srotapanna ; when he had half done the work he arrived at the condition of uiiin, and after completing the deed he obtained the position of an Arhat and entered Nirvana. XXX I. Going west from this four yojanas, we arrive at the town of Gay a. All within this city likewise is deso- late and desert. Going south 20 li, we arrive at the place where :tva, when alive, passed six years in self- inflicted austerities. This place is well wooded. From this place westward three li, is the spot where Buddha entered the water to bathe and the il* va lowered the branch of a tree to help him out of the wa' .in, going two li, we arrive at the place whore the vill; :iilk and rice to UwMlia. From this going north Abstract of Pour Lccturet, : Mi ki.-i f..r Cnauik.i, n : ki:i.

Ixii INTRODUCTION. two li is the spot where Buddha, seated on a stone under a great tree, and looking towards the east, ate the rice and milk. The tree and the stone still remain. The stone is about six feet square and two in height. In Mid-India the heat and cold are so equalised that trees will live for thousands of years, and even so many as ten thousand. Going north-east from this half a yojana, we arrive at a stone cell, into which Bodhisattva entering, sat down with his legs crossed, and as he faced the west he reflected with himself, " If I am to arrive at the condition of per- fect wisdom, let there be some spiritual manifestation." Immediately on the stone wall there appeared the shadow of Buddha, in length somewhat about three feet. This shadow is still distinctly visible. Then the heavens and the earth were shaken, and all the devas in space cried out and said, " This is not the place appointed for the Buddhas (past or those to come) to arrive at perfect wisdom ; at a distance less than half a ytijana south-west from this, beneath the Pei-to tree, is the spot where all the Buddhas (past or yet to come) should arrive at that condition." The devas having thus spoken, immediately went before him, singing and leading the way with a view to induce him to follow. Then Bodhisattva, rising up, followed them. When distant thirty paces from the tree, a deva gave him some grass of good omen. 77 Bodhisattva having accepted it, advanced fifteen paces. Then 500 blue birds 78 came flying towards him, and having encircled hisattva three times, departed. Bodhisattva, then going forward, arrived under the Pei-to tree, and spreading out the grass of good omen, sat down with his face towards the east. Then it was that Mara-nija dispatched three pleasure-girls from the northern quarter to come and tempt him, whilst Mara himself coming from the south, assailed him likewise. Then Bodhisattva letting the toe of his foot down to the earth, the whole army of Mara was scat- 77 Kusa grass. vol. ii. p. 124. Consult also the notes 78 For this and other incidents, see in Fah-hian (Real's Bud. Pily., p. 1 23).

PO-KWO-KL CH. xxxn. Ixiii tered, and the three women were changed into hags. On the place above mentioned, where he inflicted on himself mortification for six years, and on each spot subsequently mentioned, men in after times raised towers and placed figures (of BmUha), which still remain. Buddha having arrived at supreme wisdom, for seven days sat contem- plating the tree, experiencing the joys of emancipation. On this spot they have raised a tower, as well as on the following, viz., where he walked for seven days under the Pei-to tree, from east to west ; where all the devas, hav- ing caused the appearance of a hall composed of the seven precious substances, for seven days paid religious worship to Buddha ; where the blind dragon Muchilinda for seven days encircled Buddha in token of respect; also where Buddha, seated on a square stone beneath a Nyagrodha tree, and with his face to the east, received the respectful salutation of Brahma ; also where the four heavenly kings respectfully offered him his alms-bowl ; also where the 500 merchants presented him with parched corn and honey ; also where he converted the KaSyapas, elder and younger brothers, and their thousand disciples. In the place where Buddha arrived at perfect reason there are three sanghdrdmas, in all of which priests are located. The dependants of the congregation of priests supply them with all necessaries, so that there is no lack of anything. They scrupulously observe the rules of the Vinaya with respect to decorum, which relate to sitting down, rising up, or entering the assembly; and the rules which the holy congregation observed during Buddha's lifetime are still observed by these priests. The sites of the four great pagodas have always been associated together from the of the Niri'dna. The four great pagodas are those erected on the place where lie was born, where he obtained emancipation, win- re he began to preach, and where he >na. XXXII. lyi when K in^ AsV.ka was a lad, 7 '-' playing " 9 That is, in a previous )>irth.

Ixiv INTRODUCTION. on the road, he met Sakya Buddha going begging. The little boy, rejoiced at the chance, gave him a handful of earth as an offering. Buddha received it, and on his return sprinkled it on the ground where he took his exer- cise. In return for this act of charity the lad became an iron- wheel king and ruled over Jambudvipa. On assum- ing the iron-wheel he was on a certain occasion going through Jambudvipa on a tour of inspection, at which time he saw one of the places of torment for the punish- ment of wicked men situated between the two iron- circle mountains. He immediately asked his attendant ministers, " What is this place ? " To this they replied and said, "This is the place where Yama-raja, the infernal king, inflicts punishment on wicked men for their crimes." The king then began to reflect and said, " If the demon king, in the exercise of his function, requires to have a place of punishment for wicked men, why should not I, who rule men (on earth), have a place of punishment likewise for the guilty?" On this he asked his ministers, " Who is there that I can appoint to make for me a hell, 80 and to exercise authority therein for the punishment of wicked men?" In reply they said, "None but a very wicked man can fulfil such an 'office." The king forthwith dispatched his ministers in every direction to seek for such a man. In the course of their search they saw, by the side of a running stream, a lusty great fellow of a black colour, with red hair and light eyes ; with the talons of his feet he caught the fish, and when he whistled to the birds and beasts, they came to him ; and as they approached he mercilessly shot them through, so that none escaped. Having caught this man, he was brought before the king. The king then gave him. these secret orders, " You must enclose a square space with high walls, and with this enclosure plant every kind of flower and fruit (tree), and make beautiful alcoves, and arrange everything with such taste as to make people anxious to look within. 80 For this incident see vol. ii. p. 85.

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xxxii. Ixv Make a wide gate to it, and then when any one enters, seize him at once and subject him to every kind of torture. Let no one (wlw has once entered] ever go out again. And I strictly enjoin you, that if I even should enter, that you torture me also and spare not. Now, then, I appoint you lord of this place of torment !" It happened that a certain Bhikshu, as he was going his rounds begging for food, entered the gate. The infernal keeper seeing him, made preparations to put him to torture. The Bhikshu, being much frightened, suppli- antly begged a moment's respite. " Permit me, at least, to partake of my mid-day meal," he said. It so happened that just then another man entered the place, on which the keeper directly seized him, and, putting him in a stone mortar, began to. pound his body to atoms till a red froth formed. The Bhikshu having witnessed this spec- tacle, began to reflect on the impermanency, the sorrow, the vanity of bodily existence, that it is like a bubble and froth of the sea, and so he arrived at the condition of an Arhat. This having transpired, the infernal keeper laid hold of him and thrust him into a caldron of boiling water. The heart of the Bhikshu and his countenance were full of joy. The fire was extinguished and the water became cold, whilst in the middle of it there sprang up a lotus, on the top of which the Bhikshu took his seat. The keeper forth- with proceeded to the king and said, "A wonderful miracle has occurred in the place of torture; would that your majesty would come and see it." The king said, " I dare not come, in consideration of my former agreement with you." The keeper replied, " This matter is one of great moment : it is only right you should come ; let us con- sider your former agreement changed." The king then directly followed him and the prison ; on which 11, fur his sake, delivered a religious discourse, fo that the king believed and was converted. Then he order ! ice of torture to be destroyed, and repented of all the evil lie had formerly committed. Frum the

Ixvi INTRODUCTION. time of his conversion he exceedingly honoured the three precious ones (i.e., Buddha, Dharma, Sangha), and went continually to the spot underneath the Pei-to tree for the purpose of repentance, self-examination, and fasting. In consequence of this, the queen on one occasion asked, " Where does the king go so constantly ? " The ministers replied, " He continually resides under the Pei-to tree." The queen hereupon, awaiting an opportunity when the king was not there, sent men to cut the tree down. The king repairing as usual to the spot, and seeing what had happened, was so overpowered with grief that he fell down senseless on the ground. The ministers, bathing his face with water, after a long time restored him to consciousness. Then the king piled up the earth on the four sides of the stump of the tree, and commanded the roots to be moistened with a hundred pitchers of milk. Then prostrating himself at full length on the ground, he made the following vow, " If the tree does not revive I will never rise up again." No sooner had he done this than the tree began to force up small branches from the root, and so it continued to grow until it arrived at its present height, which is somewhat less than 120 feet. XXXIII. From this place going south three li, we arrive at a mountain called the Cock's-foot. The great Ka^yapa is at present within this mountain. 81 He divided the moun- tain at its base, so as to open a passage (for himself}. This entrance is now closed up (impassable). At a considerable distance from this spot there is a side chasm ; it is in this the entire body of Kiisyapa is now preserved. Outside this chasm is the place where Kasyapa, when alive, washed his hands. The people of that region who are afflicted with headaches use the earth brought from the place as an ointment, and this immediately cures them. As soon as the sun begins to decline 82 the Arhats come and take 81 For an account of this moun- been Arhats," &c. ; but this is not so tain see vol. ii. p. 144. agreeable with the context as the 8a Or, it may be translated, translation I have given. " Therefore, since then, there have

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xxxiv. Ixvii their abode in this hill. Buddhist pilgrims of that and other countries come year by year to pay religious wor- ship to Kasyapa ; if any should happen to be distressed with doubts, directly the sun goes down the Arhats arrive and begin to discourse with (the pilgrims) and explain their doubts and difficulties ; and, having done so, forth- with they disappear. The thickets about this hill are dense and tangled. There are, moreover, many lions, tigers, and wolves prowling about, so that it is not possible to travel without great care. X X X I V. Fa-Hian returning towards Pataliputra, kept along the course of the Ganges, and after going ten ydjanas in a westerly direction, arrived at a vihdra called "Desert" (Kwang-ye), in which Buddha resided. Priests still dwell in it. Still keeping along the course of the Ganges and going west twelve ydjanas, we arrive at the country of Kfisi and the city of Bauaras. About ten li or so to the north-east of this city is the chapel of the deer park of the Rlshis. This garden was once occupied by a Pratyeka Buddha. There are always wild deer reposing in it for shelter. When the Lord of the "World was about to arrive at supreme wisdom, all the devas in space began to chant a hymn and say, " The son of Suddhodana-raja, who has left his home to acquire supreme wisdom, after seven days will arrive at the condition of Buddha." The Pratyeka Buddha hearing this, immediately entered Nirvana. Therefore the name of this place is the deer park of the Rlshi. The world- honoured Buddha having arrived at complete knowledge, men in after ages erected a vihdra on this spot. Buddha being desirous to convert Ajnfufi Kaundinya and his com- panions, known as the five men, they communed one with another and Bl Sramana (lautama having for six years practised mortifications, reducing himself to tin; daily use of but one grain of hnnj ami one of rice, and in spite of this having failed to obtain sin -loin, how less shall he now obtain that condition by en: into men's society and removing the checks he placed

Ixviii INTROD UCTION. upon his words and thoughts and actions ! To-day when he comes here, let us carefully avoid all conversation with him." On Buddha's arrival the five men rose and saluted him, and here they have erected a tower ; also on the fol- lowing spots, viz., on a site sixty paces to the north of the former place, where Buddha, seated with his face to the east, "began to turn the wheel of the law (to preach) for the purpose of converting Kaundinya and his companions (known as) " the five men ; " also on a spot twenty paces to the north of this, where Buddha delivered his predic- tion concerning Maitreya ; also on a spot fifty paces to the south of this, where the dragon "fclapatra asked Buddha at what time he should be delivered from his dragon- form ; in all these places towers have been erected which still exist. In the midst (of tJwpark) there are two sanglidrdmas which still have priests dwelling in them. Proceeding north- west thirteen ytijanas from the park of the deer, there is a country called KauSambl. There is a vilidra there called Ghoshira-vana (the garden of Ghdshira), in which Buddha formerly dwelt ; it is now in ruins. There are congrega- tions here, principally belonging to the system known as the Little Vehicle. Eight ydjanas east of this place is a place where Buddha once took up his residence and con- verted an evil demon. They have also erected towers on various spots where he sat or walked for exercise when he was resident in this neighbourhood. There are san- glidrdmas still existing here, and perhaps a hundred priests. XXXV. Going 200 yojanas south from this, there is a country called Ta-Thsin (Dakshina). Here is a sanghd- rdma of the former Buddha Kas'yapa. 83 It is constructed out of a great mountain of rock, hollowed to the proper shape. 83 This convent is described by district of the Dekhan. The King Hiuen Tsiang in Book x. It was Sadvaha, a friend of Nagarjuna, was probably dedicated to Parvatl (the probably the same as the Sindhuka Po-lo-yu of Fa-hian, which he trans- of the Vayu-Purdna. He is called lates " pigeon " pdrdvata) or Chan- Shi-in-teh-kia by I-tsing. da, and is situated in the Chanda

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xxxv. Ixix This building has altogether five stages. The lowest is made with elephant figures, and has five hundred stone cells in it. The second is made with lion shapes, and has four hundred chambers. The third is made with horse shapes, and has three hundred chambers. The fourth is made with ox shapes, and has two hundred chambers. The fifth is made with dove shapes, and has one hundred chambers in it. At the very top of all is a spring of water, which, flowing in a stream before the rooms, encircles each tier, and so, running in a circuitous course, at last arrives at the very lowest stage of all, where, flowing past the cham- bers, it finally issues through the door. Throughout the consecutive tiers, in various parts of the building, windows have been pierced through the solid rock for the admis- sion of light, so that every chamber is quite illuminated and there is no darkness. At the four corners of this edi- fice they have hewn out the rock into steps, as means for ascending. Men of the present timej being small of sta- ture, ascend the ladder and thus reach the top in the usual but men of old reached it with one foot. 84 The reason- why they name this building Po-lo-yu is from an Indian word signifying " pigeon." There are always Arhats abid- ing here. This land is barren and without inhabitants. At a considerable distance from the hill there are villages, but all of them are inhabited by heretics. They know nothing of the law of Buddha, or Sramanas, or Brahmanas, or of any of the different schools of learning. The men of that country continually see persons come flying to the temple. On a certain occasion there were some Buddhist His from different countries who came here to pay 'iis worship. Then the men of the villages above alluded to asked them, saying, "Why do you not llv '. All the religious persons hereabouts that we see (arc able then answered by way of excuse, itise our wings ;ire not yet perfectly formed." The in (I)eklian) is precipitous and the roads ' rring perhaps to the one-footed men of K tolas. H may possibly be, "at one U>und."

Ixx INTRODUCTION. dangerous. Those who wish to go there, even if they know the place, ought to give a present to the king of the country, either money or goods. The king then deputes certain men to accompany them as guides, and so they pass the travellers from one place to another, each party pointing out their own roads and intricate bypaths. Fa- Hian finding himself in the end unable to proceed to that country, reports in the above passages merely what he has heard. XXXVI. From Banaras going eastward we arrive at the town of Pfitaliputra again. The purpose of Fa-Hian was to seek for copies of the Vinaya Pitaka ; but throughout the whole of Northern India the various masters trusted to tradition only for their knowledge of the precepts, and had no originals to copy from. Wherefore Fa-Hian had come even so far as Mid-India. But here in the satig/tdrdma of the Great Vehicle he obtained one collection of the precepts, viz., the collection used by the Mahasaiighika assembly. This was that used by the first great assembly of priests during Buddha's lifetime. It is reported that this was the one used in the Jetavana vihdra. Except that the eighteen sects have each their own private rules of conduct, 85 they are agreed in essentials. In some minor details they differ, as well as in a more or less exact attention to matters of practice. But the collec- tion (of this sect) is regarded as the most correct and com- plete. Moreover, he obtained one copy of precepts from dictation, comprising about 7000 gdthds. This version was that used by the assembly belonging to the school of the Sarvastivadas ; the same, in fact, as is generally used in China. The masters of this school also hand down the precepts by word of mouth, and do not commit them to writing. Moreover, in this assembly he obtained a copy of the Samyiiktdbhidharma-hrldaya Sdstra, including alto- gether about 6000 gdthds. Moreover, he obtained a copy of the Niri'dna Sutra, consisting altogether of 2500 verses. 85 Vide I-tsinjj, Xan-liai, 25.

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xxxvn. Ixxi Moreover, he obtained in one volume the Vdipulya-pari- <a Sutra, containing about 5000 verses. Moreover, he procured a copy of the Abhidharma according to the school of the Mahasaiighikas. On this account Fa-Hian abode in this place for the space of three years engaged in learning to read the Sanskrit 86 books, and to converse in that language, and in copying the precepts. When To- ching arrived in Mid-India and saw the customary beha- viour of the Sramanas, and the strict decorum observed by the assembly of priests, and their religious deportment, even to the smallest matters, then, sorrowfully reflecting on the meagre character of the precepts known to the different assemblies of priests in the border-land of China, lie bound himself by a vow and said, " From the present time for ever till I obtain the condition of Buddha, may I never again be born in a frontier country." And in accordance with this expression of his wish, he took up his permanent abode in this place, and did not return. And so Fa-Hian, desiring, according to his original purpose, to spread the knowledge of the precepts throughout the land of Han (China), returned alone. X X X VII. Following down the river Ganges in an easterly direction for eighteen ydjanas, we come to the great king- dom of Chen-po (Champa) on its southern shore. In the place where Buddha once dwelt, and where he moved to and fro for exercise, also where the four previous Buddhas sat down, in all these places towers have been erected, and there are still resident priests. From this continuing to go eastward nearly fifty yujanas, we arrive at the kingdom of Tfunralipti. This is at the sea-mouth. There ar- t \\vnty-four Inuu in this country; all of have resident priests, and the law of lluddha is generally respected. Fa- 1 1 inn remained here for t\v<> years, writing out copies of the sacred books (silt rax) and -pictures. II'- then shipped himself on i a great merchant ve.^vl. rutting to .sea, they pro-

Ixxii INTRODUCTION. ceeded in a south-westerly direction, catching the first fail 4 wind of the winter season. They sailed for fourteen days and nights, and arrived at the country of the lions (Simhala, Ceylon). Men of that country (Tamralipti) say that the distance between the two is about 700 yojanas. This kingdom (of lions} is situated on a great island. From east to west it is fifty yojanas, and from north to south thirty yojanas. On every side of it -are small islands, perhaps amounting to a hundred in num- ber. They are distant from one another ten or twenty li and as much as 200 li. All of them depend on the great island. Most of them produce precious stones and pearls. The mdni-gem is also found in one district, embracing a surface perhaps of ten li. The king sends a guard to protect the place. If any gems are found, the king claims three out of every ten. XXXVIII. This kingdom had originally no inhabitants, but only demons and dragons dwelt in it. Merchants of dif- ferent countries (however) came here to trade. At the time of traffic, the demons did not appear in person, but only exposed their valuable commodities with the value affixed. Then the merchantmen, according to the prices marked, purchased the goods and took them away. But in conse- quence of these visits (coming, going, and stopping"), men of other countries, hearing of the delightful character of the place, flocked there in great numbers, and so a great kingdom was formed. This country enjoys an agreeable climate, without any differences in winter or summer. The plants and trees are always verdant. The fields are sown just according to men's inclination; there are no fixed seasons. Buddha came to this country from a desire to convert a malevolent dragon. By his spiritual power he planted one foot to the north of the royal city, and one on the top of a mountain, the distance between the two being fifteen yojanas. Over the foot-impression (on the hill) to the north of the royal city, is erected a great tower, in height 470 feet. It is adorned with gold and silver, and perfected

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xxxvm. Ixxiii with every precious substance. By the side of this tower, moreover, is erected a safiyhdrdma, which is called Abhayagiri, containing 5000 priests. They have also built here a hall of Buddha, which is covered with gold and silver engraved work, conjoined with all precious sub- stances. In the midst of this hall is a jasper figure (of '/id), in height about 22 feet. The entire body glitters and sparkles with the seven precious substances, whilst the various characteristic marks are so gloriously portrayed that no words can describe the effect. In the right hand it holds a pearl of inestimable value. Fa-Hian had now been absent many years from the land of Han ; the man- ners and customs of the people with whom he had inter- course were entirely strange to him. The towns, people, mountains, valleys, and plants and trees which met his eyes, were unlike those of old times. Moreover, his fellow- travellers were now separated from him some had re- mained behind, and some were dead. To consider the shadow (of tlw past) was all that was left him ; and so his heart was continually saddened. All at once, as he was standing by the side of this jasper figure, he beheld a merchant present to it as a religious offering a white taffeta fan of Chinese manufacture. Unwittingly (Fa- Hian) gave way to his sorrowful feelings, and the tears flowing down filled his eyes. A former king of this country sent an embassy to Mid-India to procure a slip of the Pei-to tree. This they planted by the side of the Hall .ddha. When it was about 220 feet high, the tree began to lean towards the south-east. The king, fearing it would fall, placed eight or nine surrounding props to sup- port the tree. Just in the place where the tree was thus it put forth a branch which pierced through the props, and, descend in n r to ih' earth, took root. This branch is about twenty inches round. The, pn>]>, although pierced through the centre, still la now : support, yet men have not removed tl :.T the tree is erected a chapel, in the middle vui, i. /

Ixxiv INTRODUCTION. is a figure (of Buddha) in a sitting posture. Both the clergy and laity pay reverence to this figure with little intermission. Within the capital, moreover, is erected the chapel of the tooth of Buddha, in the construction of which all the seven precious substances have been employed. The king purifies himself according to the strictest Brahmanical rules, whilst those men within the city who reverence (this relic) from a principle of belief also compose their passions according to strict rule. This kingdom, from the time it has been so governed, has suffered neither from famine, calamity, nor revolution. The treasury of this congregation of priests contains numerous gems and a mdni-JQVfel of inestimable value. Their king once entered the treasury, and, going round it for the purpose of inspection, he saw there this mdni-gem. On beholding it, a covetous feeling sprung up in his heart, and he desired to take it away with him. For three days this thought afllicted him, but then he came to his right mind. He directly repaired to the assembly of the priests, and bowing down his head, he repented of his former wicked purpose, and addressing them, said, " Would that you would make a rule from this time forth and for ever, on no account to allow a king to enter your treasury, and no Bhikshu except he is of forty years' seniority after that time he may be permitted to enter." There are many noblemen and rich householders within the city. The houses of the Sa-poh (Sabsean) merchants are very beau- tifully adorned. The streets and passages are smooth and level. At the head of the four principal streets there are preaching halls. On the 8th, 1 4th, and 1 5th day of the month they prepare a lofty throne within each of these buildings, and the religious members of the community of the four classes all congregate to hear the preaching of the law. The men of this country say that there are in the country altogether fifty or sixty thousand priests, all of whom live in community (have tJieir food [commons] provided). Besides these, the king supplies five or six

FO-K1VO-KI. CH. xxxvin. l\xv thousand persons within the city with food in common (or, with common food (commons)}. These persons, when they require, take their alms-bowls and go (to the Appointed place), and, according to the measure of the bowls, fill them and return. They always bring out the tooth of Buddha in the middle of the third month. Ten days beforehand, the king magnificently caparisons a great elephant, and commissions a man of eloquence and ability to clothe himself in royal apparel, and, riding on the elephant, to sound a drum and proclaim as follows : Vlhisattva during three Asailkhytya kalpas underwent every kind of austerity ; he spared himself no personal sufferings ; he left his country, wife, and child ; moreover, he tore out his eyes to bestow them on another, he man- gled his flesh to deliver a dove (from the hawk), he sacri- ficed his head in alms, he gave his body to a famishing r, he grudged not his marrow or brain. Thus he endured every sort of agony for the sake of all flesh. More- i , when he became perfect Buddha, he lived in the world forty -nine years preaching the law and teaching and converting men. He gave rest to the wretched, he saved the lost. Having passed through countless births, he then entered Xirr>'iij(t. Since that event 'is 1497 years. The s of the world were then put out, and all flesh deeply ved. After ten days the tooth of (this same) Buddha will be brought forth and taken to the Abhayagiri vihdra. Let all ecclesiastical and lay persons within the kingdom, who wi.sli to lay up a store of merit, prepare and smooth the roads, adorn the Bl I highways ; let them scatter :y kind of ilower, and offer incense in religious reve- rence to the relic." This proclamation bciii'4 iinished, the :t causes to be plactd on loth sides of the pro- cess rescntations of tin- live Iniiidivd bodily -umed during his succes- births. 1 Suddna . I'cuantara Jdlaka ; both this S.mchi

Ixxvi INTRODUCTION. as Sama ; his birth as the king of the elephants, and as an antelope. These figures are all beautifully painted in divers colours, and have a very life-like appearance. At length the tooth of Buddha is brought forth and conducted along the principal road. As they proceed on the way, religious offerings are made to it. When they arrive at the Abhaya vihdra they place it in the Hall of Buddha, where the clergy and laity all assemble in vast crowds and burn incense, and light lamps, and perform every kind of religious ceremony, both night and day, without ceasing. After ninety com- plete days they again return it to the viJidra within the city. This chapel is thrown open on fast days for the purpose of religious worship, as the law (of Buddha) directs. Forty li to the east of the Abhaya vihdra is a mountain, on which is built a chapel called Po-ti (Budhi) ; there are about 2000 priests in it. Amongst them is a very distinguished Shaman called Ta-mo-kiu-ti (Dharmakoti or Dharmagupta). The people of this country greatly respect and reverence him. He resides in a cell, where he has lived for about forty years. By the constant prac- tice of benevolence he has been able to tame the serpents and mice, so that they stop together in one cell, and do not hurt one another. XXXIX. Seven li to the south of the capital is a chapel called Mahuvilulra, in which there are 3000 priests. Amongst them was a very eminent Sramana, whose life was so pure that the men of the country generally gave him credit for being an Arhat. At the time of his approach- ing death, the king, having come to inspect and inquire, according to the custom of the law, assembled the priests and asked the Bhikshu, " Hast thou attained reason ? " On which he made reply in truth, " I am an Arhat." After his death, the king immediately examined the sacred books, with a view to perform the funeral ob- sequies according to the rules for such as are Arhats. Accordingly, about four or five li to the east of the / they raised a very great pyre of wood, about 34 feet square

FO-KWO-KI. CH. xxxix. Ixxvii and of the same height. Xear the top they placed tiers of sandal-wood, aloe, and all kinds of scented wood. On the four sides they constructed steps. Then, taking some clean and very white camlet cloth, they bound it around and above the pyre. They then constructed above a funeral carriage, like the hearses used in this country, except that there are no dragon-ear handles (cf. ting urJi). Then, at the time of the cremation (dam), the king, accompanied by the four classes of the people, assembled in great numbers, came to the spot provided with ilowers and incense for religious offerings, and followed the hearse till it arrived at the place of the funeral ceremony. The king, then, in his own person, offered religious worship with flowers and incense. This being over, the hearse was placed on the pyre, and oil of cinnamon poured over it in all directions. Then they set light to the whole. At the time of kindling the fire, the whole assembly occupied their minds with solemn thoughts. Then removing their upper garments, and taking their wing-like fans, which they use as sun-shades, and approaching as near as pos- sible to the pyre, they flung them into the midst of the fire in order to assist the cremation. When all was over, they diligently searched for the bones and collected them together, in order to raise a tower over them. Fa-Hian did not arrive in time to see this celebrated person alive, but only to witness his funeral obsequies. At this time, the king, being an earnest believer in the law of JJuddhu, desired to build a new vihdra for this congregation of First of all he provided for them a -Teat feast, after which he selected a pair of strong working oxen and ornamented their horns with <jokl, silver, and precious : providing himself witli a beautiful -iMrd plough, the king himself ploughed round the. four sides allotted space; 88 after which, ceding all perso the land, houses, or people within the area thus enclosed, h" I'lv^-nt'-d (//,,- ,//;/< |

INTRODUCTION. priests). Then he caused to be engraved on a metal plate (the following inscription} : " From this time and for all generations hereafter, let this property be handed down from one (body of priests) to the other, and let no one dare to alienate it, or change (the character of) the grant." When Fa-Hian was residing in this country, he heard a religious brother from India, seated on a high throne, reciting a sacred book and saying, " The Pfitra (alms-bowl) of Buddha originally was preserved in Vcii.sfili, but now it is in the borders of Gandhfira. After an un- certain period of years [Fa-Hian, at the time of the recital, heard the exact number of years, but he has now forgotten it], it will go on to the country of the western Yu-chi. After another period it will go to the country of Khotan. After a similar period it will be transported to Kouclie. In about the same period it will come back to the land of Hun ; after the same period it will return to the land of lions (Simhala, Ceylon) ; after the same period it will return to Mid-India; after which it will be taken up into the Tushta heaven. Then Maitreya Bodhisattva will ex- claim with a sigh, ' The alms-dish of Sakyamuni Buddha has come/ Then all the Devas will pay religious worship to it with flowers and incense for seven days. After this it will return to Jambudvipa, and a sea-dragon, taking it, will carry it within his palace, awaiting till Maitreya is about to arrive at complete wisdom, at which time the bowl, again dividing itself into four as it was at first, will re-ascend the Pin-na 89 mountain. After Maitreya has arrived at supreme wisdom, the four heavenly Kings will once more come and respectfully salute him as Buddha, after the same manner as they have done to the former Buddhas. The thousand Buddhas of this Bhadra-kalpa will all of them use this same alms-dish ; when the bowl has disappeared, then the law of Buddha will gradually perish ; after which the years of man's life will begin to contract until it be no more than five years in duration. 89 In some places this is written An-na, as though for (Sum)ana.

FO-KWO-KL CH. XL. Ixxix At tlie time of its being ten years in length, rice and butter will disappear from the world, and men will become ex- tremely wicked. The sticks they grasp will then trans- form themselves into knives and clubs, with which they will attack one another, and wound and kill each other. In the midst of this, men who have acquired religious merit will escape and seek refuge in the mountains ; and when the wicked have finished the work of mutual de- struction, they will come from their hiding-places, and will converse together and say, ' Men of old lived to a very advanced age, but now, because wicked men have indulged without restraint in every transgression of the law, our years have dwindled down to their present short span, even to the space of ten years. Now, therefore, let us practise every kind of good deed, encouraging within our- selves a kind and loving spirit ; let us enter on a course of virtue and righteousness.' Thus, as each one practises faith and justice, their years will begin to increase in double ratio till they reach 80,000 years of life. At the time when Maitreya is born, when he first begins to de- clare his doctrine (turn the wheel of the law), his earliest converts will be the followers of the bequeathed law of >ya Buddha, those who have forsaken their families, those who have sought refuge in the three sacred names, those who have kept the five great commandments, ami attended to their religious duties in making continued ofl'or- ings to the three precious objects of worship. His second and third body of converts shall be those who, by their pre- vious conduct, have put themselves in a condition for salva- tion." Fu-lliui), on hr;u in- thi< discourse, wished to copy it down, on which the man .-aid, " This has no Scripture-oi nal; I only ivpuat by word of mouth (wJuit I have l> XI. in this country for two years. ' tiin earch,heobt <>py of the Vl<> "'/',/ according to the school of the Mahisi-akas. H- also ob- :ied a copy of the < '///" (/'//-//A*' !/>//// (^ -.lee-

Ixxx INTRODUCTION. tion of the Miscellaneous PitaJca (Sannipdta). All these were hitherto unknown in the land of Han. Having obtained these works in the original language (Fan), he forthwith shipped himself on board a great merchant vessel, which carried about two hundred men. Astern of the great ship was a smaller one, in case the larger vessel should be injured or wrecked. Having got a fair wind, they sailed eastward for two days, when suddenly a tempest (typhoon) arose, and the ship sprung a leak. The mer- chants then desired to haul up the smaller vessel, but the crew of that ship, fearing that a crowd of men would rush into her and sink her, cut the towing cable and she fell off. The merchantmen were greatly terrified, expecting their death momentarily. Then dreading lest the leak should gain upon them, they forthwith took their heavy goods and merchandise and cast them overboard. Fa-Hian also flung overboard his water-pitcher (kundika) and his wash- ing-basin, and also other portions of his property. He was only afraid lest the merchants should fling into the sea his sacred books and images. And so with earnestness of heart he invoked Avalokitesvara, and paid reverence to the Bud- dhist saints (the priesthood) of the land of Han, speaking thus : " I indeed have wandered far and wide in search of the law. Oh, bring me back again, by your spiritual power, to reach some resting-place." And so the hurri- cane blew on for thirteen days and nights; they then arrived at the shore of a small island, and on the tide going out they found the place of the leak. Having forth- with stopped it up, they again put to sea on their onward voyage. In this ocean there are many pirates, who, coming on you suddenly, destroy everything. The sea itself is boundless in extent ; it is impossible to know east or west except by observing the sun, moon, or stars, and so pro- gress. If it is dark, rainy weather, the only plan is to steer by the wind without guide. During the darkness of night we only see the great waves beating one against the other and shining like fire, whilst shoals of

FO-KIVO-KI. CH. XL. Ixxxi sea-monsters of every description (surround the ship). The merchants, perplexed, knew not towards what land they were steering. The sea was bottomless and no soundings could be found, so that there was no chance of anchoring. At length, the weather clearing up, they got their right bearings, and once more shaped a correct course and proceeded onwards; but if (duriny the bad u-cathcr) they had happened to have struck on a hidden rock, there could have been no escape. Thus they voyaged for ninety days and more, when they arrived at a country called Ye-po-ti (Java, or, perhaps, Sumatra). In this country heretics and Brfihmans flourish, but the law of Buddha is not much known. Stopping here the best portion of five months, Fa-Hian again embarked on board another merchant vessel, having also a crew of two hundred men or so. They took with them fifty days' provisions, and set sail on the i6th day of the fourth month. Fa-Hian kept his " rest " on board this ship. They shaped a course north-east for Kwang-chow. After a month and some days, when sounding the middle watch of the night, a black squall suddenly came on, accompanied with pelting rain. The merchantmen and passengers were all terrified. Fa-Hian at this time also, with great earnestness of mind, again entreated Avalo- . ara and all the priesthood of China to exert their divine power in their favour,and protect them till daylight. 90 "\Ylien the day broke, all the Lrahmans, consulting together, said, " It is because we have got this Sramana on board we no luck, and have incurred this great mischief. Come, let us land this JJhikshu on any island we meet, and lei us not all perish for the sake of one man." The religious patron (Ddnapati) of Fa-Hian then said, " If you land this you shall also land me with him ; and if not, : >etter kill me: for if you put this SraniM shore, then, when I arrive in China, I will ^o straight to the king and report you ; and the king of that country 90 Cf. iJi'xoKTO inup*9 ytvtffOai, Acts

Ixxxii INTRODUCTION. is a firm believer in the law of Buddha, and greatly honours the Bhikshus and priests." The merchantmen on this hesitated, and (in the end) did not dare to land him. The weather continuing very dark, the pilot's observa- tions were perversely wrong. 91 Nearly seventy days had now elapsed. The rice for food and the water for congee were nearly all done. They had to use salt water for cooking, whilst they gave out to every man about two pints of fresh water. And now, when this was just ex- hausted, the merchants held a conversation and said, " The proper time for the voyage to Kwang-Chow is about fifty days, but now we have exceeded that time these many days shall we be perverse ?" On this they put the ship on a north-west course to look for land. After twelve days' continuous sailing, they arrived at the southern coast of Lau-Shan which borders on the prefecture of Chang- Kwuiig. They then obtained good fresh water and vege- tables ; and so, after passing through so many dangers and difficulties and such a succession of anxious days, (the pilgrim'} suddenly arrived at this shore. On seeing the Li-ho vegetable (a sort of reed), he was confident that this was indeed the land of Han. But not seeing any men or traces of life, they knew not what place it was. Some said they had not yet arrived at Kwang-chow, others main- tained they had passed it. In their uncertainty, therefore, they put off in a little boat, and entered a creek to look for some one to ask where they were. Meeting with two hunters, they got them to go back with them, making Fa- Hian interpret their words and question them. Fa-Hian having first tried to inspire them with confidence, then leisurely asked them, " What men are you ? " They re- plied, " We are disciples of Buddha." Then he asked, " What do you look for in these mountains here ? " They prevaricated, and said, "To-morrow is the I5th day of the seventh month, and we were anxious to catch some- 91 That is, he was perverse in following his wrong observations, or calculations.

FO-KWO-KL CH. XL. Ixxxiii thing to sacrifice to Buddha." Again he asked, " What country is this ? " They replied, " This is Tsing-Chow, on the borders of the prefecture of Chang-Kwang, dependent on the house of Lin." Having heard this, the merchants were very glad, and immediately begging that their goods might be landed, they deputed men to go with them to Chang-Kwang. The prefect, Li-I, who was a faithful fol- lower of the law of Buddha, hearing that there was a Sramana arrived with sacred books and images in a ship from beyond the seas, immediately proceeded to the shore with his followers to escort the books and sacred figures to the seat of his government. After this the merchants returned towards Yang-Chow. Meanwhile Liu arriving at Tsing-Chow, 92 entertained Fa-Hian for the whole winter and summer. The summer period of rest being over, Fa-Hian, removed from the society of his fellow- priests for so long, was anxious to get back to Chang'an. But as his plans were important, he directed his course wards the southern capital. Having met the priests, he exhibited the sacred books he had brought back. I lian, leaving Chang'an, was five years in arriving at Mid-India. He resided there during six years, and was three years more before he arrived at Tsing-Chow. He had suc- cessively passed through nearly thirty different countries. In all the countries of India, after passing the sandy desert, the dignified carriage of the priesthood and the surprising influence of religion cannot be adequately de- d. But because our learned doctors had not heard se thine: i induced, regardless of personal risk, to cross the seas, and to encounter every kind of dai. returning home. Having been preserved by divine power honourable ones), and brought through all dangers saiVly, In- was further induced to commit to \vrit- !<. rds of his ti. that honourable bt be informed of ' "If. n Fd for c/ii (?).

THE MISSION OP SUNG-YUN 1 AND HWEI SANG TO OBTAIN BUDDHIST BOOKS IN THE WEST. 2 (518 A.D.) \_Translatedfrom the $th Section of the History of the Temples of Lo-Yang (Honan Fu}.] IN the suburb Wen-I, to the north-east of the city of Lo-Yang, was the dwelling of Sung-Yun of Tun-hwang, 3 who, in company with the Bhikshu Hwei Sang, was sent on an embassy to the western countries by the Empress Dowager (Tai-Hau) of the Great Wei dynasty 4 to obtain Buddhist books. This occurred in the eleventh month of the first year of the period Shn kwci (517-518 A.D.) They procured altogether 170 volumes, all standard works, belonging to the Great Vehicle. First of all, having repaired to the capital, they pro- ceeded in a westerly direction forty days, and arrived at the Chili-Ling (Barren Eidge), which is the western fron- tier of the country. On this ridge is the fortified outpost of the Wei territory. The Chili-ling produces no trees or shrubs, and hence its name (Barren). Here is the common resort (cave) of the rat-bird. These two animals being of different species (clmng), but the same genus (lui), live and breed together. The bird is the male, the rat the 1 Called by Re'musat Sung-Yun tse 3 Tun-hwang, situated on a branch (Fa-hian, cap. viii. n. i); but the word of the Bulunghir river, vide ante, " tse " is no component part of the p. xxiv. n. name. The passage in the original 4 At the fall of the Tsin dynasty is this : " In the Wan-I suburb (li) (420 A.D.), the northern provinces of is the house (tse) of Sun Yun of China became the possession of a Tun-hwang." powerful Tartar tribe known as the 2 Western countries (si yu). Wei. A native dynasty (the South-

TRAVELS OF SUNG-YUN. Ixxxv female. From their cohabiting in this manner, the name rat-bird cave is derived. Ascending the Chih-Ling and proceeding westward twenty-three days, having crossed the Drifting Sands, they arrived at the country of the Tuh-kiueh-'hun. 5 Along the road the cold was very severe, whilst the high winds, and the driving snow, and the pelting sand and gravel were so bad, that it was impossible to raise one's eyes without get- ting them filled. The chief city of the Tuh-kiueh-'hun and the neighbourhood is agreeably warm. The written character of this country is nearly the same as that of the AVci. The customs and regulations observed by these people are mostly barbarous in character (after the rules of the outside barbarians or foreigners). From this coun- try going west 3500 li, we arrive at the city of Shen-Shen. 6 This city, from the time it set up a king, was seized by the Tuh-kiueh-'hun, and at present there resides in it a military officer (the second general) for subjugating (pacifying) the west. The entire cantonment 7 amounts to 3000 men, who are employed in withstanding the western Hu. From Shen-Shen going west 1640 li, we arrive at the city of Tso-moh. 8 In this town there are, perhaps, a hundred families resident. The country is not visited with rain, but they irrigate their crops from the streams of water. They know not the use of oxen or ploughs in their husbandry. In the town is a representation of Buddha with a ihisattva, but certainly not in face like a Tartar. questioning an old man about it, he said, " This \ done by Lu-Kwong, who subdued the Tartar?." From

rul'-il in th- southern Charchan of Marco 1\>] : M lUM \>' n r< _'.'irli'-l 1-y rPId inn ; 8ub*e|Ui-nt writers :i aiate hut "N'"'. ' n. I ; ":rks. Tin- 'Hun v..l. ii. p. 475 ; ridf al>.. 1 ' it p. 206. Bu bably the Tsiang.

Ixxxvi INTROD UCTION. this city going westward 1 275 li, we arrive at the city of Moh. The flowers and fruits here are just like those of Lo-Yang, but the native buildings and the foreign officials are different in appearance. From the city Moh going west 22 li, we arrive at the city of Han-Mo. 9 Fifteen li to the south of this city is a large temple, with about 300 priests in it. These priests possess a golden full-length figure of Buddha, in height a chang and /^ths (about 18 feet). Its appearance is very imposing, and all the characteristic marks of the body are bright and distinct. Its face was placed repeatedly look- ing eastward ; but the figure, not approving of that, turned about and looked to the west. The old men have the fol- lowing tradition respecting this figure: They say that originally it came from the south, transporting itself through the air. The king of Khotan himself seeing it, paid it worship, and attempted to convey it to his city, but in the middle of the route, when they halted at night the figure suddenly disappeared. On dispatching men to look after it, they found it had returned to its old place. Immediately, therefore, (the king) raised a tower, and appointed 400 attendants to sweep and water (the tower). If any of these servitors receive a hurt of any kind, they place some gold leaf on this figure according to the injured part, and so are directly cured. Men in after ages built towers around this image of 1 8 feet, and the other image- towers, all of which are ornamented with many thou- sand flags and streamers of variegated silk. There are per- haps as many as 10,000 of these, and more than half of them belonging to the Wei country. 10 Over the flags are inscriptions in the square character, recording the several dates when they were presented ; the greater number are of the nineteenth year of Tai Ho, the second year of King 9 This is probably the Pi-mo of fied with the sandal-wood image of Hiuen Tsiang (Pein, iii. 243), the Udyaha, king of Kausambi. Pein of Marco Polo. The figure 10 That is, were presented by sove- described in the text is also alluded reigns of the Wei dynasty, or during to by Hiuen Tsiang, and is identi- their reign.

TRA VELS OF SUNG-YUN. Ixxxvii Ming, and the second year of Yen Chang. 11 There was only one flag with the name of the reigning monarch on it, and this was a ilag of the period Yaou Tsin (A.D. 406). From the town of Han-Mo going west 878 li, we ar- rive at the country of Khotan. The king of this country wears a golden cap on his head, in shape like the comb of a cock ; the appendages of the head-dress hang down be- hind him two feet, and they are made of taffeta (kuri), about five inches wide. On state occasions, for the pur- pose of imposing effect, there is music performed, consist- ing of drums, horns, and golden cymbals. The king is also attended by one chief bowman, two spearmen, five halberdiers, and, on his right and left, swordsmen, not exceeding a hundred men. The poorer sort of women here wear trousers, and ride on horseback just as well as their husbands. They burn their dead, and, collecting the ashes, erect towers (fan t'u) over them. In token of mourn- ing they cut their hair and disfigure their faces, as though with grief. Their hair is cut to a length of four inches, and kept so all round. When the king dies, they do not burn his body, but enclose it in a coffin and carry it far off and bury it in the desert. They found a temple to his memory, and, at proper times, pay religious service to his manes. The king of Khotan 12 was no believer in the law of Buddha. A certain foreign merchantman on a time l-rou^ht a Uhiksliu called Pi-lu-shan (Vairochana) to this neighbourhood, and located him under a plum-tree to the .south of this city. On this an informer approached the and said, "A strange Sramana lias come (to your 'nions) without permission, and i.-s now 11 The pt-rifxl Tai-lln began 477 .:iliv.l an.l H\- tabliohment i in. t> nth v ar f kiti-'l-'in "t" Livul ^Kl>'tan), the i - faulty K \ Ynila, T it ii i". Moendra toe throng aod ia the fifth : tln> dliarma was . -mid be 490 A.I>. tir-t iuti"Ju<.x<J into Li yul .at--* niuiH-.l f<irruMi>und hill). . airl 5I.J A.I'.

Ixxxviii INTRODUCTION. residing to the south of the city under the plum-tree." The king, hearing this, was angry, and forthwith went to see Vairochana. The Bhikshu then addressed the king as follows : " Ju-lai (Tathagata) has commissioned me to come here to request your majesty to build for him a perfectly finished pagoda (lit. a pagoda with a surmount- ing spire or dish}, and thus secure to yourself perpetual felicity." The king said, " Let me see Buddha, and then I will obey him." Vairochana theu sounded a gong ; 13 on which Buddha commissioned Rahula to assume his appear- ance, and manifest himself in his true likeness in the air. The king prostrated himself on the ground in adoration, and at once made arrangements for founding a temple and rUntm under the tree. Then he caused to be carved a figure of Rahula ; and, lest suddenly it should perish, the king afterwards constructed a chapel for its special preserva- tion. At present it is carefully protected by a sort of shade (jar) that covers it ; but, notwithstanding this, the shadow of the figure constantly removes itself outside the building, so that those who behold it cannot help paying it religious service (by circumambulating it). In this place (or chapel) are the shoes of a Pratyeka Buddha, which have up to the present time resisted decay. They are made neither of leather or silk, in fact, it is impossible to determine what the material is. The extreme limits of the kingdom of Khotan reach about 3000 li or so from east to west. In the second year of Shan Kwai (519 A.D.) and the 7th month, 29th day, we entered the kingdom of Chu-ku-po (Chakuka Yerkiang). The people of that country are mountain-dwellers. The five kinds of cereals grow in. abun- dance. In eating these, they make them into cakes. They do not permit the slaughter of animals, and such of them as eat flesh only use that which dies of itself. The cus- toms and spoken language are like those of the people of 13 The expression in the original fluence to constrain Buddha to send implies the use of some magical in- Rahula.

TRA VELS OF SUNG-YUN. Ixxxix Khotan, but the written character in use is that of the Brahmans. The limits of this country can be traversed in about five days. During the first decade of the 8th month we entered the limits of the country of Han- Pan-to (Kabhanda), 14 and going west six days, we ascended the Tsung-ling mountains ; advancing yet three days to the west, we arrived at the city of Kiueh-Yu; 15 and after three days more, to the Puh-ho-i mountains. 16 This spot is extremely cold. The snow accumulates both by winter and summer. In the midst of the mountain is a lake in which dwells a mischievous dragon. Formerly there was a merchant who halted at night by the side of the lake. The dragon just then happened to be very cross, and forthwith pronounced a spell and killed the merchant. The king of Pan- to, 17 hearing of it, gave up the succession to his son, and went to the kingdom of U-chang 18 to acquire knowledge of the spells used by the Brahmans. After four years, having procured these secrets, he came back to his throne, and, ensconced by the lake, he enchanted the dragon, and, lo ! the dragon was changed into a man, who, deeply sensible of his wickedness, approached the king. The king imme- diately banished him from the Tsung-ling mountains more thaniooo li from the lake. The king of the present time is of the thirteenth generation (from these events). From this spot westward the road is one continuous ascent of the most precipitous character ; for a thousand li there are oyer- ng crags, 10,000 fathoms high, towering up to the very heavens. Compared with this road, the ruggedness of the great pass known as the M;ini;-meii is as nothing, and the eminences of the celebrated Ilian mountains (in re like level cuir Mterin- tlu> Tsun-_r- L<rantain8,8tep by step, :.-i ix M.ntifi.'.iby Vul.' i.. I the "Untrartworth? -,ul and Ta*h Kurghan. M>uir M. 40. -amlha or. let! .Kill. ' Thia phraae 1'uh-ho-i may also u Udjr&ua in VOI y

xc INTRODUCTION. and then reached the highest part of the range. From this point as a centre, looking downwards, it seems just as though one was poised in mid-air. The kingdom of Han-pan-to stretches as far as the crest of these mountains. 19 Men say that this is the middle point of heaven and earth. The people of this region use the water of the rivers for irrigating their lands ; and when they were told that in the middle country (China) the fields were watered by the rain, they laughed and said, " How could heaven provide enough for all ? " To the eastward of the capital of this country there is a rapid river 20 (or a river, Mang-tsin) flowing 'to the north- east towards Sha-leh 21 (Kashgfir). The high lands of the Tsung-ling mountains do not produce trees or shrubs. At this time, viz., the 8th month, the air is icy cold, and the north wind carries along with it the drifting snow for a thousand li. At last, in the middle decade of the 9th month, we entered the kingdom of Poh-ho (Bolor ?). The mountains here are as lofty and the gorges deep as ever. The king of the country has built a town, where he resides, for the sake of being in the mountains. The people of the country dress handsomely, only they use some leathern garments. The land is extremely cold so much so, that the people occupy the caves of the mountains as dwelling- places, and the driving wind and snow often compel both men and beasts to herd together. To the south of this country are the great Snowy Mountains, which, in the morning and evening vapours, rise up like gem-spires. In the first decade of the loth month we arrived at the country of the Ye-tha (Ephthalites). The lands of this country are abundantly watered by the mountain streams, which fertilise them, and flow in front of all the dwellings. They have no walled towns, but they keep order by means 19 To the west of the Tsung-ling river ; or it may be the Si-to river, mountains all the rivers flow to the on which Yarkand stands, and which westward, and enter the sea (Ch.Ed.) empties itself into Lake Lob, in the 20 That is, perhaps, the Kara-Sou Sandy Desert. of Klaproth, which flows into the 21 Sha-leh, perhaps for Su-leh, i.e., Tiz-db, an affluent of the Yerkiang Kashgar.

TRA VELS OF SUNG-YUN. xci of a standing army that constantly moves here and there. These people also use felt garments. The course of the rivers is marked by the verdant shrubs. In the summer the people seek the cool of the mountains ; in the winter they disperse themselves through the villages. They have no written character. Their rules of politeness are very defective. They have no knowledge at all of the move- ments of the heavenly bodies ; and, in measuring the year, they have no intercalary month, or any long and short months ; but they merely divide the year into twelve parts, and that is all. They receive tribute from all surrounding nations : on the south as far as Tieh-lo; 22 on the north, the entire country of Lae-leh, 23 eastward to Khotan, and west to Persia more than forty countries in all When they come to the court with their presents for the king, there is spread out a large carpet about forty paces square, which they surround with a sort of rug hung up as a screen. The king puts on his rjbes of state and takes his seat upon a gilt couch, which is supported by four golden phoenix birds. When the ambassadors of the Great Wei dynasty were pre- sented, (the kiny), after repeated prostrations, received their rs of instruction. On entering the assembly, one man announces your name and title ; then each stranger ad- vances and retires. After the several announcements are over, they break up the assembly. This is the only rule they have; there are no instruments of music visible at The royal ladies of the Ye-tha 24 country also wear i robes, which trail on the ground three feet and more ; have special train-bearers for carrying these lengthy robes. They also wear on their heads a horn, in length .,nd more, three feet of its length beiii" red

  • may possibly be 'I j.re.-cnt Tirhut. But V * I see no th I ecu- ing thin passage, although it I royal >oe also note la at UK \M Introduction. as this uj


XCll

INTRODUCTION.

coral. This they ornamented with all sorts of gay colours, and such is their head-dress. When the royal ladies go abroad, then they are carried ; when at home, then they seat themselves on a gilded couch, which is made (from the ivory of?) a six-tusked white elephant, with four lions (for supporters). 26 Except in this particular, the wives of the great ministers are like the royal ladies; they in like manner cover their heads, using horns, from which hang down veils all rounc}, like precious canopies. Both the rich and poor have their distinctive modes of dress. These people are of all the four tribes of barba- rians the most powerful. The majority of them do not believe in Buddha. Most of them worship false gods. They kill living creatures and eat their flesh. They use the seven precious substances, which all the neighbouring countries bring as tribute, and gems in great abundance. It is reckoned that the distance of the country of the Ye- tha from our capital is upwards of 20,000 li. On the first decade of the nth month we entered the confines of the country of Po-sse 27 (Persia). This territory (ground) is very contracted. Seven days farther on we come to a people who dwell in the mountains and are exceedingly impoverished. Their manners are rough and ill-favoured. On seeing their king, they pay him no honour; and when the king goes out or comes in, his attendants are few. This country has a river which for- merly was very shallow ; but afterwards, the mountains having subsided, the course of the stream was altered and two lakes were formed. A mischievous dragon took up his residence here and caused many calamities. In the summer he rejoiced to dry up the rain, and in the winter 26 Literally the passage is, " They name and affected Persian manners, make the seat from a six-tusked " Siaffufovffi Kal a.irofj.i^o\jvra.i. TO. white elephant and four lions." IlepffiKa. dim d^towTej, e/uoi doKfi, Hap- 17 The name of Persia or Eastern dvaioi vo/j-lffffOai, iltpyai 5 tlvac Persia extended at this time even to vpo<rirot.6vfjLevoi," says the Emperor the base of the Tsung-ling moun- Julian (Or. de Constantin., gest. ii. p. tains (vide Elphinstone's India). 63 ; Rawlinson's Herod., i. 534, The Parthians assumed the Persian n.)

TRAVELS OF SUXG-YUN. xciii to pile up the snow. Travellers by his influence are sub- jected to all sorts of inconveniences. The snow is so bril- liant that it dazzles the sight; men have to cover their eyes, or they would be blinded by it; but if they pay some religious service to the dragon, they find less diffi- culty afterwards. In the middle decade of the i ith month we entered the country of Shie-Mi (Sambi ?). This country is just beyond the Tsung-ling mountains. The aspect of the land is still rugged ; the people are very poor ; the rugged narrow road is dangerous a traveller and his horse can hardly pass along it one at a time. From the country of Po-lu-lai (Bolor) to the country of U-chang (Udyaiia) they use iron chains for bridges. These are suspended in the air for the purpose of crossing (over the mountain chasms). On look- downwards no bottom can be perceived; there is nothing on the side to grasp at in case of a slip, but in a moment the body is hurled down 10,000 fathoms. On this account travellers will not cross over in case of high winds. On the first decade of the I2th mouth we entered the U-chang country (Udyana). On the north this country borders on the Tsung-ling mountains; on the south it joins India. The climate is agreeably warm. The terri- tory contains several thousand li. 2s The people and pro- ductions are very abundant. The fertility of the soil is equal to that of the plateau of Lin-tsze 29 in China and the climate more equable. This is the place where Pe-lo 30 ssantara) gave his child as alms, and where JVidlii- _ave his body (to the /ry/v.^). Though these old stories relate to things so di ; they are preserved among the local legends (?). Tin; kinij of the country reli- isly observes a vegetable diet ; on: last-days 81 ration t> . both innrnin^ and evcniiiLT, ;nd of drum, con /7 of It'/'), Hub 1 , and :! f.>r // b -Hi" fir-t :m.l lu-t In Sban-tung. d. ii. 6, n.

xciv INTRODUCTION. all kinds of wind instruments. After mid-day he devotes himself to the affairs of government. Supposing a man has committed murder, they do not suffer him to be killed ; they only banish him to the desert mountains, affording him just food enough to keep him alive (lit. a bit and a sup). In investigating doubtful cases, 32 they rely on the pure or foul effect of drastic medicines ; then, after exa- mination, the punishment is adjusted according to the circumstances. At the proper time they let the streams overflow the land, by which the soil is rendered loamy and fertile. All provisions necessary for man are very jibundant, cereals of every kind (lit. of a hundred sorts) flourish, and the different fruits (lit. the five fruits) ripen in great numbers. In the evening the sound of the (convent) bells may be heard on every side, filling the air (world) ; the earth is covered with flowers of different hues, which succeed each other winter and summer, and are gathered by clergy and laity alike as offerings for Buddha. The king of the country seeing Sung-Yun (inquired respecting him, and) on their saying that the ambassadors of the Great "Wei (dynasty} had come, he courteously received their letters of introduction. On understanding that the Empress Dowager was devotedly attached to the law of Buddha, he immediately turned his face to the east, and, with closed hands and meditative heart, bowed his head; then, sending for a man who could interpret the Wei language, he questioned Sung Yun and said, "Are my honourable visitors men from the region of sun- rising ? " Sung-Yun answered and said, " Our country is bounded on the east by the great sea ; from this the sun rises according to the divine will (the command of Tathdgata)" The king again asked, " Does that country produce holy men ? " Sung-Yun then proceeded to enlarge upon the virtues of Confucius, of the Chow and Laou 32 This passage is translated by drugs, and decide upon the evi- (R.) thus: "When any matter is dence of these" (Fah-hian, c. viii. involved in doubt, they appeal to n. i).

TRAVELS OF SUXG-YUN. xcv (Tseu), of the Chwang (period), and then of the silver walls and golden palaces of Fairy Land (P'eng lai Shan), 83 and then of the spirits, genii, and sages who dwell there ; he further dilated on the divination of Kwan-lo, the medicinal art of H\va-to, and .the magical power of Tso-ts'ze ; 34 descanting on these various subjects, and pro- perly distinguishing their several properties, he finished his address. Then the king said, "If these things are really as your worship says, then truly yours is the land of Buddha, and I ought to pray at the end of my life that I may be born in that country." After this, Sung-Yun with Hwei Sang left the city for the purpose of inspecting the traces which exist of the teaching (or religion) of Tathagata. To the east of the river is the place where Buddha dried his clothes. When first Tathagata came to the country of U-chaiiLT, he went to convert a dragon-king. He, being angry with Buddha, raised a violent storm with rain. The sailyhdti of Buddha was soaked through and through with the wet. After the rain was over, Buddha stopped on a rock, and, with his face to the east, sat down whilst he dried his robe (kiishdija). Although many years have elapsed since then, the traces of the stripes of the garment are as visible as if newly done, and not merely the seams and bare outline, but one can see the marks of the very tissue itself, so that in looking at it, it appears as if the garment had not been removed, and, if one were asked to do it, !f the traces might be lifted up (as the garment itself). There are m.-iiiorial towers erected on the spot where , and also where he dried his robe. To the t of the river is a tank occupied by a r.Aira-rfij.i. the side of the tank is a temple srr\vil by fifty priests 1 more. The mon assumes super- :ices. The king of tlus country propitiates ** One of the t f the M For these name* see >: in the Eastern Reader' 't Manual, s. > .1 nj.jMinit'- th-' c-".v-t of ChiiKi.

xcvi INTROD UCTION. him with gold and jewels, and other precious offerings, which he casts into the middle of the tank; such of these as find their way out through a back exit, the priests are permitted to retain. Because the dragon thus provides for the necessary expenses of this temple (clothes and food), therefore men call it the Naga-rfija Temple. Eighty li to the north of the royal city there is the trace of the shoe of Buddha on a rock. They have raised a tower to cover it. The place where the print of the shoe is left on the rock is as if the foot had trodden on soft mud. Its length is undetermined, as at one time it is long, and at another time short. They have now founded a temple on the spot, capable of accommodating seventy priests and more. Twenty paces to the south of the tower is a spring of water issuing from a rock. Buddha once purifying (his mouth), planted a piece of his chewing- stick 35 in the ground ; it immediately took root, and is at present a great tree, which the Tartars call Po-lu. 36 To the north of the city is the To-lo 37 temple, in which there are very numerous appliances for the worship of Buddha. The pagoda is high and large. The priests' chambers are ranged in order round the temple (or tower). There are sixty full-length golden figures (herein). The king, when- ever he convenes (or convening yearly) a great assembly, collects the priests in this temple. On these occasions the Sramanas within the country flock together in great crowds (like clouds). Sung-Yun and Hwei Sang, remark- ing the strict rules and eminent piety (extreme austerities) of those Bhikshus, and from a sense that the example of these priests singularly conduced to increase (their own) religious feelings, remitted two servants for the use of the convent to present the offerings and to water and sweep. From the royal city going south-east over a mountainous district eight days' journey, we come to the place where Tuthagata, practising austerities, gave up his body to feed 33 Dantakushta. M The Pilu tree Salvadom Persica. 3r Tara (?).

TRATELS OF SUNG-YUX. xcvii a starving tiger. It is a high mountain, with scarped precipices and towering peaks that pierce the clouds. The fortunate tree 38 and the Ling-chi grow here, whilst the groves and fountains (or the forest rivulets), the docile js, and the variegated hues of the flowers, all delight the eye. Sung-Yun and Hwei Sang devoted a portion of their travelling funds to erect a pagoda on the crest of the hill, and they inscribed on a stone, in the square character, an account of the great merits of the AVei -. This mountain possesses a temple called " Col- lected Bones," 39 with 300 priests and more. One hundred and odd li to the south of the royal city is the place where Buddha (Julai), formerly residing in the Mo-hiu country, peeled off his skin for the purpose of writing upon it, and extracted (broke off) a bone of his body for the purpose of writing with it. 40 Asoka-rfija raised a pagoda on this spot for the purpose of enclosing these sacred relics. It is about ten clianrj high (120 fed). On the spot where he broke off his bone, the marrow ran out and covered the surface of a rock, which yet retains the colour of it, and is unctuous as though it had only recently been done. To the south-west of the royal city 500 li is the Shen-slii 41 hill (or the hill of (the Prince) Sudana). The t waters and delicious fruits (of this place} are spoken of in the sacred books. 42 The mountain dells are agree- ably warm ; the trees and shrubs retain a perpetual ver- dure. At the time when the pilgrims arrived (tai tsuh), _ r entle breeze which fanned the air, the songs of the birds, the trees in their spring-tide beauty, the butterflies fluttered over the numerous ilmvci\s, all this caused . in, as he gazed on this lovely scenery in a distant '.itfs it the tree bably it r<-f rs t> <!. ntiy. 41 ^/nii-y/d, " illustrious ; collected u r "ll." ti'i: ita- I */</, "illiMri.-us ]. !:in). robrtitut.-'l r/< f<. r t. M.-hiu is *- That is, in tli- ulil \vh! But pro-

xcviii INTRODUCTION. land, to revert to home thoughts; and so melancholy were his reflections, that he brought on a severe attack of ill- ness ; after a month, however, he obtained some charms of the Biahmans, which gave him ease. To the south-east of the crest of the hill Shen-shi is a rock-cave of the prince, 43 with two chambers to it. Ten paces in front of this cave is a great square stone on which it is said the prince was accustomed to sit ; above this A6ka raised a memorial tower. One li to the south of the tower is the place of the Paiiiiasala (leafy hut) of the prince. One li north-east of the tower, fifty paces down the mountain, is the place where the son and daughter of the prince persisted in going round a tree, and would not depart (with the JJrdk- man). On this the Brahman beat them with rods till the blood flowed down and moistened the earth. This tree still exists, and the ground, stained with blood, now produces a sweet fountain of water. Three li to the west of the cave is the place where the heavenly king Sakra, assuming the appearance of a lion sitting coiled up in the road, intercepted Man-kea. 44 On the stone are yet traces of his hair and claws: the spot also where Ajitakuta 45 (0-chou-to-kiu) and his disciples nourished the father and mother (i.e., the prince and princess). All these have memo- rial towers. In this mountain formerly were the beds of 500 43 That is, of the Prince Sudatta where the events alluded to in the or the Bountiful Prince. The whole text occurred. See Tree and Ser- of the history alluded to in the text pent Worship, pi. Ixv. fig. I. may be found in Spence Hardy's ** This may possibly allude to Manual of Buddhism under the Madri-dewi ; the symbol kea de- Wessantara Jataka, p. 116. The notes "a lady." We read that account states that Wessantara (the Sakra caused some wild beasts to prince alluded to in the text, called appear to keep Madri-dewi from "the Bountiful," because of his ex- coming back. See Spence Hardy, treme charity) gave to the king of loc. cit. ; and also the lions in the Kalinga a white elephant that had Sanchi sculpture, Tree and Serpent the power to compel rain to fall. Warship, pi. xxxii. fig. 2. On this the subjects of the prince's ^ Called Achchhuta in the Singha- father (who was called Sanda) forced lese accounts. He was an ascetic him to banish the prince, with his who resided in the neighbourhood wife (Madri-dewi) and his two of the hill, children, to the rock Wankagiri,

TRAVELS OF SUXG-YUN. xcix Arhats, ranged north and south in a double row ; their seats also were placed opposite one to another. There is now a great temple here with about 200 priests. To the north of the fountain which supplied the prince with water is a temple. A herd of wild asses frequent this spot for graz- ing. No one drives them here, but they resort here of their own accord. Daily at early morn they arrive ; they take their food at noon, and so they protect the temple. These are spirits who protect the tower (protecting-tower- spirits), commissioned for this purpose by the Rlshi Uh- po. 46 In this temple there formerly dwelt a Shami (Sra- inaniTa), who, being constantly occupied in sifting ashes '.'iff to the convent), fell into a state of spiritual ecstasy (Samddhi). The Karmadana 47 of the convent had his funeral obsequies performed, and drew him about, without his perceiving it, whilst his skin hung on his shrunken bones. The Rlshi Uh-po continued to take the office of the Siamanera in the sifting of the ashes. On this the king of the country founded a chapel to the Rlshi, and placed in it a figure of him as he appeared, and ornamented it with much gold leaf. Close to the peak of this hill is a temple of Po-keen, lmilt by the Yakshas. There are about eighty priests in it. They say that the Arhats and Yakshas continually come to offer religious services, to water and sweep the temple, and to gather wood for it. Ordinary priests are not allowed to occupy this temple. The Shaman To-Ying, of the at Wei dynasty, came to this temple to pay religious worship ; but having done so, he departed, without daring to take up his quarters there. During the middle decade 'lie 4th month of the first year of Chinx-Kwong (520 ,), we entered the kingdom of ( landliara. This country closely resembles the territory of U-chang. It was formerly called the country of Yc-po-lo. 48 This is the country which yn>bolfor"r/i"i.s<loul.tful. to th- N.K. .,f Mun-ali (tin- , C-chang) gave i i'i\. r * Referring, fa all prob*bflitj, to Subhavastu or Sw.ti, that the dragon ApalAla, whose fountain through tin

c INTRODUCTION. the Ye-tlias 49 destroyed, and afterwards set up Lae-lih to "be king 50 over the country; since which events two generations have passed. The disposition of this king (or dynasty) was cruel and vindictive, and he practised the most barbarous atrocities. He did not believe the law of Buddha, but loved to worship demons. The people of the country be- longed entirely to the Brahman caste ; they had a great respect for the law of Buddha, and loved to read the sacred books, when suddenly this king came into power, who was strongly opposed to anything of the sort. Entirely self- reliant on his own strength, he had entered on a war with 'the country of Ki-pin (Cophene), 51 disputing the boun- daries of their kingdom, and his troops had been already engaged in it for three years. The king has 700 war-elephants, each of which carries ten men armed with sword and spear, while the elephants . are armed with swords attached to their trunks, with which to fight when at close quarters. The king continu- ally abode with his troops on the frontier, and never re- turned to his kingdom, in consequence of which the old men had to labour and the common people were oppressed. Sung-Yun repaired to the royal camp to deliver his creden- tials. The king 52 was very rough with him, and failed to salute him. He sat still whilst receiving the lett- Sung-Yun perceived that these remote barbarians were unfit for exercising public duties, and that their arrogancy refused to be checked. The king now sent for interpre- ters, and addressed Sung-Yun as follows : " Has your worship not suffered much inconvenience in traversing all these countries and encountering so many dangers 49 Alluding perhaps to the con- 62 This king was probably the quest of Kitolo, at the beginning of one called Onowei, who reigned the fifth century. The king con- under the title "So-lin-teu-pim-teu- quered Gandhara, and made Pesha- fa Khan," or, " the prince who war his capital. seizes and holds firmly." We are 50 Or, set up a Lara dynasty, but told that he refused homage to the the whole of the context is obscure. Wei Tartars, alluding probably to 51 Then in the possession of the the circumstance recorded in this Great Yuchi, whose capital was account of Sung-Yun (C.) Kabul.

TRA VELS OF SUNG-YUN. ci on the road ? " Sung-Yun replied, " We have been sent by our royal mistress to search for works of the great translation through distant regions. It is true the dif- ficulties of the road are great, yet we cannot (dare not) say we are fatigued ; but your majesty and your forces (three armies), as you sojourn here on the fron- tier of your kingdom, enduring all the changes of heat and cold, are not you also nearly worn out ? " The king, replying, said, " It is impossible to submit to such a little country as this, and I am sorry that you should ask such a question." Sung-Yun, on first speaking with the king, (thought), "This barbarian is unable to discharge with courtesy his official duties ; he sits still whilst receiving diplomatic papers; " and now being about to reply to him again, he determined to reprove him as a fellow-man (or having the feelings of a man) ; and so he said, " Mountains are high and low rivers are great and small amongst men also there are distinctions, some being noble and others ignoble. The sovereign of the Ye-tha, and also of U-chang, when they received our credentials, did so respectfully ; but your majesty alone has paid us no respect." The king, replying, said, " When I see the king of the Wei, then I will pay my respects; but to receive and read his letters whilst seated, what fault can be found with this? When men receive a letter from father or mother, they don't rise from their seats to read it. The (Jreat Wei sovereign is to me (for the nonce) botli father and mother, and so, without being unreasonable, I will read the letters you bring me still sitting down." Sung-Yun then took his departure without any official salutation. He took up hit qi Q a temple, in which his entertuinmen: ry poor. At this time the country of Po-tai 53 sent two young lions to the kin- : resent. Suni;-Yun hud an opportunitv the same as th- :iif, 400 li to IH HO unfin the west of Bokhara (Jul. t<>m<- iii. }>.

cii INTRODUCTION. of seeing them ; he noticed their fiery temper and coura- geous mien. The pictures of these animals common in China are not at all good resemblances of them. After this, going west five days, they arrived at the place where Tathagata made an offering of his head for the sake of a man, where there is both a tower and temple, with about twenty priests. Going west three days, we arrive at the great river Sin-tu. On the west bank of this river is the place where TathiUjata took the form of (or became) a great fish called Ma-kie (Makara), and came out of the river, and for twelve years supported the people with his flesh. On this spot is raised a memo- rial tower. On the rock are still to be seen the traces of the scales of the lish. Again going west thirteen days' journey, we arrived at the city of Fo-sha-f u. 54 The river valley (in which this city is built) is a rich loamy soil. The city walls have gate- defences. The houses are thick, and there are very many groves (around the city}, whilst fountains of water enrich the soil ; and as for the rest, there are costly jewels and gems in abundance. The customs of the people are honest and virtuous. Within this city there is an heretical temple 65 of ancient date called " Sang-teh " (Santi ?). All religious persons frequent it and highly venerate it. To the north of the city one li is the temple of the White Elephant Palace. 56 Within the temple all is devoted to the service of Buddha. There are here stone images highly adorned and very beautiful, very many in number, and covered with gold sufficient to dazzle the eyes. Before the temple and belonging to it is a tree called the White Elephant Tree, from which, in fact, this temple took its origin and name. 54 The Yarusha (Po-lou-sha) of the passage, then it may perhaps be Hiuen Tsiang. rendered thus : "Within and without 55 In this passage I take the word this city there are very many old fan (all) to be a misprint for temples, which are named ' San^- Fan (Brahman), in which case teh ' (sandi, union or assembly ?)." the expression Wei fan would K This is probably the Pilu.slra mean " heretical Brdhmans." If sttipa of Hiuen Tsiang (Jul. tome ii. this be not the correct translation of p. 54).

TRAVELS OF SUNG-YUN. cm Its leaves and flowers are like those of the Chinese date- tree, and its fruit begins to ripen in the winter quarter. The tradition common amongst the old people is this : " That when this tree is destroyed, then the old law of Buddha will also perish." Within the temple is a picture of the prince 57 and his wife, and the figure of the Brahman Legging the boy and the girl. The Tartars, seeing this pic- ture, could not refrain from tears. Again going west one day's journey, we arrive at the place where Tathagata plucked out his eyes to give in charity. Here also is a tower and a temple. On a stone of the temple is the impress of the foot of KaSyapa Buddha. Again going west one day, we crossed a deep river, 58 more than 300 paces broad. Sixty li south-west of this we arrive at the capital of the country of Gandhara, 59 Seven li to the south-east of this city there is a Tsioh-li Feou- thou 00 (a pagoda with a surmounting pole). [The record of Tao-Yung says, " Four li to the east of the city."] Inves- tigating the origin of this tower, we find that when Tatha- gata was in the world he was passing once through this country with his disciples on his mission of instruction ; on which occasion, when delivering a discourse on the east side of the city, he said, " Three hundred years after my Xirrun't, there will be a king of this country called Ka-ni-si-ka (Kanishka). On this spot he will raise a pagoda (Fcou-thou). Accordingly, 300 years after that event, there was a king of this country so called. On one occasion, when going out to the east of the city, lie saw four children engaged in making a Buddhist tower out of cows' dung. They had raised it about thre. :>!>rared (or, it fell). [The i states, "One of the children, raising himself in .ir and turning t-iwar-is tin; kinu r , repeated ;i verse ').] The king, surprised at this miraculous event, P-.untiful Triiicc- "" 7V/"//// im-ans " ;i (Weawwitara) rt-r fore. but it is i>h< .lini,' spfar <T trident. 1 Y-h.\urir.

civ INTRODUCTION. immediately erected a tower for the purpose of enclosing (the small pagoda), but gradually the small tower grew higher and higher, and at last went outside and removed itself 400 feet off, and there stationed itself. Then the king proceeded to widen the foundation of the great tower 300 paces and more. 61 [The record of Tao- Yung says 390 paces.] To crown all, he placed a roof-pole upright and even. [The record of Tao- Yung says it was 35 feet high.] Throughout the building he used carved wood; he con- structed stairs to lead to the top. The roof consisted of every kind of wood. Altogether there were thirteen storeys ; above which there was an iron pillar, three feet high, 62 with thirteen gilded circlets. Altogether the height from the ground was 700 feet. [Tao-Yung says the iron pillar was 88/5- feet (high), with fifteen encircling discs, and 63 T 2 ^ cJiangs from the ground (743 feet).] This meri- torious work being finished, the dung pagoda, as at first, remained three paces south of the great tower. The Brahman s, not believing that it was really made of dung, dug a hole in it to see. Although years have elapsed since these events, this tower has not corrupted; and although they have tried to fill up the hole with scented earth, they have not been able to do so. It is now enclosed with a protecting canopy. The Tsioh-li pagoda, since its erection, has been three times destroyed by light- ning, but the kings of the country have each time restored it. The old men say, " When this pagoda is finally de- stroyed by lightning, then the law of Buddha also will perish." The record of Tao-Yung says, "When the king had finished all the work except getting the iron pillar up to the top, he found that he could not raise this heavy weight. He proceeded, therefore, to erect at the four corners a lofty stage ; he expended in the work large trea- 61 Hiuen Tsiang says it was a li in the text ; the height of the iron and a half in circumference. pillar should be 30 feet. 6 - Most likely there is a mistake

TRA VELS OF SUNG-YUN. cv sures, and then he with his queen and princes ascending on to it, burnt incense and scattered flowers, with all their hearts and power of soul; then, with one turn of the windlass, they raised the weight, and so succeeded in elevating it to its place. The Tartars say, therefore, that the four heavenly kings lent their aid in this work, and that, if they had not done so, no human strength would have been of any avail. Within the pagoda there is con- tained every sort of Buddhist utensil ; here are gold and jewelled (vessels) of a thousand forms and vast variety, to name which even would be no easy task. At sunrise the gilded discs of the vane are lit up with dazzling glory, whilst the gentle breeze of morning causes the precious bells (that are suspended from the roof) to tinkle with a pleasing sound. Of all the pagodas of the western world, this one is by far the first (in size and importance). At the first completion of this tower they used true pearls in making the network covering over the top ; but after some years, the king, reflecting on the enormous value of this ornamental work, thought thus with himself : " After my decease (funeral) I fear some invader may carry it ' or "supposing the pagoda should fall, there will be no one with means sufficient to re-build it ;" on which he removed the pearl work and placed it in a copper vase, which he removed to the north-west of the pagoda 100 paces, and buried it in the earth. Above the spot he planted a tree, which is called Po-tai (7AW///), the branches of which, spreading out on each side, with their thick foliage, completely shade the spot from the sun. Under- neath the tree on each side there are sitting figures (of Ulha) of the same height, viz., a chang and a half (17 '). There are always four dragons in attendance to ^1} jewels; if a man ("///// in his heart) covets :ities immediately befall him. There is also a stone tablet erected on the spot, and >1 on it are these words of direction : I , if this tower is destroyed, : I . the virtuous man may iind VOL. I. h

cvi INTRODUCTION. here pearls (of value sufficient) to help him restore it." Fifty paces to the south of the Tsioh-li pagoda there is a stone tower, in shape perfectly round, and two chang high (27 feet). There are many spiritual indications (shown by it) so that men, by touching it, can find out if they are lucky or unlucky. If they are lucky, then by touching it the golden bells will tinkle ; but if unlucky, then, though a man should violently push the tower, no sound would be given out. Hwei Sang, having travelled from his country, and fearing that he might not have a fortunate return, paid worship to this sacred tower, and sought a sign from it. On this, he did but touch it with his finger, and immediately the bells rang out. Obtaining this omen, he comforted his In -art. And the result proved 03 the truth of the augury. When Hwei Sang first went up to the capital, the Empress had conferred upon him a thousand streamers of a hundred feet in length and of the five colours, and five hundred variegated silk (mats?) of scented grass. The princes, dukes, and nobility had given him two thousand ilags. Hwei Sang, in his journey from Khotan to Gandhara, wherever there was a dis- position to Buddhism had freely distributed these in charity ; so that when he arrived here, he had only left one Hag of 100 feet in length, given him by the Empress. This he decided to offer as a present to the tower of Sivika-rfija, whilst Sung-Yun gave two servants to the Tsioh-li pagoda in perpetuity, to sweep it and water it. Hwei Sang, out of the little travelling funds he had left, employed a skilful artist to depict on copper the Tsioh-li pagoda and also the four principal pagodas of Sakyamuni. After this, going north-west seven days' journey, they crossed a great river (Indus), and arrived at the place where Tathagata, when he was Sivika-raja, 64 delivered the 63 Or, he consoled himself by the 64 Vide Jul., tome ii. p. 137 (infra, thought that after his undertaking p. 125, n. 20), and Abstract of Pour he would have a safe return. Lectures, p. 31.

TRAVELS OF SUNG-YUN. cvii dove; here there is a temple and a tower also. There was formerly here a large storehouse of Sivika-raja, which was burnt down. The grain which was in it was parched with the heat, and is still to be found in the neighbour- hood (of the ruins). If a man take but a single grain of this, he never suffers from fever; the people of the country also take it to prevent the power of 65 the sun hurting them. [The records of Tao-Yung say, " At Na-ka-lo-ho 66 there is a skull-bone of Buddha, four inches round, of a yel- lowifih-vhite colour, hollow underneath, (sufficient) to receive a man's finger, shining, and in appearance like a ;. >-nest.] We then visited the Ki-ka-lam 67 temple. This contains the robe (kashdya) of Buddha in thirteen pieces. In measurement this garment is as long as it is broad (or, when measured, it is sometimes long and sometimes broad). Here also is the staff of Buddha, in length a chang and seven-tenths (about 18 feet\ in a wooden case, which is covered with gold leaf. The weight of this staff is very uncertain ; sometimes it is so heavy that a hundred men cannot raise it, and at other times it is so light that one man can lift it. In the city of Na-kie (Nagarahara) is a tooth of Buddha and also some of his hair, both of which are contained in precious caskets ; morning and evening religious offerings are made to them. W- next arrive at the cave of Gopala, 68 where is the shadow of Buddha. K::'--riiig the mountain cavern fifteen feet, and looking for a long time (or, at a long distance) at the western 09 side of it opposite the door, then at length the figure, witli its characteristic marks, appears; on going nearer to look at it, it gradually grows fainter * Or. thriii t<> !>' .ir the w The text is here, :< nth' : Ml]-?. I IKIV * NagarahAra. tutwl ]> f"f / in < J-'-p.-'ila : ami ///* 87 Thi: Khakkh:ir:un T-'inpl.-. ,, r : H Staff Thr text has ;' (foui > (\\.

cviii INTRODUCTION. and then disappears. On touching the place where it was with the hand, there is nothing but the bare wall. Gradually retreating, the figure begins to come in view again, and foremost is conspicuous that peculiar mark between the eyebrows 70 (fond), which is so rare among men. Before the cave is a square stone, on which is a trace of Buddha's foot. One hundred paces south-west of the cave is the place where Buddha washed his robe. One li to the north of the cave is the stone cell of Mudgah ay ana ; to the north of which is a mountain, at the foot of which the great Buddha with his own hand made a pagoda ten chang high (115 feet). They say that when this tower sinks down and enters the earth, then the law of Buddha will perish. There are, moreover, seven towers here, to the south of which is a stone with an inscription on it ; they say Buddha himself wrote it. The foreign letters are dis- tinctly legible even to the present time. Hwei Sang abode in the country of U-chang two years. The customs of the western foreigners (Tartars) are, to a great extent, similar (iritk ours) ; the minor differences we cannot fully detail. When it came to the second month of the second year of Ching-un (521 A.D.) he began to return. The foregoing account is principally drawn from the private records of Tao-Yung and Sung-Yun. The details given by Hwei Sang were never wholly recorded. 70 I think this is the meaning of mark, face-distinguishing, so rare the passage, " We begin to see the among men."

NOTE, p. xci. With reference to Lala or Lara, it seems from Cun- ningham's remark (Arch. Surrey, vol. ii. p. 31) that this term is equivalent to " lord." The Laras, according to Hiuen Tsiang, dwelt in Malava and Valabhl. It was from this region that the ancestors of Vijayacame (Ind. Antiq.), vol. xiii. p. 35, n. 25 ; see also Journ. of PdLi Text Soc., 1883, p. 59). It is worth consideration whether these Laras or Lords were akin to the Vrljjis of Vaisali, who were also " lords " (Gothic, Fraujas) (?), and whether they were not both Northern invaders allied to the Yue-chi. The fable of the daughter of the king of Vanga cohabiting with a wild lion (Dipavaihsa, chap, ix.) may simply mean that one of these Northerners (who were called Lions) carried off a native girl and cohabited with her. From this union sprang the thirty-two brothers, of whom the eldest were Vi jaya and Sumeta (vide Dipavaihm, loc. cit.)

BUDDHIST RECORDS OF THE WESTERN WORLD. TA-TANG-SI- YU-KL Records of tlie Western World* (compiled during) tlie Great Tang 1 dynasty (A.D. 618-907) ; translated by Imperial command by Hiucn Tsiang? a Doctor of the three Pitakas, and edited by Pien A7, a Shaman of tlie Ta-tsuhg-chi Temple. PREFACE. 4 AY H EN of yore the precious hair-circle* shed forth its flood of light, the sweet dew was poured upon the great thou- sand (worlds), 6 the golden mirror 1 displayed its brightness, and a fragrant wind was spread over the earth ; then it was known that he had appeared in the three worlds 8 1 The "Western World." This and refer the reader to his explana- expression denotes generally the t<>ry notes for fuller information. countries west of China. Mr. 5 This phrase designates one of Mayers, in his note on Chang K'u-n the thirty-two marks (viz. the drna) (Reader s Manual, Xo. 18), confines which characterise a great man, and the meaning to Turkistan. which were recognised on the Bud- 2 That is, during the reign of dha. Sc<- P.uniout. llnnnc . /../. pp. 30, 543, 55 }, and <>n> -, /. MS dynasty, A.D. 646. tr,l. Bwddk. i'-iang : in sp<-llin : Beal, nese names, t .". -sh<i-hiwi-ts<in -kit;/, I. i. 83, 84, Willia: //-//has I 14, &c, ; lfixlgsm, OMOyi ({ been generally followed. See note 10. pore edit), p. 1 .face was writ: '. i. p. </ . .Manual of who fl.niri.slji-d as Jiintilfiium (2<1 cd. I, j>. 150,^:0. ai '"' .Fiili.ti -\ji];iins this as " tho s called grcrvt chili< UHual ornate 7 Ti I have 8 Buddha had appeared in tin; mostly foil,, :t<{/uilu), the I. A.

2 BUDDHIST RECORDS OF THE WESTERN WORLD. who is rightly named the lord of the earth. His bright- ness, indeed, dwells in the four limits (of the universe), but his sublime model was fixed in the middle of the world. Whereupon, as the sun of wisdom declined, the shadow of his doctrine spread to the East, the grand rules of the emperor 9 diffused themselves afar, and his imposing laws reached to the extremities of the West. There was in the temple of " great benevolence " a doctor of the three Pijakas called Hiuen Tsiang. 10 His common name was Chin-shi. His ancestors came from Ing-chuen; 11 the emperor Hien 12 held the sceptre; reigning at Hwa-chau, 13 he opened the source. The great Shun entertained the messengers as he laid on Li-shan 14 the foundation of his renown. The three venerable ones distinguished themselves during the years of Ki. 1 * The six extraordinary (events] shone during .the Han period. In penning odes there was one who equalled the clear moon ; in wandering by the way there was one who resembled the brilliant stars (his illustrious ancestors) like fishes in the lake, or as birds assembled before the wind, by their choice services in the world served to pro- duce as their result an illustrious descendant. The master of the law under these fortunate influences came into the world. In him were joined sweetness and virtue. These roots, combined and deeply planted, pro- duced their fruits rapidly. The source of his wisdom (reason) was deep, and wonderfully it increased. At his opening life he was rosy as the evening vapours and world of forms (R&padkatu^, the and the name is also represented by world without forms (Artipadhdtu). Hhuen-Chwang. Julien. But here it simply means ll Yu-cheu, in the province of " in the world." Honan. Jul. 9 The emperor T'ai-tsung of the ia That is, Hwang Ti (B.C. 2697), T';\ng dynasty (A.D. 627-649). otherwise called Hien-yuen-shi. 10 I adopt this mode of spelling 13 Hwa-chau was an island of the for reasons stated in the introduc- kingdom of Hwa-siu, where Fo-hi tion. He is generally known from fixed his court. Jul. Julien's French version as " Hiouen 14 For Shun and Li-shan consult Thsang." Mr. Mayers (Reader's Mayers under Shun (op. cit. No. 617). Manual, p. 290) calls him Huan 15 I.e., under the reign of the Chau, Chvvan ; Mr. Wylie, Yuen-Chwung ; whose family name was K'i. Jul.

PREFACE OF CHANG YUEH. 3 (round) as the rising moon. As a boy (collecting-sand age) he was sweet as the odour of cinnamon or the vanilla tree. When he grew up he thoroughly mastered the Fan and Su; 16 the nine borders 17 were filled with (bore) his renown, the five prefectures (or palaces) together resounded his praise. At early dawn he studied the true and the false, and through the night shone forth his goodness ; the mirror of his wisdom, fixed on the true receptacle, remained station- ary. He considered the limits of life, and was perman- ently at rest (in the persuasion that) the vermilion ribbon and the violet silken tassels are the pleasing bonds that keep one attached to the world ; but the precious car and the red pillow, these are the means of crossing the ford and escaping the world. Wherefore he put away from him the pleasures of sense, and spoke of finding refuge in some hermit retreat. His noble brother Chang-tsi was a master of the law, a pillar and support of the school of Buddha. He was as a dragon or an elephant (or a dragon- elephant) in his own generation, and, as a falcon or a crane, he mounted above those to come. In the court and the wilderness was his fame exalted; within and without was his renown spread. Being deeply affection- ate, they loved one another, and so fulfilled the harmony of mutual relationship (parentage). The master of the law was diligent in his labour as a student ; he lost not a moment of time, and by his studies he rendered his teachers illustrious, and was an ornament to his place of study. His virtuous qualities were rightly balanced, and he caused the perfume of his fame to exU ml through the home of his adoption. Whip raised, he travelled on his even way ; lie mastered the nine divisions of the books, and swallowed (the lake) Mong; 18 he worked his paddles across the dark ford ; he gave his attention to 1$ That is, the hooka of the legcn- a passage in the Shi King. JuL dary j iiinese hwtory, from j>. lii. 2852 B.C. to 2697 18 To swallow thr lake Mong in A <ne iVawfi (Khiu-laa- metaphorical I (Ml- in), concerning which there is acquired a vast erudition. JuL

4 BUDDHIST RECORDS OF THE WESTERN WORLD. (looked down upon} the four Vedas, whilst finding Lu small. 19 From this time he travelled forth and frequented places of discussion, and so passed many years, his merit com- pleted, even as his ability was perfected. Reaching back to the beginning, when the sun and moon first lit up with their brightness the spiritually (created) world, or, as Tseu-yun, with his kerchief suspended at his girdle, startled into life (developed) his spiritual powers, so in his case the golden writing gradually unfolded itself. He waited for the autumn car, yet hastened as the clouds; he moved the handle of jade 20 for a moment, and the mist-crowds were dispersed as the heaped-up waves. As the occasion required, he could use the force of the flying discus or un- derstand the delicate sounds of the lute used in worship. 21 With all the fame of these acquirements, he yet em- barked in the boat of humility and departed alone. In the land of Hwan-yuen he first broke down the boasting of the iron-clad stomach ; 22 in the village of Ping-lo in a moment he exhibited the wonder of the floating wood. 23 Men near and afar beheld him with admiration as they said one to another, "Long ago we heard of the eight dragons of the family of Sun> but now we see the double wonder (kc) of the gate of Chin. Wonderful are the men of Ju and Ing." 24 This is true indeed ! The master 19 To find " Lu small " is an allu- minor encounter or discussion which sion to a passage in Mencius : " Con- Hiuen Tsiang had in his own country. fucius mounted on the mountain of The expression "iron-clad stomach " the East, and found that the king of refers to the story told of one he Lu (i.e., his own country) was small." met with in his travels in India who ( Jul. ) The meaning of the expres- wore an iron corslet lest his learn- sion in the text seems to be that ing should burst open his body. Si- Hiuen Tsiang found his own studies yu-ki, book x. foL 9. contracted and small, so he bent s3 i cannot but think this refers down his head to examine the Vedas. to the ability of Hiuen Tsiang in hit- 20 The fly-flap of the orator has a ting on the solution of a difficult jade handle. question, as the blind tortoise with 21 So I have ventured to trans- difficulty finds the hole in a floating late the word pai, although in the piece of wood. addenda at the end of Book I. the - 4 The rivers Ju and Ing are in the word is considered corrupt. province of Honan. The say ing in the - 8 This probably refers to some text is quoted from a letter addressed

PREFACE OF CHANG YUEH. 5 of the law, from his early days till he grew up, pondered in heart the mysterious principles (of religion). His fame spread wide among eminent men. At this time the schools were mutually contentious ; they hastened to grasp the end without regarding the beginning ; they seized the flower and rejected the reality ; so there followed the contradictory teaching of the North and South, and the confused sounds of " Yes " and " No," perpetual words ! On this he was afflicted at heart, and fearing lest he should be unable to find out completely the errors of translations, he purposed to examine thoroughly the literature of the iKrfume elephant^ and to copy throughout the list of the dragon palace. 26 With a virtue of unequalled character, and at a time favourable in its indications, he took his staff, dusted his clothes, and set off for distant regions. On this he left behind him the dark waters of the Pa river; 27 he bent his gaze forwards ; he then advanced right on to the T'sung- ling mountains. In following the courses of rivers and crossing the plains he encountered constant dangers,. Com- pared with him Po-wang 28 went but a little way, and the journey of Fa-Men 2 " was short indeed. In all the dis- tricts through which he journeyed he learnt thoroughly the dialects ; he investigated throughout the deep secrets (of religion) and penetrated to the very source of the stream. Thus he was able to correct the books and trans- by Siun-yu to the emperor during 28 The celebrated general Chang the eastern Han dynasty. Jul. K'ien,wholivedinthesecoiulc-ntury 13 If we may venture to give a B.C., was the first Chinese who j. en. meaning to thi- rated to the extreme regions of the "perfume elephant" (tiandhahastt), west. " In B.C. 122 he was sent to which so. frequently occurs in Bud- Ji- aties with tin- kingdom dhist books, it may nf-r to the soli- of Si-yu, tin- present Turk tary elephant (bull elephant) when .!>!< d as the rut. A :. '-n flows from l)in Mar<p; earn. Th- word is also applied to an /'<///-/</. xvii, xviii : elephant <>:' Ion. tin. ;<>, p. - The books carried (aa the fable 260; Juii-n, Jnr. Asiiit., scr. iv. *y) to the palace of the Nagaa to t->m. x. (1847), or Jnd. Ant., vol. i\. be kept in K pp. 14, 15. 77 It rises in the Lan-thien din- -* Th.-'w. 11 known Chincn* thcil.-p.irt- X'an-fu dhist traveller, A.U. 399 .114. Shc-n-ni.

6 BUDDHIST RECORDS OF THE WESTERN WORLD. cend (the writers of) India. The texts being transcribed on palm leaves, he then returned to China. The Emperor T'ai Tsung, surnaraed Wen-wang-ti, who held the golden wheel and was seated royally on the throne, waited with impatience for that eminent man. He summoned him therefore to the green enclosure, 30 and, impressed by his past acquirements, he knelt before him in the yellow palace. With his hand he wrote proclama- tions full of affectionate sentiments ; the officers of the interior attended him constantly; condescending to ex- hibit his illustrious thoughts, he wrote a preface to the sacred doctrine of the Tripitaka, consisting of 780 words. The present emperor (Kao Tsung) had composed in the spring pavilion a sacred record consisting of 579 words, in which he sounded to the bottom the stream of deep mystery and expressed himself in lofty utterances. But now, if he (Ifiuen Tsiang) had not displayed his wisdom in the wood of the cock, 81 nor scattered his brightness on' the peak of the vulture, 32 how could he (the emperor) have been able to abase his sacred composition in the praise of the ornament of his time? In virtue of a royal mandate, he (Hiuen Tsiang) trans- lated 657 works from the original Sanskrit (Fan). Having thoroughly examined the different manners of distant countries, the diverse customs of separate people, the various products of the soil and the class divisions of the people, the regions where the royal calendar is received 33 and where the sounds of moral instruction have come, he has composed in twelve books the Ta-t'ang-si-yu-ki. Herein he has collected and written down the most secret prin- ciples of the religion of Buddha, couched in language plain and precise. It may be said, indeed, of him, that his works perish not. 30 The (jreen enclosure surround- n The royal calendar is the work ing the imperial seat or throne. distributed annually throughout the 31 The Kukkuta sanyhdrdma near empire, containing all information Patna. as to the seasons, &c. Jul. 32 The Vulture Peak (Grldhrajc&ta, parwta), near Kajagriha.

( 7 )

BOOK I. GIVING AN ACCOUNT OF THIRTY-FOUR COUNTRIES. (i) 0-ki-ni; (2) K'iu-cld ; (3) Poh-luli-kia; (4) Nu-chtii-kien; (5) Cht-shi ; (6) Fei-han; (7) Su-tu-li-sse-na ; (8) Sa-nw-kien; (9) Mi-mo-kia; (id) K'ie-po-ta-na; (11) K'iuh-shwang-ni-kia ; (12) T't-mi; (13) Ho-han; (14) Pu-ho; (15) Fa-ti; (16) Ho-li-sih-mi- kiaj (17) Ki-shicany-na ; (18) CKi-ngoh-yen-na ; (19) Hwuh- lo-ino ; (20) Su-man ; (21) Kio-ho-yen-tia ; (22) Hu-sha ; (23) Kho-to-lo; (24) Kiu-mi-to ; (25) Po-kia-lang ; (26) Hi-lu-sih-min- kitn; (27) Ho-lin; (28) Po-ho ; (29} Jui-mo-to ; (30) Hu-shi- kien; (31) Ta-la-lden; (32) Kie-chi ; (33) Fan-ytii-na; (34)

INTRODUCTION. 1 IF we examine in succession the rules of the emperors, 2 or look into the records of the monarchs, 3 when P'au 1 4 began to adjust matters 6 and Hien-yuen 6 began to let 1 The beginning of this Book con- interpreted. The symbol r/m?f oc- :" an introduction, written by cupies the place of the East in Chang Yueh, the author of the pre- Wan's arrangement of the Tri- Jul. grams, and symbolises "movement." at is, of the "three sove- It is also used for "wood," be- ' called (by some) Fuh-hi, cause, as some say, "the East sym- rs bolisea spring, when the growth of ;t Chuh ^ .'.'<n U-ginn." Others say that tl Mayers, op. cit., p. 367 n. the symbol "wood " a> tin- :ui.il<.Lru.- 1 That is, the five kiii^'H (Ti) who <!' ;:iis{irint for yt, siiriiilv- A" ///;/, these 1. inoii.-urhs :n., of ] ;t in any case, in the 1-hal. is of " inovi -mi-lit to- as Fuh-hi or v. ill hi. like his si>- i prrt.-<l t. i- Nu "the tlaugh ; .-atM." r. in the su: ittern," soitseeni .if tho the c.\preioii cAu/t c/< niUht be hill in :r \\hich t!.- i\velt.

8 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I. fall his robes, 7 we see how they administered the affairs, and first divided the limits of the empire. 8 When T'ang(-ti) Yao 9 received the call of heaven (to rule), his glory reached to the four quarters ; when Yu(-ti) Shun 10 had received his map of the earth, his virtue flowed throughout the nine provinces. From that time there have come down clear u records, annals of events ; though distant, we may hear the previous doings (of eminent men), or gather their words from the records of their disciples. How much rather when we live under a renowned govern- O ment, and depend on those without partial aims. 1 ' 2 Now then our great T'ang emperor (or dynasty), conformed in the highest degree to the heavenly pattern, 13 now holds the reins of government, and unites in one the six parts of the world, and is gloriously established. Like a fourth august monarch, he illustriously administers the empire. His mysterious controlling power flows afar ; his auspicious influence (fame or instruction} widely extends: like the heaven and the earth, he covers and sustains (his suljtrfx), or like the resounding wind or the fertilising rain. The eastern barbarians bring him tribute; 14 the western fron- tiers are brought to submission. He has secured and hands down the succession, appeasing tumult, restoring order. 15 He certainly surpasses the previous kings; he 7 Hwang-ti, among other things, sion derived from " the map of the "regulated costume." It U pro- empire into provinces," by Hwang- bably to this the text refers. ti. 8 Hwang-ti mapped out his em- ll I have PO translated this pas- pire in provinces, and divided the land sage, although Julien takes the op- into regular portions." Mayers. posite sense. I suppose hung t/ 9 The great emperor Yao, with mean "clear" or "plain." his successor Shun, stand at the la "Without partial aims," ren dawn of Chinese history. His date dered by Julien " qui pratique le is 2356 B.C. He was called the Mar- non-agir." The expression wou- quis or Lord (fuiu) of T'ang, because wci generally means "absence of he moved from the principality of self" or "selfish aims." T'ao to the region of T'ang. JS Julien renders this "gouvcrnc 10 That is. Shun, of the family of a Vinstar du del" which no doubt Yeou-yu : he succeeded Yao, by is the meaning of the text. whom he was adopted after he had u Are enrolled as tribute-bearers, disinherited his son Tn:i Chu, B.C. 15 Referring to the troubles of the 2258. He is said to have received last years of the Sui dynasty, which the "map of the earth," an expres- was followed by the T'ang. Jul.

BOOK i.j INTRODUCTION BY CHANG YUEH. 9 embraces in himself the virtues of former generations. Using the same currency 1G (or literature), all acknowledge his supreme rule. If his sacred merjt be not recorded in history, then it is vain to exalt the great (or his greatness) ; if it be not to illumine the world, why then shine so brilliantly his mighty deeds ? 17 Hi uen Tsjang, wherever he bent his steps, has de- scribed the character of each country. Although he has not examined the country or distinguished the customs (in every case), he has shown himself trustworthy. 1S With respect to the emperor who transcends the five and surpasses the three, we read how all creatures enjoy his benefits, and all who can declare it utter his praises. From the royal city throughout the (five) Indies, men who inhabit the savage wilds, those whose customs are diverse from ours, through the most remote lands, all have received the royal calendar, all have accepted the imperial instructions ; alike they praise his warlike merit and sing of his exalted virtues and his true grace of utter- ance. Ihis is the first thing to be declared. In searching through previous annals no such thing has been seen or heard of. In all the records of biography no such an account has been found. It was necessary first to declare the benefits arising from the imperial rule : now we pro- ceed to narrate facts, which have been gathered either by report or sight, as follows : This Sahaloka 19 (Soh-ho) world is the three-thousand- 16 The symbol ican probably re- rait-on mettre en lumiere un ri-gne fere to the literature, used alike by aussi floriasant ? " all the : the (ireat T'an^. 1B I do not like this translation ; It can hardly nu-an that they all I should prefer to suppose Chani^ the same language. Vuch's meaning to be that lliuen is at least appear* to be the Tsiang wherever he went exalted the passage. Julieu the name of China (Funy Cu translates a foil . * effets bfini: the name ,,f Kuh hi), and that .leux de cette administration he left this I: ; -spelling tho Miblime nYtai'-nt jx.int consign 6s emperor who transcends the five and ..miin-nt ponrrai 1 three, &c. s The Soh-ho (or So ho) v, :rijKTeur)? Si on ?! le* jmb- thus defined by Jin-Ch'a'i (/ .it, comment l>'><'r- Hlit'u, part i. fol. 2): "The region

10

RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK i.

great-thousand system of worlds (chiliocosm), over which one Buddha exercises spiritual authority (converts and controls). In the middle of the great chiliocosm, illuminated by one sun and moon, are the four continents, 20 in which all the Buddhas, lords of the world, 21 appear by apparitional birth, 22 and here also die, for the purpose of guiding holy men and worldly men. The mountain called Sumeru stands up in the midst of the great sea firmly fixed on a circle of gold, around which mountain the sun and moon revolve; this mountain is perfected by (composed of) four precious substances, and is the abode of the Devas. 23 Around this are seven moun- tain-ranges and seven seas ; between each range a flowing sea of the eight peculiar qualities. 24 Outside the seven

(t'u) over which Buddha reigns is called Soh-ho-shi-kiai ; the old Sd- tras change it into Sha-po, i.e., sarva. It is called in the Sdtras ' the patient land ; ' it is surrounded by an iron wall, within which are a thousand myriad worlds (four empires)." It seems from this that (in later times at kast) the Soh-ho world is the same as the " great chiliocosm of worlds." The subject of the expansion of the Buddhist universe from one world (four empires) to an infinite number of worlds is fully treated by Jin- eh'au in the work above named and in the first part of my Catena of JluddJtist Scriptures. There is an expression, "tolerant like the earth," in theDhammapada, vii. 95 ; from this idea of " patience " attributed to the earth was probably first derived the idea of the "patient people or be- ings " inhabiting the earth ; and hence the lord of the world is called Suhampati, referred first to Maha- brahma, afterwards to Buddha. Childers says (Pdli Diet, sub voc.) : " I have never met with Sahaloka or Sahalokadhatu in Pali." Dr. Eitel in his Handbook translates a passage rited as if the Saha world were capital of the great chiliocosm (sub voc. Saha). I should take the passage to mean that the Saha world

is the collection of all the worlds of the great chiliocosm. w The four continents or empires are the four divisions or quarters of the world- Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, p. 35. 51 Lords of the world, or honour- able of the age, a title correspond- ing to Ukandtha, or (in Pali) I6ka- ndtho, "protector or saviour of the world." Childers, sub voc. - I cannot think Julien is right in translating this passage by "y repandentrinfluencedeleursvertus." The expression "fa-in-sang " must refer to the apparitional mode of birth known as anupapddaka ; and the body assumed by the Buddhas when thus born is called Ninndna-

33 The abode of the Devas, or rather, "where the Devas wander to and fro and live." The idea of Sumeru corresponds with Olympus. On the top of each is placed the "abodes of the gods." In the case of Sumeru, there are thirty-three gods or palaces. Buddhist books frequently explain this number thirty-three as referring to the year, the four seasons or quarters, and the twenty-eight days of the month. 24 For the ciyht distinctive quali- ties, see Catena, p. 379.

BOOK I.] JXTRODUCTIOX BY CHANG YUEH. ir golden mountain-ranges is the salt sea. There are four lands (countries or islands, dvipas) in the salt sea, which are inhabited. On the east, (Purva)videha ; on the south, Jambudvipa; on the west, Godhanya; on the north, Kurudvipa. A golden-wheel monarch rules righteously the four; a silver- wheel monarch rules the three (excepting Kuru) ; a copper-wheel monarch rules over two (excepting Kuru and Godhanya) ; and an iron-wheel monarch rules over Jambudvipa only. When first a wheel-king 25 is established in power a great wheel-gem appears floating in space, and coming towards him ; its character whether gold, silver, cop- per, or iron determines the king's destiny 26 and his name. 27 In the middle of Jambudvipa there is a lake called An a vat apt a, 28 to the south of the Fragrant Mountains and to the north of the great Snowy Mountains ; it is 800 li and more in circuit; its sides are composed of gold, silver, lapis-lazuli, and crystal ; golden sands lie at the bottom, and its waters are clear as a mirror. The great earth Bodhisattva, 29 by the power of his vow, transforms himself into a Naga-raja and dwells therein ; from his dwelling the cool waters proceed forth and enrich Jambudvipa (Shen-pu-chau). 80 From the eastern side of the lake, through the mouth of a silver ox, flows the Ganges (King-kia) 31 river; en- circling the lake once, it enters the south-eastern sea. 25 A iched-kiny in a king who holds because there is such a Bodhisattva, the wheel or discus of authority or viz., Kshitigarbha, who was invoked jx>wer Chair urn rttl lid^a. by Buddha at the time of his temji- * That is, as the text say s, whether tation by Mara ; and because I do he is to rule over four, three, two, or not think that tai ti can be rendered the. divisions of the earth. nninryi: The reference appear* to be - name (I'.r., \ iiavatajita N&ga- ! kin^.&c. jisdrrivedfrom raja. i-L'ii <.r miraculous . 30 In the Chinese Jambudvipa is * Defined in a note as "withoi:- :,!(! l.y three symbols, >'///- the an: ,-h<ui .- thr lost symbol means an an + avatapta. An. AVx., vol. vi. p. 4-V- . in ,l tlp-ivfoiv the * I have tranlat <! t-ii ti j>'n >-/ eompoun.! i-, ( -<juiv:ileiit to .lamhu. it "the rivt-r l^dbisattva if the gnat universe, was ancient Ifnnj Ay or

12

RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [DOCK i.

From the south of the lake, through a golden elephant's mouth, proceeds the Sindhu (Sin-to) 32 river; encircling the lake once, it flows into the south-western sea. From the western side of the lake, from the mouth of a horse of lapis-lazuli, proceeds the river Vakshu (Po-tsu), 33 and encircling the lake once, it falls into the north-western sea. From the north side of the lake, through the mouth of a crystal lion, proceeds the river Sit a" (Si-to), 34 and encircling the lake once, it falls into the north-eastern sea.

River Hang. It was also written llang-kia (Ch. Ed.) 33 Sin-to, the Sindhu or Indus ; formerly written Sin-t'au (Ch. I'M.) 33 The Vakshu (Po-tsu, formerly written Poh-ch'a) is the Oxus or Amu-Daria (Idrisi calls it the Wakhsh-ab), which flows from the S:irik-kul lake in the Pamir plateau, lat. 37 27' N., long. 73 40' E., at an elevation of about 13,950 feet. It is supplied by the melting snows of the mountains, which rise some 3500 feet higher along its southern shores. It is well called, therefore, " the cool lake " (Anavatapta). The Oxus issues from the western end of the lake, and after " a course of upwards of a thousand miles, in a direction generally north-west, it falls into the southern end of the lake Aral" (Wood). This lake Lieut. Wood intended to call Lake Victoria. Its name, Sarik-kul, "the yellow valley" is not recog- nised by later travellers, some of whom call it Kul-i-Pamir-kulftn, "the lake of the Great Pamir." Wood's Oxus, pp. 232, 233, note I ; Jour. R. Geoff. Soc., vol. xL (1870), pp. 122, 123, 449, 450, vol. xlii. p. 507, vol. xlvi. pp. 39off., vol. xlvii. p. 34, vol. xlviii. p. 221 ; Bretsch- neider, Med. Geog., pp. 166 n, 167. 34 The Sita (Si-to, formerly written Si-t'o) is probably the Yarkand river (the Zarafshan). This river rises (according to Prejevalsky) in the Karakorum mountains, at an eleva- tion of 18,850 feet (lat. 35*30' N. long. 7745' E.) It takes a north and then

a westerly course, and passing to the eastward of Lake Sarik-kul, bends to the north and finally to the east. It unite* with the Kashgar and Khotan rivers, and they conjointly form the Turim, which flows on to Lake Lob, and is there lost. The Sitft is some- times referred to the Jaxartes or the Sarik-kul river (Jmir. Jtoy. As. Soc., X.S., vol. vi. p. 120). In this case it is identified with the Silis of the ancients (Ukert, Geographic der Gritchen und Romer, vol. iii. 2, p. 238). It is probably the Side named by Ktesias, "stagnum in Indis in quo nihil innatet, omnia mergan- tur" (Pliny, //. N., lib. xxxi. 2, 18). This agrees with the Chinese ac- count that the Yellow River flows from the "weak water" (Joshwai), which is a river " fabled to issue from the foot of the Kwen-lun mountain." "It owes its name to the peculiar nature of the water, which is incapable of supporting even the weight of a feather " (Mayers, sub roc.) This last remark agrees curiously with the comment on Jdtaka xxi., referred to by Min- ayef in his Pali Grammar (p. ix. Guyard's translation), which derives the name of Std& from sad + ara, adding that " the water is so subtle that the feather of a peacock cannot be supported by it, but is swallowed up " (Pali, siditi, from root sad, " to sink ") A river Sila is mentioned in the Mahdbhdrata (vi. 6, si. 219), north of Meru. Megasthenes men- tions both a fountain and river Silas which had the same peculiarity.

BOOK i.] INTRODUCTION BY CHANG YUEH. 13 They also say that the streams of this river Sita, entering the earth, flow out beneath the Tsih 35 rock mountain, and give rise to the river of the middle country (China). 36 At the time when there is no paramount wheel-monarch, then the land of Jambudvipa has four rulers. 37 On the south " the lord of elephants ; " ** the land here is warm and humid, suitable for elephants. On the west " the lord of treasures ; " ^ the land borders on the sea, and abounds in gems. On the north "the lord of horses;" 40 the country is cold and hard, suitable for horses. On the east " the lord of men ; " 41 the climate is soft and

Conf. Schwanbeck, Mrgaithcne*, pp. 37, J>8, 109; Ind. Ant., vol. vi. pp. 121, 130, vol. v. pp.88, 334, vol. x.pp. 3 l 3i 3*9 ? Diodorus, lib. ii. 37 ; Arrian, Indika, c. vi., 2 ; Strabo. lib. xv. c. i. 38 ; Boissonade, Anecd. Grac. , vol. i. p. 419 ; Antigonus, Mirab., c. 161 ; Isidorus Hisp., Origg., xiiL 13 ; Lassen, Zcitschriftf. Kunde da Mor- H'-nl., vol. ii. p. 63, and Ind. AltertL ( 2d edits vol. i. p. 1017, vol. ii. p. 657; A fiat. Re*., vol. viii. pp. 313, 322, 327 ; Humboldt, Asie Cent., torn. ii. pp. 404-412 ; Jour. R.Geog.Soc., vol. xxxviiL p. 435, vol. xlii. pp. 490, 53n- 15 The Tsih rock, or the mountain of "piled up stones" (inh-thih-shan). This mountain is placed in my na- tive map close to the " blue sea," in .ue sea" district (the region ,xO-nor). It may probably mi with the Khadatu-bulak (rock fountain) or the Tsaghan Ashi- tnista map. J'.Mth of these are spurs of moun- tain*. Hays that "the. <Mtern nutflux of the An:. lake . . . lose* itself in the earth, but reappears again mountain*, as the souro . I assume, the. n.-jipond *ith the 7i7t-/<i7ff/i<in of the text

36 The "River of China" is the Yellow River. Concerning its source consult Baron Richthofen's remarks on Prejevalsky's Lob Nor (p. 137, seq.) The old Chinese opinion was that the source of the river was from the Milky Way Tin-ho) Mayers, p. 311). It was found afterwards that the source was in the Sing-suh-hai, i.e., the "starry sea," which is marked on the Chinese map, and is probably the same as the Oring-nor. 37 This clause might .also be ren- dered " when there is no wheel-king allotted to rule over Jambudvipa, then the earth (i* dicidid / four lords." 38 Gajapati, a name given to kings ; also the name of an old kin^ of the south of Jambudvipa (Monier Williams, Santk. Diet, sub voc, ) Abu Zaid al Hassan says this was the title given by the Chinese to the "king of the Indies" (Renaudot, Mo- /tamm. Trar. (Kn^. i-dit., 1733), p. 53. 89 Chattrapati orChattrapa, "lord of the umbrella." a title of an an- cient kin;: in .lamluulvipa . ,hili< n, p. Ixxv. n.; MnniiT Williai 40 Asvupati (.lul.'i I have trans- lated kimj by "hard." Julien has omitte.1 it. 41 Narapati, one of th- .-il kings of Jambudvt] Williams, tub toe.) It was a

H RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK r. agreeable (exhilarating), and therefore 42 there are many men. In the country of "the lord of elephants" the people are quick and enthusiastic, and entirely given to learning. They cultivate especially magical arts. They wear a robe 43 thrown across them, with their right shoulder bare ; their hair is done up in a ball on the top, and left undressed on the four sides. Their various tribes occupy different towns ; their houses are built stage over stage. In the country of " the lord of treasures " the people have no politeness or justice. They accumulate wealth. Their dress is short, with a left skirt. 44 They cut their hair and cultivate their moustache. They dwell in walled towns and are eager in profiting by trade. The people of the country of " the lord of horses " are naturally (t'icn tsz) wild anl fierce. They are cruel in disposition; they slaughter (animals)* 5 and live under large felt tents ; they divide like birds (going here and there) attending their flocks/ The land of " the lord of men " is distinguished for the wisdom and virtue and justice of the people. They wear a head -covering and a girdle; the end of their dress

the dynasty rulingatVijayanagara by ** So I take it. The expression in the fifteenth and sixteenth centu- sha luk means "to slaughter." I do ries. The Arab travellers of the not understand Julien's "et tuent ninth century say the Chinese gave leure semblables." There is a pas- this title to the emperor of China, sage, however, quoted by Dr. Bret- and also to " the king of Greece " Schneider (Notices of the Mediceval (Renaudot, it. s., p. 53). Compare Geography, <L-c., of Western Asia, p. the Homeric epithet, 'Ava ct>$pwi>. 1 14), from Rubruquis, which alludes 42 I have taken the "therefore" to a custom among the Tibetans to be part of this sentence, not of the corresponding to that in Julien's next. translation "post hos sunt Tebet, 43 This seems to me to be the homines solentes comedere parentes meaning "they wear a cross-scarf." suos defunctus." But, which is Julien translates, they wear a bon- not the case in the text, the bar- net, "posd en travers." barians are made to slay their kin 44 This passage seems to mean that in order to eat them. Conf. Rei- their clothes, which are cut short, naud, Relat., torn. i. p. 52 ; Renau- overlap to the left literally, "short, dot, Moham. Trav. (Eng. ed., 1733), fashion, left, overlapping" (/in, the pp. 33, 46, and Remarks, p. 53 ; place where garments overlap. Rennie, Peking, vol. ii. p. 244 ; Yule's Medhurst, Cli. Diet., sub voc.) Marco Polo, voL i. pp. 292, 302.

BOOK i.] INTRODUCTION BY CHANG YUEH. 15 (girdle) hangs to the right. They have carriages and robes according to rank ; ** they cling to the soil and hardly ever change their abode ; they are very earnest in work, and divided into classes. With respect to the people belonging to these three rulers, the eastern region is considered the best ; the doors of their dwellings open towards the east, and when the sun rises in the morning they turn towards it and salute it. In this country the south side is considered- the most honourable. Such are the leading characteristics in re- spect of manners and customs relating to these regions. But with regard to the rules of politeness observed between the prince and his subjects, between superiors and inferiors, and with respect to laws and literature, the land of "the lord of men" is greatly in advance. The country of " the lord of elephants " is distinguished for rules which relate to purifying the heart and release from the ties of life and death ; this is its leading excellency. With these things the sacred books and the royal decrees are occupied. Hearing the reports of the native races and diligently searching out things old and new, and exa- mining those things which came before his eyes and ears, it is thus he (i.e., Hiuen Tsiang) obtained information. Now Buddha having been born in the western region and his religion having spread eastwards, the sounds of the words translated have been often mistaken, the phrases of the different regions have been misunderstood on account of the wrong sounds, and thus the sense has been lost. The words being wrong, the idea has been perverted. Therefore, as it is said, "it is indispensable to have the right mimes, in order that there be no mistakes." Now, men differ according to the firmness or wt>; ; ; of their nature, and so the words and the sounds (of their languages) are unlike. This may be the result either of 44 Literally, carriageg and robes pomes*) carriages and robes, and have or.1- r <>r runk. It ini^ht also, nchool." ut violence, be tranalat

16 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I. climate or usage. The produce of the soil differs in the same way, according to the mountains and valleys. With respect to the difference in manners and customs, and also as to the character of the people in the country of "the lord of men," the annals sufficiently explain this. In the country of " the lord of horses " and of " the lord of treasures" the (local) records and the proclamations explain the customs faithfully, so that a brief account can be given of them. In the country of " the lord of elephants " the previous history of the people is little known. The country is said to be in general wet and warm, and it is also said that the people are virtuous and benevolent. With respect to the history of the country, so far as it has been preserved, we cannot cite it in detail ; whether it be that the roads are difficult of access, or on account of the revolutions which have occurred, such is the case. In this way we see at least that the people only await instruction to be brought to submission, and when they haVe received benefit they will enjoy the blessing of civilization (pay homage). How difficult to recount the list of those who, coming from far, after encountering the greatest perils (difficulties), knock at the gem-gate 47 with the choice tribute of their country and pay their reverence to the emperor Wherefore, after he (Hiucn Tsiang) had travelled afar in search of the law, in his moments of leisure he has preserved these records of the character of the lands (visited). After leaving the black ridge, the manners of the people are savage (barbarous). Although the barbarous tribes are intermixed one with the other, yet the different races are distinguishable, and their territories have well-defined boundaries. Generally speaking, as the land suits, 48 they build walled towns and devote themselves to agriculture and raising cattle. They

47 The gem-gate, I should think, is ^ Julicn translates this "gene- the Yuh-mun, the western frontier rally speaking they are seden- of the empire, not the gate of the tary." emperor's palace.

BOOKL] >0-KI.NIAKNL 17 naturally hoard wealth and hold virtue and justice IP light esteem. They have no marriage decorum, and no distinction of high or low. The women say, " I consent to use you as a husband and live in submission, (and that is all)!' 49 When dead, they burn the body, and there is no determined period for mourning. They scar their faces and cut their ears. They crop their hair and tear their clothes. 50 They slay their herds and offer them in sacrifice to the manes of the dead. When rejoicing, they wear white garments; when in mourning, they clothe them- selves in black. Tims we have described briefly points of agreement in the manners and customs of these people. The differences of administration depend on the different countries. With respect to the customs of India, they are contained in the following records. Leaving the old country of Kau-chang, 61 from this neigh- bourhood there begins what 43 called the '0-ki-ni country. '0-KI-XI. (Anciently called Wu-bif The kingdom of '0-ki-ni (Akni or Agni) is about 500 li from east to west, and about 400 li from north to south. 48 This sentence appears to allude Turks. The route of Hinon Tsi:xn L <, to the custom of polyandry, or rather up to this point is detailed in his t> the custom of tin- 1'i-ovincv of life. Leaving Liang -chaxi (a pre- Kamul (Yule's Maw Po', bk. i. ch. fecture in Kansuh), he proceed. <1 to '.. i. pp. 212,214). It amounts Kwa-chau ; In- then rn^srd tli.- ;,t Hulu rivt-r (Bulunghir) and nil- using you as a 1 northward and \v submit,'* or "I consent to u.-- \u t . Havm- as a husband whilst dwelling un<l- i 11. HIM and I'M-l.an. 1. there*.: Tnrfan, ' "Uiitry. J 1 :,e sont places au- advances to 'O-ki ni. de*us d'ellec." w 'O-ki ni. This IP y do all tl, is when bereaved, be written TI'i/-/-/. .1 thati- s, and wlr :nliol in* ia said it. land i.f liang, ie., the lat or (I3ag:u. . 1. B

IS RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I. The chief town of the realm is in circuit 6 or 7 li. On all sides it is girt with hills. The roads are precipitous arid easy of defence. Numerous streams unite, and are led 53 in channels to irrigate the fields. The soil is suitable for red millet, winter wheat, scented dates, grapes, pears, and plums, and other fruits. The air is soft and agreeable; the manners of the people are sincere and upright. The written character is, with few differences, like that of India. The clothing (of the people) is of cotton or wool. They go with shorn locks and without head-dress. In commerce they use gold coins, silver coins, and little copper coins. The king is a native of the country ; he is brave, but little attentive to (military) plans, yet he loves to .speak of his own conquests. This country has no annals. The laws are not settled. There are some ten or more Sanghdrdmas with two thousand priests or so, belonging to the Little Vehicle, of the school of the Sarviistivadas (Shwo-yih-tsai-yu-po). The doctrine of the SAtras and the requirements of the Vinaya are in agreement with those of India, and the books from which they study are the same. The professors of re- ligion read their books and observe the rules and regulations with purity and strictness. They only eat the three pure ali- ments, and observe the method known as the "gradual "one. 5 * Going south-west from this country 200 li or so, sur- mounting a small mountain range and crossing two large rivers, passing westwards through a level valley some 700 li or so, we come to the country of K'iu-chi 55 [anciently written Kuei-tzii]. 53 Taiyin, to carry off or lead here appear to bifurcate before reaching and there. The text means they lead Karashahr), crossing a spur of the the water in channels from reservoirs. Kurugh-tagh range, and then keep- 54 The transition doctrine between ing westward for about 150 inik-.s the Little and Great Vehicle. across a level valley-plain to Ku- 55 The route here described to chiU See Bretschneider, Not. Ml. Kucho would agree tolerably well Gcog.,p. 149. I may observe that the with that laid clown on Prejevnl.sky'.s pronunciation of k'iu in ICiu-chi is map, viz., 200 li south-west to Korla, determined in a note, as equal to ji.-issingtwo rivers (for the Balgaktai- l\u) and (w)uh, that is kuh. 'pi and the Kaidu-gol, after uniting,

BOOK I.] K-IU-CHI KUCHA. 19

KINGDOM OF K'IU-CHI (Kucti). The country of K'iu-chi is from east to west some thousand li or so ; from north to south about 600 li. The capital of the realm is from 17 to 18 li in circuit. The soil is suitable for rice and corn, also (a kind of rice called) kcng-t'ao; it produces grapes, 57 pomegranates, and nu- merous species of plums, pears, peaches, and almonds, also grow here. The ground is rich in minerals gold, copper, iron, and lead, and tin. 58 The air is soft, and the manners of the people honest The style of writing (literature) is Indian, with some differences. They excel other countries in their skill in playing on the lute and pipe. They clothe themselves with ornamental garments of silk and em- broidery. 59 They cut their hair and wear a flowing cover- ing (c heads'). In commerce they use gold, silver, and copper coins. The king is of the K'iu-chi race ; his wisdom being small, he is ruled by a powerful minister. The children born of common parents have their heads flattened by the pressure of a wooden board. 60 There are about one hundred convents (saiighdrdmas) in this country, with five thousand and more disciples. These belong to the Little Vehicle of the school of the Sarvasti- vadas (Shwo-yih-tsai-yu-po). Their doctrine (teaching of Sutras) and their rules of discipline (principles of the !/a) are like those of India, and those who read thorn ae same (originals). They especially hold to the

    • A rice which is not ghiti M pointed out by Mr. (.Tul iH'ii rice. mill. M grape in Chinese is pu- M The mi>t:ik<- in th<- trxt of winy - one of t I out by M. Julian. 1 he earth i . :l>ol/i*soim t.iin< s inc.-uis illv, and on uhirh nun "nnln. :k tl"ii-' \>v JMITIC- (allJUt :;thos<rwho turin.u' Thi.s til-- passage ir, those who at<: : ' fol. ^). The similarity \>< , of North pitta' u and '. pbrpvt baa can In.


20 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I. customs of the "gradual doctrine," and partake only of the three pure kinds of food. They live purely, and pro- voke others (by their conduct} to a religious life. To the north of a city on the eastern borders of the country, in front of a Deva temple, there is a great dragon- lake. The dragons, changing their form, couple with mares. The offspring is a wild species of horse (dragon- horsc), difficult to tame and of a fierce nature. The breed of these dragon-horses became docile. This country con- sequently became famous for its many excellent 61 horses. Former records (of this country) say : " In late times there was a king called ' Gold Flower/ who exhibited rare intelli- gence in the doctrines (of religion). He was able to yoke the dragons to his chariot. When the king wished to dis- appear, he touched the ears of the dragons with his whip, and forthwith he became invisible." From very early time till now there have been no wells in the town, so that the inhabitants have been accustomed to get water from the dragon lake. On these occasions the dragons, changing themselves into the likeness of men, had intercourse with the women. Their children, when born, were powerful and courageous, and swift of foot as the horse. Thus gradually corrupting themselves, the men all became of the dragon breed, and relying on their strength, they be- came rebellious and disobedient to the royal authority. Then the king, forming an alliance with the Tuh-kiueh (Turks), 62 massacred the men of the city; young and old, all were

81 The \vord for "excellent" in 62 The Tuh-kiueh, or Turks, are the original is shen. There is a good the same as the Hiung-nu, or Kara- deal said about these horses (called nirus, who drove the Yueh-chi or shcn) in the account of the early in- Yueh-ti (Viddhals) from the neigh- tercourse of China with Turkestan bourhood of the Chinese frontier (</?. 105 B.C.) See a paper by Mr. (J. KA. S. loc. cit. p. 77) ; they are Kingsmill in the /. R. A. &; N.8., to be distinguished from the Tokhuri, vol. xiv. p. 99 n. Compare Marco who overran the Graeco - Baktrian Polo, bk. i. cap. 2, " excellent horses kingdom and were driven thence by known as Turquans." &c. ; also the Viddhals, who had fled before Yule's note 2, and what is said about the Hiung-nu, and attacked the the white mares. Yule's Marco Polo, Tokhfiri from the west (p. 81). See vol. i. chap. 6l, pp. 45, 46, 291. note 121 infra.

BOOK i.] K'lU-CHI KUCHA. 21 destroyed, so that there was no remnant left ; the city is now a waste and uninhabited. About 40 li to the north of this desert city there are two convents close together on the slope of a mountain, but separated by a stream of water, 63 both named Chan -hu- ll, being situated east and west of one another, and ac- cordingly so called. 64 (Here there is) a statue of Buddha, 65 richly adorned and carved with skill surpassing that of men. The occupants of the convents are pure and truthful, and diligent in the discharge of their duties. In (the hall of) the eastern convent, called the Buddha pavi- lion, there is a jade stone, with a surface of about two feet i;i width, and of a yellowish white colour; in shape it is like a sea-shell; on its surface is a foot trace of Buddha, I foot 8 inches long, and eight inches or so in breadth ; a: the expiration of every fast-day it emits a bright and sparkling light. Outside the western gate of the chief city, on the right and left side of the road, there are (two) erect figures of Buddha, about 90 feet high. In the space in front of these statues there is a place erected for the quinquennial 60 assembly. Every year at the autumnal equinox, during ten several days, the priests assemble from all the country in this place. The king and all his people, from the highest to the lowest, on this occasion abstain from public business, and observe a religious fast ; they listen to the

  • So I think the pas probably means a " pair " or translated. It is not the mountain "couple;" cJmu-hu means "sup- divided by a stream, but t 1 , Off (lej)eiident on, the bri^ht- :.ts which stand on the slope ness of the sun." The title, there- of the mountain. Thr> mountain, fore, would be "bright -sin -lope to the north pair," referring, of course, to their or south, and the convents stni 'n<j the eastern and | east and west of one another, with 1 a stream bet * I do not think there are two * That is called the Eastern the text M :id the \\Yj-tern .: .pii^itely .> "Chan /- " ; Calle.l Pa,',, in ' 1 \>y translate. -JuL See note 1 76 inf.


22 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK i. sacred teachings of the law, and pass the days without weariness. In all the convents there are highly adorned images of Buddha, decorated with precious substances and covered with silken stuffs. These they carry (on stated occasions) in idol-cars, which they call the " procession of images." On these occasions the people flock by thousands to the place of assembly. On the fifteenth and last day of the month the king, of the country and his ministers always consult together respecting affairs of state, and after taking counsel of the chief priests, they publish their decrees. To the north-west of the meeting-place we cross a river and arrive at a convent called '0-she-li-ni. 67 The hall of this temple is open and spacious. The image of Buddha is beautifully carved. The disciples (religious') are grave and decorous and very diligent in their duties; rude and rough (men) 68 come here together; the aged priests are learned and of great talent, and so from distant spots the most eminent men who desire to acquire just principles - come here and fix their abode. The king and his ministers and the great men of the realm offer to these priests the four sorts of provision, and their celebrity spreads farther and farther. The old records say : " A former 69 king of this country worshipped the ' three precious ' ones. 70 Wishing to pay homage to the sacred relics of the outer world, he in- trusted the affairs of the empire to his younger brother on the mother's side. The younger brother having received such orders, mutilated himself in order to prevent any evil risings 71 (of passion). He enclosed the mutilated

67 '0-8?ic-li-ni, according to the ra I translate the symbol sienby Ch. text, means "extraordinary" or " former " or " previous ;" not by "unique;" it may possibly be in- "first "or "the first." It appears tended for Asudharana, to refer to a past king, indefinite as w So it seems to mean, fci tat to time. piny ski, " criminals and rude (men) 70 Buddha, the law, the community, cume together here. 1 ' 71 Or, " evil suspicions."

BOOK i.] K'W-CHI KUCHA. 23 parts in a golden casket, and laid it before the king. ' What is this ? ' inquired the king. In reply he said, ' On the day of your majesty's return home, I pray you open it and see.' The king gave it to the manager of his affairs, who intrusted the casket to a portion of the king's bodyguard to keep. And now, in the end, there were cer- tain mischief-making people who said, 'The king's deputy, in his absence, has been debauching himself in the inner rooms of the women.' The king hearing this, was very angry, and would have subjected his brother to cruel punishment. The brother said, 'I dare not flee from punishment, but I pray you open the golden casket.' The king accordingly opened it, and saw that it contained a mutilated member. Seeing it, he said, 'What strange thing is this, and what does it signify ? ' Replying, the brother said, 'Formerly, when the king proposed to go abroad, he ordered me to undertake the affairs of the government. Fearing the slanderous reports that might arise, I mutilated myself. You now have the proof of my foresight. Let the king look benignantly on me.' The king was filled with the deepest reverence and strangely moved with affection ; in consequence, he per- mitted him free ingress and egress throughout his palace. 72 "After this it happened that the younger brother, going abroad, met by the way a herdsman who was arranging to geld five hundred oxen. On seeing this, he gave him- self to reflection, and taking himself as an example of what they were to suffer, he was moved with increased compassion, (and said), 'Are not my present sufferings 73 the consequence of my conduct in some former condition of lift- ' II" forthwith desired with money and precious ! to redeem this herd of oxen. In consequence of .';t of love, he recovered by degrees from mutilation, and on this account he ceased to enter the apar men. The king, filled wi:h wonder, a>U-d him the \lace of the 73 mutilated form. women, " the- hai

24 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I. reason of this, and having heard the matter from be- ginning to end, looked on him as a 'prodigy' (khi-teh), and from this circumstance the convent took its name, which he built to honour the conduct of his brother and perpetuate his name." After quitting this country and going about 600 li to the west, traversing a small sandy desert, we come to the country of Poh-luh-kia. POII-LUH-KIA [BALUKA OR AKSU]. (Formerly called Che-meli or Kih-mch.)* The kingdom of Poh-luh-kia is about 600 li from east to west, and 300 li or so from north to south. The chief town is 5 or 6 li in circuit. With regard to the soil, climate, character of the people, the customs, and literature (laws of composition), these are the same ns in the country of K'iu-chi. The language (spoken language) di tiers however a little. It produces a fine sort of cotton and hair-cloth, which are highly valued by neighbouring (frontier) countries. There are some ten saiujlidrdmas here; the number of priests (priests and followers) is about one thousand. These follow the teaching of the "Little Vehicle," and belong to the school of the Sarvastivadas (Shwo-yih-tsai-yu-po). 75 74 Kih-mch doubtless represents 75 The school of the Sarvastiva- the A'yu-M'.i of Julien (see the Me- das ; one of the early schools of moire Analytique by V. St. Martin, Buddhism, belonging to the Little Mem. s.l. Contr. Occid, tom.ii. p. 265); Vehicle, i.e., the Hinayana, or the it \v;\s formerly the eastern portion imperfect mode of conveyance. This of the kingdom of Aksu. The name early form of Buddhism, according Poh-lu-kia or Baluka, is said to be to Chinese accounts, contemplated 1 from a Turkish tribe which only the deliverance of a portion of "in the fourth century of our era the world, viz., the Sangha or so- occupied the north-western parts of ciety ; the Mahayana or complete Kansu." Ibid. p. 266. The modern (great) mode of conveyance, on the town of Aksu is 56 geog. miles E. other hand, taught a universal de- from Ush-turfan, in lat. 41 12' N., liverance. The Sarvastivadas be- long. 79 30' E. Aksu is 156 Eng. lieved in "the existence of things," miles in a direct line W.S.W. from opposed to idealism. Burnouf, In- Kucha, which is in lat. 41 38' N., trod. (2d edit.), p. 397; Vassilief, long. $j25'E. on Col. Walker's map. Bouddh., pp. 57, 78, 113, 243, 245.

BOOK I.]

POH-L UH-KIA -A KS U.

Going 300 li or so to the north-west of this country, crossing a stony desert, we come to Ling-shan 76 (ice- mountain). This is, in fact, the northern plateau of the T'sung-ling range, 77 and from this point the waters mostly have an eastern flow. Both hills and valleys are filled with snowpiles, and it freezes both in spring and summer ; if it should thaw for a time, the ice soon forms again. The roads are steep and dangerous, the cold wind is extremely biting, and frequently fierce dragons impede and molest travellers with their inflictions. 78 Those who travel this road should not wear red garments nor carry loud-sound- ing 79 calabashes. The least forgetfulness of these precau- tions entails certain misfortune. A violent wind suddenly rises with storms of flying sand and gravel; those who encounter them, sinking through exhaustion, are almost sure to die. Going 400 li or so, we coine to the great Tsing lake. 80

" 6 Ling-shan, called by the M<>n- r-aola," with the same meaning. V. de St. Martin, p. 266. 77 I translate it thus, because it agrees with Hwui-lih's account in the Life of Hiuen Tsiang, although it may also be rendered "this is (or, these mountains are) to the north of the T'sung - ling. The waters of the plateau," &<x The Mountains are referred to in the Twelfth IJook ; they are called T'sung, either been; ! md pn. <!';< - :i -i. :it quantity of (t'sini'j), or b* . blue (green f) colour of the moun- ies. On the south they join the great Snowy Mountains ; on the iK.rth th-y reach to the "hot-sea," Tsing lake, of wl. hat the Icy .'them plateau of hich feed the Tarim eir rise here. . xl. p. }'* Onu, p. xl. :M or cal

alluded to are the sand and gravel storms, referred to below. 79 Or, it may be ' ought not to carry calabashes nor shout loudly." Perhaps the reason why calabashes are forbidden is that the water freezing in them might cause them to burst with a loud sound, which would cause the "snow piles" to fall. Why " red garments " should be interdicted is not so plain, un- less dragons are enraged by that colour. 80 The Tsing (limpid) lake is the same as Issyk-kul, or Temurtu. It is 5200 feet above the sea-level. It the hot sea," not becaus- :* are warm, but because when viewed from the Ice Mountain, it appears hot 1" . (,ii"t<- in th-- Life <>! Tsiang). The dir< . is about I lo to tli.; ast Con' M.-id.-r, Med. Geog., note 57, p. 37 ; J- 1'p. 318 ff., voL xl. pp. 250, 3i4, 375 j</;, 449.

26 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK i. This lake is about loooli in circuit, extended from east to west, and narrow from north to south. On all sides it is enclosed by mountains, and various streams empty them- selves into it and are lost. The colour of the water is a bluish-black, its taste is bitter and salt. The waves of this lake roll along tumultuously as they expend them- selves (on the shores). Dragons and fishes inhabit it to- gether. At certain (portentous) occasions scaly monsters rise to the surface, on Vhich travellers passing by put up their prayers for good fortune. Although the water animals are numerous, no one dares (or ventures} to catch them by fishing. Going 500 li or so to the north-west of the Tsing lake, we arrive at the town of the Su-yeh river. 81 This town is about 6 or 7 li in circuit ; here the merchants from sur- rounding countries congregate and dwell. The soil is favourable for red millet and for grapes ; the woods are not thick, the climate is windy and cold ; the people wear garments of twilled wool. Passing on from Su-yeh westward, there are a great number 82 of deserted towns ; in each there is a chieftain (or over each there is established a chief) ; these are not dependent on one another, but all are in submission to the Tuh-kiueh. From the town of the Su-yeh river as far as the Ki- shwang-na 83 country the land is called Su-li, and the people are called by the same name. The literature (written characters) and the spoken language are likewise so called. The primary characters are few ; in the begin- 61 That is, the town of Su-yeh, khitai, on the river Chu. Conf. situated on the river Chu or Chui. Bretschneider, Mcd. Geog., note 37, Hwui-lih also calls it the town of p. 36 ; Chin. Med. 2'rav., p. 50, JSu-yeh (k. ii. fol. 4 a). The same 114; Trans, Russ. Geog. Soc., 1871, symbol (yeh) is used both in the Si- vol. ii. p. 365. yu-ld, and the Life of Hiuen Tsiang. w Several tens. The site of this town is not now ^ Kasanna (Jul.) It is the mo- known (vid. V. de St. Martin, ut dern Kesh, in lat. 39 f N., long. 66 sup., p. 271). It may be the present 50' E. In Eitel's Handbook (sub Constantinovosl; or perhaps Bela- Kachania] it is said to be the region ea^un, the capital of the Kara- near Kerinina. See note 116 inj'ra.

BOOK L] SU-YEH. 27 ning they were thirty M or so in number : the words are composed by the combination of these ; these combinations have produced a large and varied vocabulary. 85 They have some literature, 86 which the common sort read together ; their mode of writing is handed down from one master to another without interruption, and is thus preserved. Their inner clothing is made of a fine hair-cloth (linen) ; their outer garments are of skin, their lower garments of linen, short and tight. 87 They adjust their hair so as to leave the top of the head exposed (tliat is, they shave the top of their heads). Sometimes they shave their hair completely. They wear a silken band round their fore- heads. They are tall of stature, but their wills are weak and pusillanimous. They are as a rule crafty and deceitful in their conduct and extremely covetous. Both parent and child plan how to get wealth ; and the more they get the more they esteem each other; but the well-to-do and the poor are not distinguished; even when immensely rich, they feed and clothe themselves meanly. The strong bodied cultivate the land ; the rest (half) engage in money-getting (business). Going west from the town Su-yeh 400 li or so, we come to the " Thousand springs." 88 This territory is about 200 li square. On the south are the Snowy Mountains, on the other sides (three boundaries) is level tableland. The soil is well watered ; the trees afford a grateful shade, and the flowers in the spring mouths are varied and like 84 So my copy has it : Julien M That is, Myn-bulak (Bingheul), translates it thirty-two. a country with innumerable lakr-; * Literally, "the flowing forth Kit. 1. " Myn-bulak lies to the these has gradually : : >rth of the road from Aulie-ata to large and varied." ii mountains to wlnVh * " Some historical records" (Shu- it clings are the Urtak-tau. " The . it may be, " they have book* Kirghizes, even now, coiiMtl. r M\n- bulak to be the best place for MMH- i* difficult passage seems to mer encampment 1>. t"...n t: mean that they use linen as an jm.l tin- S\ r-1 -aria." "ll.n : ; that tin ir UJ.JXT good pasturage, with a dense and garments (jacket* <>r jrrki; nt h n>a-f, ami tin-re are nu- of leatti* r ; th ir IT. - < -h> > are of n : t-j'iings." St'\ made short and tight. J. It. O\ .S<c., vol. >..

28 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I tapestry. There are a thousand springs of water and lakes here, and hence the name. The Khan of the Tuh- kiueh comes to this place every (year) to avoid the heat. There are a number of deer here, many of which are ornamented with bells and rings; 89 they are tame and not afraid of the people, nor do they run away. The Khan is very fond of them, and has forbidden them to be killed on pain of death without remission ; hence they are preserved and live out their days. Going from the Thousand springs westward 140 or 150 li, we come to the town ofTa-lo-sse (Taras). 90 This town is 8 or 9 li in circuit ; merchants from all parts assemble and live here with the natives (Tartars). The products and the climate are about the same as Su-yeh. Going 10 li or so to the south, there is a little de- serted town. It had once about 300 houses, occupied by people of China. Some time ago the inhabitants were violently carried off by the Tuh-kiueh, but afterwards assembling a number of their countrymen, they occu- pied this place in common. 91 Their clothes being worn out, they adopted the Turkish mode of dress, but they have preserved their own native language and customs. 89 Probably the " rings " (hwan) low, and conf. Bretschneider's vain- re fer to neck-collars. able note, Mcd. Geoy., p. 37, and 80 M. Viv. de St. Martin has Notes on Chin. Med. Trav., pp. 34, remarked, in his Mtonoire Analytique 75, 114; Klaproth, Nouv. Jour. (Jul., Mem., torn. ii. pp. 267-273), Asiat.,tom. xii. p. 283; Deguignes, that the distance from Lake Issyk- Hist, des Huns, torn. ii. p. 500, torn, kul to Taras or Tal as (which he places iii. pp. 219, 229; Yule's Cathay, p. at the town of Turkistan, by the Jax- clxv. ; Wood's Oxus, p. xlii. ; Ru- nrtes river), is too short by loooli; or, bruquis, in Rec. de Voy. et de Alton., in other words, that from Su-yeh to torn iv. pp. 279, 280. the " Thousand springs " (Bingheul 91 The little deserted town alluded or Myn-bulak), instead of 400 li, to in the text is named elsewhere should be 1400 li. The same writer (St. Martin, Memoircs sur T Anntnie, explains that in Kiepert's map of torn. ii. p. 118). We gather from Turkistfin there is a locality called Hiuen Tsiang that the inhabitants Myn-bulak in the heights above the were originally captives, carried off town of Turkistfm, about a dozen from China by the Turks, who as- Icagues east from it. This would sembled and formed a community agree with the 140 or 150 li of Hiuen in this place. Ttiiang. But see notes 93 and 95 be-

BOOK I.I

NU-CHIH-KIEN.

29

Going 200 li or so south-west from this, we come to the town called Peh-sh wui (" White Water/') 92 This town is 6 or 7 li in circuit. The products of the earth and the climate are very superior to those of Ta-lo-sse. Going 200 li or so to the south-west, we arrive at the town of Kong-yu, 93 which is about 5 or 6 li in circuit. The plain on which it stands is well watered and fertile, and the verdure of the trees grateful and pleasing. From this going south 40 or 50 li, we come to the country of Xu-chih-kien.

NU-CHIH-KIEN [XUJKEXD]. The country of Nu-chih-kien 94 is ahout 1000 li in circuit; the land is fertile, the harvests are abundant, the plants and trees are rich in vegetation, the flowers and

92 The town called "White Water" is the Isfijab of Persian writers ac- cording to V. de St. Martin, p. 274. 98 The bearing south- west in this and the preceding case from Turkistan (if, with Julieii, we identified that town with Taras) would take us over the Jaxartes and away from Tash- kand(Che-shi). In the tabular state- ment given by St. Martin (p. 274) the bearings and distances are as follows : From Ta-lo-sse to Peh- fihwui, 200 li to the south ; Peh-sh wui 200 li southerly ; Kong- yu to Nu-chih-kien, 50 li south; Nu-chih-kicn to Che-shi, 200 li ! -lit the bearing from Taras to . liite Water" (Peh-shwui- is w>uth- west, and from the " Whit*' ' to Kong-yu ia again south- v.. t. W.- have then a short dis- tance of 50 li to the south rhih-k: hich there are 200 hkand. Working back [Yishkand, which :i]>]>can to be a err according reach to about Talax, : of Turki- rt&n. Tala* no geog. miles from tl

be his Ta-lo-sse, then his route would lie across the head waters of the Karagati a feeder of the Chu, and of the Jar-su an affluent of the Talas, where we should place the Thousand Springs. But Myn-bulak is to the west of the Talas on the way to Tersa (35 miles west of Aulie- ata), which may be Ta-lo-sse. From Tersa, on a river of the same name which flows between Myn-lmhik and the Urtak-taii hills, his route must have been to the south-west, either by Chemkent to T:\shkund the same route as was afterwards fol- lowed by Chenghiz Kh;m ; or lie must have gone over the Aksai hills, on the road t> Num.umMn. into the valley of the Chatkal or Upper Chir- chik, and so south -wot :m.l th-n ^hkuiid. Mvn-lnilak, however, is north east. See S< of tin- country from Li kul to Tashkaml in Jur. p. 410. :i-yuhas not been ascertain -.!. IrfaL tin, ].. 276, xiii. p. 259. Uut the idcnti..

30 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK i. fruit plentiful and agreeable in character. This country is famous for its grapes. There are some hundred towns which are governed by their own separate rulers. They are independent in all their movements. But though they are so distinctly divided one from the other, they are all called by the general name of Nu-chih-kien. Going hence about 200 li west, we come to the country of Che-shi (stony country). CHE-SHI [CiLu]. The country of Che-shi 95 is 1000 or so li in circuit. On the west it borders on the river Yeh. 96 It is con- tracted towards the east and west, and extended towards the north and south. The products and climate are like those of Nu-chih-kien. There are some ten towns in the country, each governed by its own chief ; as there is no common sovereign over them, they are all under . the yoke of the Tuh-kiueh. From this in a south-easterly direction some 1000 li or so, there is a country called Fei-han.

FEI-HAN This kingdom is about 4000 li in circuit It is enclosed by mountains on every side. The soil is rich and fertile, of Taras in note 93 leads us to 160. It is in lat. 41 19' N., long. seek JS T u-chih-kien on the Chatkal, 69 15' E., and in H. Moll's map to the east of Tashkand. ( 1 702) is called Al-Chach, and placed 85 That is, Tashkand, which means 155 miles south-west from "Taras in Turkish the "tower" or " resi- or Dahalan." Rawlinson identifies dence of (task) stone " (V. St. Mar- Aidivos irvpyos with Tash-kurghin tin, p. 276 n.), corresponding with the and with Kie-cha of Fahien. explanation in the text. Compare Jour. R. Geog. Soc., vol. xlii. p. 503. Aitfwos irvpyos of Ptolemy, Geog., I. Yule, however, doubts this : Wood's xi. 4, 6, xii. 1,3, 9, 10; VI. xiii. 2 ; Oxus, int. pp. xxxix., xl. Ouseley, Orient. (Jcog., p. 269; Ley- w The River .Yeh, i.e., the Sihun, den and Erskine's Memoirs of Baber Syr-daria, or Jaxartes. (edit. 1826), pp. xl. 99, 102 ; De- m The distance, about 200 miles guignes, Hist. G. des Huns, torn. ii. south-east of Tashkand, takes us to p. 497, torn. v. pp. 26, 31 ; Hitter, the upper waters of the Jaxartes, the Asien, vol. v. p. 570; Klaproth, actual Khanate of Khokand. The Magaz. A fiat., torn. i. p. 31; and pilgrim did not himself go there, but Bretschncider, Mcd. Gcoy., pp. 159, writes from report.

BOOK I.]

SU-TU-LI-SSE-NA.

it produces many harvests, and abundance of flowers and fruits. It is favourable for breeding sheep and horses/ The climate is windy and cold. The character of the people is one of firmness and courage. Their language differs from that of the neighbouring countries. Their form is rather poor and mean. For ten years or so the country has had no supreme ruler. The strongest rule by. force, and are independent one of another. They divide their separate possessions according to the run of the valleys and mountain barriers. Going from this country 98 westward for 1000 li or so, we come to the kingdom of Su-tu-li-sse-na,

SU-TU-LI-SSE-XA [SUTRISIIXA]. The country of Su-tu-li-sse-na" is some 1400 or 1 500 li in circuit. On the east it borders on the Yeh river (.laxartes). This river has its source in the northern plateau of the Tsung-ling range, and flows to the north- west; sometimes it rolls its muddy waters along in quiet, at other times with turbulence. The products and cus-

98 Hiuen Tsjang did not go to Ferghfmah. The symbol u.-ed is rhi, .is will explain why the >f the Life of Hiuen ( Hwui-lih omits all mention of Ferg- hanah, and takes tin- pilirri from T.ishkand to Su-tu-li 1OOO li. So that in the text we are <>n loooli (2OOrnil--s approxi- mately) not from Khokand, but from Taahkand. It must be .- that the kingdom or <-..Miitr. tu-H-Bse-na i spoken of, n,.t 99 Sutriahna (8*1 , also hhta, ai -iina is ghanah and Samarkand."- v Martin, p. 278. It i inij on the Jaxarte* on the cant ; we may sup-

pose, therefore, that this river was its eastern boundary. It is sail I to be 1500 li in circuit ; we m UN- place the western boundary, there- fore, some 500 li to the west of Khojend. This limit would meet the requirements of the text, where the country is described as reaching 1000 li west from Tashkand. Of

south-west. Tin- town of Sutrishna i< now repre^.'iited |,y I'ra-Tape, I'ratip; ihe. which : 40 miles south we>t from Khojend and I oo miles soul 1 (from Taahkan.lC K.) Ti 1'ratiubi"-. < ' p. 261; ArianaAnt . torn. ii. p]>. 2Oj, 206; 1'. ,'ilra, pp. xli, >). '

32 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK i. toras of the people are like those of Che-shi. Since it Las had a king, it has been under the rule of the Turks. North-west 100 from this we enter on a great sandy desert, where there is neither water nor grass. The road is lost in the waste, which appears boundless, and only by looking in the direction of some great mountain, and fol- lowing the guidance of the bones which lie scattered about, can we know the way in which we ought to go.

(SAMARKAND). The country of Sii-mo-kien 101 is about 1600 or 1700 li in circuit. From east to west it is extended, from north to south it is contracted. The capital of the country is 20 li or so in circuit. It is completely enclosed by rugged land and very populous. The precious merchandise of many foreign countries is stored up here. The soil is rich and productive, and yields abundant harvests. The forest trees afford a thick vegetation, and flowers and fruits are plentiful. The Shen horses are bred here. The inhabi- tants are skilful in the arts and trades beyond those of other countries. The climate is agreeable and tempe- rate. The people are brave and energetic. This country is in the middle of the Hu people (or this is the middle 100 Here again there is no intima- der, Mcd. Gcog., pp. 27, 60, 162- tion that Hiuen Tsiang traversed 165 ; Chin. Aled. Tj-ar., pp. 23, 38, this desert. It is merely stated that 48, 76, 116 ; Palladius, Chinese Ac- there is such a desert on the north- corder, vol. vi. p. 108 ; D'Herbelot, west of the kingdom of Sutrishna. Bill. Orient., p. 738 ; Wilson's Ari- It is the desert of Kizil-kum. There ana Antiq., p. 165; Yule, Marco is no occasion, therefore, to change Polo, vol. L pp. 191 f., ii. pp. 456, the direction given in the text. (See 460; Cathay, pp. cxxx, ccxliv, and Julien's note in loco). Conf. Jour. 192 ; Jour. Hoy. As. Soc., N.S., vol. K. Geog. Soc., voL xxxviii. pp. 435, vi. p. 93 ; Jour. Asiat., ser. vi. tom. 438, 445. ix. pp. 47, 70; Deguignes, Hist, dcs 101 Called in Chinese the Kang Huns, tom. iv. p. 49; Gaubil, //. dc country, i.c., the peaceful or blessed Gentchiscan, p. 37 ; Sprenger, Post country. Samarkand (lat. 39" 49' und Rcise Routcn, p. 20 ; Baber's X., long. 67 18' E.) is probably the Mem., p. xxxvL ; Ouseley, Orient. NapaKavda of Arrian, Anab. Alex., Geog., pp. 232-238, 248-278; Jour. lib. iii. c. 30, and iv. c. 5 ; Q. Curtius, R. Gcog. Soc., vol. xl. pp. 453-462. lib. viii. c, I, 20; Ptol. Gcog. lib. Conf. the " Kang-dez " of the \\ndi- vi. c. IF, 9; viii. 23, 10 ; Strabo, dad and Bundahii. lib. xi. c. 11,4; couf. Bretschnei-

BOOK L] KIE-PO-TA-NA. 33 of the Hu). 102 They are copied by all surrounding people in point of politeness and propriety. The king is full of courage. and the neighbouring countries obey his commands. The soldiers and the horses (cavalry) are strong and nume- rous, and principally men of Chih-kia. 103 These men of Chih-kia are naturally brave and fierce, and meet death as a refuge (escape or salvation). When they attack, no enemy can stand before them. From this going south-east, there is a country called Mi-mo-ho. 104

MI-MO-HO [MAGIIIAN]. The country' Mi-mo-ho 105 is about 400 or 500 li in cir- cuit. It lies in the midst of a valley. From east to west it is narrow, and broad from north to south. It is like Sa-mo-kien in point of the customs of the people and pro- ducts. From this going north, we arrive at the country K'ie-po-ta-na. 106 K IE-PO-TA-XA [KEBD]. The country of K'ie-po-ta-na 107 is about 1400 or 1500 li in circuit. It is broad from east to west, and narrow 101 A term applied to the foreign- 106 The country of people in num- gpeaking (Tartar) people by some bers. Ch. Ed. e authors. lt)7 This district of Kobud 103 These Chakas would seem to be k"-t, Kebud, or Krshbud, is nan;, d the people of Chaghanian, who were by the Arabian geographers (rid. -.ice people. Jour. V. de St. Martin. .lm///- ! .". Soc., N.S., vol. vL p. 102.' ti'/uc, p. 2Si , but its wtujition is n',.t ["be rice country. Ch. I M. V. dfl St. Martin i 106 Here we observe a-am that it in a n-.rth-\v. strrly direction from Ig did not simply gives a report of it. but his calculation is fouudrd on a ace probably corresponds with : :i. Hitun 1 i (lat. 39 lit' Jit r<-c-k.'ii from this jilact- to K'iuh- l i- shwang-ni kia, but from [ cast of Samarkand. AL;y tI ' ( l ( r f. ^ is plain from t ]:). l6l, 493 ; 'f the wonl hin<j t and also from *-., vol. \1. j>|). llwui-lih (p. 60). Ou- 449-451, 460, 461; and vol. xliii. '/,.>/., p. 2^} ; liaber's M . with Fcdclicnko's map p of th district :.. I. C

34 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I. from north to south. It is like Sa-mo-kien in point of customs and products. Going about 300 li to the west (of Samarkand), we arrive at K'iuh-shwang-ni-kia. K'lUII-SHWANG-NI-KIA [KASHANIA]. The kingdom of K'iuh-shwang-ni-kia 108 is 140x5 or 1500 li in circuit; narrow from east to west, broad from north to south. It resembles Sa-mo-kien in point of cus- toms and products. Going 200 li or so west from this country, we arrive at the llo-han country. 109 HO-HAN [KUAN]. 110 This country is about 1000 li in circuit ; in point of customs and products it resembles Sa-mo-kien. Going west from here, we come, after 400 li or so, to the country of Pu-ho. 111 PU-HO [BOKHARA]. The Pu-ho 112 country is 1600 or i/ooli in circuit; it is broad from east to west, and narrow from north to south. In point of climate and products it is like Sa-mo-kien, Going west from this 400 li or so, we come to the country Fa-ti. 113 108 In Chinese " What country ?" say. Reinaud's Abitlfeda, int. pp. Kashania, described as a beautiful ccxx-ccxxiv. ; Jaur. R. Gco<j. >'., and important town of Sogdh, half vol. xlii. p. 502 n. ; Dannesteter's way between Samarkand and Bok- Zend-Arcxttt, vol. ii. p. 67 n. hura. This exactly suits the text, m Middle repose country. Ch. which places it 300 li (60 miles) west Ed. of Samarkand. Istakhri, Mordt- J12 Pu-ho is probably Bokhara; mann's Transl., p. 131 ; Kdrisi, torn, the distance of course is too great, ii. pp. 199, 20 1 ; Ouseley, Orient, unless we consider the reference to Gcog ., p. 258 ; Abu'lfeda, Chora*, ct be to the limits of the country. The Mavar. Dcsc., p. 48. symbols used by Hwui-lih are the lw Eastern repose. Ch. Ed. same as in the &i-yu-ki ; Julien has 110 The part of the river of Sogdh misled V. St. Martin by writing (Zanxfshfm) which waters the terri- "Pou-kho." Conf. Jour.R. Geog. Soc., tory round Bokhara is called Kuan vol. xxxviii. p. 432 ; Baber's Mem., (V. de St. Martin, p. 282. We ob- p. 38 ; Moorcroft and Trebeck's serve that Ifiuen Tsiang went to Travels; Wolff's Mission; &c. Kashania, and there we leave him ; 113 Western repose country. Ch. the accounts now given are hear- Ed.

BOOK i.] HO-LI-SIH-MI-KIAKHWARAZM*

35

FA-TI [BETiK]. 114 This country is 400 li or so in circuit. In point of customs and produce it resembles Sa-mo-kien. From this going south-west 500 li or so, we come to the country Ho- li-sih-mi-kia.

HO-LI-SIII-MI-KIA [KllWARAZMJ. This country lies parallel with 115 the banks of the river Po-tsu (Oxus). From east to west it is 20 or 30 li, from north to south 500 li or so. In point of customs and produce it resembles the country of Fa-ti; the lan- guage, however, is a little different. From the country of Sa-mo-kien 110 going south-west 300 li or so, we come to Ki-shwang-na. 117

114 Fa-ti is no doubt Ik'tik. The distance from 1 'u - h< > in the textdiffers from that giv.n l>y Hwui-lih ; the latter gives looli, which is doubtless correct. The whole distance from Samarkand west to the Oxus would thus be 1000 li, which corresponds to 200 miles, the actual measure- The importance of Betik is 1 from its being the most u>ual place of passage over the river t'V those going from Bukhara to 115 Ho-li-sih-rm-ka corresponds with Khwarazm. It is the Kh..r- .!.<., lib. .\i. c. 8 (p. 513), 1'liny, vi. ID. I'harasmanes, king ;i, came t<> .\ith 1500 horsemen and said il kingdom \\as " u--\t t> til-- Jii and the Ama- zon women." Arrian. A n<it>., lib. iv. 15; &'. , lih. iii. 03, 117 ; Ptolenr (. 12, 4; Q. sub roc.; Baber, [ngMd&-iMri xti towrtin Hwui lih. Tin- ch'ntance 500 li is the same i; ugRests north -wtrt M the bearing, and add*

that Hwui-lih makes the distance 100 li (Memoire, p. 283, n. i). This is a mistake. For notices respect- ing the power of the Khwarizmian empire and the proceedings of Chen- L r hi/. Khan in destroying it; vid. R. X. Douglas, LifeofJenyhi^ K/ntn, pp. xv. seq. It is true that Hiuen Tsiang says that Khwarazm runs parallel to both banks of the Oxus. But as Hwui-lih says it is boundi-d on the a-t by the Oxus, I think the sym- 1>1 liitny (two) is a mistake for si (west), in which case th<- text would make the country paralk-1 to the uk if thf ( 'xus. 116 Th- pilgrim now takes us back to thf i-oiiiilrij uf Samarkand ; In- tfl 300 li in a south-west di- niiiLT, I think, is from Kasluuiia, where we :n : this \vas ] .1 . .1 .alily til-' :i limit of thf kingdom of Samail.i:.'!. l\' h ! Shahr-sabz (39 2' N., 66 53' K.) li mil< s. Baber's Memoirs, pp. 36 nf p. 460 ; i^toriant. t'A. L'd.

36 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK L Kl-SHWAXG-NA [KESIl]. 118 This kingdom is about 1400 or 1500 li in circuit; in customs and produce it resembles the kingdom of Sa- mo-kien. From this place going south-west 200 li or so, we enter the mountains ; the mountain road is steep and precipitous, and the passage along the defiles dangerous and difficult. There are no people or villages, and little water or vegeta- tion. Going along the mountains 300 li or so south-east, we enter the Iron Gates. 119 The pass so called is bordered on the right and left by mountains. These mountains are of prodigious height. The road is narrow, which adds to the difficulty and danger. On both sides there is a rocky wall of an iron colour. Here there are set up double wooden doors, strengthened with iron and furnished with many bells hung up. Because of the protection afforded to the pass by these doors, when closed, the name of iron is given. Passing through the Iron Gates we arrive at the country 118 Hwui-lihalsogivesKi-shwang- Yule's Marco Polo (book i. cap. iv.), na as the name of this country (conf. vol. i. pp. 52 and notes, pp. 55-58 ; V. St. Martin, Memoire, p. 283, n. and vol. ii. pp. 494, 495, 537. M. 3. V. de St. Martin (Memoire, p. 284) 119 The iron gates, Kohlugha or says that the pilgrim " indicates the Kalu^ah (Mong. "a barrier"), a beginning of the mountains at 2OO mountain pass about 90 miles south- li to the south-east of Ki-shwang-na, south -east from Samarkand, 50 miles and the defile properly so called at south - south-east from Kesh, and 8 300 li farther on, in the same di- miles west of Derbent, in lat. 38 II 7 rection." But this is not so; the N., long. 66 54' E. first bearing is south-west, then The distance and bearing from Kesh through the mountains in a south- given in the text is south-west 200 east direction. For a notice of the li + south-east 300 li, which would Irongate pass, in connection with give about the right distance in a Chenghiz Khan, see Douglas, u. s., p. straight line. These Iron Gates 66. Conf. Baber's Mem., pp. xxxvi. are marked on the Chinese maps; 132; Gaubil, Hist, de (Jcntchiscan, they are called tich men to, i.e., the p. 257 ; P. de la Croix, Hist, de Ti- iron-gate-island (or eminence) from murbec, torn. i. pp. 33, 62, &c. ; d- which the Muh-ho (Amu) flows, risi, torn. i. p. 484 ; Wood's Oxus, There has been some confusion be- Yule's int., p. Ixi. ; Markham's Cla. tween this place and the iron gates vijo, p. 122; Bretschneider, Chin- at Derbend on the Caspian, called Med. Trav.,p. 41 and n. ; Alcd. Gcog. t by the Turks Demir Kapi ; compare p. 61.

BOOK I.]

TU-HO-LOTUKHARA.

37

of the Tu-ho-lo. 120 This country, from north to south, is about 1000 li or so in extent, from east to west 3000 li or so. On the east it is bounded by the T'sung-ling mountains, on the west it touches on Po-li-sse (Persia), on the south are the great Snowy Mountains, on the north the Iron Gates. 121 The great river Oxus flows through the midst of this country in a westerly direction. For many centuries past the royal race has been extinct. The several chieftains have by force contended for their possessions, and each held their own independently, only relying upon the natural divisions of the country. Thus they have constituted twenty-seven states, 122 divided by natural boundaries, yet as a whole dependent on the Tuh-

130 Formerly written by mistake To-fo-lo. he country here described as Tu-ho-lo is the Tukhara of Sanskrit, and the T<>kh;irist;m of the Arabian geographers. It corresponds with the Ta-hia of Sze-ma-t'sien. Ta-hia is generally identified with Baktria, but the limits of Baktria are not de- fined, except that it is separated from Sogdhiana by the Oxus. X<> d<ml>t this land of Tukhfira was that in- habited by the Tokhari, who were iurs to the Dahae, both of them mountain tribes (see th tion discussed Jour. R. As. Soc., N.S., vol. vi. pp. 95, 96). Mr. mill has given the substance of Sze- n's account of Ta-hia and the surrounding tribes (Jour. /.'. .!>. .1. xiv. pp. 77 ff. to be observed, howt-vi-r. th.-t* :i Hpeaking of the Turku, h-chi anil \ had overrun this part of Central Asia, uses different syml* ' In the first caae the p- '-ruled Tuh called '. The land of "tin- not IK; '(I with the people Tuh-kiiu-h nu or Kara- nirus although it was aft* overrun by them. See n. 62 supra.

For notices of the Tokhari (v.I. Takhari) consult Strabo, Gcoy., lib. xi. cap. 8. 2 (p. 51 1) ; Pliny, lib. vi. c. 17, 20; Amm. Marcell., xxiii. 6, 57; Ptol., Geoff., lib. vi. c. n, 6; Justin, xlii. 2 ; Lassen, Ind. Alt. (2d ed.), vol. i. pp. 1019, 1023; Ritter, Asicn, vol. v. p. 701, vii. p. 697 ; Jour. Jt. As. uc., vol. xix. p. 151 ; Rawlinson's Herodotus, vol. iv. pp. 45, 46; Bretschneider, Mcd. (>,/., p. 170. Tushara (snowy, frigid) and Tushkiira are used as equivalents of Tukhiira ; Wilson, VifJtnu Pur. (Hall), vol. ii. p. iS6, vol. iv. p. 203 ; Mu/ia/Jiurtitd, ii. 1850, iii. 1991, 12,350, vi. 3652 ; Jlnrirtnhya, v. 311, xiv. 784, ex iii. 6441 ; 2>rif-- Iv. 22, xvi. 6 ; Jour. L. Soc., voL xlii. p. 498. Tu-ho-lo mi^ht phonetically represent Tur, and so indicate tlie oriLrin of Tnnin, the to \vhieh \\'iiford assigned I ukhfiras. m So also the Cn-cks wln-n they took posses-sion of I'.aktri.-v <li\ i.lcd it into snt : of \\hicli. :.-! Ti:ri\:i, tli-- P;irthi:\ns : from l-'ukratiilrs. Str.-itio, niini'- roua c- period in I'.aktria prolalily an nn- di\iil.l l'-:iktri:in kin-'lou.. . 160.

38 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK r. kiueh tribes (Turks). The climate of this country is warm and damp, and consequently epidemics prevail. At the end of winter and the beginning of spring rain falls without intermission; therefore from the south of this country, and to the north of Lamghan (Lan-po), dis- eases from moisture (moist-heat) are common. Hence the priests retire to their rest (rain-rest) on the sixteenth day of the twelfth month, and give up their retirement on the fifteenth day of the third month. This is in con- sequence of the quantity of rain, and they arrange their instructions accordingly. With regard to the character of the people, it is mean and cowardly ; 123 their appear- ance is low and rustic. Their knowledge of good faith and rectitude extends so far as relates to their dealings one witli another. Their language differs somewhat from that of other countries. The number of radical letters in their language is twenty-five ; by combining these they express all objects (thincjs) around them. Their writing is across the page, and they read from left to right. Their literary records have increased gradually, and exceed those of the people of Su-li. Most of the people use fine cotton for their dress ; some use wool. In commercial transactions they use gold and silver alike. The coins are different in pattern from those of other countries. Following the course of the Oxus as it flows down from the north, there is the country of Ta-mi. TA-MI [TERMED]. This country 124 is 600 li or so from east to west, and 400 li or so from north to south. The capital of the country

13 So Sze-ma-t'sien describes the ber's Memoirs, int., p. xxxv. ; Bret iople of Ta-hia : " There was no Schneider, Mcd. Gcoy., pp. 57, 167 supreme ruler ; eaoh city and town Deguignes, Ifistoire dcs Huns, torn

people of Ta-hia : " There was no Schneider, Mcd. Gcoy., pp. 57, 167 supreme ruler ; eaoh city and town Deguignes, Ifistoire dcs Huns, tore elected its own chief. Its soldiers ii. p. 328 ; Yule, Cathay, p. ccxxxv were weak and cowards in battle, fit Edrisi, tome i. p. 273 ; Jour. Asiat. only for traders." (Kingsmill,foc.cit.) ser. vi. tome v. p. 270; Jour. R. 1 - 4 Termed or Termiz, on the north Gcoy. Soc., vol. xxxvi. p. 263; vol. bank of the Amu-daria. Conf. Ba- xlii. p. 510.

BOOK I.]

HWUH-LO-MOGARMA.

39

is about 20 li in circuit, extended from east to west, and narrow from north to south. There are about ten sanghd- rdmas with about one thousand monks. The stdpas and the images of the honoured Buddha are noted for various spiritual manifestations. Going east we arrive at Ch'i- ngoh-yen-na. 125

CH'I-XGOH-YEX-NA This country extends about 400 li from east to west, and about 500 li from north to south. The capital is about i o li in circuit. There are some five sahghdrdmas, which contain a few monks. lo-mo.

Going east we reach Hwuh-

HwCu-LO-MO 127 [GAEMA]. This country is some 100 li in extent from east to west,

126 Before entering on this excur- sus, it will be better to explain Hiuen Tsiang's actual route. From a comparison of the text with the narrative of Hwui - lih, it will be seen that, after leaving the Iron gates, and entering Tukhara, he proceeded across the Oxus to the country called Hwo. This almost certainly is represented by Kunduz, on the eastern bank of the Surkh-ab. Here he met with the eldest son of the Khan of the Turks. This prince had married the sister of the king -chang, from whom Hiuen Tsiang had letters of recommenda- After some delay the pilgrim proceeded, in company with some priests from Balkh, to that city (Po-ho). Here he remained exa- mining the sacred relics of his re- ligion for some days. Fr.iu this h- departs southwards along the J'.ulkh > Dara-gaz, and then ing the mountains, he proceeds still irds to Bamiyan. So that of all th- ixt the Oxus ami tht- Hindu Ku-h, Hiu-n Tsiang <>nlv Inn. 1 Hwo This is gathered not only fi

records found in Hwui-lih, but also from the use of the symbol hiii'j. The excursus begins from Termed, at which point he probably crossed the Oxus, and proceeds, as the text says, along the northern flow of the river. 126 Chaghanian, or SaghaniSn, pro- bably corresponds with Hissar, on the Karateghin (or northern) branch of the Oxus, as the text says ; the town is in lat. 38 29' N., long. 69 1 7' E. It included the valley of the Surkhan and Upper Kafirnahan. Jur. ]{. As. Soc., N.S., vol. vi. p. 96 ; Baber's Mem., p. xxxv. ; Ouseley, Or. Geofj., p. 277 ; Edrisi, toni. i. j>. 4So; Wood's Oxus., Yule's int., p. Ixii ; Ocean Highways, 1876, p. 328. From the eastern direction given we should expect the river to bend eastwards ; we find it does so. There can be little question, there- for,-, that Colonel Yule is right in rc- Hwuh -lo mo to Garma, th<- capital ^liin district, on thr Surkh-al) or Vakhsh. Jmir. li. As. Soc., N.S., vol. vi. j>. 90 . /. -Soc., vol. xli. pp. 338 ff ; Qntt, p. 1\\. : V. de St. Martin illy id'lit; with bhaUuinan 1 i

40 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK i. and 300 li from north to south. The capital is about 10 li in circuit. The king is a Turk of the Hi- su tribe. There are two convents and about one hundred monks. Going east 128 we arrive at the Su-man country. SU-MAN [SUMAX AND KULAB], This country extends 400 li or so from east to west, and 100 li from north to south. The capital of the country is 1 6 or 17 li in. circuit; its king is a Hi-su Turk. There are two convents and a few monks. On the south-west this country borders on the Oxus, and extends to the Kio-ho-yen-na country. KIO-HO-YEN-NA [KUBADIAN]. From east to west it is 200 li or so in extent ; from north to south 300 li or so. The capital is 10 li or so in circuit. There are three convents and about one hundred monks. Still eastward is the country of Hu-sha. HU-SHA 129 [\VAKIISII]. This country is about 300 li from east to west, and 500 li or so from north to south. The capital is 16 or 17 li in circuit. Going eastwards we arrive at Kho- to-lo. KHO-TO-LO 13 [KIIOTL]. This kingdom is 1000 li or so from east to west, and 128 This expression "going east" extending to Kubadian (Kio-ho- need not imply that the country in- yen-na), which lies between the dicated lies to the eastward of the Kafirnahan and Wagesh rivers, last named, but that it is eastward the town of Kubadian being in of the line of advance, which would lat. 37 21' N.,'long. 68 9' E., 57 in this case be the northern branch miles N.N.E. of Khulm. Jour. R. of the Oxus. Hence this country of Geog. Soc., vol. xlii. pp. 456, 509 n. Human, which has been identified 129 Hu-sha is no doubt Wakhsh, with the Shumau of the Arab geo- which lies to the north of Shuman graphers (fidrisi, torn. ii. p. 203 ; and Khotlan. Conf. Jour. R. Geog. Abulfeda, Chor. et Mavar., p. 38 ; /Soc., vol. xl. p. 143. Ouseley, Or. Geog., p. 277), is said 13 Kho-to-lo is represented by to have the Oxus on the south-west, Khotl or Khotlan, the Kutl of

BOOK I.]

A7 U-MI-TOK UMIDHA .

the same from north to south. The capital is 20 li or so in circuit. On the east it borders on the T'sung-ling mountains, and extends to the country of Kiu-mi-to.

KlU-MI-TO [KUMIDIIA, 131 OR DARWAZ AND This country extends 2000 li from east to west, and about 200 li from north to south. It is in the midst of the greatT'sung-ling mountains. The capital of the coun- try is about 20 li in circuit. On the south-west it borders on the river Oxus ; m on the south it touches the country of Shi-ki-ni. 133 Passing the Oxus on the south, 134 we come to the kingdom of Ta-mo-sih-teh-ti, 135 the kingdom of Po-to-

KJrisi, and is described in the text as stretching eastward to the T'sung- ling mountains (Pamir), and bor- dered on the south by the valley of the Komi'dai, or plain of Kurgan- : : < I lower valley of the Vakhsh. It would thus correspond with the country to the north-east of Kulfib. Conf. Deguignes, 11. dcs Hunt, torn. v. p. 28 ; Bretschneider, Med. Geoy., p. 170 n. ; Ouseley, Orient. Geoj., pp. 239, 276. 131 Kiu-mi-to would correctly be restored to Kumidha, which natur- nlly represents the country of the ;;ii of Ptolemy (Gcuy., lib. vi. c. 12, 3, c. 13, 2, 3; lib. vii. c. I, 42), through which the ancient caravans travelled eastward for silk. It corrc- ith Darwaz (the gate), or the f Rasht. See Jour. Jt. A* Soc., N.S., vol. vi. pp. 97, 98 ; Jour. A riot., ser. vL torn. v. p. 270 ; torn, i. p. 4Sj ; Jour. At. S. Jlcng., voL xvii. pt. ii. p. 15 ; Wood's Ozu, pp. xxxix, Ixxv, 248, 249; . vol. xli. p. 339 ; Proc. R. G. S., vol. i. (1879) ] 1M The chief town of DarwA utill called I i khum is on tli' j or south branch of th -h run* just within the south-west limit of the

district. Proc. R. Gcog. Soc., vol. iv. ( 1 882), pp. 41 2 ff. ; Jour. R. Gcog. Soc., vol. xlii. pp. 458, 471, 498. KosMn lies to the south-east of Darwitz and between it and Shignan, and on the northern branch of the river which joins the Panja near Bartang. 133 Shi-ki-ni has been identified with Shignan or Shakhnan by Cun- ningham and Yule. /. R. As. Soc., N.S., vol. vi. pp. 97, 1 13 ; /. R. Gcog. Soc., vol. xlii. p. 508 n. ; /. As. S. JBeng,, vol. xvii. pt. ii. p. 56 ; Wood's Oxus, pp. 248, 249. Edrisi has Sak- nia, torn. i. p. 483. 134 That is, to the south of the Amu or Panja. The pilgrim having >d the districts first in a northerly direction, then east of the main stream, now leaving the valley of the Shignfm, which runs along the northern side of the Panja, he recounts the names of districts to the south of that riv r. m Ta-mo-aih-teh-ti was rcston-il doubtfully to Tamasthiti by .fulii-n. It is the Tcnuist.it of the Arab geographers, one sta,- fmm the famous stone bridge on the .ib or Surkli-.; Khutl.--./ i. p. 508 n. See also Wood's OJCUK, pp. Ixxi, 260;

RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK i.

chang-na, 136 the kingdom of In-po-kin, 137 the kingdom of Kiu-lang-na, 138 the kingdom of Hi-mo-to-lo, 139 the king- dom of Po-li-ho, 140 the kingdom of Khi-li-seh-mo, 141 the kingdom of Ho-lo-hu, 142 the kingdom of 0-li-ni, 143 the kingdom of Mung-kin. 144 Going from the kingdom of Hwo (Kunduz) south-east,

Istakhri, pp. 125, 126, and Gardi- ner's 'Memoir' in Jour. At. oc. Bengal, vol. xxii. pp. 289, 291. Julien has made a mistake (Me"m. t. ii. p. 201) in giving the width of the valley at 400 or 500 li ; it should be 4 or 5 li, according to the India Office Library copy. It would thus be a valley some 300 iniKs long, and about a mile wide. On Captain Trotter's map the long valley of Wakhiin extends through more than two degrees of longitude, viz., from 72 to 74 30' E. long. ; but following the winding of the river it might probably approach the length assigned by Hiuen Tsiang. See also Yule, u. *. pp. 111-113. 138 Po-to-chang-na. This repre- sents Badakshan, celebrated for its ruby mines. For an interesting ac- count of this country, its inhabitants, and their character, see Wood's Oxus, pp. 191 seq.; conf. Jour. R. Geog. Soc., vol. xxxvi. pp. 252, 260, 265, 278 ; vol. xxxvii. pp. 8, 10 ; vol. xl. pp. 345. 393 ; vo1 - xlii - PP- 440 ff-J vol. xlvi. pp. 278, 279. 137 In-po-kin, probably Yamgan, the old name of the valley of the Kokcha, from Jerm upwards. Yule. 133 Kiu-lang-na represents Kurdn, a name applied to the upper part of the Kokch4 valley, about Lajward (Wood). Celebrated for mines of lapis -lazuli. See Yule, u. 8. 139 Hi-mo-to-lo. This certainly would correspond with Himatala, the Chinese explanation being " under the Snowy Mountains " (Julma + tola). Julien, Mem., torn. i. p. 178. Colonel Yule has identified it with Daraim, or, as it is other- wise given, Darah-i-aim. (See his remarks, Jour. R. As. Soc., N.S., vol. vi. p. 108 j Wood's (Jjcus, p.

140 Po-li-ho must be in the neigh- bourhood of the Varsakh river, a tributary of the Kokcha. Wood, in his map, has a district called Faro- khar or Farkhar, which may repre- sent Po-li-ho or Parika. 141 Khi - li - seh - mo is no doubt Khrishma or Kishm, north of Fark- har, and thirty-two miles east of Talikan. Yule's Marco Polo, vol. i. P. 163. 14i Ho-lo-hu represents Ragh, an important fief in the north of Badak- slmn between the Kokcha and the Oxus (Yule). 143 0-li-ni. This, as Colonel Yule says, "is assuredly a district on both sides of the Oxus," of which the chief place formerly bore the name of Ahreng ; the Hazrat Imam of Wood's map, 26 miles north of Kunduz. Yule, u. s. p. 106 ; P. de la Croix, II. de Timurbec, t. i. pp. 172, 175 ; Institutes of Timur, p. 95. 1<M Mung-kin. Julien has by mis- take given the circuit of this district as 4000 li (Mem., torn. ii. p. 194), instead of 400 li. This has been observed by Colonel Yule (p. 105, u. s.) It probably is represented by the district from Talikan and Khaniibad, and the valley of the Furkhan, in the east of Kunduz or Kataghan. This Talikan is the Th&ikAn of the Arab geographers. Marco Polo visited it. Ouseley, Orient. Geog., pp. 223, 224, 230, 231 ; Baber's Mem., pp. 38, 130; Yule's Marco Polo, vol. L p. 160. Conf. Burnes, Trav. in Bokhara, vol. iii., p. 8 ; Wood's Oxus, pp. Ixxxi, 156 ; Bretschneider, Med. Geog., p. 195. There is at district called Munjan, in the south of Badakshan, between the sources of the Kokcha and Gogar- dasht.

BOOK I.] PO-HO-BALKH. 43 we come to the kingdom of Chen-seh-to, 145 the kingdom of 'An-ta-la-po 146 (Andarab), remarks concerning which may be found in the return records. Going south-west from the country of Hwo, we arrive at the kingdom ofFo-kia-lang (Baghlan). FO-KIA-LAXG [BAGHLAN]. Tii is country 147 is 50 li or so from east to west, and 200 li or so from north to south; the capital is about 10 li in circuit. Going south, we come to the country of Hi-lu- s i h - m i n -kien (liui-samangan). Hl-LU-SIH-MIX-KIKX [RtJi-SAMANGix]. 148 This country is about 1000 li in circuit, the capital about 14 or 15 li. On the north-west it borders on the kingdom of llo-lin (Khulm). HO-LIX [KHULM]. This country is 800 li or so in circuit, the capital is 5 or 6 li in circumference ; there are about ten convents and 500 monks. Going west, we come to the country of Po-ho (Balkh). PO-IIO [BALKII]. This country is about 800 li from east to west, and 400 li from north to south ; on the north it borders on the Oxus. The capital is about 20 li in circuit. It is 143 Chen-seh to, for AWW<-*o, 34 miles south from Kunduz. Ouse- lousta or K . p. 223 ; Jour. A' tween TAHkAn ami Indar.'ib. As. Soc., N.S., vol. vi. p. ioi. A district now known as Klu^t i* us In tin- nppi-r vallry of tlui in Afghanistan, Koiith of t\, . inclu.lin^ tin- towns ..f . iraiii, and Hailiak, fonnrrly p. 311. call' .n, and ill Mint 4^ : 148 An-ta-la-po, i.r., AndarAb or West from i i.-r-ift. ; long. Travels, \\. ii. p. 402 ; S; 69 2 ; Pott ho southern Tr>ir,l& (i^-t !.), vol. i. pp. 201- r, about 205.

44 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I. called generally the little Kaj agrih a. 149 This city, though well (strongly) fortified, is thinly populated. The pro- ducts of the soil are extremely varied, and the flowers, both on the land and water, would be difficult to enume- rate. There are about 100 convents and 3000 monks, who all study the religious teaching of the Little Vehicle. Outside the city, towards the south-west, 150 there is a convent called Navasafighftrftma, which was built by a former king of this country. The Masters (of Buddhism), who dwell to the north of the great Snowy Mountains, and are authors of &dstras, occupy this convent only, and continue their estimable labours in it. There is a figure of Buddha here, which is lustrous with (reflects tlic glory of) noted gems, and the hall in which it stands is also adorned with precious substances of rare value. This is the reason why it has often been robbed by chieftains of neighbouring countries, covetous of gain. This convent also contains (possesses) 151 a statue of Pi- 148 So I think it ought to be trans- 151 This passage seems to require lated. It is called the " Little the use of a past tense, " this con- Rfijagrfha " in consequence of the vent formerly (su) had ; " and so numerous Buddhist sites in its Julien renders it. But it appears neighbourhood, vying in that re- to me improbable, if the statue of spect with the Slagadha capital. Vaisravana was in existence when This is plainly intimated in the Life the foray was made, " in recent of Hiuen Tsiang (Julien's trans., p. times," that it should have been 64), where the KMn says that " it lost or destroyed so soon afterwards, is called the Little Rajagrlha : its Moreover, the symbol su has some- sacred relics are exceedingly nume- times the sense of " a present con- rous ; " the latter being the explana- dition " (as, for example, in the tion of the former. On Balkh, see C'kuny Tuny, xiv. I, 2). Considering Burnes, Travels (1st ed.) f vol. i. pp. the sentence which follows, where 237-240 ; Terrier, Caravan Journ., the interior of the SanghArdma is pp. 206, 207 ; B. de Meynard, Lcs spoken of, I should prefer to think Prairies d"0r, t. iv. p. 48 ; Diet, that su is a mistake for ts'ien ; they G coy. -Hist, de Perse, p. 571 ; Jour, both have the meaning of "before" Jt. Oeog. Soc., vol. xlii. p. 510; De or "formerly," but ts'icn also has Herbelot, Blbl. Orient., p. 167; the sense of " in front of." In this Hyde, Hist. RcL ret. Pcrs., p. 494 ; case the passage would run : " In Yule's Marco Polo, vol. i. p. 158 ; front of the SanghArama there is a Cathay, p. 1 79 ; Bretschneider, Mcd. figure of Vai^ravana Deva." This Gcoy., p. 196; Chin Mcd. Trav., Deva was the protector of the con- pp. 47, 1 1 7. vent, not so much that he was 150 Julien gives south cast by Kubera, the god of wealth, as that mistake. he was the guardian of the north.

BOOK i.] PO-HO-BALKH. 45 sha-men (Vaisravana) Deva, by whose spiritual influence, in unexpected ways, there is protection afforded to the pre- cincts of the convent. Lately the son of the Khan Yeh-hu (or She-hu), belonging to the Turks, becoming rebellious, Yeh-hu Khun broke up his camping ground, and marched at the head of his horde to make a foray against this convent, desiring to obtain the jewels and precious things with which it was enriched. 152 Having encamped his army in the open ground, not far from the convent, in the night he had a dream. He saw Vaisravana Deva, who addressed him thus : " What power do you possess that you dare (to intend) to overthrow this convent ? " and then hurling his lance, he transfixed him with it. The Khan, affrighted, awoke, and his heart penetrated with sorrow, he told his dream to his followers, and then, to atone somewhat for his fault, he hastened to the convent to ask permission to con- fess his crime to the priests; but before he received an answer he died. Within the convent, in the southern hall of Buddha, there is the washing-basin which Buddha used. It contains about a peck, 153 and is of various colours, which dazzle the eyes. It is difficult to name the gold and stone of which it is made. 154 Again, there is a tooth of Buddha about an inch long, and about eight or nine tenths of an inch in breadth. Its colour is yellowish white; it is pure and shining. Again, there is the sweeping brush of Buddha, made of the This was perhaps the most northern " rebelling," then it would be Yeh- Buddhist establishment in existence; hu-khan himself who is referred to. at any rate, it was built for the con- I am inclined to think it must have venience of northern priests. been the son, whose name was Ssc ; 15 - This sentence may otherwise but the repetition of the name Yeh- : "Lately the son of tin- hu-khan is perplexing. The symbols Turk Yeh-hu-khan, whose name was ] ; ond with th- Turkish Sse-yeh-hu-khan, breaking up his work in /<//-, camping ground or can- camping ground," & \ is tonnn-nt. in that HiuenTsiang mt ,,M ua Teou, a dry mea h hunting ;.T' i Vie df llioucn Thtany, 1M This may mean the golden* p. 55). If the name of his son was like stone of which it is made has a Sse-yeh intibtlcM it is he difficult ted to sack the Sangh- and stone are difficult to name, arama. But if tst baa Uiu sense of

46 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK i. plant " Ka-she " (Jcdsti). It is about two feet long and about seven inches round. Its handle is ornamented with various gems. These three relics are presented with offerings on each of the six fast-days by the assembly of lay and cleric believers. Those who have the greatest faith in worship see the objects emitting a radiance of glory. To the north of the convent is a stdpa, in height about 200 feet, which is covered with a plaster hard as 155 the diamond, and ornamented with a variety of precious sub- stances. It encloses a sacred relic (shc-li), and at times this also reflects a divine splendour. To the south-west of the convent there is a Vii< Many years have elapsed since its foundation was laid. It is the resort (of people) from distant quarters. There are also a large number of men of conspicuous talent. As it would be difficult for the several possessors of the four diffe- rent degrees (fi*uits) of holiness to explain accurately their condition of saintship, therefore the Arhats (Lo-hari), when about to die, exhibit their spiritual capabilities (miraculous poivers), and those who witness such an exhibition found stdpas in honour of the deceased saints. These are closely crowded together here, to the number of several hundreds. Besides these there are some thousand others, who, although they had reached the fruit of holiness (i.e., Arhat- ship\ yet having exhibited no spiritual changes at the end of life, have no memorial erected to them. At present the number of priests is about 100; so irre- gular are they morning and night in their duties, that it is hard to tell saints from sinners. 156 To the north-west of the capital about 50 li or so we arrive at the town of Ti-wei; 40 li to the north of this 155 It may be "hard as the dia- idle," is for mi, which would qualify mond," or "shining like the dia- hai in the sense of "absence of idle- mond." ness." The passage would then 156 There is evidently a false read- read : " Morning and night there ia ing here. I think the character >', an absence of idleness, but it isdiffi- which, in connection with the follow- cult to conjecture who are saints and ing character, hai, means "remiss and who net."

BOOKI.] TI-WEI AND PO-LI. 47 town is the town of Po-li. In each of these towns there is a stdpa about three chang (30 feet) in height. In old days, when Buddha first attained enlightenment after advancing to the tree of knowledge, 157 he went to the garden of deer ; 158 at this time two householders 159 meeting him, and beholding the brilliant appearance of his person, offered him from their store of provisions for their journey some cakes and honey. The lord of the world, for their sakes, preached concerning the happiness of men and Devas, and delivered to them, his very first disciples, 160 the five rules of moral conduct and the ten good qualities (shen, virtuous rules). 161 When they had heard the sermon, they humbly asked for some object to worship (offer gifts). On this Tathagata delivered to them some of his hair and nail- cuttings. Taking these, the merchants were about to return to their own country, 162 when they asked of Bud- dha the right way of venerating these relics. Tathagata forthwith spreading out his Sanghdti on the ground as a square napkin, next laid down his Uttardsanga and then his Sankdkshikd ; again over these he placed as a cover his begging -pot, on which he erected his mendicant's staff. 163 Thus he placed them in order, making thereby

137 This passage might perhaps i. p. 108 ; Beal, Rom. Legend, p. also be rendered " after gazing with 236. The incident is also found delight on the Bodhi tree." The gym- amongst the Amaravfiti sculptures bol ttu has such a meaning, and it (Tree and Serp. Win-ship, pi. Iviii. would be in strict agreement with fig. I, middle disc). the legend. 183 Their own country wasSuvarna- * That is, the garden at Banaras. bhumi or Burma. 138 Two merchant - lords (chany- 163 This translation differs from chf). that of M. Julien. I take the OOQ- iw "The very first to hear the struction thus : / .-.Y7//// kin cfii, "tak- five," &c. ing his Han-hat i ; " : , "as M1 That is, the five X'Ms and the a square napkin ""(/'-. fol.lin- it l ,ilder.<, 1'uli M>r, into this shape); I, HI. "lir placed it sub tilam. The story of the two underneath." Tin- n-*t of the Ben- merchants ftllndi-d 1" in the trxt is t-nr<-. tin n. \\\\\ follow as 1 hav.- one * in the Buddhist translated it. Thf moininx \\\ legend. It will l><- found in SJM uco as a shrine for the rdics ^ivi-n <>n Hardy's Mm ! ndtUiitm (2d this occasion is said to h.- the far- ed.) pp. 186, 187, an.l not. ; also in f -dagun at Rfus the ro-tho-hin'i tx<ni km>i, j. 167 ; As. AV.r/Mr/,r.-, Vol. xvi., <p; Bigandt-t, Li-jmd ,,f rol Sp.-no- Manly, .}/. li. } p. 187 n.

48 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK r. (the figure of) a stilpa. The two men taking the order, each went to his own town, and then, according to the model which the holy one had prescribed, they prepared to build a monument, and thus was the very first Stdpa of the Buddhist religion erected. Some 70 li to the west of this town is a Stdpa about two chang (20 feet) in height. This was erected in the time of Ka^yapa Buddha. Leaving the capital and going south- west, entering the declivities of the Snowy Mountains, there is the country of Jui-mo-to [Jumadh ?]. JUI-MO-TO [JUMADHA?]. 104 This country is 50 or 60 li from east to west, and 100 li or so from north to south. The capital is about 10 li in circuit. Towards the south-west is the country of II u- shi-kien (Juzgiin). HU-SIII-KIEN [JftZGANA]. This country is about 500 li from east to west, and about 1000 li from north to south. The capital is 20 li in circuit. It has many mountains and river-courses. It produces excellent (sheri) horses. To the north-west is Ta-la-kien.

TA-LA-KIEN This country is 500 li or so from east to west, and 50 or 60 li from north to south. The capital is 10 li about in circuit. On the west it touches the boundaries of Persia. Going 166 100 li or so south from the kingdom of Po-ho (Balkh), we arrive at Kie-chi. 1M A position near Sir-i-pul seems 166 Here the true itinerary is re- indicated. Yule, u, *., p. 101. sumed. Hiuen Tsiang now leaves i65 On the borders of Khorasan, Balkh, and travels south about in the valley of the Murghab. twenty miles to Gaz or Darah-Gaz. Ouseley, Orient. Geog., pp. 175, 220 ; "This valley will be found in Mac- Edrisi, torn. i. pp. 468, 478 ; Jour, artney's map to Elphinstone, in the As., ser. vi., torn. xiii. pp. 175-179. map to Terrier's Travels, &<x, about There is a TiUikan also in Badak- one march south of Balkh, about shan. See n. 14^; ante. half-way between that town and

BOOK I.] FA X- YEX-XA -B^MIYAN. 49 KIE-CIII [GACHI OR GAZ]. This country from east to west is 500 li or so, from west to south 300 li. The capital is 4 or 5 li in cir- cuit. The soil is stony, the country a succession of hills. There are but few flowers or fruits, but plenty of beans and corn. The climate is wintry; the manner of the people hard and forbidding. There are some ten convents or so, and about 200 167 priests. They all belong to the school of the Sarvastivadas, which is a branch of the Little Vehicle. On the south-east we enter the great Snowy Mountains. These mountains are high and the valleys deep ; the precipices and hollows (crevasses) are very dangerous. The wind and snow keep on without intermission ; the ice remains through the full summer ; the snow-drifts fall into the valleys and block the roads. The mountain spirits and demons (demon sprites) send, in their rage, all sorts of calamities ; robbers crossing the path of travellers kill them. 108 Going with difficulty 600 li or so, we leave the country of Tukhara, and arrive at the kingdom of Fan- yen-na (Bamiyan). FAX-YEX-XA [TLvMiYAX]. 109 This kingdom is about 2000 li from east to west, and 300 li from north to south. It is situated in the midst Dehas. Ibn Haukal also states I68 This phrase, icci ?n/, may refer that the hill-country south of Balkh to the former statement, " that the is called Ghaz (Ouseley, <>r. <>'">;/., robbrrs kill the travellers;" in ;, 244, 270). Darah-Gaz is which < -u would m< an. i Timur's Iitxtitutt.i (p. " as a profession or business: 59), and it was th<- "cvn- <>f a rout frrrin- ii-rhajs to the- existence of unayun's little army by the a dacoit system. Uzbeks in 1549. Bdbcr 1(i The country of Ilfuniv.'. ;, 376; lx'<'ii ii. 1 oth.T Yule, J'i,-. /;. Ax. > !. travellers. YVo,,,!, in his journ-y \ i. p. IO2 ; Jour. A. Soc. ticiiyal, to the source of tin' Oxus, ; 164. through it. It li.-s inm 1<7 My text gives 2OO as the tin- north of tin- Jlajivak ; number of the priests ; but the Wood's Oxn* (ad i-L), pp. 130, i ;i ; .MM- : it ou-ht t be 3oa ii. 24 \ t: : rg, i>. 13;. ... I. D

50 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK r. of the Snowy Mountains. The people inhabit towns either in the mountains or the valleys, according to circumstances. 170 The capital leans on a steep hill, bordering on a valley 6 or 7 li in length. 171 On the north it is backed by high precipices. It (the country) produces spring- wheat 172 and few flowers or fruits. It is suitable for cattle, and affords pasture for many sheep and horses. The climate is wintry, and the manners of the people hard and uncultivated. The clothes are chiefly made of skin and wool, which are the most suitable for the country. The literature, customary rules, and money used in commerce are the same as those of the Tukhara country. Their language is a little different, but in point of per- sonal appearance they closely resemble each other. These people are remarkable, among all their neighbours, for a love of religion (a heart of pure faith); from the highest form of worship to the three jewels, 173 down to the worship of the hundred (i.e., different) spirits, there is not the least absence (decrease) of earnestness and the utmost devotion of heart. The merchants, in arranging their prices as they come and go, fall in with the signs afforded by the spirits. If good, they act accordingly ; if evil, they seek to propitiate the powers. 174 There are ten convents and about 1000 priests. They belong to the Little Vehicle, and the school of the Lokottaravadins (Shwo-ch'uh- shi-pu). To the north-east of the royal city there is a mountain, on the declivity of which is placed a stone figure of Buddha, Grote (Hist. Greece, vol. xii. p. 271 n.) IT2 The suh-mai is " late wheat ; " supposes that Alexander crossed into wheat sown in the spring. Baktria by Bamiyan : see Arrian, r3 Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. Anab., lib. iii. c. 29, I ; Strabo, Ocog., 174 This sentence might be ren- lib. xv. c. 2, II ; Wilson, Ariana dered better thus : " The merchants Ant., pp. 179 f. ; also note 175 inf. conjecture in coming and going 170 Or, "according to the resources whether the gods and spirits (or or strength of the place." the heavenly spirits) afford propi- 171 Such it appears is the mean- tious omens ; if the indications are ing. The town rests on, or is sup- calamitous, they offer up their ported by, a precipitous cliff, and prayers (seek religious merit)." borders on a valley 6 or 7 li in length.

BOOK I.]

FA N- YEN-NA BA MI YA N.

erect, in height 140 or 1 50 feet. 175 Its golden hues sparkle on every side, and its precious ornaments dazzle the eyes by their brightness. To the east of this spot there is a convent, which was built by a former king of the country. To the east of the convent there is a standing figure of Sakya Buddha, made of metallic stone (teou-sldh 17G ), in height 100 feet. It has been cast in different parts and joined together, and thus placed in a completed form as it stands. To the east of the city 12 or 13 li there is a convent, in which there is a figure of Buddha lying in a sleeping position, as when he attained Nirvdiia The figure is in length about 1000 feet or so. 177 The king of this (country),

175 These rock-hewn figures of Buddha in Bamiyan have been objects of curiosity down to the present day. They were seen dur- ing the campaign in Afghanistan in 1843, and doubtless remain to the present day. The most recent notice of them is in General Kaye's paper. Proc. R. Geoy. Soc., voL i. (1879), pp. 248, 249. He says : " On the opposite side of the valley from the great (standing) image, about a mile to the west, a stony gully leads into the hills. A short way up this there is a nearly insulated rock, on the flat summit of which there is in .iiibent figure, bearing a rude resemblance to a huge lizard," which figure the people now call Azhdaha, or the dragon slain l>y a Muhammadan pir (see also id., p. 338). Hyde, quoting Masalik Ma- iii/tlik and the Farhany -/ : -J<iJi>in;/ii-i of Ibn Fakred-d!n Angju, says the two larger statues are 50 cubits high, one called Surkh-but (red image) and i h'ltink-fjut (grey image), and at some distance is a smaller .la-," r;ill. .1 in 80 ells (< and the lesser 50 in height ; J'.nr nes's estimate U 120 and 7 -s a tolerably minute ace oun n and these figures.

Masson mentions five statues. See Hitter, Die Stupa's odcr die Arc/ti- tektonlschen Denhnale an der Indo- Baktr. Kvniystr. u. d. Culosse von Bamiyan, pp. 24 f. ; Hyde, Hist. Reliy. vet. Pers., p. 132; Burnes, fYttww, vol. i. pp. 182-188, and /. A. S. Ben., vol. ii. pp. 561 f. ; Masson, ibid., vol. v. pp. 707 f. ; Wood's Oxus, pp. Ixvii, 125 f. ; Asiat. Res., vol. vi. pp. 462-472, 495, 523-528; Bret- schneider, Med. Cfeoy., pp. 58, 193 ; Gladwin, Ayeen Akbery, vol. ii. p. 208, vol. iii. pp. 1 68, 169. 176 This teou-shih is described by Medhurst (sub roc.} as "a kind of stone resembling metal. The Chi- nese call it the finest kind of native copper. It is found in the Po-sze country (Persia) and resembles gold. On the application of tire it assumes a n .1 colour, and dot s not turn Wh.-n in. -miry falls to the L' round this sul>stane' will attract it." But from th.- slat.-in.-iit that each part of this ti^uiv was cast separately, it is plain that it \\;ts made of metal, jn-oliably brass or I.I..11/.-. .luii. n tnuulafe s it i,y // ti>, lira-s. urr <f I'.u.l- dha was l\in U ' \\itliin tin- huil.liiiLr. i reasonable to suppose it could be IOOO f.' t in li-n^th. Tin- sin-pin-.,' figures of Buddhu at Mouhurin, I

52 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I. every time he assembles the great congregation of the Wu-che (Mokslia) having sacrificed all his possessions, from his wife and children down to his country's treasures, gives in addition his own body ; then his ministers and the lower order of officers prevail on the priests to barter back these possessions ; and in these matters most of their time is taken up. 179 To the south-west of the convent of the sleeping figure (of Buddha), going 200 li or so, passing the great Snowy Mountains on the east, there is a little watercourse (or valley), which is moist with (the overflowings of) standing springs, bright as mirrors ; the herbage here is green and bright. 180 There is a sanghdrdma here with a tooth of Buddha, also the tooth of a Pratyeka 181 Buddha, who lived at the beginning of the Kalpa, which is in length about five inches, and in breadth somewhat less than four inches. Again, there is the tooth of a golden- wheel king, 182 in length three inches, and in surface (breadth) two inches. There is also the iron begging-dish of Sana- kavasa, 183 a great Arhat, which is capable of holding eight or nine shing (pints). These three sacred objects, be- am told by a friend who visited the 179 In such matters as these there caves there and measured the figures, is most concern shown, were 60 yards in length. The figures 18 Ts'ung, a light green. <>f I'.uddlia entering Nirvana in the m A Pratyeka Buddha is one Sinhalese temples are often very who has attained enlightenment, large. One in Cave xxvi. at Ajanti that is, become a Buddha, but for is fully 23 feet in length. See Fer- himself alone. u' is -i m nnd Burgess, Cave Temples, p. U3 That is, a monarch of the four 344; and note 175 supra. The text dvfpat or suvarnachakrava rti. of Hiuen Tsiang is probably corrupt 183 Sanakavasa, or Sanavasika, ac- in this passage. cording to some Northern accounts, 178 The MGksha Mahdparishad ; a was the fourth patriarch or president meeting, as it seems, held every five of the Buddhist community (Fo-sho- years for the benefit of the priests hiny-tsan-king, xiv.) Other authori- ( Buddhist community). On these ties speak of him as the third patri- occasions there were recitations of arch. See Eitel, Handbook, sub the law, and offerings were made to voc. ; Remusat, Mel. Asiat., torn. i. the priesthood. These assemblies p. 118; Neumann, Zcitschr. f. d. were generally made on some fa vou- Kunde d. Morg., vol. iil p. 124; rite mountain. It was also called Edkins, Chin. Buddhism, pp. 66-69 ; Panchavarshikd parishad. See Ah- Lassen, Jnd. Altcrthums. (2d edit.), stract of Four Lectures, p. 170 ; and vol. ii. p. 1201. He lived loo years note 66 su2>ra. after Buddha.

BOOK i.] FAN-YEN-NABAMIYAN. 53 queathed by the holy personages referred to, are all con- tained in a yellow-golden sealed case. Again, there is here the Saiiyhdfi robe, in nine pieces 184 of Sanakavasa; the colour is a deep red (rose-red) ; it is made of the bark (peel) of the She-no-kia plant. 185 Sanakavasa was the disciple of Ananda. 180 In a former existence he had given the priests garments made of the aiiaka plant (fibre), on the conclu- sion of the rainy season. 187 By the force of this meritorious action during 500 successive births he wore only this (kind of) garment, and at his last birth he was born with it. As his body increased so his robe grew larger, until the time when .3 converted by Ananda and left his home (i.e., be- came an ascetic). Then his robe changed into a religious garment; 18S and when he was fully ordained it again changed into a Saiiyhdti, composed of nine pieces. When he was about to arrive at Nirvdna he entered into the condition of Samddhi, bordering on complete extinction, and by the force of his vow in attaining wisdom (he arrived at the knoit'lcdyc) 1 that this kashdya garment would last till the bequeathed law (testament) of Sakya (was established), and after the destruction of this law then his garment also would perish. At the present time it is a little fading, for faith also is small at this time ! Going eastward from this, we enter the defiles of the Snowy Mountains, cross over the black ridge (Siah Koh), and arrive at the country of Kia-pi-shi. 184 I.e., composed of nine parts tnli.i. pp. 46, 47), in A.B. 124; conf. sewn together. J'.uhler, ///</. Ant., vol. \ii. p. 150. "ika plant, a kind of ^ "At the conclusion of the re- hemp c Kengal*on. nient during the rainy season." * The ordinary succession of the It was customary for the priests to patriarchs is, after Buddha, (i) Ka i. nee during yapa, (2) Ananda, (3) Madhyantika, UM time months of the rainy season, akayasa. The last named i When the retirement broke up (kiul sometimes ii loin-saml <: son of Kan a, who was one of t il "* I.e., a ve.-im. nt \v..rn by the loo years after Buddha. He may i be the same as Sonaka in th<: Sou- w Or "he secured tlu- pi records, who died, according by the earnestness of 1m VIM. to Rhys Davids (Mmum fcc.

54 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I.

KlA-PI-SHI [KAPllA]. This country 19 is 4000 li or so in circuit. On the north it abuts on the Snowy Mountains, and on three sides it borders on the "black ridge" (the Hindu Kush). The capital of the country is 10 li or so in circuit. It produces cereals of all sorts, and many kinds of fruit-trees. The shen horses are bred here, and there is also the scent (scented root) called Yu-kin. lQl Here also are found objects of merchandise from all parts. The climate is cold and windy. The people are cruel and fierce ; their language is coarse and rude; their marriage rites a mere inter- in inkling of the sexes. Their literature is like that of the Tukhfira country, but the customs, common language, and rules of behaviour are somewhat different. For clothing they use hair garments (wool) ; their garments are trimmed with fur. In commerce they use gold and silver coins, and also little copper coins, which in appear- ance and stamp 192 differ .from those of other countries. The king is a Kshattriya by caste. He is of a shrewd 190 Kapisa is the Kair&ra (or Kd- longs to the natural order of Zin;/!?,- Tiffa) of Ptolemy (Geog., lib. vi. c. 18, eracece ; the different species are 4), and the Capissa of Pliny (H. N., stemless plants with tuberous roots, lib. vi. c. 23, 25), the capital of a The scented species referred to in district called Capissene. It is per- the text is probably the Curcuma haps also the Caphusa of Solinus zedoaria, or broad-leaved turmeric. (I'olt/h., c. 54). See Lassen's dis- The tubers are aromatic, and when cussion, Ind. Altei'th., vol. iii. pp. ground the powder is used not only 135, 591, 879-889. Ptolemy placed as a stimulating condiment in curry it 155 miles N. 15 E. from Kafiovpa powders, &c., but as a perfume. In <>r Kabul, the K&pul or Kavul of Sanskrit it is called haridrd, with the Bundaltit ; but this distance is forty-six synonyms, far too great. Julien supposes the ^ The original, kwei keu mu yany, district to have occupied the Panj- has, I suspect, the meaning of shir and Tagad valleys in the north " stamp and inscription ; " literally border of Kohistan, and that the it would mean the pattern or fashion capital may have been either in the (mu yang) of the compass and square valley of the Nijrao or of the Taga6. (kwei keu), or the circular and square Conf. Baber's Mem., pp. 144 f. ; part are different, &c. But the ex- Masson, Narrative of Jour., voL iii. pression may also simply mean, p 168; Wilson, ArianaAnt., p. 117; "the size and form." It possibly Panini has Kapisi (iv. 2, 99). refers to the copper coinsof Kanlshka 191 Curcuma (Jul.) The Curcuma be- or Kanerki.

BOOK i.] KIA -PI-SHIKA PISA. 5 5 character (notere), 191 and being brave and determined, he has brought into subjection the neighbouring countries, some ten of which he rules. He cherishes his people 194 with affection, and reverences much the three precious objects of worship. Every year 195 he makes a silver figure of Buddha eighteen feet high, and at the same time he convokes an assembly called the Moksha Mahdparishad when he gives alms to the poor and wretched, and relieves the bereaved (widows and bereaved). There are about 100 convents in this country and some 6000 priests. They mostly study the rules of the Great Vehicle. The stdpas and saiighdrdmas are of an imposing height, and are built on high level spots, from which they may be seen on every side, shining in their grandeur (purity). 196 There are some ten temples of the Devas, and 1000 or so of heretics (different ways of religion) ; there are naked ascetics, and others who cover themselves with ashes, and some who make chaplets of bones, which they wear as crowns on their heads. 197 To the east of the capital 198 3 or 4 li, at the foot of a 198 This passage may also be ren- ture, a paper read by W. Simpson dered : " He is distinguished for before the Royal Institute of British wisdom and tact ; he is by nature Architects, I2th January 1880). brave and determined, " &c. Hwui- We may gather from the connection lib uses the expression rnlny lioh, of stfipa and sanyhdrdma in the instead of chi Hah ; evidently allud- text, that Hiuen Tsiang alludes to ing to his tact or shrewdness, by the stfipa with its rihdra. which he had brought the neigh- 197 The three sects here enume- bouring countries into his IM> rated are known as (i) the Nir- m "The hundred fan. gran th as or Digambara Jainas ; (2) 198 The expression tui certainly Pawupatas ; and (3)Kapaladharinas. means " a year " or " yearly ;" but " There is som.- difficulty* in it may also have the sense of " peri- fixing the name and site of the odically." This would suit the con- capital of Kaj-Na, General Cun- text perhaps better, as the "great ningham identifies it with (>]>ian assemblies" were usually convoked (.1 / /mli.i, j>. 10). His " every five years." i<m is based on a statement i m It seems that the passage re- have not been able to \ quires some such r -inli -rin^ as this, that on leaving r.ainiy.-in, Hiu- n The symbol /. '/./// indicates "a Tsiang travelled 600 li in high level spot, fnun which there in direction ov< r **B0in mountain* a good prospect " (Medhurst). Mr. and black hills" to the capital <f Simpson's account of the stApa* in Kia-pi-shi. I can find no <r the JellalabAd valley would favour given either in tin- >/-//.// <>r 1>\ this translation (BuddhiA Architcc- Hwui-lih. From BAmqrAa

RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I.

mountain in the north, is a great sanghdrdma with 300 or so priests in it. These belong to the Little Vehicle and adopt its teaching. 199 According to tradition, Kanishka Biija of Gand- hiira 200 in old days having subdued all the neighbouring provinces and brought into obedience people of distant countries, he governed by his army a wide territory, even to the east of the T'sung-ling mountains. Then the

east to the " humid valley " is 200 li. After this the account simply says : " Going in an easterly direc- tion, &c., we come to Kia-pi-shL" Nor can I find any corroboration of the statement that " on leaving the capital of Kapisene, Hiuen Tsiang was accompanied by the king as far as the town of Kiu-lu-sa-pang, a distance of one yojana to the north- east" (op. cit., p. 20). Hwui-lih indeed states (i. 266) that the king of Kapisa accompanied the pilgrim 6 li from the frontiers of his kingdom; but that gives us no clue to the name or site of the capital. V. St. Martin makes Opian the capital of Fo-li-shi-sa-t'ang-na (.!/<//?., torn. ii. p. 190). Hiuen Tsiang does not give the name of the chief city, but he places it 600 li to the west of Lau-po (Lamghan), which again is 100 li to the north-west of Na-kie- lo-ho (Nagarahara). Supposing the sue of Nagarahara to be at the point of junction of the Kabul river with the Surkhar or Surkh-rud, we should have to place the capital of Kapi.sa on the declivity of the Hindu Rush, not far from the little town of Ghorband, or perhaps near Kushan, 10 miles west of Opian. 199 I find in Julien's translation that this aatlf/hdrdma was called Jin-kia-lan (the humane sangha- rama, or, of "the man"). It is wanting in my text. India Office, No. 1503. " Kanishka-raja, of Gandhara. He is often called in Chinese Bud- dhist books "theChandan Kanika" (see Fo-sko-kiny-t'san-king, pages xxviii., xxix.) This may simply

mean Kanishka of Gandhara, the Cliandana for gandha being- common. The mountains of Gan- dhara are often explained as the " perfume mountains," as though from gandha. But in an old Bud- dhist map in my possession the (landhara mountains are called the earth-holding (Li cki), as though gun were from an old root, yav or yrjv, and d/iri, to hold. Kani.shka was king of the Yuei-chi, and the rise of his dynasty is placed by Chinese authors in the first century B.C. On his coins he is styled in the corrupt Greek legends KavypKi \\.opavo, and in the Baktrian-Pali legends and Manikyala inscription he is called Kanishka the Kushana, or " of the Cushana family, 1 ' connecting him with the tribe called by the Chinese Kwe'i-shwang. Korano and Kush- ana are only different forms of the same word. Prinsep, Essays, vol. i. pp. 145 f. ; Lassen, Ind. Alt., vol. ii. pp. 806 f. ; /. .-1 s. S. Ben., vol. xxxii. pp. I44f. ; Arch. Sur. W. 2nd. Rep., vol. ii. p. 50; Num. Chron., .VS., vol. xiv. pp. 161 f. The date of Kani.shka is yet undetermined. Ac- cording to Lassen (Ind. Alt., vol. ii. [2d ed.] pp. 766, 768), he lived be- tween A.D. 10 and A.D. 40. The Northern Buddhists place him (as we shall see farther on) 400 years after the Nirvdna. But as Hiuen Tsiang places Asoka only 100 years after Buddha, the error appears to be in the date of the Nirvana; and thus Kanishka was really about 300 years after Asoka. Recent writers argue that Kanishka lived in the latter part of the first century, and

BOOK I.]

KIA-PI-SHI-KAPISA.

57

tribes who occupy the territory to the west of the river, 201 fearing the power of his arms, sent hostages to him. Kanishka-raja having received the hostages, 202 treated them with singular attention, and ordered for them separate establishments for the cold and hot weather ; during the cold they resided in India and its different parts, in the summer they came back to Kapis'a, in the autumn and spring they remained in the kingdom of Gandhara; and so he founded saiiglidramas for the hostages according to the three seasons. This convent (of which we are now speaking) is the one they occupied during the summer, and it was built for that purpose. 203

that the Saka era (A.D. 78) originated with his reign. See Bvihler, Ind. 1. vi. pp. 149 ff. ; vol. vii. pp. 141 ff. ; Oldenberg, ib., vol. x. pp. 213 ff. ; Fergusson, Jour. R. At. Soc., -I. xii. pp. 261 ff.; Max Mul- ler, India, p. 293. R. Davids has come to the conclusion that the t is within a few years of 412 B.C. (JVumumota Oriented., part vi. p. 56). If this could be estab- it would accord pretty well with the Northern legend referred to, and the date of Kanishka's power might have been, as Las- sen supposes, between 10 A.D. and 40 A.D M1 The district to the west of the river, i.e., the Yellow River, were the people of the Tangut empire. a explanation of the word Tangut, and other particulars, see Yule, Marco Polo, vol. i. p. 209 ; Bret- schneider, Med. Geog., p. 123). In v there is no mention made of " dependent prince* the expression H "/<w wei," I take to be equivalent to "the Msocia- - used for the Tibetans. This would explain Yule's remark 209) that "the word Tanggod (Tangut) in ]>n ; Mongol pjun*l designating certain tribes of Tibetan blood." 891 In Hwui-lih'.s account ( JJiouen Thxin-j, p. 72), we are told

there was only one hostage, and he was a son of the Emperor of China. There is a curious story found among the sermons of Asvaghosha who was contemporary with Kan- ishka of a son of the Emperor of China coming to India to seek a cure for his blindness. He dwelt in a monastery in which there was a great preacher. On a certain oc- casion he preached so eloquently that the entire congregation was moved to tears. Some of these tears were applied to the eyes of the blind prince, and he recovered (Sermon 54). There was plainly an intercourse kept up between China, or the eastern frontiers of China, and North India from an period. 308 The name of this convent is given by Hwui-lih (K. ii. foL 10 a) as Sha-lo-kia, which is restored by .lulien (t. ii. p. 503) doubtfully to Sharaka. Dr. KiuA (Handbook sub voc.) has followed him in this resto- It seems to be referred to by I-Tsing in his account of th< travels of Ilwui lun (J<mr. Ii. At. 1. xiii. ji. 570). I am that Sha-lo ki:i . n-hl to be restored to Serika, and : was so called because it wa for the Chinese hostages or hostage. This name for Chi' i* not known in Chin- *< lit. nit nr.- ; but it is plain that this establiah-

58 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK L Hence the pictures of these hostages on the walls ; their features, and clothing, and ornaments are like the people of Eastern Hia (China). 204 Afterwards, when they were permitted to return to their own country, they were remembered in their old abode, 205 and notwithstanding the intervening mountains and rivers, they were without cessation reverenced with offerings, so that down to the present time the congregation of priests on each rainy season ^ (frequent this spot) ; and on the breaking up of the fast they convene an assembly and pray for the happiness of the hostages, a pious custom still existing. To the south of the eastern door of the hall of Buddha

ment was not only very rich, but also provided with celebrated mural paintings. I have already called attention (Abstract, &c., p. 136 n.), to the way in which artists from Baktria were employed to paint the Buddhist vih&ras at an early date, but more particularly, as it would seem, during the time of Kanishka ; for Asvaghosha, who relates the story referred to, was a follower of Kanishka. Nothing would be more natural than that an artist or artists from Baktria should speak of this vihara as the Serika vihara ; the common term for China being Styuiri) (Ptol., vi. 16, I, 3, 4, 6, &c.; Pliny, H. N., lib. vi. c. 20, 5). This conjecture is confirmed by the trans- lation of the term Sha-lo-kia given by Hiuen Tsiang. It is not given indeed in my copy, but in the original used by M. Julien the con- vent is called "the Sangharama of men" (jin-kia-lan). This is restored by Julien doubtfully to Narasangh- arama (p. 42). But this (nara) is an epithet of the king of China, according to Arabian travellers (vid. supra, p. 14, n. 41). It seems, there- fore, probable that this Sangharama was originally called after the king's son by the Baktrian term, Serika. J04 The Eastern Hia people, i.e., the Chinese, in distinction from the Western Hia, i.e., the Tanguts.

Bretschneider, Notes, Med. Geog., &c., p. 35, n. 81. 200 So I understand the passage. It is not that the hostages remem- bered their old abode, but that the memory of the hostages remained with the priests of the Sha-lo- kia convent. Hence, after the summer rest was over, the priests used to hold a special assembly in order to invoke a blessing on their memory. M. Julien has translated it so in the Life of Hiouen Thsang, p. 72, but in this passage he has in- verted the sense. 206 The rainy season (varsha), as is well known, was observed by the Buddhists as a period of retreat, not in the sense of fasting, or, as it has been translated, Lent, but for the purpose of shelter, and also, as stated in the Vinaya, to avoid trampling down the young herbage. After the three months' rest, of which there were two kinds, viz., either the first three months, i.e. t beginning at the appointed time, and continuing for three consecu- tive months, or else the second three months, that is, when through inability to begin at the appointed time the retreat was entered on a month later, and therefore lasted a month later, the retreat was broken up, and presents, &c., were made to the congregation.

BOOK i.] KIA -PI-SHI-KA PISA . 59 belonging to this sanghdrdma there is a figure of the Great Spirit King; 207 beneath his right foot they have hollowed the earth for concealing treasures therein. This is the treasury place of the hostages, therefore we find this inscription, " When the sanghdrdma decays let men take (of the treasure) and repair it." Not long ago there was a petty (fronfiw) king of a covetous mind and of a wicked and cruel disposition ; hearing of the quantity of jewels and precious substances concealed in this convent, he drove away the priests and began digging for them. The King of the Spirits had on his head the figure of a parrot, which now began to flap its wings and to utter screams. The earth shook and quaked, the king and his army were thrown down prostrate on the ground ; after a while, arising from the earth, he confessed his fault and returned. Above a mountain pass ** to the north of this convent there are several stone chambers; it was in these the hostages practised religious meditation. In these recesses many and various gems (precious things) are concealed : on the side there is an inscription that the Yakshas ( Yo-cha) guard and defend the places (precincts'). If any one wishes to enter and rob the treasures, the Yakshas by spiritual

807 This great spirit-raja is the them mountain detached from the pamc as Vaisravana, " the cele- Paghman range, and a pass between brated " (TcpucXvros). He is called it and the main line of hills. Just Mahakala, "the great black one;" beyond this pass we find Charikar, in Japan he is still called Dai close to Opian. If we may rely on (i.-ikf, "the great black," and is these coincidences, the capital of generally figured as au old man of Kapisa would be to the west of this dwarfish size, with a sack on his pass about a mile, whilst Charikar back. I have often myself xamiin <1 wmiM derive its name from the Shu- ttle figure tm the hearths of the lo-kia monastery. The text, it mu>t, kitchens at Hakodate. H-- i> in \' in.tiee.l. does not require tin- one sense the same as Ku\vra. mountain pass to be distinct from ther remarks on this point the m.rthern mountain, at the base ee Acadnny, July 3, 1880; Indian of which tin- n.nvnt was Imilt, hut Antirjiifirif, \ol. ix. p. 203. it means that tin- chambers were 308 The convent was thn-e or four -\<-avat <! on tin- northern .-carp <.f li to the t-ant of the capital, and at the pass. The context, the fo. ith'-rn mountain. r some int- i which mountain fornn-d one side of notices respecting the P.u.Mlii-t a pa. In <;-ii-ral Cunningham's ca \n, see Jon map referred to, there is such a nor* At. So< . pp. 319 if.

60 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I. transformation appear in different forms, sometimes as lions, sometimes as snakes, and as savage beasts and poisonous reptiles ; under various appearances they exhibit their rage. So no one dares to attempt to take the treasures. At 2 or 3 li to the west of the stone chambers, above a great mountain pass, 209 there is a figure of Kwan-tsz'- tsaiBodhisattva; 210 those who with sincere faith desire (vow or pray) to see him, -to them the Lodhisattva appears coming forth from the image, his body of marvellous beauty, and he gives rest and reassurance to the travellers. Thirty li or so to the south-east of the capital we arrive at the convent of II a hula (Ho-lo-hu-lo) ; by its side is a stupa about 100 feet in height. On sacred days (fast days) this building reflects a brilliant light. Above the cupola, 211 from between the interstices of the stone, there exudes a black scented oil, whilst in the quiet night may be heard the sounds of music. According to tradition, this stdpa was formerly built by liahula, a great minister of this country. ] Living completed this work of merit (religious work), he saw in a night-dream a man who said to him, " This stdpa you have built has no sacred relic (she-li) in it as yet; to-morrow, when they come to offer, you, must make your request to the king " (for the offering brought). 209 The meaning is, above a high Trans. Roy. As. Soc., vol. ii. pp. 233, mountain - side, i.e., as it seems, 239,247, 253; Jour. Hoy. As. Soc., above a high peak, which would form N.S., vol. ii. pp. 136 ff., 411 ff. ; the beginning of the pass on the Vassilief, Le Bouddh., pp. 125, 175, western side. 178, 1 86, 197 ; Ind. Antiquary, vol. - 10 Kwan-tsz'-tsai or Avalokitos- viii. pp. 249-253 ; Burgess, Cave vara, "the god that looks down." Temples, pp. 357, &c. ; Arch. Sur. He is best known in Nepal as Pad- Reports, W. India, vol. iii. pp. 75, mapani ; in Tibet he is called Pyan- 76 ; vol. v. pp. 1 1, 14. He is gene- ras-gzigs-dvang-phyug (pron. Chen- rally described as "the god of resi-vanchug) ; in China, as Kwan- mercy," because he hears the cries y in ; and in Japan as Kuan-nun. In of men. Probably a relic or revival Sanskrit he is also known as Karu- of the old worship of hill-gods, lulrnava, Abhayamdada ("the re- Hence his figure placed on this mover of fear"), Abhyutgataraja mountain-top. ("the great august king"), &c. See 211 Above "the covering shaped 'BuTno\i(,Int.dVHist.d.udd.Ind., liked a patra," i.e., the cupola or 2d ed.), pp. 92, 101, 197-202, 557- dome. 559; Lotus, pp. 261 ff., 301, 352, 428 ;

BOOK i.] A'/.-l -ri-SHI K APIS A. 6r On the morrow, entering the royal court, he pressed his claim (or he advanced and requested), and said : " Your unworthy subject ventures to make a request." The king replied : " And what does my lord require ? " Answering, lie said, " That your majesty would be pleased to favour me by conferring on me the first 212 offering made this day." The king replied : " I consent." liiihula on this went forth and stood at the palace gate. Looking at all who came towards the spot, suddenly he beheld a man holding in his hand a relic casket (pitcher). The great minister said, "What is your will? what have you to offer ? " He replied, " Some relics of Buddha." The minister answered, " I will protect them for you. I will first go and tell the king." Rahula, fearing lest the king on account of the great value of the relics should repent him of his former promise, went quickly to the saiiglidrdma and mounted the stupa ; by the power of his great faith, the stone cupola opened itself, and then he placed the relics therein. This being done, he was quickly coming out when he caught the hem of his garment in the stone. 213 The king sent to pursue him, but by the time the messen- gers arrived at the stdpa, the stones had closed over him ; and this is the reason why a black oily substance exudes from the crevices of the building. To the south 2U of the city 40 li or so, we come to the town of Si-pi-to-fa-la-sse (Svetavaras). 215 In the case 01 So it appears to me the passage Sphltavaras doubtfully. V. de St. should be translated, "the first Martin (M tmoire, &c., p. 300) suggests offering." Julien renders it as if Kvutavaraa. As this seems to be more there were only a single offering. in agreement with the Japanese 213 That is, he caught his garment equivalents in my text, I have in the stone of the inner portion of adopted it. The situation or nann- the ttAjxi before he could escape to of this city is unknown. General the exterior. The relic casket, as is Cunningham suggests S:i]>t:ivar-h.-i iced in a chamber or Sattavasa, and connects with this ipper-middle part of the eu- name, "the Thatagush of the in- poU or dome. ;;>tions of Darin*, who are the in my Sattagudaiof HiTMiI..tus"(.1 ;/ it Menu to be wanting in -In )>. 26). If we suppose the lien's. Dukhtar'm j>--ak to ! th- same 213 Julien restores this name to as the mountain called O-lu-no

62 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK r. of earthquakes, and even when the tops of the mountains fall, there is no commotion around this city. Thirty li or so to the south of the town of Si-po-to-fa-la- sse we come to a mountain called ' 0-1 u-n o (Aruna). 216 The crags and precipices of this mountain are of a vast height, its caverns and valleys are dark and deep. Each year the peak increases in height several hundred feet, until it ap- proaches the height of Mount Tsu-na-hi-lo (Sunagir) 217 in the kingdom ofTsu-ku-cha (Tsaukiita); 218 then when it thus faces it, suddenly it falls down again. I have heard this story in neighbouring countries. When first the heavenly spirit Sun a came from far to this mountain desiring to rest, the spirit of the mountain, affrighted, shook the surrounding valleys. The heavenly spirit said, " Be- cause you have no wish to entertain me, therefore this tumult and confusion; if you had but entertained me for a little while, I should have conferred on you great riches and treasure; but now I go to Tsu-ku-cha to the mountain Tsu-na-hi-lo, and I will visit it every year. Oil these occasions, when the king and his ministers offer me their tribute, then you shall stand face to face with me." Therefore Mount '0-lu-no having increased to the height (aforesaid), suddenly falls down again at the top. About 200 li to the north-west of the royal city we come to a great snowy mountain, on the summit of which

(about to be noticed), then measur- Aruna, " the red." The symbol na, ing north about six miles, we should however, is especially referred to in come to Begram ; from this, eight a note as being equal in sound to miles north according to our text n(oo) + (k)o, i.e., no. would take us up the Panjshir 217 The symbols Tsu-na-hi-lo would river, and not to the capital. There give Sunahir. The Japanese pho- is no bearing given in the French netic equivalent for hi is given as ki translation, and it is possible that or gi, which (if correct) gives us the symbol for south in our text has Sunagir. Julien suggests Kshunahila. been interpolated. From Hiuen 218 The kingdom of Tsaukuta ap- Tsiang's remark " that the city of pears, from the return journey, to be ^vetavaras could not be destroyed," the same as Sewistan. The high we may perhaps identify it with the mountain of Tukatu may perhaps Tetragonis of Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. represent the Tsu-na-hi-lo of the vi. c. 25. text. Lassen, 2nd. Alt., voL iii. p. '0-lu-no may be restored to 884.

BOOK I.] KIA-PI-SI1I-KAPISA. 63 is a lake. Here whoever asks for rain or prays for fine weather, according to his request so he receives. Tradition says in old time there was an Arhat (Lo-han) belonging to Gandhara (Kien-t'o-lo) who constantly re- ceived the religious offerings of the Naga king of this lake. On the arrival of the time for the mid-day meal, by his spiritual power he rose with the mat on which he sat into the air, and went (to the place wJiere the Ndga dwelt). His attendant, a Sramanera (novice), secretly catching hold of the under part of the mat, when the time came for the Arhat to go, was transported in a moment with him (to the palace of ttie Ndga). On arriving at the palace, the Naga saw the Srainanera. The Naga-raja asking them to partake of his hospitality, he provided the Arhat with " immortal food," but gave to the Sramanera food used by men. The Arhat having finished his meal, began then to preach for the good of the Naga, whilst he desired the Sramanera, as was his custom, to wash out his alms-bowl. Now the bowl hap- pened to have in it some fragments of (the heavenly) food. Startled at the fragrance of this food, 219 forthwith there arose in him an evil determination (vow). Irritated with his master, and hating the Naga, he uttered the prayer (vow) that the force of all his religious merit might now be brought into operation with a view to deprive the of life, and, "May I," he said, "myself become a a-king." No sooner had the Snunaru'ra made this vow than the a perceived his head to be in pain. The Arhat having finished his preaching concerning the duty of repentance, the Naga-raja confessed his sins, con- demning himself, lint th<; Sifmiunrra still cherishing 1 in his heart, confessed not. And now having :.ed to the saiiyhdrdma, in very truth the prayer he had put up in consequence of tin- power of his religious was accomplished, and that very night he died and

w That U, rtarded to find from iliff-n-nt from that which he had re- the fragrance that thin food was c<

64 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK I. became a Naga-raja. Then filled with rage, lie entered the lake and killed the other Naga king, and took pos- session of his palace; moreover, he attached to himself the whole fraternity of his class (i.e., all the Ndgas ) to enable him to carry out his original purpose. Then fiercely raising the winds and tempests, he rooted up the trees and aimed at the destruction of the convent. At this time Kanishka-raja, surprised at the ravages, inquired of the Arhat as to the cause, on which he told the whole circumstance. The king therefore, for the sake of the Naga, 220 founded a sawjhdrdma at the foot of the Snowy Mountains, and raised a stdpa about 100 feet in height. The Naga, cherishing his former hatred, raised the wind and rain. The king persevering in his purpose of charity, the Naga redoubled his fury (angry poison), and became exceedingly fierce. Six times he destroyed the saiiglidrdma and the stdpa, and on the seventh occa- sion Kanishka, confused by his failure, determined to fill the Naga's lake and overthrow his palace. He came there- fore with his soldiers to the foot of the Snowy Mountains. Then the Naga-raja, being terrified and shaken with appre- hension, changed himself into an aged Brahman, and bow- ing down before the king's elephant, he remonstrated with the king, and said, " Maharaja, because of your accumu- lated merit in former births, you have now been born a king of men, and you have no wish which is not gratified. Why then to-day are you seeking a quarrel with a Naga ? Niigas are only brutish creatures. Nevertheless amongst lower creatures 221 the Naga possesses great power, which cannot be resisted. He rides on the clouds, drives the winds, passes through space, and glides over the waters ; no human power can conquer him. 222 Why then is the king's heart so angry ? You have now raised the army 220 That is (as it seems), for the (jdti). The three evil ways are birth sake of the Naga who was dead. as a beast, as a prcta, or a demon. 221 Among the lower creatures be- 222 Or, " it is no human power longing to an evil class ; referring which restrains him." to the evil ways or modes of birth

BOOK I.] AV.-l -PI-SHIKA PISA . 65 of your country to fight with a single dragon ; if you con- quer, your renown will not spread very far; 223 but if you are conquered, then you will suffer the humiliation of de- feat. Let me advise the king to withdraw his troops." The king Kanishka hesitating to comply, the dragon returned to his lake. His voice, like the thunderclap, shook the earth, and the fierce winds tore up the trees, whilst stones and sand pelted down like rain ; the sombre clouds obscured the air, so that the army and the horses were filled with terror. The king then paid his adoration to the Three Precious ones, and sought their help, saying, " My abound- ing merit during former births has brought about my state as king of men. By my power I have restrained the strong and conquered the world (Jambudvipa). But now (as it appears), by the onslaught of a dragon-beast overcome, this, verily, is proof of my poor merit ! Let the full power of all my merit now appear ! " Then from botli his shoulders there arose a great flame and smoke. 224 The dragon fled, the winds hushed, the mists were melted, and the clouds were scattered. Then the king commanded each man of his army to take a stone and thus to fill up the dragon lake. Again the dragon king changed himself into a Brahman, and asked the king once more, "I am the Naga king of yonder lake. Affrighted by your power, I tender my submission. Would that the king in pity might forgive my former faults ! The king indeed loves to defend and cherish all animated beings, why then alone against me is he incensed ? If the king kill me, then we both .shall fall into an 'evil way ' the king, for killing; I, for cherishing an angry mind. Deeds and their consequences Or, an acknowledger] MS. We may c >mpan> with these .,y be, an in Julien's flames th<- two my -us th.it sit on the renown of on* who ibooUffi of o.Mim, ami also "the the distant ;" this, how- echo of hoathm thought" which ever, appears strain. .1. makes the dove sit on Cl 4 A great * ','htness. shoulder at his baptism Minium's The flame* on the shoulders are ob- , servable on some of the Kancrki : ^). VOI, I. ,;

66 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK r. will be plainly manifested when the good and evil are brought to light." The king then agreed with the Naga that if hereafter he should again be rebellious there should be no forgive- ness. The Naga said, " Because of my evil deeds I have received a dragon form. The nature of Nagas is fierce and wicked, so that they are unable to control themselves ; if by chance an angry heart rises in me, it will be from forgetfulness of our present compact. The king may now build the sanghdrdma once more ; I will not venture to destroy it again. Each day let the king send a man to observe the mountain top ; if it is black with clouds, then let him sound the ghantd (drum or cymbal) loudly; when I hear the sound of it, my evil purpose will subside." Forthwith the king renewed his work in raising the sanghdrdma and stdpa. People look out for the clouds and mists on the mountain top down to the present day. Tradition says that in this stdpa there is a considerable quantity (a pint, or shing) of relics 225 of Tathagata, con- sisting of his bones and flesh, and that wonderful miracles are wrought thereby, which it would be difficult to name separately. At one time, from within the stdpa there arose suddenly a smoke, which was quickly followed by a fierce flame of fire. On this occasion the people said the stiLpa was consumed. They gazed for a long time till the fire was expended and the smoke disappeared, when they beheld a fearira like a white pearl gem, 226 which moved with a circular motion round the surmounting pole of the stdpa-, it then separated itself and ascended up on high to the region of the clouds, and after scintillating there awhile, again descended with a circular motion. 227 223 The wor d s rendered " relics," these two words that occurs in the &c., are in the original " bone and text, connected with chu, a pearl. I ik-sh variras ; " that is, " bone and have therefore translated chu-fan by flesh remains," or body-relics. pearl-gem. -* The symbol for " gem " is of 2J7 This account probably refers to uncertain meaning. There is a pre- some electrical phenomenon. The cious gem from the Lu country surmounting pole of the sttipa was called yu-fan. It is the latter of provided with metal rings or di.sc.s,

BOOK i.] KIA-PI-SHIKAPISA. 67 To the north-west of the capital there is a large river 228 on the southern bank of which, in a convent of an old king, there is a milk-tooth of Sakya Bodhisattva; it is about an inch in length. To the south-east of this convent there is another, which is also called the convent of the old king ; in this is a piece of the skull-bone of Tathagata ; the surface of it is about an inch in breadth, its colour a yellowish white ; the little hair orifices are plainly seen. There is, moreover, a hair-top 229 of Tathagata of a dark auburn colour ; the hair turns to the right ; drawing it out, it is about a foot long ; when folded up it is only about half an inch. These three objects are reverenced with offer- ings by the king and the great ministers on each of the six fast (holy) days. To the south-west of the convent of the skull-bone is the convent of the wife of the old king, in which there is a gilded stdpa (copper gilt), about 100 feet in height. Tradition says in this stdpa is about a pint of the relics of Buddha. On the fifteenth day of each month, in the evening, it reflects a circular halo of glory which lights up the dew-dish. 230 Thus it shines till the morning, when it gradually disappears and enters the stdpa. :he south-west of the town is Mount Pi-lo-sa-lo (Pilu.sfira) j 231 the mountain spirit takes the form of an elephant, hence the name. In old days, when Tatluigata was alive, the spirit, called Pilusara (siang-kien, i.e. t elephant-fixed), asked the Lord of the World and 1200 Arhats (to partake of his hospitality). On the mountain ifl a great solid rock; here it was Tuthaiiata received the offerings of the spirit. Afterwards A6ka-n\ja erected aa capped generally with a ii fh.rn bank, -o c;ill-l-. This thi-rrfnrr, WouM ! that in a; would naturally act aw a lightning site of the capital. 29 That is, a hair from the top- r may be the affluent i.f th- Kabul river fl"\\ m I.e., the circular dish at the i band valley. It t<>]> <>f tin- .surmounting flows about east and west after leav- hunt firm.

68

RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK r.

on this same rock a stdpa about 100 feet in height. It is now called the stdpa of the Elephant-strength (Pilusara). They say that in this also is about a pint measure of the relics of Tathagata. To the north of the Pilusara Stupa is a mountain cavern, below which is a Naga fountain. It was here that Tathfi- gata, having received from the spirit some food (rice) with the Arliats, cleansed his mouth and rubbed his teeth with a piece of willow branch. 232 This he planted in the ground, and it forthwith took root, and is now a bushy grove. Afterwards men built here a sanghdrama, and called it the convent of the Pi-to-kia (the willow twig). Going eastward from this 600 li or so, across a con- tinuation of mountains and valleys, the peaks being of a stupendous height, and skirting the " black ridge," ^ we enter North India, and crossing the frontier, come to the country of Lan-po (Lamghun).

232 The wood commonly used in India IB that of the Khadira tree, the Acacia Catechu. After being used as a tooth -cleaner it is gene- rally split in two, and one part used to scrape the tongue. Hence probably the name Pi-to-kiu given in the "text, which seems to be a

form of the Sanskrit ridala, leafless ; or, as Julien suggests, of Vaitrahi, a reed, a twig. 133 That is, the Siah Koh, or the range which separates Lamghan f rom the upper valley of the Kao and that of the Picha.

END OF BOOK I.

BOOK II. Relates to TJtrce Countries, viz., (i) Lcui-po, (2) Na-laelo-lio and (3)

I. Names of India. ON examination, we find that the names of India (T'ien- chu) are various and perplexing as to their authority. It was anciently called Shin-tu, also Hien-tau; but now, according to the right pronunciation, it is called In-tu. The people of In-tu call their country by different names according to their district. Each country has diverse customs. Aiming at a general name which is the best sounding, we will call the country In-tu. 1 In Chinese this name signifies the Moon. The moon has many names, of which this is one. For as it is said that all living things ceaselessly revolve in the wheel (of trans- migration) through the long night of ignorance, without a guiding star, their case is like (the world), the sun gone down; as then the torch affords its connecting light, though there be the shining of the stars, how different from the bright (cool) moon; just so the bright con- nected light of holy men and sages, guiding the world as the shining of the moon, have made this country eminent, so it is called In-tu. The families of India are divided into castes, the Bruh- mans particularly (arc noted) on account of their purity and nobility. Tradition has so hallowed the name of this tribe that there is no question as to difference of place, but the people generally speak of India as the country of the Brahmans (Po-lo-men). 1 See Jour. A tint., sur. iv. torn. x. p. 91.

70 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK n. 2. Extent of India, Climate, &c, The countries embraced under this term of India are generally spoken of as the five Indies. In circuit this country is about 90,000 li ; on three sides it is bordered by the great sea ; on the north it is backed by the Snowy Mountains. The north part is broad, the southern part is narrow. Its shape is like the half-moon. The entire land is divided into seventy countries or so. The seasons are particularly hot; the land is well watered 2 and humid. The north is a continuation of mountains and hills, the ground being dry and salt. On the east there are valleys and plains, which being well watered and cultivated, are fruitful and productive. The southern district is wooded and herbaceous ; the western parts are stony and barren. Such is the general account of this country. 3. Measures of Length. To give a brief account of matters. In point of measure- ments, there is first of all the ydjana (yu-shen-na) ; this from the time of the holy kings of old has been regarded as a day's march for an army. The old accounts say it is equal to 40 li; according to the common reckoning in India it is 30 li, but in the sacred books (of Buddha) the yojana is only 16 li. In the subdivision of distances, a ydjana is equal to eight krdsas (kcu-ln-she) ; a krosa is the distance that the low- ing of a cow can be heard ; a krosa is divided into 500 bows (dhanus); a bow is divided into four cubits (hastas) ; a cubit is divided into 24 fingers (aiujulis); a finger is divided into seven barleycorns (yams) ; and so on to a louse (y&kd), a nit (liksJid), a dust grain, a cow's hair, a sheep's hair, a hare's down, copper- water, 3 and so on for seven divisions, - Has many fountains. dha (p. 87). The expression copper- 3 An enumeration corresponding water may refer to the size of the to that in the text will be found in small hole made in the tamri or the Lalita Vistara (Foucaux, p. 1 42) copper cup for the admission of and iii the Romantic Leyend of Bud- water.

BOOK ii.] INDIAN CALENDAR, ETC. 71 till we come to a small grain of dust; this is divided sevenfold till we come to an excessively small grain of dust (ami) ; this cannot be divided further without ar- riving at nothingness, and so it is called the infinitely small (paramdmi). 4. Astronomy, the Calendar, &c. Although the revolution of the Yin and Yang principles and the successive mansions of the sun and moon be called by names different from ours, yet the seasons are the same ; the names of the months are derived from the position (of the moon in respect} of the asterisms. The shortest portion of time is called a t'sa-na (kshana) ; 1 20 Icshaiws make a ta-t'sa-na (takshana) ; 60 of these make a la-fo (lava) ; 30 of these make a mau-hu-li-to (muhurta) ; five of these make " a period of time " (kdla) ; six of these make a day and night (ahdrdtra)* but commonly the day and night are divided into eight kalds. 5 The period from the new moon till full moon is called the white division (Sukla-paksha) of the month; the period from the full moon till the disappearance (of the light} is called the dark portion (Krlshna-paksha). The dark portion comprises fourteen or fifteen days, because the month is sometimes long and sometimes short. The preceding dark portion and the following light portion together form a month; six months form a "march" (hing, s. ayand). Tho sun when it moves within (the equator) is said to be on its northward march ; 6 when it moves without (the equator) it is on its southern march. 7 These two periods form a r (vatsara). The year, again, is divided into six seasons. From the 1 6th day of the 1st month till the I5th day of the 3d month is the season of gradual heat; from the i6th day of 4 Three in the day, three in the again divided into four parts or pe- night Ct, . riods (the). Ch * Four for the day and four for 6 Uttardyann. the night; each of these kaldt is 7 L>akh\ndyana.

72 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK IT. the 3d month till the I5th day of the 5th month is called the season of full heat ; from the i6th day of the 5th month till the 1 5th day of the 7th month is called the rainy season ; from the i6th day of the 7th month till the i5th day of the 9th month is called the season of growth (vegetation) ; from the 1 6th day of the pth month to the 1 5th day of the I ith month is called the season of gradual cold ; from the i6th day of the I ith month to the i5th day of the 1st month is called the season of great (full) cold. 8 According to the holy doctrine of Tathagata, the year is divided into three seasons. From the i6th day of the ist month till the I5th day of the 5th month is called the hot season ; from the i6th day of the 5th month till the I5th day of the Qth month is called the wet season ; from the 1 6th day of the Qth month to the I5th day of the ist month is called the cold season. Again, there are four seasons, called spring, summer, autumn, winter. The three spring months are called Chi-ta-lo (Chaitra) month, Fei-she-kie (VaiSaka) month, She-se-ck'a (Jyeshtha); these correspond with the time from the i6th day of the ist month to the I5th of the 4th month. The three summer months are called 'An-sha-cha (Ashadha) month, Chi-lo-fa-na (Sravana) month, Po-ta-lo-pa-to (Bhadrapada) month; these correspond to the time between the i6th day of the 4th month to the I5th day of the 7th month. The three autumn months are called, 'An-shi-fo-ku Q -che (As*vayuja) month, Kia-li-ta-kd (Karttika) month, Wi- 10 kia-chi-lo (Margas*irsha) month; these correspond to the time between the i6th day of the 7th month to the 1 5th day of the loth month. The three months of winter are called Fo-sliu (Pushya) month, Ma-ku (Magha) month, and Po-li-kiu-na (Phalguna) month; these cor- 8 These six seasons (rftarcu) are re- ga-sirsha and Pushya ; and (6) S'u- spectively (i ) Va&anta, including the tro Magha and Phalguna. In the months of Chaitra and Vai&kha ; south they are reckoned as begin- (2) Grishma Jyeshtha and Asha- ning a month later, dha; (3) Varshfa Sravana and 9 The symbol ku is for yu. Julien Bhadrapada; (4) S'aradd A4vina inloc. and Karttika ; (5) Hemanta Mar- 10 The symbol wi is for mo. Jul.

BOOK IL] INDIAN BUILDINGS. 73 respond with the time between the i6th day of the loth month to the I5th day of the ist month in China. In old times in India the priestly fraternity, relying on the holy teaching of Buddha, had a double n resting-time (during tlie raijis), viz., either the former three months or the latter three months ; these periods were either from the 1 6th day of the 5th month to the I5th day of the 8th month, or from the i6th day of the 6th month to the 1 5th day of the 9th month. Translators of the SiUras (king) and the Vinaya (liu) belonging to former generations employed the terms Tso- hia and Tso-la-hia 12 to signify the rest during the rainy season ; but this was because the ignorant (common) people of the frontier countries did not understand the right sounds of the language of the middle country (India), or that they translated before they comprehended the local phrases: this was the cause of error. And for the same reason occur the mistakes about the time of Tathagata's con- ception, birth, departure from his home, enlightenment, and Nirvana, which we shall notice in the subsequent records. 5. Towns and Buildings. The towns and villages have inner gates; 13 the walls are wide and high ; the streets and lanes are tortuous, and the roads winding. The thoroughfares are dirty and 11 I have preferred not to alter M I cannot but think that lia the text, and BO translate the pas- and la in these phrases are intended sage literally. The " double period " to be phonetic equivalents for of rest during the rainy season was Vanka, and that the author is an early ordinance, found in the pointing out the error of those who Vinaya. It was so arranged that adopted such inadequate sounds. those who were prevented from ar- M. Julien's explanation, however, it the appointed time might may be the correct one (vidLJulien w begin their "rest" a month later. Inc., n. i). If, however, we suppose the symbol u Such is the meaning generally liany to be a mistake for yu, then assigned to the symbols leu yen. I the passage will run thus: "The do not understand the tra: priestly fraternity r. tin <1 into fixed given by .Fulu-n ; the texts perhaps dwellings during the rainy season." are ditl See Burnouf, Jntrod., p. 254.

74 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK ir. the stalls arranged on both sides of the road with appro- priate signs. Butchers, fishers, dancers, executioners, and scavengers, and so on, have their abodes without the city. In coming and going these persons are bound to keep on the left side of the road till they arrive at their homes. Their houses are surrounded by low walls, and form the suburbs. The earth being soft and muddy, the walls of the towns are mostly built of brick or tiles. The towers on the walls are constructed of wood or bamboo ; the houses have balconies and belvederes, which are made of wood, with a coating of lime or mortar, and covered with tiles. The different buildings have the same form as those in China : rushes, or dry branches, or tiles, or boards are used for covering them. The walls are covered with lime and mud, mixed with cow's dung for purity. At different seasons they scatter flowers about. Such are some of their different customs. The sanghdrdmas are constructed with extraordinary skill. A three-storied tower 14 is erected at each of the four angles. The beams and the projecting heads are carved with great skill in different shapes. The doors, windows, and the low walls are painted profusely; the monks' cells are ornamental on the inside and plain on the outside. 15 In the very middle 16 of the building is the hall, high and wide. There are various storeyed chambers and turrets of different height and shape, without any fixed rule. The doors open towards the east; the royal throne also faces the east.

14 The phrase chung Icoh means monks " or H the religious," the " a storeyed room or pavilion ; " so dark-clad. at least I understand it. M. Julien 16 The phrase ngau ghih may translates as though it meant a mean "the sleeping apartments," double-storeyed room, or a pavilion as Julien translates ; but I hesitate with two storeys. The passage lite- to give it this meaning, because the rally translated is : "Angle towers monks slept in their cells, and not in rise on the four sides ; there are (or a dormitory. The hall I take to be they are) storeyed buildings of three the hall for religious worship. The stages." account here given corresponds very 15 I take II ihu to mean "the closely with the description of the

BOOK IL] DRESS, HABITS, ETC. 75 6. Scats, Clothing; &c. When they sit or rest they all use mats ; n the royal family and the great personages and assistant officers use mats variously ornamented, but in size they are the same. The throne of the reigning sovereign is large and high, and much adorned with precious gems: it is called the Lion-throne (siinhdsana). It is covered with extremely fine drapery ; the footstool is adorned with gems. The nobility use beautifully painted arid enriched seats, ac- cording to their taste. 7. Dress, Habits, &c. Their clothing is not cut or fashioned ; they mostly affect fresh-white garments ; they esteem little those of mixed colour or ornamented. The men wind their garments round their middle, then gather them under the armpits, and let them fall down across the body, hanging to the right. The robes of the women fall down to the ground ; they completely cover their shoulders. They wear a little knot of hair on their crowns, and let the rest of their hair fall loose. Some of the men cut off their moustaches, and have other odd customs. On their heads the people wear caps (crowns), with flower- wreaths and jewelled necklets. Their garments are made of Kiau-she-ye (kau- and of cotton. Kiau-she-ye is the product of the wild silkworm. They have garments also of Tso-mo (kshauma), which is a sort of hemp; garments also made of Kien-po-lo (kambala) which is woven from fine goat-hair; garments also made from Ho-la-li (karala) 18 This stufl' is made from the fine hair of a wild animal: it is seldom this can be woven, and therefore the stufl' is very valuable, and it is regarded as fine clothing. In North India, \yhure the air is cold, they wear short VihArw in Nepal at the present day. niihadyi 'IVili, niritlanath) or m:it H I expression here used may ucd by Bud-1 mean "matted beds" or "seat*." u The Japane- nts are It is commonly used to denot- th h'<i-ra-t$i.

76 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK IT. and close-fitting garments, like the Hu people. The dress and ornaments worn by non-believers are varied and mixed. Some wear peacocks' feathers ; some wear as ornaments necklaces made. of skull bones (the Kapdla- dhdrinas) ; some have no clothing, but go naked (Nir- grantlias) ; some wear leaf or bark garments ; some pull out their hair and cut off their moustaches ; others have bushy whiskers and their hair braided on the top of their heads. The costume is not uniform, and the colour, whether red or white, not constant. The Shamans (Sramanas) have only three kinds 19 of robes, viz., the Sang-kio-ki, the Ni-fo-si-na. The cut of the three robes is not the same, but depends on the school. Some have wide or narrow borders, others have small or large flaps. The Sang-kio-ki covers the left shoulder and conceals the two armpits. It is worn open on the left and closed on the right. It is cut longer than the waist. The Ni-fo-se-na has neither girdle nor tassels. When putting it on, it is plaited in folds and worn round the loins with a cord fastening. The schools differ as to the colour of this garment : both yellow and red are used. The Kshattriyas and the Brahmans are cleanly and wholesome in their dress, and they live in a homely and frugal way. The king of the country and the great mini- sters wear garments and ornaments different in their cha- racter. They use flowers for decorating their hair, with gem-decked caps ; they ornament themselves with brace- lets and necklaces. There are rich merchants who deal exclusively 20 in gold trinkets, and so on. They mostly go bare-footed ; few wear sandals. They stain their teeth red or black ; they bind up their hair and pierce their ears ; they ornament 21 their noses, and have large eyes. Such is their appearance. 39 There are only two names ^ It may also mean that the great given in the text. The first, viz., the merchants use only bracelets. Seng -Ida -chi Sanghati is omitted. - 1 This may also mean "they The other two are the Sankakshikd have handsome noses." and the Xiidsana.

BOOK IL] LITERATURE. 77 8. deaf zliness, Ablutions, &c. They are very particular in their personal cleanliness, and allow no remissness in this particular. All wash themselves before eating ; they never use that which has been left over (from a former meal) ; they do not pass the dishes. Wooden and stone vessels, when used, must be destroyed; vessels of gold, silver, copper, or iron after each meal must be rubbed and polished. After eating they cleanse their teeth with a willow stick, and wash their hands and mouth. Until these ablutions are finished they do not toucli one another. Every time they perform the functions of nature they wash their bodies and use perfumes of sandal- wood or turmeric. When the king washes 22 they strike the drums and sing hymns to the sound of musical instruments. Before offering their religious services and petitions, they wash and bathe themselves. 9. Writing, Language, Books, the Vedas, Study. The letters of their alphabet were arranged by Brahmfi- and their forms have been handed down from the first till now. They are forty-seven in number, and are combined so as to form words according to the object, and according to circumstances (of time or place} : there are other forms (inflexions) used. This alphabet has spread in different directions and formed diverse branches, ac- cording to circumstances ; therefore there have been slight modifications in the sounds of the words (spoken lan- guage) ; but in its great features there has been no change. Middle India preserves the original character of the lan- guage in its integrity. Here the pronunciation is soft and able, and like the lan-ua-e O f the Devas. The pro- nunciation of the words is clear and pure, and fit as a M translates *' \ Ung is going out;" but in my copy it i* as in the t

78 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK ir. model for all men. The people of the frontiers have con- tracted several erroneous modes of pronunciation ; for ac- cording to the licentious habits of the people, so also will be the corrupt nature of their language. With respect to the records of events, each province has its own official for preserving them in writing. The record of these events in their full character is called Ni-lo-pi-cli a (Nilapita, Hue deposit). In these records are mentioned good and evil events, with calamities and fortunate occurrences. To educate and encourage the young, they are first taught (led) to study the book of twelve chapters (Sid- dhavastu). 23 After arriving at the age of seven years and upwards, the young are instructed in the five Vidyds, &dstras of great importance. 24 The first is called the elucidation of sounds (abdavidyd.) This treatise explains and illus- trates the agreement (concordance) of words, and it provides an index for derivatives. The second vidyd is called Kiau-ming (ilpasthdna- ridya)', it treats of the arts, mechanics, explains the principles of the Yin and Yang and the calendar. The third is called the medicinal treatise (Chikitsdvidyd) ; it embraces formulae for protection, secret charms (the use of) medicinal stones, acupuncture, and mugwort. The fourth vidyd is called the Hetuvidyd (science of causes) ; its name is derived from the character of the work, which relates to the determination of the true and false, and reduces to their last terms the definition of right and wrong. The fifth vidyd is called the science of " the interior " 23 This work in twelve chapters is see Max Miiller's letter to the Aca- that called Siddh a rastu(Sih-ti-chanff) demy, Sept. 25, iSSo ; also Indian in the Fan-i-ming-i-isi (book xiv. Antiq., vol. ix, p. 307. 1 7 a). It is called Sih-ti-lo-su-to by - 4 Or, it may be translated " the I-tsing (Nanhac, iv. 8 a) by mistake great S'dstra, or S'ustras of the five for SUi-ti-po-su-to, i.e., Siddharastu. Vidyds," in Chinese, Ming. See "For some remarks on this subject below, Book iii. note 102.

BOOK ii.] LITERATURE. 79 (Adhydtmavidyd) ; it relates to the five vehicles, 25 their causes and consequences, and the subtle influences of these. The B rah mans study the four Vda Sdstras. The first is called Shau (longevity) -, it relates to the preservation of life and the regulation of the natural condition. The second is called Sse (sacrifice) ; it relates to the (rules of) sacrifice and prayer. The third is called Ping (peace or regulation) ; it relates to decorum, casting of lots, military affairs, and army regulations. The fourth is called Shu (secret mysteries) ; it relates to various branches of science, incantations, medicine. 26 The teachers (of these works) must themselves have closely studied the deep and secret principles they con- tain, and penetrated to their remotest meaning. They then explain their general sense, and guide their pupils in understanding the words which are difficult. They urge them on and skilfully conduct them. They add lustre to their poor knowledge, and stimulate the desponding. If they find that their pupils are satisfied with their acquire- ments, and so wish to escape to attend to their worldly duties, then they use means to keep them in their power. AVhen they have finished their education, and have at- tained thirty years of age, then their character is formed and their knowledge ripe. When they have secured an occupation they first of all thank their master for his atten- tion. There are some, deeply versed in antiquity, who devote themselves to elegant studies, and live apart from the world, and retain the simplicity of their character. These rise above mundane presents, and are as insensible to renown as to the contempt of the world. Their name having spread afar, the rulers appreciate them highly, but

28 The fiv. I.e., the five d. laydisciple. degrees of i among nr Vtdat, in tin- <>nlT the BuddhUU: (I) The vehicle- of th.-y an- hm- sj...k.-n of, '. (2) "f tl -van, (3) A ) ,- IV,/,,, the i iuddha, (4) of the or- &fma V&ta, the Atliarva Vda.

So RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK IL are unable to draw them to the court. The chief of the country honours them on account of their (mental) gifts, and the people exalt their fame and render them universal hom- age. This is the reason of their devoting themselves to their studies with ardour and resolution, without any sense of fatigue. They search for wisdom, relying on their own re- sources. Although they are possessed of large wealth, yet they will wander here and there to seek their subsistence. There are others who, whilst attaching value to letters, will yet without shame consume their fortunes in wandering about for pleasure, neglecting their duties. They squander their substance in costly food and clothing. Having no vir- tuous principle, and no desire to study, they are brought to disgrace, and their infamy is widely circulated. So, according to the class they belong to, all gain know- ledge of the doctrine of Tathagata; but, as the time is distant since the holy one lived, his doctrine is presented in a changed form, and so it is understood, rightly or not, according to the intelligence of those who inquire into it. 10. Buddhist Schools, Books, Discussions, Discipline. The different schools are constantly at variance, and their contending utterances rise like the angry waves of the sea. The different sects have their separate masters, and in various directions aim at one end. There are Eighteen schools, each claiming pre-eminence. The partisans of the Great and Little Vehicle are content to dwell apart. There are some who give themselves up to quiet contemplation, and devote themselves, whether walking or standing still or sitting down, to the acquire- ment of wisdom and insight ; others, on the contrary, differ from these in raising noisy contentions about their faith. According to their fraternity, they are governed by dis- tinctive rules and regulations, which we need not name. The Vinaya (liu), discourses (luti), stitras (king), are equally Buddhist books. He who can entirely explain one class of these books is exempted from the control of

BOOK ii.] BUDDHIST STUDIES. DISCIPLINE. 8r the kannaddna. If he can explain two classes, he receives in addition the equipments of an upper seat (room) ; he who can explain three classes has allotted to him different servants to attend to and obey him ; he who can explain four classes has " pure men " (updsakas) allotted to him as attendants ; he who can explain five classes of books is then allowed an elephant carriage; he who can explain six classes of books is allowed a surrounding escort. "When a man's renown has reached to a high distinction, then at different times he convokes an assembly for dis- cussion. He judges of the superior or inferior talent of those who take part in it ; he distinguishes their good or bad points ; he praises the clever and reproves the faulty ; if one of the assembly distinguishes himself by refined language, subtle investigation, deep penetration, and severe logic, then he is mounted on an elephant covered with precious ornaments, and conducted by a numerous suite to the gates of the convent. If, on the contrary, one of the members breaks down in his argument, or uses poor and inelegant phrases, or if he violates a rule in logic and adapts his words accordingly, they proceed to disfigure his face with red and white, and cover his body with dirt and dust, and then carry him off to some deserted spot or leave him in a ditch. Thus they distinguish between the meritorious and the worthless, between the wise and the foolish. The pursuit of pleasure belongs to a worldly life, to follow knowledge to a religious life ; to return to a worldly life from .one of religion is considered blameworthy. If one breaks the rules of discipline, the transgressor is publicly reproved: for a slight fault a reprimand is given or a temporary banishment (enforced silence); !'..: a grave fault expulsion is enforced. Those who are thus expelled for life go out to seek some dwelling-place, or, finding no place of refuge, w;m<ler about the roads; sometimes they go back to their old occupation (? 'ife). VOL. J. F

82 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK n. II. Castes Marriage. With respect to the division of families, there are four classifications. The first is called the Brahman (Po-lo-men), men of pure conduct. They guard themselves in religion, live purely, and observe the most correct principles. The second is called Kshattriya {Tsa-ti-li), the royal caste. For ages they have been the governing class : they apply themselves to virtue (humanity) and kindness. The third is called VaiSyas (fel-she-li), the merchant class : they engage in commercial exchange, and they follow profit at home and abroad, The fourth is called Sudra (Shu-t'o-lo), the agricultural class : they labour in ploughing and tillage. In these four classes purity or impurity of caste assigns to every one his place. When they marry they rise or fall in position according to their new relationship. They do not allow promiscuous marriages between relations. A woman once married can never take another husband. Besides these there are other classes of many kinds that intermarry according to their several callings. It would be difficult to speak of these in detail. 12. Royal Family, Troops, Weapons. The succession of kings is confined to the Kshattriya (T'sa-li) caste, who by usurpation and bloodshed have from time to time raised themselves to power. Although a dis- tinct caste, they are regarded as honourable (or lords). The chief soldiers of the country are selected from the bravest of the people, and as the sons follow the profes- sion of their fathers, they soon acquire a knowledge of the art of war. These dwell in garrison around the palace (during peace), but when on an expedition they march in front as an advanced guard. There are four divisions of the army, viz. (i) the infantry, (2) the cavalry, (3) the chariots, (4) the elephants. 27 The elephants are covered with strong armour, and their tusks are provided with 27 I.e., the pattakuya, asvaMya, rathaldya, and hastikuya divisions.

BOOK IL] ARMY. JUSTICE. 83 sharp spurs. A leader in a car gives the command, whilst two attendants on the right and left drive his chariot, which is drawn by four horses abreast. The general of the soldiers remains in his chariot ; he is surrounded by a file of guards, who keep close to his chariot wheels. The cavalry spread themselves in front to resist an attack, and in case of defeat they carry orders hither and thither. The infantry by their quick movements contri- bute to the defence. These men are chosen for their cou- rage and strength. They carry a long spear and a great shield; sometimes they hold a sword or sabre, and ad- vance to the front with impetuosity. All their weapons of war are sharp and pointed. Some of them are these spears, shields, bows, arrows, swords, sabres, battle-axes, lances, halberds, long javelins, and various kinds of slings. 28 All these they have used for ages. 13. Manners, Administration of Law, Ordeals. AVith respect to the ordinary people, although they are naturally light-minded, yet they are upright and honourable. In money matters they are without craft, and in admini- stering justice they are considerate. They dread the retri- bution of another state of existence, and make light of the things of the present world. They are not deceitful or treacherous in their conduct, and are faithful to their oaths and promises. In their rules of government there is remarkable rectitude, whilst in their behaviour there is much gentleness and sweetness. With respect to crimi- nals or rebels, these are few in number, and only occasion- ally troublesome. When the laws are broken or the power of the ruler violated, then the matter is clearly sifted and the offenders imprisoned. There is no infliction of corpo- ral punishment ; they are simply left to live or die, and are not counted among men. When the rules of propriety or * Compare the weapons in the tJ>c Pud' hands of soldiers represented in the &c., pp. n, 20, 51, 07, ta frescoes. Burgess, Nob* on

84 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK II. justice are violated, or when a man fails in fidelity or tilial piety, then they cut his nose or his ears off, or his hands and feet, or expel him from the country or drive him out into the desert wilds. For other faults, except these, a small payment of money will redeem the punish- ment. In the investigation of criminal cases there is no use of rod or staff to obtain proofs (of guilt). In ques- tioning an accused person, if he replies with frankness the punishment is proportioned accordingly; but if the ac- cused obstinately denies his fault, or in despite of it attempts to excuse himself, then in searching out the truth to the bottom, when it is necessary to pass sentence, there are four kinds of ordeal used (i) by water, (2) by force, (3) by weighing, (4) by poison. When the ordeal is by water, then the accused is placed in a sack connected with a stone vessel and thrown into deep water. They then judge of his innocence (truth) or guilt in this way if the man sinks and the stone floats he is guilty ; but if the man floats and the stone sinks then he is pronounced innocent. Secondly, by fire. They heat a plate of iron and make the accused sit on it, and again place his feet on it, and apply it to the palms of his hands ; moreover, he is made to pass his tongue over it; if no scars result, he is innocent ; if there are scars, his guilt is proved. In case of weak and timid persons who cannot endure such ordeal, they take a flower-bud and cast it towards the fire ; if it opens, he is innocent ; if the flower is burnt, he is guilty. Ordeal by weight is this : A man and a stone are placed in a balance evenly, then they judge according to lightness or weight. If the accused is innocent, then the man weighs down the stone, which rises in the balance ; if he is guilty, the man rises and the stone falls. Ordeal by poison is this : They take a ram and make an incision in its right thigh, then mixing all sorts of poison with a portion of the food of the accused man, they place it in the incision made in the thigh (of the ani-

BOOK ii.] FORMS OF POLITENESS. 85 mal) ; if the man is guilty, then the poison takes effect and the creature dies ; if he is innocent, then the poison has no effect, and he survives. By these four methods of trial the way of crime is stopped. 14. Forms of Politeness. There are nine methods of showing outward respect (i) by selecting words of a soothing character in making requests ; (2) by bowing the head to show respect ; (3) by raising the hands and bowing ; (4) by joining the hands and bowing low ; (5) by bending the knee; (6) by a pros- tration ; (7) by a prostration on hands and knees ; (8) by touching the ground with the five circles ; (9) by stretching the five parts of the body on the ground. Of these nine methods the most respectful is to make one prostration on the ground and then to kneel and laud the virtues of the one addressed. When at a distance it is usual to bow low j 30 when near, then it is customary to kiss the feet and rub the ankles (of the person addressed). Whenever orders are received at the hands of a su- perior, the person lifts the skirts of his robes and makes a prostration. The superior or honourable person who is thus reverenced must speak gently (to the inferior), either touching his head or patting his back, and addressing him with good words of direction or advice to show his affection. Wlien a ramana, or one who has entered on the religious life, has been thus respectfully addressed, he simply re- plies by expressing a good wish (voiv). Not only do they prostrate themselves to show reve- rence, but they also turn round towards the thing reve- renced in many ways, sometimes with one turn, some- times with three: if from some long-oheriahed tiding there is a call for marked reverence, then according to the desire of the person. To kneel on all-fours. \Y.-llH Wil *> A"i tany, to bow to th ground. W. W.

86 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK ir. 15. Medicines, Funeral Customs , &c. Every one who falls sick fasts for seven days. During this interval many recover, but if the sickness lasts they take medicine. The character of these medicines is diffe- rent, and their names also. The doctors differ in their modes of examination and treatment. When a person dies, those who attend the funeral raise lamentable cries and weep together. They rend their garments and loosen their hair ; they strike their heads and beat their breasts. There are no regulations as to dress for mourning, nor any fixed time for observing it. There are three methods of paying the last tribute to the dead: (i) by cremation wood being made into a pyre, the body is burnt ; (2) by water the body is thrown into deep flowing water and abandoned ; (3) by desertion the body is cast into some forest-wild, to be devoured by beasts. When the king dies, his successor is first appointed, that he may preside at the funeral rites and fix the different points of precedence. Whilst living they give (their rulers) titles according to their character (virtue) when dead there are no posthumous titles. In a house where there has been a death there is no eating allowed ; but after the funeral they resume their usual (habits). There are no anniversaries (of the death) observed. Those who have attended a death they consider unclean ; they all bathe outside the town and then enter their houses. The old and infirm who come near to death, and those entangled in a severe sickness, who fear to linger to the end of their days, and through disgust wish to escape the troubles of life, or those who desire release from the trifling affairs of the world and its concerns (the concerns of life), these, after receiving a farewell meal at the hands of their relatives or friends, they place, amid the sounds of music, on a boat which they propel into the midst of

BOOK ii.] GOVERNMENT. 87 the Ganges, where such persons drown themselves. They think thus to secure a birth among the Devas. Rarely one of these may be seen not yet dead on the borders (of tlie river}. The priests are not allowed to lament or cry for the dead; when a father or mother of a priest dies they recite their prayers, recounting (pledging) their obligations to them ; reflecting on the past, they carefully attend to them now dead. They expect by this to increase the mysterious character of their religious merit. 1 6. Civil Administration, Revenues , &c. As the administration of the government is founded on benign principles, the executive is simple. The families are not entered on registers, and the people are not sub- ject to forced labour (conscription). The private demesnes of the crown are divided into four principal parts; the first is for carrying out the affairs of state and providing sacrificial offerings ; the second is for providing subsidies for the ministers and chief officers of state ; the third is for rewarding men of distinguished ability ; and the fourth is for charity to religious bodies, whereby the field of merit is cultivated (planted). In this way the taxes on the people are light, and the personal service required of them is moderate. Each one keeps his own worldly goods in peace, and all till the ground for their subsistence. These who cultivate the royal estates pay a sixth part of the produce as tribute. The merchants who engage in commerce come and go in carrying out their transactions. The river-passages and the road-barriers are open on pay- ment of a small toll. When the public works require it, labour is exacted but paid for. The payment is in strict ortion to the work done. The military guard tl, rs, or go out to punish the refractory. They also mount guard at night round tho '. The soldiers are levied according to the require- ments of the service ; they are promised certain payments

88 RECORDS OF IVESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK n. and are publicly enrolled. The governors, ministers, magistrates, and officials have each a portion of land con- signed to them for their personal support.

17. Plants and Trees, Agriculture, Food, Drink, Cookery. The climate and the quality of the soil being different according to situation, the produce of the land is various in its character. The flowers and plants, the fruits and trees are of different kinds, and have distinct names. There is, for instance, the Amala fruit (Ngdn-mo-lo), the Amla fruit (Ng&n-mi-lo), the Madhuka fruit (Mo-tu-kia), the Bhadra fruit (po-ta-lo), the Kapittha fruit (kie-pi-ta), the Amala fruit (0-mo-lo), the Tinduka fruit (Chin-tu-kia), the Udumbara fruit ( Wu-tan-po-lo), the Mocha fruit (Ufau- che), the Narikela fruit (Na-li-ki-lo), the Panasa fruit (Pan- na-so). It would be difficult to enumerate all the kinds of fruit ; we have briefly named those most esteemed by the people. As for the date (Tsau\ the chestnut (LiJi), the loquat (P'i), and the persimmon (TJii), they are not known. The. pear (Li), the wild plum (Nai), the peach (T'au), the apricot (Hang or Mui), the grape (Po-tau), &c., these all have been brought from the country of KaSmir, and are found growing on every side. Pomegranates and sweut oranges are grown everywhere. In cultivating the land, those whose duty it is sow and reap, plough and harrow (weed), and plant according to the season ; and after their labour they rest awhile. Among the products of the ground, rice and corn are most plentiful. With respect to edible herbs and plants, we may name ginger and mustard, melons and pumpkins, the Heun-to (Kandu ?) plant, and others. Onions and garlic are little grown ; and few persons eat them ; if any one uses them for food, they are expelled beyond the walls of the town. The most usual food is milk, butter, cream, soft sugar, sugar-candy, the oil of the mustard-seed, and all sorts of cakes made of corn are used as food. Fish,

BOOK ii.] CULTIVATION AND FOOD. 89 mutton, gazelle, and deer they eat generally fresh, some- times salted; they are forbidden to eat the flesh of the ox, the ass, the elephant, the horse, the pig, the dog, the fox, the wolf, the lion, the monkey, and all the hairy kind. Those who eat them are despised and scorned, and are universally reprobated ; they live outside the walls, and are seldom seen among men. AVith respect to the different kinds of wine and liquors, there are various sorts. The juice of the grape and sugar- cane, these are used by the Kshattriyas as drink ; the Vai- 6yas use strong fermented drinks ; 31 the Sramans and Brah- mans drink a sort of syrup made from the grape or sugar- cane, but not of the nature of fermented wine. 32 The mixed classes and base-born differ in no way (as to food or drink) from the rest, except in respect of the vessels they use, which are very different both as to value and material. There is no lack of suitable things for household use. Although they have saucepans and stew- pans, yet they do not know the steamer used for cook- ing rice. They have many vessels made of dried clay ; they seldom use red copper vessels : they eat from one vessel, mixing all sorts of condiments together, which they take up with their fingers. They have no spoons or cups, and in short no sort of chopstick. When sick, however, they use copper drinking cups. 1 8. Commercial Transactions. Gold and silver, tcou-shih (native copper), white jade, fire pearls, 33 are the natural products of the country ; there are besides these abundance of rare gems and various kinds of precious stones of different names, which are collected from the islands of the sea. These they exchange for goods ; and in fact they always barter in their com-

KiL.'h-flnvdun-d ppirit*. ** If fo is a mist.-iki- for Man;/, ** Called, therefor*-, " not- \vinu- an it probably in, the subs' body," i.e., nun-alcoholic. would be "amber."

90 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK ir. mercial transactions, for they have no gold or silver coins, pearl shells, or little pearls. 34 The "boundaries of India and the neighbouring countries are herein fully described ; the differences of climate and soil are briefly alluded to. Details referring to these points are grouped together, and are stated succinctly; and in referring to the different countries, the various customs and modes of administration are fully detailed. LAN-PO [LAMGHAN]. The kingdom of Lan-po 35 is about 1000 li in circuit, and on the north is backed by the Snowy Mountains ; on three sides it is surrounded by the Black-ridge Mountains. The capital of the country *is about 10 li in circuit. As for some centuries the royal family has been extinct, the chiefs have disputed for power among themselves, without the acknowledged superiority of any one in par- ticular. Lately it has become tributary to KapiSa. The country is adapted for the production of rice, and there are many forests of sugar-cane. The trees, though they produce many fruits, yet few are ripened. The climate is backward; the hoar-frosts are plenty, but not much snow. In common there is abundance and contentment. The men (people) are given to music. Naturally they are untrustworthy and thievish ; their disposition is exacting one over the other, and they never give another the preference over themselves. In respect of stature they are little, but they are active and impetuous. Their garments are made of white linen for the most part, and what they 34 This translation differs from be also called Murandas (Mahdbh., Julien's. The text is probably cor- vii. 4847 ; Reinaud, Mim. s. Clnde, .nipt, p. 353 ; and Lassen, 2nd. Alt., vol. 35 Lan-po corresponds with the ii. p. 877, voL iii. p. 136 f.). Ptolemy present Lamghun, a small country (lib. vii. c. I, 42) places a tribe called lying along the northern bank of Aa/MrciTeu, Aa/iJ3drcu, or Aa/iTra-yai in the Kabul river, bounded on the this district. The modern name is west and east by the Alingar and vulgarly pronounced Laghman. See Kunar rivers. Cunningham. The Baber's Memoirs, pp. 133, 136, 140 Sanskrit name of the district is Lam- ff. ; Cunningham, Anc. Ucoy. /HI/., puka, and the Lampakas are said to p. 43.

BOOK ii.] XA-KIE-LO-HO NAGARAHARA. 91 wear is well appointed. There are about ten sanghd- rdmas, with few followers (priests). The greater portion study the Great Vehicle. There are several scores of diffe- rent Deva temples. There are few heretics. Going south- east from this country 100 li or so, we cross a great mountain (ridge), pass a wide river, and so come to Na-kie-lo-ho [the frontiers of North India). NA-KIE-LO-IIO [NAGAIIAIIAKA]. The country of Nagarahara (Xa-kie-lo-ho) is about 600 li from east to west, and 250 or 260 li from north to south. It is surrounded on four sides by overhanging precipices and natural barriers. The capital is 20 li or so in circuit. 36 It has no chief ruler ; the commandant and his subordinates come from KapiSa. The country is rich in cereals, and produces a great quantity of flowers and fruits. The climate is moist and warm. Their manners are simple and honest, their disposition ardent and courageous. They think lightly of 'wealth and love learning. They cultivate the religion of Buddha, and few believe in other doctrines. The sanghdrdmas are many, but yet the priests are few; the stdpas are deso- late and ruined. There are five Deva temples, with about one hundred worshippers. 87 * The situation of the town of srii wa in the district of Bihfir (J.A. S. Nagarahfira (the old capital of the B. t vol. xvii. pt. i. pp.492, 494, 498 f.) JalAlab&d district) has been satisfac- The district corresponds with the torily determined by Mr. W. Simp- Na-ya/xi Aiovvff6iro\is of Ptolemy (lib. win (J. R. A. S. t N.S., vol. xiii. p. 18;,). vii. c. i, 43). It is called the city He places the site of the town in the of Dipaiikara by Hwui-lih (Jul. nil- (I l>y tin- junction of the I't'e, p. 78), just as he calls Hi. Ma i and Kabul rivers on Uu-ir the cit of "the skull Imn,

rivers, on Uu-ir the city of "the skull Imn, right banks. Both t: n Conf. Lassen, /. A., vol. iii. \ and the distance from Lamghan t; Wnr>hipp-rs m- "OMBoCdflE* <aU>ut twenty miles south-east) rent religious faith." The usual %v..ul<l place us on this spot The ti-rm f.. r "nmi li.-li-\vr" in Chinr,,- mountains crossed by the ] tem-tou, an " outside - n-li^ion were the SJAh KAh, aixl th- ri\.r man." Tin's t.-nn Is with te probably the Kabul river th Pali lui/iim, usi-d in th- inta. The Sanskrit name way. Tin- IlinMhistsan- n..\v Nagarahara occurs inan inscription of hy the Muhannnadans a- " (Silllpx..:. Kittoe i and of (Jho- p. iS6.

92 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK n. Three li to the east of the city there is a stdpa in height about 300 feet, which was built by As*6ka llfiju. It is wonderfully constructed 38 of stone beautifully adorned and carved. Sakya, when a Bodhisattva, hero met Dipankara 39 Buddha (Jen-tang-fo), and spreading out his deerskin doublet, and unbinding his hair and cover- ing with it the muddy road, received a predictive assur- ance. Though the passed kalpa brought the overthrow of the world, the trace of this event was not destroyed; on religious (fast) days the sky rains down all sorts of flowers, which excite a religious frame of mind in the people, who also offer up religious offerings. To the west of this place is a Kia-lan (saiighdrdina) with a few priests. To the south is a small sttipa : this was the place where, in old time, Bodhisattva covered the mud (with his hair). A6ka-raja built (this stdpa) away from the road. 40 Within the city is the ruined foundation of a great stdpa. Tradition says that it once contained a tooth of Buddha, and that it was high and of great magnificence. Now it has no tooth, but only the ancient foundations remain. By its side is a sttlpa 30 feet or so in height ; the old stories of the place know nothing of the origin of this fabric ; they say only that it fell from heaven and placed itself here. Being no work of man's art, it is clearly a spiritual prodigy. 38 The Chinese expression seems vol. iv. p. 66). The legend I trans- to refer to the successive layers of lated from the Chinese (J.R. A. Soc., checkered stones peculiar to these N.S., vol. \L pp. 377 ff). Fa-hien topes. See W. Simpson's and also also refers to it (Buddhist PU>irbns, Mr. Swinnerton's account. Ind. p. 43). See also some remarks on Antiq., vol. viii. pp. 198 & 227 f. this legend, Ind. Antiq., voL xi. p. 39 The incident referred to in the 146 ; andconf. Rhys David's Buddh. text, viz., the interview between Di- Birth- Stories, pp. 3 f. pankara Buddha and the Bod- * This is a difficult passage, and hisattva Sumedha, is a popular one is probably corrupt. The phrase in Buddhist sculpture and mytho- "ts'ui-pi," towards the end, may logy. There is a representation of mean "in an out-of-the-way place." it among fragments in the Lahor The reference is to the spot where Museum ; another representation is predictive assurance was given to among the sculptures of the Kanheri Sumedha that he should become a caves (ArcJucol. Sw. W. Jml, Rep.. Buddha.

BOOK ii.] NA-KIE-LO-HONAGARAHARA. 93

To the south- west of the city about 10 li is a Here Tathagata, when living in the world, alighted, having left Mid-India and passed through the air for the sake of converting men. The people, moved by reverence, erected this building. Not far to the east is a sttipa ; it was here Bodhisattva met Dipankara Buddha and bought the flowers. 41 About 20 li to the south-west of the city we come to a small stone ridge, where there is a sanghdrdma with a high hall and a storied tower made of piled-up stone. It is now silent and deserted, with no priests. In the middle is a sttipa 200 feet or so in height, built by A6ka- raja. To the south-west of this sanghdrdma a deep torrent rushes from a high point of the hill and scatters its waters in leaping cascades. The mountain sides are like walls ; on the eastern side of one is a great cavern, deep and profound, the abode of the Naga Gopala. The gate (or entrance) leading to it is narrow ; the cavern is dark ; the precipitous rock causes the water to find its way in various rivulets into this cavern. In old days there was a shadow of Buddha to be seen here, bright as the true form, with all its characteristic marks. 42 In later days men have not seen it so much. What does appear is only a feeble likeness. But whoever prays with fervent faith, lie is mysteriously endowed, and he sees it clearly before him, though not for long. In old times, when Tathagata was in the world, this :i was a shepherd who provided the king with milk and cream. Having on one occasion failed to do so, and having received a reprimand, he proceeded in an angry temper to the stdpa of " the predictive assurance," and 41 HI: txnijrht the flower* of * girl, flowers remaining over tliu head as mho consented to sell them only on a "baldachin," is represented in the it she should ever here- Labor sculpture referred to above, after be born as his wife. See the note 39. See Fergusson, Tree and account in the "Legend of Dipan- Serp. Worthip, pi. U kar*> Buddha "(J.&A. 1. *- S > note 5 p. i, and p. 1-5, i>. 377 ff.) The incident of the note 76.

94 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK ir. there made an offering of flowers, with the prayer that he might become a destructive dragon for the purpose of afflicting the country and destroying the king. Then ascending the rocky side of the hill, he threw himself down and was killed. Forthwith he became a great dragon and occupied this cavern, and then he purposed to go forth and accomplish his original wicked purpose. When this intention had risen within him, Tathagata, hav- ing examined what was his object, was moved with pity for the country and the people about to be destroyed by the dragon. By his spiritual power he came from Mid- India to where the dragon was. The dragon seeing Ta- thagata, his murderous purpose was stayed, and he ac- cepted the precept against killing, and vowed to defend the true law ; he requested Tathagata to occupy this cavern evermore, that his holy disciples might ever re- ceive his (the dragon's) religious offerings. 43 Tathagata replied, "When I am about to die; I will leave you my shadow, and I will send five Arhats to receive from you continual offerings. When the true law is destroyed, 44 this service of yours shall still go on ; if an evil heart rises in you, you must look at my shadow, and because of its power of love and virtue your evil purpose will be stopped. The Buddhas who will appear throughout this Bhadra-kalpa* 5 will all, from a motive of pity, intrust to you their shadows as a be- quest." Outside the gate of the Cavern of the Shadow there are two square stones; on one is the impression of the foot of Tathagata, with a wheel-circle (lun-siang) beautifully clear, which shines with a brilliant light from time to time. On either side of the Cavern of the Shadow there are

43 This is evidently the meaning ** The " true law " was to last of the passage : the request was, not 500 years ; the " law of images " that the dragon might dwell in the 1000 years. cavern, but that Tathagata would ** This period is that in which we live there with his disciples. Fa- now are, during which 1000 Bud- hian refers to this cave. dhas are to appear.

BOOK II.]

HI-LOHIDDA.

95

several stone chambers ; in these the holy disciples of Tathagata reposed in meditation. At the north-west corner of the cave of the shadow is a stdpa where Buddha walked up and down. Beside this is a st'dpa which contains some of the hair and the nail-parings of Tathagata. Not far from this is a sttipa where Tathagata, making manifest the secret principles of his true doctrine, de- clared fas Skandlia-dlidtu-dyatanas (Yun-kia/i-king).^ At the west of the Cave of the Shadow is a vast rock, on which Tathagata in old time spread out his kaslidya* 1 robe after washing it; the marks of the tissue still exist. To the south-east of the city 30 li or so is the town of Hi-lo (Hidda) j 48 it is about 4 or 5 li in circuit ; it is high in situation and strong by natural declivities. It has flowers and woods, and lakes whose waters are bright as a mirror. The people of this city are simple, honest, and upright. There is here a two-storied tower ; the beams are painted and the columns coloured red.

48 The symbol "cAu" (dyatana) in this passage must be connected with the previous " yun kiai." The <inn kiai cfiu are the eighteen dEfcffM] f..r which see Childers' Pdli Diet, (nib toe.) Vide also the tfurangama SAtra (Catena of Buddhist Scrip., p. 297 n. 2). There is no word in my :'"r king, given by Julien. 47 Kathdya refers to the colour of the BuddhiHt upper robe, which \\ ;i> of brick-red or yellow colour (kn- " The cit or Hi<l<la (concerning which r. -toration, see V. de St. Martin's Utm. t ti. ., p. 304), about six n cast of Nagarahara, is described by I (cap. xiii ) T ..f "the skull- bone is there said to be placed within a square enclosure, and it is added, " though the heavens should quake earth open, this place would Compare with this the remark of Hiuen Tsiang re-

specting Svetavjiras (sup. p. 6l) and its name of Ter/oayawr. It is curious, too, that this place (the neighbour- hood of Hidda) is called Bograin. and so also is Svetavaras (i.e., Kar- sana or Tetragonis). Both Begrdni and Nagara appear to mean "the city." This town or NagarnhAr.i, may be the Nyssa or Nysa of Arrian (lib. v. cap. i.) and Curtius (lib. viii. cap. x. 7), in which case there would be no need to derive Dionysopolis the Nagara of Ptolemy from Ud- YfiiKq.ura, although, as General ('unninu r h:un rnn:irks (Anc. Geoff, of Ind., p. 46), the name Ajun.-.. to Nagarahara (according t lit wrll h<3 corrupted from 1 ' jj:in:i or Udyana. Com]>:i th- account found in Huui- lih ( Vie, p. 76). Conf. Afiatiffue, torn. vii. ]>\>. 338 f. ; Mas- VW, iii. lp. 254 tr : Wilson, Artana Ant., : 105 f.

96 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK IL In the second storey is a little stdpa, made of the seven precious substances ; it contains the skull-bone of Tathu- gata; it is I foot 2 inches round; the hair orifices are distinct; its colour is a whitish-yellow. It is enclosed in a precious receptacle, which is placed in the middle of the stdpa. Those who wish to make lucky or unlucky presages (marks') make a paste of scented earth, and im- press it on the skull-bone ; then, according to their merit, is the impression made. Again there is another little stdpa, made of the seven precious substances, which encloses the skull-bone of Tuthfigata. Its shape is like a lotus leaf; 49 its colour is the same as that of the other, and it is also contained in a precious casket, sealed up and fastened. Again, there is another little stupa, made of the seven precious substances, in which is deposited the eye- ball of Tathagata, large as an Amra fruit and bright and clear throughout; this also is deposited in a pre- cious casket sealed up and fastened. The Sanghdti robe of Tathagata, which is made of fine cotton stuff of a yellow-red colour, 50 is also enclosed in a precious box. Since many months and years have passed, it is a little damaged. The staff 61 of Tathagata, of which the rings are white iron (tin ?) and the stick of sandal- wood, is contained in a precious case (a case made of a precious substance). Lately, a king, hearing of these various articles that they formerly belonged to Tathagata as his own private property, took them away by force to his own country and placed them in his palace. After a short time, 52 going to look at them, they were gone; 49 The ho hwa is the water-lily, B1 The religious staff, khakkharam but it is also a general name for or hikkala, was so called from the mallows (Medhurst, *. v.) This bone noise it made when shaken. Conf. is that of the uxhntslia or top of the hikk; Ch. sek ; Sek cheung, an abbot's skull. crosier or staff (Wells Williams). 50 Such seems to be the meaning. It is described in the Sha-men- Julien has taken it as though Ida- yik-yung (fol. 14 a). See p. 47, slut referred to another garment, but ante. it seems merely to denote the robe 5 - Scarcely had an hour elapsed.

BOOK ii.] GAXDHARA. 97 and after further inquiries he found they had returned to their original place. These five sacred objects (relics) often work miracles. The king of Kapi^a has commanded five pure-conduct men (Brdhmans) to offer continually scents and flowers to these objects. These pure persons, observing the crowds who came to worship incessantly, wishing to devote them- selves to quiet meditation, have established a scale of fixed charges, with a view to secure order, by means of that wealth which is so much esteemed by men. Their plan, in brief, is this : All who wish to see the skull- bone of Tathagata have to pay one gold piece ; those who wish to take an impression pay five pieces. The other objects M in their several order, have a fixed price ; and yet, though the charges are heavy, the worshippers are numerous. To the north-west of the double-storied pavilion is a sttipa, not very high or large, but yet one which possesses many spiritual (miraculous) qualities. If men only touch it with a finger, it shakes and trembles to the foundation, and the bells and the jingles moving together give out a pleasant sound. Going south-east from this, crossing mountains and valleys for 500 li or so, we arrive at the kingdom of Kien-t'o-lo (Gandhara). K i KN-T'O-LO GANDIIARA. The kingdom of Gandhara is about icoo li from east to west, and about 800 li from north to south. On the east it borders on the river Sin (Sindh). The capital of the country is called Po-lu-sha-pu-lo ; M it is about 40 li

  • The phnwe Uze tin, which is Khoonpea (Kunar) on. I tho 'ocurrence in l'u<l<lhist It is t! lane of composition, seem* to mean "more- Ptolemy (Of i, 7 . Tli-- Milt-H thin." capital was PuniHh.-ipunt now Pcshft- 84 The c" ; iii'lhAra is WM. The (Jandarii aro in< t that of Kabul vallvy, hit kataios (Fr. lyS, 17.,! nn ,\ along the Kabul river between the Herodotoa (lib. iil c. 91, lib. \ii. c. VOL. I.


93 RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK n. in circuit. The royal family is extinct, and the kingdom is governed by deputies from K apis* a. The towns and villages are deserted, and there are but few inhabitants. At one corner of the royal residence 55 there are about 1000 families The country is rich in cereals, and pro- duces a variety of flowers and fruits ; it abounds also in sugar-cane, from the juice of which they prepare "the solid sugar." The climate is warm and moist, and in general without ice or snow. The disposition of the people is timid and soft: they love literature; most of them belong to heretical schools ; a few believe in the true law. From old time till now this border-land of India has produced many authors of Mstras ; for example, Narayanadeva, 66 Asanga Bodhisattva, Vasubandhu Bodhisattva, Dharmatrata, Manorhita, Pars*va the noble, and so on. There are about 1000 sanyhdrdmas, which are deserted and in ruins. They are filled with wild shrubs, 67 and solitary to the last degree. The stdpas are mostly decayed. The heretical temples, to the number of about 100, are occupied pell-mell by heretics. Inside the royal city, towards the north-east, 58 is an old foundation (or a ruinous foundation). Formerly this was the precious tower of the pdtra of Buddha. After the Nirvana of Buddha, \\ispdtra coming to this country, was 66), and the district of Gandaritis or walled portion of the town, in by Strabo (Geog., lib. xv. c. I, 26). which the royal palace stood. See Wilson, Ariana Ant., pp. 125, K There is a symbol puh before 131 ; J. R. As. Soc., vol. v. p. 117 ; this name, which, as Julien has re- Lassen, 2nd. Alt., vol. i. pp. 502 f., marked, is inserted by mistake, vol. ii. pp. 150,854; Pentapot, pp. The Chinese equivalents for the 15 f., 105; Asiat. Res., vol. xv. pp. names of these writers are as fol- 103, io6f. ; Vishnu-pur., vol. ii. pp. lows: Na-lo-yen-tin (Narayanadeva), 169, 174, vol. iii. p. 319, vol. iv. \\ Wu-ch'o-p'u-sa (Asaugha Bddhisa- Ji8; Mahdbh., via. 2055 f.; Troyer's ttva), Shi-shin-p'u-sa (Vasubandhu R&ja-Tarawjinl, torn. ii. pp. 3 16-32 1 ; Bodhisattva), Fa-kiu (Dharmatrata), Elliot, Hist. Ind., vol. i. p. 48 n. ; Ju-i (Manorhita), Hie-tsun (Arya Bunbury, Hist. Anc. Gcog., voL i. Parsvika). All these, the text says, pp. 142, 238 ; Reinaud, Mtm. sur were born in Gandhara Vlndc, pp. 1 06 f. Panini (iv. 2, 57 M. Julien has pointed out the 1 33) mentions the Gandhara in the error in the text and supplied this group Kachchhadi. meaning. 55 The Kuny shiny is the fortified M Julien has north- west.

BOOK ii.] GANDHAKA. 99 worshipped during many centuries. In traversing diffe- rent countries it has come now to Persia. 59 Outside the city, about 8 or 9 li to the south-east, there is a pipala tree about 100 feet or so in height. Its branches are thick and the shade beneath sombre and deep. The four past Buddhas have sat beneath this tree, and at the present time there are four sitting figures of the Buddhas to be seen here. During the Bhadrakalpa, the 996 other Buddhas will all sit here. Secret spiritual influences guard the precincts of the tree and exert a protecting virtue in its continuance. Sakya Tathiigata sat beneath this tree with his face to the south and addressed Ananda thus : " Four hundred years after my departure from the world, there will be a king who shall rule it called Kan- ishka (Kia-ni-se-lria) ; not far to the south of this spot he will raise a stdpa which will contain many various relics of my bones and flesh." To the south of the Pippala tree is a stdpa built by King Kanishka ; this king ascended the throne four hundred years after the Nirvdna* and governed the whole of Jam- budvipa. He had no faith either in wrong or right (crime or religious merit), and he lightly esteemed the law of Buddha. One day when traversing a swampy grove (bushy swamp) he saw a white hare, which he followed as fur as this spot, when suddenly it disappeared. He then saw a young shepherd-boy, who was building in the wood hard by a little stdpa about three feet high. The king said, " What are you doing ? " The shepherd-boy answered and said, "Formerly Sakya Buddha, by his divine wisdom, delivered this prophecy: ' There shall be a king in this victorious (superior) land who shall erect a stfipa, which shall contain a great portion of my bodily relics.' The sacred merits of the great king (fanrishka) For the wanderings of the BuddJia, vol. i. j Pdtra of Buddha (called in Chin. > % 7; also consult "the measure vessel," compare gra- Marco Polo, vol. ii. j p. 301, 3iof. dualt and grail), j.j.. * See ante, ].. 56, note 200, and 30f., 101 : :, Die JRd. dct inf. p 151, noU- 97.

ioo RECORDS OF WESTERN COUNTRIES. [BOOK ir. in former births (suit), with his increasing fame, have made the present occasion a proper one for the fulfilment of the old prophecy relating to the divine merit and the religious superiority of the person concerned. And now I am engaged for the purpose of directing you to these former predictions." 61 Having said these words he disappeared. The king hearing this explanation, was overjoyed. Flat- tering himself that he was referred to in the prophecy of the great saint, he believed with all his heart and paid reverence to the law of Buddha. Surrounding the site of the little stdpa he built a stone stdpa, wishing to sur- pass it in height, to prove the power of his religious merit But in proportion as his stdpa increased the other always exceeded it by three feet, and so he went on till his reached 400 feet, and the circumference of the base was a li and a half. The storeys having reached to five, each 1 50 feet in height, then he succeeded in covering the other. The k