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The Indian Buddhist Iconography

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The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Mainly Based on The Sadhanamala and Cognate Tantric Texts of Rituals

Benoytosh Bhattacharyya, M.A.,Ph.o.

Formerly Director of Oriental Institute and General Editor, Qaekwad's Oriental Series, Baroda

CALCUTTA 1958

Published by K. L. MUKHOPADHYAY, 6/1A, Banchharam Akrur Lane,

Calcutta- 12, India.

SECOND EDITION

Revised and Enlarged with 357 Illustrations

JUNE 1958

Dr. B. Bhattacharyya Naihati, 24-Parganas

Printed by A. C. Ghosh, GHOSH PRINTING HOUSE PRIVATE LIMITED, 17 A, British Indian Street, Calcutta- 1

Bound by NEW INDIA BINDERS, 5B, Patwar Bagan Lane, Cakutta-9

Vajradhara

1. Amitabha ; Pandara ; Padmapani ;

2. Aksobhya ; Mamaki ; Vajrapani ;

3. Vairocana ; Locana ; Samantabhadra ;

4* Amoghasiddhi ; Tara ; Visvapani ;

5. Ratnasambhava ; Vajradhatvlsvarl ; Ratna- pani ;

6. Vajrasattva ; Vajrasattvatmika ; Ghantapani ; Mortal Buddhas ; Vajrasana ; Durgatiparisodhana ; Mortal Buddhasaktis ; Mortal Bodhisattvas ; Maitreya.


The Bodhisattvas


1. Samantabhadra ;

2. Aksayamati ;

3. Ksitigarbha ;

4. Akasagarbha ;

5, Gaganaganja ;

6. Ratna-pani ;

7. Sagaramati ;

8. Vajragarbha ;

9 Avalokitesvara ;/x

10. Mahasthamaprapta ;

11. Candraprabha ;

12. Jali-niprabha ;

13. Amitaprabha ;

14. Pratibhanakuta ;

15. Sarvasokatamonirghatamati ;

16. Sarvanivaranaviskambhi ;

17. Maitreya ;

18. Manjusri )

19. Gandhahasti ;

20. Jna-naketu ;

21. Bhadrapala ;

22, Sarvapayanjaha ;

23, Amoghadarsi ;

24- Surangama ;

25. Vajrapaani

( General remarks.


Bodhisattva Manjusri


1. Vajraraga ;

2. Dharmadhatu-Vagisvara ;

3. Manjughosa ;

4. Siddhaikavlra ;

5. Vajrananga ;

6, Kama sangiti Manjusri ;

7. Vagisvara ;

8. Manjuvara ;

9. Man- juvajra ;

10> Manjukumara ;

11. Arapacana ;

12. Sthira-cakra ;

13. Vadirat,

Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara


I. Gods : ^

1. Mahabala ;

2. Saptasatika Hayagriva

II. Goddesses :

3. Kurukulla ;

4. Bhrkuti ;


Gods


1. Candarosana ;

2. Heruka ;

3. Hevajra ;

4. Buddha- /kapala ;

5. Sambara ;

6. Saptaksara ;

7. Mahamaya ;

8. Havamya ;

9 Raktayamah ;

10. Krsnayamari ;

11. Jambhala ;

12. Occhusma Jambhala ;

13. Vighnantaka ;

14. Vajrahuhkara ;

15. Bhutadamara ;

16. Vajrajjvalanalarka ;

17. Trailokyaviiava ;

18. Paramasva ;

19. Yogam-bara ;

20. Kalacakra.


Goddesses

I. Gods :

1 . Vajramrta

Ten Gods of Direction


1. Yamantaka ;

2. Prajnantaka ;

3. Padmantaka ;

4. Vighnantaka ;

5. Takkiraja ;

6. Niladanda ;

7* Maha-bala ;

8. Acala ;

9. Usmsa ;

10. Sumbharaja.


Six Goddesses of Direction


1. Vajrankusi ;

2. VajrapasI ;

3. Vajrasphota ;

4. Vajraghanta ;

5. Usmsavijaya ;

6. Sumbha


Eight Usmsa Gods


1. Vajrosmsa ;

2. Ratnosmsa ;

3. Padmosmsa ;

4. Visvosmsa ;

5. Tejosmsa ;

6. Dhvajosmsa ;

7. Tik-snosmsa ;

8. Chhatrosmsa.


Five Protectresses

1. Mahapratisara ;

2. Mahasahasrapramardani ;

3. Mahamantranusarim ;

4. Maha$ItavatI ;

5. MahamayurL


Taras of Five Colour


1. Green Tara ;

2. White Tara ;

3. Yellow Tara ;

4. Blue Tara;

5. Red Tara.


Eight Gauri Group




1. Gaurl;

2. Cauri ;

3. Vetall ;

4. Ghasmarl ;

5. Pukkasi;

6. Saban ;

7. Candali ;

8. Dombi.


=Four Dance Deities


1. Lasya ;

2.. Mala;

3. Gita ;

4. Nrtya.


Four Musical Instruments


L Vaihsa ;

2. Vina;

3. Mukunda ;

4. Muraja.


Four Door Goddesses

1. Talika ;

2. KuncI ;

3. Kapata ;

4. Patadharinl


Four Light Goddesses

1. Suryahasta ;

2.Dlpa ;

3. Ratnolka ;

4. Tadit-kara.


Four Animal-Faced Goddesses

1. Hayasya ;

2. bukarasya ;

3. Svanasya ;

4. Sim-hasya.


Four Dakini Group


1. Dakini ;

2. Lama ;

3. Khandaroha ;

4. Rupim.

Twelve Paramitas

1. Ratnaparamita ;

2. Danaparamita ;

3. cillapara-mita ;

4. Ksantiparamita ;

5. Viryaparamita ;

6. Kya-naparamita ;

7. Prajnaparamita ;

8 Upayaparamita ;

9. Pranidhanaparamita ;

10. Balaparamita ;

11. Jnanaparamita ;

12. Vajrakarmaparamita.


Twelve Vasita Goddesses

1. Ayurvasita ;

2. Cittavasita ;

3. Pariskaravasita ;

4. Karma vasita ;

5. Upapattivasita ;

6. Rddhiva-sita ;

7. [[Adhimuktivasita ;

8. Pranidhana vasita ;

9. Jnanavasita ;

10. Dharmavasita]] ;

11. Tathatavasita ;

12, Buddhabodhiprabha-vasita.


Twelve Bhumis

1. Adhimukticarya ;

2. Pramudita ;

3. Vimala ;

4* Prabhakan ;

5. Arcismatl ;

6. Sudurjaya ;

7. Abhi-mukhl ;

8. Durangama ;

9. Acala ;

10. Sadhu-mat! ;

11. Dharmamegha ;

12* Samantaprabha.


Twelve Dharinls

1. Sumati ;

2. Ratnolka ;

3. Usrnsavijaya ;

4 Marl ;

5. Parnasabarl ;

6. Jahgull ;

7. Ananta-mukhl ;

8 Cunda ;

9. Prajnavardhanl ;

10. Sarvakar-mavaranavisodhanl ;

11. Aksayajnanakaranda ;

12 Sarvabuddhadh armakosa vatL


Four Pratisamvits


Hindu Gods in Vajrayana



1. Mahakala ;

2. Ganapatl ;

3. Ganapatihrdaya ;

4 Sarasvatl ;


Eight Dikpalas



I Indra ;

II. Yama ;

III. Varuna ;

IV. Kubera ;

V. Isana ;

VI. Agni ;

VII Nairrti ;

VIII. Vayu

[[Ten Principal Hindu Deities


I Brahma ;

II. Visnu ;

III. "Stahesvara ;

IV. Karttikeya ;

V. Varahl ;

VI. Camunda ;

VII. BhrngI;

VIII. Ganapati ;

IX MahSkala ;

X. Nandikesvara.


Nine Planets



I. Aditya;

II. Candra ;

III. Mangala ;

IV. Budha;

V. Brhaspati ;

VI. Sukra ;

VII. 3ani;

VIII. Rahu ;

IX. Ketu.


Balabhadra Group


I. Balabhadra ;

II. Jayakara ;

III. Madhukara ;

Vasanta


Lords of the Yaksas, Kinnaras, Gandharvas and Vidyadharas

Number of Sadhanas from the manuscripts of Sadhanamala, and he was surprised to find that the images tallied most remarkably with the descriptions given in the unpublished text of the Tantric manuscript. Again, the images and sculptures

supplied interesting details such as were not available in the Sadhana. Thus the Sadhana and the image mutually enlightened each other. Professor Foucher's second volume embodies a critical, although partial, study of the Sadhanamala and

it was this book that first emphasized the necessity of referring to a Sadhana in order to make or justify any single identification of a Buddhist image. When the present author was studying at the feet of the illus- trious savant,

Professor Foucher, at the Indian Museum, Calcutta, he was advised to edit and study the different recensions of the Sadhanamala before proceeding with the delicate art of identification of Buddhist deities.

j The Sadhanamala is thus the most valuable_jm^i^ Buddhist iconograph^aot only because it records the latest advances in psychic research of the Vajrayana Buddhists, but also because it was a product of a period when Buddhism was about

to be destroyed in Bengal due to Mussalman invasion. This standard work on Buddhist iconography has been published in two volumes as Nos. 26 and 41 of the Qaekwad's Oriental Series with an elaborate introduction dealing with the text and

the various problems raised therein. The edition of the Sadhanamala comprises^ contains^dscrij>tions of i^umerQus_Buddhist deities* All new Sadhanas found in a different collection called the Sadhanasamuccaya have been carefully incorporated in their appropriate places in the present edition, which may very well

represent a Vade Mecum of the Sadhana literature of the Buddhists. The Sadhanamala not only gives valuable details regarding the deities, b^^jJtud^ historical

perio4r the Tantric philosophy, and its psychic exercises, and on authors, Siddhas, Mantras, Mandalas,and magic as prevalent among the Buddhists. The special .form of Buddhism which developed in the Tantric period is called the Vajrayana, and the Sadhanamala throws a

great deal of light on this obscure path of Buddhism which was current in India from the 7th to the 13th century A.D. TKe Sadhanamala does not however exhaust the material for the study of Indian Buddhist Iconography, One of the

Sadhanamala Mss. is dated ir the Newari Era 285 corresponding to A.D. 1165, and there- fore, this work is not expected to record all the developments that took place after 1165 A. D. Many of the later developments are found incorporated

in the work entitled the Dharmakosasangraha of Amrtananda who was the Residency Pandit when B. Hodgson was the

Resident of Nepal. A manuscript of this work is preserved in the Durbar Library of Nepal, and there is also a copy of the original, preserved in the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal in the Government Collection. Amrtananda's work is not published.

Besides Amrtananda's work there are others more ancient and capable of supplying much iconographic material. One such work is the Nispannayogavali of Mahapandita Abhayakara Gupta of the Vikramashila monastery who flourished during the

reign of the Pala King Rama- pafa ( A.D. 1084-1130 ). This valuable work is now published in the Qaekwad's Oriental Series as No. 109 with an elaborate introduction and a full summary of its contents

The Nispannayogavali is a work on Mandalas and is remarkable for its richness of information and brevity. It contains in all 26 Mandalas in twenty-six chapters, some short, some long. All these Mandalas describe innumerable deities of

the Tantra cult. A large number pf these descriptions is absolutely original, Tiighly interesting and informative. Many of the names and forms which were altogether lost, are published here for the first time. Many of the deities described accurately in the work are not to be found anywhere in printed literature. The Nispannayogavali thus presents a unique, original, useful and most valuable information which constitutes our most authentic material for the study

of the images and deities belonging to the Buddhist pantheon. Nispannayogavali outbeats Sadhanamala since the material presented here is more varied, more extensive and more prolific.

What service this Nispannayogavali can render to Buddhism may be illustrated by a reference to the several hundreds of images of Buddhist deities discovered in the Forbidden City of Peiping in Manchuiia. In July 1926 Stael Holstem the

Russian archaeologist received permission to visit a number of Lama temples situated in Beijing which seem to have been neglected for a long time. In the upper storey of one of these temples he found a collection of bronze statuettes

constituting a Lamaist Pantheon which had consisted originally of 787 figures. These figures along wuh a series of photographs from three manuscripts written in Chinese were studied "by the famous American Professor Walter Eugene Clark,

Wales Professor of Sanskrit in the Harvard University, and he published this rich material in two sumptuous volumes, entitled, the Two Lamai&ic Pantheons in the Harvard Yenching Institute Monograph Series in the year 1937. The first

volume contains an introduction, bibliography and indexes of deities in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese. The second volume contains illustrations of innumerable deities.

These illustrations are of the utmost importance for the study of the Buddhist pantheon not only of China but also of India, Nepal and Tibet. The original images bear inscriptions in Chinese and sometimes in Tibetan and other languages,

and the learned editor took great pains in restoring their original Sanskrit names. A large number of these names derived from Chinese sources is found in the Nispannayogavall with their full iconographic descriptions. Thus the

Nispannayogavall provides the much needed descriptive texts which served as a basis for the artists to prepare the statuettes found in China. Since this book Nispannayogavall gives full iconographic descriptions of most of these deities

it is not unreasonable to suppose that the Nispannayogavall formed at least one of the originals from which the artists obtained the correct idea of the form of the numerous deities represented in the statuettes. Otherwise it is

difficult to conceive how form can be given to such obscure deities as the Sixteen Boddhisattvas, the Twelve Paramitas, the Twelve Vasitas, the Twelve Bhumis, the Four Pratisamvits, etc. which are described accurately in the Manjuvajra

Mandala of the Nispannayogavall. It is simply imposible to prepare images of these deities without the help of descriptions as given by Abhayakaragupta. The volume of information given in the Nispannayogavall of Abhayakara-gupta is so great that an independent book is required to deal with them exhaustively.

Besides the above mentioned Nispannayogavall, there are numerous Tantric texts which furnish considerable material for the study of Buddhist iconography of the Tantric period with which this work primarily concerns itself. Some of the

more important materials can be found in the original Tantra works such as the Heruka and the Hevajra Tantras, Candamaharosana Tantra, Vajravarahi Tantra, Kriyasamuccaya, Vajravali nama Mandalopayika, Yoginijala Tantra Abhidhanottra Tantra and many others The list of such original Tantras furnishing valuable information on Buddhist deities can by no means be exhausted. The works above mentioned are all unpublished, and their handwritten copies can be found in the manuscript libraries such as the Durbar Library, Nepal; Asiatic Society's Library, Bengal; University Library, Cambridge; Musee Guimet, Paris; and the Russian Academy of Sciences in Leningrad.

Numerous such manuscripts are also to be found in the hundreds of Buddhist monasteries of Nepal at Kathmandu, Pattan and Bhatgaon. Thus there is still an inexhaustive field for research and original work in Buddhist iconography alone It is a pity that these valuable and original source books of Buddhism should remain unpublished in this country, and sooner attention is drawn to this field of work, the better it will be for the history of our cultural past. It is a matter of deep regret that even tx>day there are lakhs of handwritten manuscripts in India in private houses, and no effort is being made to collect or preserve them. Thus these valuable source books of Indian history and culture are allowed to perish in India. Sanskrit being the most important member of the Indo-European family of languages is world property to-day, and it is the duty of every scholar in the world to see that this precious heritage is not allowed to be dissipated in an irresponsible manner.

There is another class of manuscripts which bears miniatures and paintings of Buddhist gods and goddesses. The different recensions of the Prajnaparamita and Pancaraksa bear miniature paintings on them. Illuminated manuscripts of the Karandavyuha and Bodhicaryavatara are also not unknown. The Pancaraksa manuscripts are to be found almost in every Buddhist house in Nepal, they bear different sets of miniatures, and are calculated to serve many household purposes. Holy

books are illuminated with miniatures in order that they may be treated with respect by others, and in order that their sanctity may be increased and preserved.

By far the most important material for .the study of Buddhist iconography is represented by sculptures, bronzes, metal images and miniatures. The earlier phases of Buddhism are more or less free from the. representations of gods and

goddesses. But scenes from Buddha's life, and Jataka stories were given preference in the earlier Buddhism. Such scenes and stories are found represented in stone at Sanchi, Bharhut, Amaravati and also in the Gandhara school. According

to Professor Foucher the first image of the Buddha was fashioned in the Gandhara school of art.(*) Sculptures of Bodhisattvas and Hindu gods are not rare in this school. The sculpture remains at Amaravati are contemporaneous with those

of the Gandhara school. The Mathura school followed closely and then came the sculptures of Sarnath, Magadha, Bengal, Orissa, Java and Nepal in the Tantric age. The paintings at Ajanta begin from the first century A.D. and the sculptures

of Ellora and many other places, Buddhist cave temples of Southern and Northern India show the influence of immature Tantra on them. Sculptures produced in the earlier schools have received ample atten- tion of great scholars, but images

belonging to the Tantric and post- Tantric periods and profoundly influenced by the Tantras have not been so fortunate. The excavations at Sarnath, Nalanda, Kurkihar have brought to light a large number of images of Buddhist gods and

goddesses belonging to the Tantra school, and it may be reasonably expected that the old strongholds of Tantric learning such as Odantapuri, Vikramaslla, Nalanda, Sarnath and Jagaddala monasteries will prove no less fruitful in this respect. The museums of Eastern India such as Sarnath, Patna, Calcutta, Dacca, Rajshahi, Mayurbhanj, Khiching and few others contain numerous metal images and sculptures belonging to the Tantric cult. That Bengal in the pre-Muhammadan period was practically Buddhist is made obvious by the fact that the worship of Dharma and Manjughosa still prevails there, and that numerous Buddhist sculptures are, being constantly discovered throughout the length and breadth of the province. It is needless to add that the Buddhist images discovered in Bengal, Bihar and Assam are mostly the product of the Tantric school of the Buddhists.

The wealth of sculptural and bronze remains in Nepal has not yet received the attention it deserved. Nepal is the only country which abounds in rich material for the study of Buddhist iconography, and in Nepal Buddhism can be studied as a living religion. Some of the Buddhist monasteries at Pattan are so rich in images that they can be said to constitute small museums by themselves. The stupa of Bodh- nath alone contains no less than a hundred and eight sculptures executed in a neat manner. Occasional images of Guru Padmasambhava in the peculiar Tibetan technique and costume bespeak the Tibetan character of the temple. Forty-seven images in this famous temple are represented in Yab-yum and the rest are single. About ten of th< single images depict the Siddhas of Tibet such as Mila-ras-pa, Mar-pa, Padmasambhava, Naropa and others. Although Tibetan in character the temple contains nevertheless some of the purely Indian gods of the Vajrayana pantheon, such as Sadaksarl Lokesvara, Vak, Heruka, Yamantaka and a few others. An old Tibetan tradition declares that in the matter of art Bengal comes first, Nepal second while the Tibetan and Chinese are the worst.

At Simbhu in Nepal one can witness the grandeur of an excellent Buddhist museum where the finest specimens of Buddhist sculptures are preserved round about the Stupa itself and in the surroundings. At the Maccharidar Vahal or the temple of Matsyendranatha the great Natha Yogin, there can be found 108 different forms of Avalokitesvara painted on a running panel in colour.

1 Images and forms of deities that are not available in India are to be found in plenty in the Buddhist monasteries in Nepal. Anywhere in Nepal round a central stupa tiers of small chapels rising from the ground to the top are found to contain first class artistic specimens of Buddhist gods and goddesses. In monasteries which are run by courteous and learned Tantric monks one can find quite a number of images, sculptures, bronzes, paintings and illuminated manuscripts.

It is possible to have an idea of the enormous wealth of cultural remains in Nepal, when it is remembered that the number of monasteries at Kathmandu alone exceeds five hundred.

In Nepal, interesting material for the study of Buddhist iconography is obtained from an entirely unexpected quarter. There is a class of people called the Citrakaras or professional artists. They are so proficient in their art that they

can produce an excellent drawing of any Buddhist deity in a few minutes. These artists seem to have a phenomenal memory with regard to the iconographic details such as the number of faces and hands, the pose, the symbols, the weapons and the parental Dhyani Buddha.

They prepare such drawings in the presence of the customer without ever referring to a book or painted specimen, although at home they keep albums full of drawings in black and white and paintings in colour all relating to Buddhist deities. The specimens obtained from a gifted Citrakara named Virman are repro- duced in the body of the book in large numbers. All line drawings, barring the twenty- four Bodhisattvas, reproduced in this volume are from his drawings in black and white.

The above is a short survey of materials of different kinds that are available to the student of Buddhist iconography. It may be noticed that the images, sculptures, bronzes, drawings, miniatures, and the gods and goddesses represented by these, together with the literature explaining them, all belong to the Tantric mode of thought and culture. They are brought together under the comprehensive term of Vajrayana or the "Adamantine Vehicle". It leads therefore to a consideration of that form of Budhhism which is well known as Vajrayana,


Vajrayana Mysticism

Both the Hindus and the Buddhists were alike prolific writers on the Tantras and the literature extant on them is wonderfully extensive. One of the reasons why the word Tantra cannot be defined is that the Tantra comprises an astounding

number of subjects along with its own numerous sub-divisions. Whatever was best, whatever was ennobling and whatever was beautiful in India were all incorporated in the Tantra. Tantric literature contributes a great deal to such sciences

as astronomy, astrology, medicine, alchemy, chiromancy, horoscopy, divi^ nation, prognosis, Yoga and Hathayoga. The Tantra is an admixture of religion, philosophy, science, superstition, dogmas, psychic exercises and mysticism. In this

wonderful literature is locked up much of the cultural history of India, and when this literature is intensively studied, it will reveal a great deal of India's past history and culture, particularly for the period between the 7th century A. D. right upto the Muhammadan conquest. It may here be mentioned that the Tantras, inspite of all their faults, are peculiarly Indian and represent India's contribu^ tion to world culture. A literature of this kind is not found in the history and civilization of any other country in the world.

To understand the rise of Vajrayana it is necessary to go back to the original teachings of the Buddha. Lord Buddha prescribed Yanas in the beginning, namely, the Sravakayana ancL the buddhayana. The Srtvakas were to near IFom a Buddha but they had to wait till the advent of another Buddha for their emancipation. In the meanwhile the Sravakas could teach, but they could neither attain Nirvana themselves nor help others to attain it. The Pratyekas were eminent men ;

they could attain Nirvana by their own efforts, without the help of a Buddha but they could not impart Nirvana to others. Buddhism continued in this state till the rise of the Mahayana pro- perly called, the Bodhisattvayana.\ The Mahayanists dismissed the previous Yanas with the contemptuous epithet of Hinayana. They claimed that they could not only attain Nirvana, nay even Buddhahood, with their own unaided efforts, but could also help others to attain these ideals. The distinction between Mahayana and Hinayana is graphically described in the earliest work, the Mahayanasutralankara, attributed to the famous Buddhist sage Asanga.

Thus there were three Yanas in Buddhism about 300 A. D. which may approximatelv be taken as the time of Asahga. But against these three Yanas there were four schools of philosophy in Buddhism, namely, the Sarvastivada (Sautrantika), the

Vahyarthabhaiiga (Vai* bhasika), the Vijnanavada (Yogacara), and the r Sunyavada (Madhyamaka). How these four systems of philosophy were distributed amongst the three Yanas is one of the vital questions of Buddhism. The Tattvaratna vail of Advayavajra (12th century A. D.) answers this question in a praiseworthy manner.

According to this authority "Three are the Yanas, Sravakayana, Pratyekayana and Mahayana. There are four theories; Vaibhasika, Sautrantika, Yogacara and Madhyamaka. Sravakayana and Pratyekayana are explained by the theories of the Vaibhasikas.


Mahayana is of two kinds : Paramitanaya and Mantranaya. Paramitanaya is explained by the theories either of Sautrantika, Yogacara or Madhyamaka. Mantranaya is explained by the theories of Yogacara and Madhyamaka only". l

Thus^ Mantranaya comilieuges with the most abstruse theories of Sunyavada and Vijnanavada. Advayavajra in one place says, "Mantranaya is very abstruse. It concerns men who seek emancipation by deep and solemn methods. It is also very

extensive owing to the understanding of such theories as the four symbolic representations. Therefore, the author is not fit to explain it". - Advayavajra cites for his authority a statement which says that the Mantrasastra transcends all other Sastras, because though the Sastras have the same common object there is no fear of ignorance here. The means are many and the end not difficult of attainment by men whose senses are sharpened to the highest degree.

Advayavajra in his Sekanirnaya accepts the Mahasukha theory, dilates upon the various stages of the Mahasukha which according to him is not possible of attainment with- out the Sakti the embodiment of Karuna. :?

It is hardly necessary now to state that the Buddhism of the Lord Buddha found entirely different expressions as time passed from century to century, so much so, that even if Buddha is reborn, he will not be able to recognize Vajrayana or the Buddhist Tantra as his own handi* craft. Though the Buddha was antagonistic to all sorts of sacrifices, sorcery, necromancy or magic, he nevertheless is credited by some later authorities with having given instructions on Madras,

Mandalas, Yoga and Tantra, so that prosperity in this world could be attained by his less advanced disciples who seemed to care more for this world than for the Nirvana preached by him. * India in Buddha's time w^s such that any religion which dared forbid all kinds of magical practices, could hardly be popular. A clever organiser as the Buddha was, he did not fail to notice the importance of incorporating magical practices in his religion to make it popular from all points of view. The Tantras and Mantras were all there in the time of the Buddha, but unfortunately, we do not possess any connected account of them except a few works on the Dharanis in which the Chinese were interested in the beginning of the Christian era.

These Dharanis are only unmeaning strings of words which are said to confer great merit when mutterred repeatedly for a number of times. Then comes the worship of Buddha in the Prajnaparamita with all the paraphernalia of worship such as are

found in the Tantras. Then follow the different recensions of the [[Prajnaparami]ta, its sutra, hrdayasutra, its Dharam and Mantra the recitation of all of which confers the benefit of reading the whole of the Prajnaparamita scripture. This

is a very old work and was translated into Chinese in the second century. A. D. The Manjusrimulakalpa appears to be a pro- duct of the same period and is full of deities, mudras, mandalas and Tantric practices, which became systematized in the Guhyasamaja Tantra in circa 300 A. D.

The Buddhist Tantras belong undoubtedly to Mahayana although it is quite possible to infer the presence of magical practices amongst the followers of the early Buddhism. l The Tantras were a development of the Yogacara which was inspired

by the Sunyavada of the Madhyamakas. Vajrayana marks a step in advance even of the Yogacara thought.

The Mahayana in the opinion of the Vajrayanists is coextensive with what they called Dharma which they considered as eternal and to which was given a more important place in later Buddhism, than was assigned to the Buddha himself. The

Vajrayanists refer to Sunya in all their writings, but this is not the Sunya of the Madhyamakas about which neither existence nor non-existence nor a combination of the two nor a negation of the two can be predicatedj To the Madhyamakas

both the subject and the object are Sunya in essence ; there is no reality either of the mind or of the external world. Obviously, this is a position which was not agreeable to the Vajrayanists because to them a positive aspect in the

Sunya is absolutely necessary. The Yogacara or the Vijnanavada goes a little further and the view of Vijnanavada as formulated by the school is that when emancipation is obtained it does not become Sunya, but turn into eternal

consciousness. Vajrayana, on the other hand, 'is characterized as the 'Path which leads to perfect enlightenment* or what they call in Sanskrit 'Ar&ttara Samyak Sambodhi'. Vajrayana literally means the adamantine path or vehicle, but its

technical meaning is the 'Sunya Vehicle' where unya is used in a special sense to represent Vajra. It is said,

"Sunyata is designated as Vajra because it is firm and sound, and cannot be changed, cannot be pierced, cannot be penetrated, cannot be burnt and cannot be destroyed". *

The Mahayanists differ from the Hinayanists who are keen on obtaining liberation for themselves by their own efforts. The Mahayanists, on the other hand, do not care for their own salvation.. They are more solicitous about the deliverance

of their fellow creatures/ than about their own. Their compassion for the sufferings of others actuates them to renounce their comforts, merits and even their right to salvation. The ideal of a Mahayanist finds expression in the

Karandavyuha where the ideal Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara is represented as refusing his well earned Nirvana until all beings of the world were in possession of the Bodhi knowledge and obtained freedom from worldly miseries. -

This then may be considered to be the goal of every Bodhisattva, which can be reached by following the tenets either of Sunyavada or of Vijnanavada. The Madhyamaka theory postulated a transcendental state but the Yogacara added the element of Vijriana 'consciousness' to Sunya. The Bodhi mind is a chain of Vijnana which is changing every moment, the Vijnana of the previous moment giving rise to the Vijriana of the succeeding moment with the same memory the same conformations and same qualities, and this process goes on till Vijnana attains liberation.

Now, this is the sort of emancipation to which the Vijnanavadins led their followers. In this Nirvana, as is already pointed out, there are two elements, Sunya and Vijnana. The Vajrayana which is a direct outcome of the Yogacara school introduced a new element or the element of Mahasukha 'eternal bliss' to their conception of liberation. The evolution of Buddhism became complete and found full expression in Vajrayana.

Vajrayana introduced many innovations of a revolutionary character. It introduced, for instance, the theory of the five Dhyani Buddhas as embodiments of the five Skandhas or cosmic elements and formulated the theory of the Kulas or families of the five Dhyani Buddhas from which deities emerge according to need. It introduced the worship of the Prajna or Sakti in Buddhism for the first time, and a host of other things including a large number of gods and goddesses, their Sadhanas for the purpose of visualisation, Mantras, Tantras, Yantras, Mudras, Mandates, mystic realizations and psychic exercises of the most subtle character.

It is not possible to trace the origin of Vajrayana without referring to the Tibetan authorities and ancient Tantric authors Taranatha is reported to have said l that Tantrism existed from very early times and was transmitted in a secret

manner from the time of Asanga down to the time of Dharmaklrti. Asanga who was a brother of Vasubandhu (280-360 A, D.) must have flourished circa 300 A. D. and Dharmaklrti who is not mentioned by the Chinese traveller Hiuen Thsang but is referred to with great respect by I-Tsing very probably belonged to a period between 625-675 A. D. Thus it can be seen that during a long period of nearly three hundred years Tantrism was handed down from Gurus to disciples in an occult

manner, before its followers could be numerically strong enough to preach their secret doctrines in public. It seems, therefore, reasonable that the Mahasiddhas such as Saraha, Nagarjuna, Luipa, Padmavajra, Anahgavajra, Indrabhuti and

the rest who were masters of Tantra and were great authors and magicians, were the chief agents to boldly and publicly preach their doctrines and exhort people to follow their tenets, doctrines and practices. Their endeavours combined

with their unique personal achievements must have converted a considerable number of people to Vajrayana faith.

It is rather difficult to point out the source of information from which Taranath drew his inspiration, but a perusal of such Tantric works as the Guhyasiddhi of Padmavajra and the Jnanasiddhi of Indrabhuti makes it possible to infer

that it was the Guhyasamaja which was regarded as the most ancient and the most authoritative work of the Tantra school. Padmavajra not only advocates the cause of Tantric Buddhism but also gives a succinct digest of the work which he

calls Sri-Samaja or the 'Venerable Samaja' in his treatise which is still unpub- lished. Indrabhuti in his Jnanasiddhi acknowledges the Guhyasamaja as the work of highest authority, and gives a summary of some chap- ters and the topics

dealt with in this work. There is thus hardly any doubt that the Guhyasamaja is the original Sahglti which introduced for the first time the tenets of Vajrayana into Buddhism. It is believed to have been introduced in an Assembly of the

Faithful by Lord Buddha who is here called Sarva-Tathagata-Kaya-Vak-Citta. The Guhyasamaja is written in the form of a Sangiti and is considered highly authoritative even now amongst the Vajrayanists, and is regarded as one of the Nine Dharmas of Nepal. This is evidently the first work of Vajrayana, and Asanga quite conceivably may have had something to do with it, as it is commonly believed that the Tantras were introduced by Asahga after being initiated by Maitreya the Coming Buddha in the mysteries of Tantra in the Tusita heaven. l

It cannot be denied that in the very beginnings of Buddhism and even when Mahayana sprang up in later times a very strict discipline was enjoined on the followers of the faith. On the monks the rules were very strictly put into

operation. For instance, they must not have any- thing to do with women, must not take any forbidden food. Wine, flesh, fish, appetisers and such objects of enjoyment were specially forbidden. The rules were indeed good and were very

attractive in the time of the Buddha. But it is wholly absurd to expect obedience to such strict disciplinary measures from all members of the Sahgha even in the Buddha's life-time, if not for centuries after his disappearance. And after

all, what will be the result ? Freedom from births and rebirths was only a possibility, and success at best was only questionable ! The members of the Sangha must have revolted from time to time against the unnatural rules of discipline

imposed on them, and party quarrels were already in evidence in the Second Great Council when the Mahasahghikas were expelled from the Orthodox church by the Sthaviras or Elders, because the latter were unwilling to make any concession

on the ten minor points of discipline. Rebellion against the rules on broader and more important matters of discipline must have been in existence amongst the monks but they could not create a party of their own which could sufficiently

withstand the criticisms of the orthodox section which was sure to go against them and denounce them as heretics. Those monks who saw salvation only in leading a natural life went on devising plans to modify their faith according to

their light, probably by writing what is called the original Tantras which were secretly handed down through trusted disciples who could practice their secret rites without let or hindrance. These Tantras are in the form of Sahgltis and

are said to have been delivered by the Buddha in an Assembly of the Faithful. It is in this Sahgiti form that all new ideas were introduced into Buddhism and the Sahgltis were very powerful agencies in the introduction of innovations, because Buddhism will not be prepared to accept anything as true unless spoken by the Buddha in a public assembly.

The orthodox followers of the faith were sure to challenge anything that had not been sponsored by the Buddha, and that seems to be the reason of the great popularity of the Sahglti literature. The original Tantras of Buddhism are written in the Safiglti form wherein are in- culcated doctrines which are diametrically opposed to the original teachings of the Buddha. Easy methods leading to happiness in this world were held out in this literature, easy paths leading to salvation were shown ; great parade was made of the merits accruing from the repetitions of the Mantras, Dharams, panegyrics and worship of gods and goddesses. But everywhere any casual reader can detect a desire on the part of the authors to thwart all unnatural rules and regulations imposed on the followers. These disciplinary regulations, as a conse- quence gradually slackened down one after another, and ultimately when the Vajrayanists gained in power the secret doctrines no longer remained secret, but were openly preached and practised to the great annoyance of the orthodoxy.

In order to increase the popularity of Vajrayana the followers inclu- ded in it every conceivable tenets, dogmas, rites and practices that were calculated to attract more adherents. Thus the leading tenets of Mantrayana along with

Mantras, Mandalas, Mudras, gods and goddesses were included in Vajrayana. The earliest work of this class is said to be the Vidyadharapitaka which has been characterised by Hiuen Thsang as belonging to the canonical literature of the

Mahasanghikas. But this work is not available in original Sanskrit, and it is not possible to say anything with regard to the contents of the text. But with regard to another work the Manjusrimulakalpa the circumstances are different.

This extensive work is published in the Trivandrum Sanskrit Series in three volumes. The text forms a part of the ancient Vaipulyasutras of Mahayana and is decidedly the earliest work of Mantrayana at present available. It is written in

the Sangiti style in prose and in verse, and in an archaic style closely resembling the Gatha style, and is written throughout in what is called the Mixed Sanskrit. This work must have been very popular even after the destruction of

Buddhism in India as will be evident from the fact that the book was copied only about four hundred years back in a monastery of South India by Ravicandra the head of the Mulaghosa Vihara. 1 The Manjusrimulakalpa deals with the formulae

and practices which lead both to meterial prosperity and spiritual regeneration, and belongs to the early centuries A. D. but decidedly after the time of the composition of the Amitayus Sutra or the Sukhavati Vyuha which ushered in the

conception of Amitabha and Avalokitesvara for the first time in Mahayana. The Amitayus Sutra was first translated into Chinese in a period between A. D. 148-170, and hence the time of its composition may be fixed at about 100 A. D. 2

The Manjusrimulakalpa in that case would only be about a hundred years later than the Amitayus Sutra. If the Guhyasamaja is accepted as the very first work of the Vajrayana school it must be admitted that much time must have elapsed

between the age of the Manjusrimulakalpa and that of the Guhyasamaja which is put down in circa 300 A. D. l

The beginning of the Sangiti in the Manjusrimulakalpa is in the orthodox style as opposed to the Tantric style which is decidedly later, and where Bhagavan is introduced in the company of a large number of women instead of an assembly of

pious and devout Bodhisattvas only as in the earlier Sahgltis. The doctrine of the five Dhyani Buddhas or even their names, Mudras, Mantras, families, Saktis, colour and direc- tion are all absent in the Manjusrimulakalpa. Moreover, the

Mantras and Mudras which were later systematized in the Vajrayana work of Guhyasamaja are found scattered in the body of the text of the Manjusrlmulakalpa in a disorganised manner. The Mantras of some of the Dhyani Buddhas are indeed

to be found in the Manjusrimulakalpa although not exactly in the same meaning and form as in the later Guhyasamaja. The Manjusrimulakalpa further apeaks of Mantrayana but it does not refer to Vajrayana which is mentioned for the first

time in the Guhyasamaja the Tantra of Secret Communion. Under the circumstances it is possible to call the Manjusrimulakalpa as one of the earliest Mahayana Sutra works on which perhaps is based the outward foundation of the Vajrayana

system. Yet one who willread this work carefully will not fail to notice that it is a product behind which there is a history of development of several centuries. And probably, if ever one can go to the root of Mantrayana one will have

to voice the opinion of antaraksita and Kamalaslla that instruction on Tantras, Mudras and Mandalas were delivered by the Buddha for the benefit of such followers as would care more for their material prosperity than spiritual.

Vajrayana thus included in its purview all varieties of attractive tenets, notions, dogmas, theories, rites and practices, and incorporated all that was best in Buddhsim and probably in Hinduism also, and owing to this circumstance

Vajrayana attained great fame and popularity. It satisfied everybody, the cultured and the uncultured, the pious and the sinner, the lower and the higher ranks of the people and devotees. Vajrayana catered to all tastes with equal

efficiency, and it had some- thing useful for everybody. Its universal popularity became an esta- blished fact.

It is difficult to say from what exact locality Tantrism took its origin. In the Sadhanamala are mentioned the four Pithas or sacred spots of the Vajrayanists, namely, Kamakhya, Sirihatta, Purnagiri and Uddiyana. The Tibetan authorities are of opinion that the Tantric Buddhism originated from Uddiyana, The location of Uddiyana thus is important for the history of the Buddhist Tantric literature.

Uddiyana is mentioned in the Sadhanamala rather frequently. The earliest manuscript of the Sadhanamala is dated in the Newari Era 285 which is equivalent to A. D. 1165. In this work Uddiyana is connected with the Sadhana of Kurukulla, Trailokyavasamkara, Marici and Vajrayogim. The Sadhanamala also connects Uddiyana with such Tantric authors as Saraha. The Jnanasiddhi of Indrabhuti is stated in the last colophon as having started from Uddiyana (Odiyana).

Uddiyana being one of the four Pithas sacred to Vajrayogim should be at least near Kamakhya (Kamarupa), and Sirihatta (Sylhet) in Assam and it is not unusual to think that all these four Pithas received their sanctity from temples dedicated to Vajrayogim. Thus Uddiyana has to be located in Eastern and Assam area.

In the mediaeval period when Tantras flourished, Vanga and Samatata were the two important centres of culture in Bengal. Vahga included the present Dacca, Faridpur and Backerganj districts, while Samatata comprised the present

Sylhet, Chittagong, Tipperah and Mymensingh districts. That Vahga and Samatata were the two great centres of culture in Bengal is borne out by the numerous Buddhist and Brahma- nical images of the Tantric type discovered in the whole of

this region. Numerous old inscriptions, remains of old buildings, coins and terra- cottas found in these regions, confirm the conclusion that from the Vanga-Samatata area radiated different streams of culture to the rest of Eastern India. l

In this Vahga'Samatata region one of the most important places is the Pargana Vikrampur in the Dacca district. Anyone acquainted with the ancient inscriptions of Bengal will be able to appreciate the import- ance of Yikrampur which is

sometimes mentioned as the seat from which imperial charters were issued. There was a great Buddhist monastery here in the reign of the Candras and the Senas. Atisa Dlpahkara, famous in Tibetan history as a great scholar and master of

Tantric lore, is said to belong to the royal family of Vikrampur. Vikrampur is recognized even to-day as one of the foremost places of culture in East Bengal.

In this Pargana Vikrampur there is a fairly large and well-populated village which is now known by the rather extraordinary name of

Vajrayogini.

Round about this village numerous Vajrayana images have been discovered, and among them may be noticed images of Jambhala, Parnasaban, Vajrasattva and Tara. The term * Vajra' in Vajrayogim is also a familiar Buddhist word.

Vajra is equivalent to Sunya.

Vajrayogini is a Buddhist deity which the Hindus borrowed in the form of Chhinna- masta. Thus the name of the village appears to be unmistakably Buddhist. The village must have derived its name from the temple of Vajrayogini which was in existence in early times.

It has already been pointed out that the temples dedicated to Vajrayogini could only be expected at four places, Kamakhya, Sirihatta, Purnagiri and Uddiyana. Out of these Kamakhya and Sirihatta (Sylhet) still retain their original

names. Purnagiri which signifies a hill is not identified yet with certainty. But it is possible to spot the fourth place which is connected with Vajrayogini. Thus it becomes evident that the present village Vajrayogini was originally

known as Uddiyana but as the deity Vrjrayogim became more popular later, the original name gradually disappeared giving place to the name of the deity. Tantrism of the Buddhists therefore originated here in Uddiyana-Vajrayogim, and thence was transmited to the rest of India. l

One of the chief topics dealt with in Vajrayana is the deity. These deities are a product of psychic exercises of the most subtle character, and are visualized by the worshipper in the course of intense meditation. These psychic

exercises are called the Sadhanas a collection of which is published in the Sadhanamala already referred to. To appreciate Buddhist iconography, therefore, a reference to the Sadhana process of god-realisation is necessary. This process is described in the next section.

The Psychic Process of Sadhana

The Tahtrics of ancient India were formidable optimists. They intuitively realised that though this universe is composed of matter and spirit, it is the spirit which always dominates over matter, and is un- doubtedly more powerful than

the latter. There were several schools of thought in ancient India which took it for granted that spirit was supreme and that this spirit should be developed in order that power may be gained. Amongst these schools the Yoga and Tantra

were pre- eminently the most influential and popular. The followers of these schools, particularly the latter, wanted to achieve through spiritual or psychic power everything that could be achieved in the material sphere. To-day for quick travel the material world presents to us railways, aeroplanes and steamers, but the Tantrics claimed that by spiritual culture weight of the body can be so reduced that it can fly over space to any distance within the shortest possible time. To-day for informa- tion about kinsmen in

distant lands people send letters, wires and cables, but the Tantrics claim that by intense meditation alone they can visualize what is happening in other parts of the world, either by a projec- tion of the mind or by mentally travelling

the distance in a few seconds. For conversing with a friend at a long distance the material world pro- vides telephones and wireless instruments but the Tantrics claim that by psychic exercises they can hear anything from any distance,

even the voice of gods and other invisible beings in the firmament. When a man suffers from disease the material world provides doctors, medicines, injections and so forth, but to a Tantric these are unnecssary. By developing psychic resources of the mind he can cure by a mere glance, or touch or by recitation of Mantras. These extraordinary powers of the mind are called Siddhis.

Thus it can be seen that the Tantrics recognised long before the present age that psychic culture is of the utmost importance in life, and through these exercises anything that can be accomplished in the mate- rial sphere can be achieved

in the psychic sphere. This tendency even in the present day is a dominating factor in Indian life, and no one should wonder seeing people running after Sadhus and Sannyasins lea- ving aside modern scientific men in many of their

difficulties. Occasionally, stories are told of miraculous powers of ascetics over the elements of nature or of their power of curing diseases for which apparently no recognised system of scientific medicine has discovered a cure.

There are many such Yogins even now in India moving about in jungles, cities, caves and mountains, possessing wonderful and miraculous powers.

The Tantrics who were the advocates of psychic culture, by persistent efforts through mental exercises, used to obtain super-normal powers which were known as Siddhis. Those who gained such Siddhis were called Siddhas, and the process

through which they obtained Siddhis called Sadhana. In the Yogasutra which is recognised to be the earliest work in Sanskrit on the subject of psychic exercises, enumerates eight different Siddhis. Later works mention more and the

Brahmavaivarta Purana mentions thirty-four kinds of Siddhis including the eight already mentioned in the Yogasutra.

The Siddhas or those who attain supernormal powers are considered to be of three distinct varieties, the Best, Middling and the Mild. The first class magicians can fulfil all their desires by mere thought, that is to say, as soon as a desire arises in his mind it is instantly fulfilled.

The Middling variety of Siddhas is able to conquer death, commune with gods, enter unperceived into dead bodies or homes of others, move in the air, hear the gods talk, understand all terrestrial truths, obtain conveyances and ornaments,

and are able to bewitch people, per* form miracles, remove diseases by glance or touch, extract poison, obtain erudition in scriptures, renounce all worldly enjoyments, prac- tise Yoga in all its subdivisions, show compassion to all beings and even obtain omniscience. The Mild or the third class of Siddha obtains fame, long life, conveyances, ornaments, familiarity with the king, popularity with royal personages and people of influence and power, wealth and prosperity, children and family.

The Siddhas of the first and second class were known as Mahasiddhas 'Great Magicians' and in India their number was recognized as eighty- four. Most of these Mahasiddhas flourished during the Pala Period of Indian history (8th to 12th centuries A.D.) and were famous because of their uncanny and prodigious feats.

The Sadhana or the process prescribed for attaining the different Siddhis forms the bulk of the Tantric literature of both the Buddhists and the Hindus. Thousands of Sadhanas were written, both in prose and in verse, in Sanskrit and thousands were translated into Tibetan and are now preserved in the pages of the Tibetan Tangyur. Besides, every Tantric manuscript, cart loads of which are even to*day to be found in public and private collections, describes the Sadhanas through which Siddhis are possible of attainment. The Buddhists had a special literature called the Sadhanas and they were always written in Sanskrit by many of the well known Tantric authors and the Mahasiddhas. This literature is now almost lost in original Sanskrit, but fortunately for us some collections of Sadhanas are still extant. These collections were given the names of Sadhanamala and Sadhanasamuccaya, and a critical edition of all available Sadhanas

in these two collections is already published in two volumes in the Qaekwad's Oriental Series as Nos. 26 and 41. The publication of these Sadhanas has revealed a number of hitherto unknown and important facts. The Sadhanas revealed that

the Buddhists were not lagging behind any other religion in India in the matter of psychic culture as advocated in the Tantras. Secondly, as these Sadhanas contain the description of a large number of Buddhist deities it becomes possible

to differentiate them from the deities of the Hindu and Jain faiths, and to determine the purpose for which they were made and what they stood for.

The Sadhanas being most important for the study of Buddhist iconography it is necessary to give a general idea of the contents of the Sdhana or the detailed process through which spiritual eminence or Siddhi is obtained. For this purpose a summarised translation of an elaborate Sadhana in the Sadhanamala is given here. But before proceeding to translate the Sadhana it may be emphasized that it is a purely psychic process for the

realisation and visualisation of the deity with whom the worshipper is asked to identify himself. The Sadhana in all cases is prescribed for the realisation of some god or goddess according to a fixed procedure laid therein.

For describing the contents of the Sadhanas a specimen is here selected which is published as Sadhana No. 98 in the Sadhanamala of the printed edition, for the realisation of the goddess Tara, composed by Sthavira Anupama Raksita who was

a well-known Tantric author and who flourished before 1165 and whose works, five in number, are preserved in translation in the Tibetan Tangyur. The contents of this Sadhana is given below.

"The worshipper after leaving the bed in the morning should wash his feet and face and after purifying himself should go to a place which is lonely, agreeable, besmeared with scents, strewn with fragrant flowers, and then sit there in an

easy pose. Then he should meditate on his heart the orb of the moon which originates from the first syllable -A- and on it think on the form of a beautiful blue lotus. On the filament of the lotus he should meditate on another moon the

yellow germ syllable Tarn as destroying the darkness of ignorance, illuminating innumerable worlds of the ten quarters, and bringing from the firmament innumerable Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

'Then after an elaborate worship of these great compassionate Buddhas and Bodhisattvas with celestial flowers, incense, scents garlands, unguents, powders, mendicant dress, umbrellas, flags, bells, banners and the like, the worshipper

should confess his sins with the following words ; 'Whatever sinful deeds I have done, caused to be done, or consented to be done, in this endless cycle of creation, everything I confees'.

"Thereafter, meditating on the restraint of wrong deeds he should give his assent to the meritorious deeds of others with the following Mantra ; 'I assent to the virtuous deeds of the Sugatas, Pratyekas, Sravakas, the Jinas and their

sons the Bodhisattvas, and of the world with all the gods beginning with Brahman'.

'Then he should take refuge in the Three Jewels with the Mantra ; 'I take refuge in the Buddha so long as the Bodhi essence subsists ; I take refuge in the Dharma so long as the Bodhi essence subsists ; and I take refuge in the Sangha so

long as. the Bodhi essence subsists'.

'Thereafter the adherence to the path of the Tathagatas should be made with the Mantra : 'By me shall be followed the path indicated by the Tanthagatas and naught else',

'Then a prayer should be uttered with the Mantra : The gods and the Tathagatas instruct me with such incontrovertible advices on law by which all beings may be freed from the bonds of the world quickly*.

'Then he should meditate on the results of his meritorious deeds with the words ; 'Whatever merit I have acquired by the seven kinds of extraordinary worship like the confession of sins, etc. all that I devote to gain at the end the

final Sambodhi'.

" After having finished the seven kinds of extraordinary worship the deities should be dismissed with the formula : -Om Ah Muh- or with the following words : Thou movest now according to Thy will, being besmeared with the sandal paste of

Silas (conduct), wearing the garments of the Dhyana (meditation) and strewn with the flowers of the Bodhi (Enlightenment)'.

'Then the worshipper should meditate on the Four Brahmas, of Friendship, Joyousness, Compassion and Indifference. Friendship is the love that exists in all beings like the love towards the only son, or like its fruition in their welfare

and happiness.

"Compassion again is of what kind ? It is the desire to save all beings from misery and from causes that lead to misery. The desire that I shall even save the beings who are burnt in the great fire of suffering from the three evils and

have entered the prison of Samsara is what is called Compassion. Or it is the desire to save all beings suffering from the three evils from the sea of Samsara.

"Mudita or Joyousness is of the following nature. It is the desire in all beings of the world for the attainment of Buddhahood which is unlikely to materialize. Or it is the attraction in all beings towards the virtues that * exist in

the world and to the enjoyment of spiritual powers arising out of them.

"What is Indifference or Upeksa ? It is the doing of great welfare to all beings, good or bad, by overcoming adverse requests and obstacles. Or it is the desire that comes of its own accord to do good to all beings without the least

craving for any return, love or hatred. Or it is the indifference towards the eight human institutions of gain or loss, fame or notoriety, praise or blame, pleasure or pain, and similar things.

'Thus meditating on the Four Brahmas the inherent purity of the phenomenal world should be meditated upon. All phenomena are indeed inherently pure, and therefore, the worshipper should think himself to be pure by nature. This natural

purity of all phenomena should be established by the formula : Om svabhavasuddhah sarvadharmah svabhavasuddho'ham . If all phenomena are inherently pure, where then is the possibility of the cycle of existence ? Because of its being covered up with such thought categories as the subject and the object. The way of purging of this impurity is the meditation on the good path By this it

is made to disappear. Thus is established the inherent purity of all phenomena.

" After meditating on the purity of the phenomenal existence the Sunyata of all phenomena should be meditated upon. Here ounya means this. He should conceive the entire universe with its mobile and immobile creations as the clear

manifestation of non-duality when the mind is devoid of all the extensions of such thought categories as the subject and the object. The Sunyata should be established by the formula Orh Sunyatajnanavajrasvabhavatmyako'ham .

"Then as previously stated, the worshipper should meditate on his heart the goddess Aryatara who originates from the yellow germ-syllable Tam placed on the orb of the moon with the deer on its lap.

"The worshipper should meditate on goddess Aryatara as one-faced and two-armed of deep green complexion, fully decked in all ornaments, of youthful appearance, clad in celestial garments, holding on her crown the miniature figure of the

parental Dhyani Buddha Amogha* siddhi. The deity should further be meditated upon as sitting in the ardhaparyahka attitude and showing the gift-bestowing signal in the right hand and carrying a full-blown lotus in the left hand.

"The goddess of this description should be meditated upon as long as desired. Then the eternally accomplished Bhagavatl should be drawn out from within by the spreading rays that illumine the three worlds, the rays that issue forth from

the yellow germ syllable Tam placed on the orb of the spotted moon which is enclosed within the filament of a beautiful blue lotus. After thus discovering her, she should be placed on the firmament and should be worshipped with the

offerings of scented water and fragrant flowers contained in the vessel inlaid with gems at the feet of the goddess. She should also be worshipped with various rites, external and internal, by means of flowers, incense, light stick, food

offerings, scents, garlands, unguents, powders, mendicant dress, umbrella, flags, bell, banner and the like. Thus after repeatedly worshipping her and offering her panegyrics, the Mudra or the mystic signal should be exhibited. The palms

of the hands, should be joined together with the two middle fingers stretched in the form of a needle. The two first fingers should be slightly bent their tips touching the third phalanges of the first fingers. The two third fingers

should be concealed within the palm, and the two little fingers should be stret- ched. This is called the Utpala Mudra or the signal of the night lotus*

"With this Mudra the goddess of the essence of Knowledge in the front should be propitiated, and then she should be commingled with the goddess of the essence of Time within, and by so doing the non- duality of the two should be

meditated upon. Then the rays issuing forth from the yellow germ syllable Tarn placed on the spotless moon will appear to him as illumining the ten quarters, as causing the removal of the poverty and misery of all beings by showers of

various gems and as satisfying them by the nectar of advice on the nature of Sunya.

"Engaging himself in doing good to the world, the worshipper should meditate on the form of goddess Tara which is identified with the universe. Further, he should meditate repeatedly until tired on the yellow germ syllable and the

Bhagavati contained therein, He who is unable to meditate thus should mutter the Mantra which in this case is Om Tare Tuttare Ture Svaha . This is the lord of all Mantras, is endowed with great powers, and is saluted, worshipped and

revered by all Tathagatas.

"After having finished his meditation on the form of Tara he should think the world as identical withe th goddess and should move about thinking his own form as that of the goddess. Generally speaking, those who meditate on the Bhagavati

in this manner, all the eight supernormal powers fall at their feet, and other small powers come to him as a matter of course. Whoever meditates on the Bhagavati in the lonely caves of mountains espies her with his own eyes. The

Bhagavati herself gives him his breath, nay more, even the Buddhahood which is most difficult to attain comes to him like a plum on the palm of his hand."

The above is a summary of the contents of a Sadhana devoted to a single goddess, Tara, and there are hundreds of such Sadhanas for other gods and goddesses. But the important point to be noted in this connection is that the gods have no

independent and real existence apart from the mind of the worshipper and the manner of worship. The deities possess no external form, but represent purely mental conceptions of the Sadhaka who by means of the Sadhana undergoes a detailed

mental exercise for the development of his spiritual or psychic powers.

The discussion in this section leads to a consideration of godhead in Tantrism in order that the deities treated in this work may be studied in their true perspective,


4. Godhead in Buddhism.

I There is a great deal of confusion regarding the true nature of the deity whether it is of the Hindu or Buddhist conception. The general belief is that the deity is nothing more than an idol, and therefore, not worthy of any attention.

The deities are connected, as all students of Tantra know, with Sadhana and Siddhi, and the conception of godhead therefore is an essentially spiritual or psychic matter. {.

The Sadhana is concerned with the process for worshipping a parti" cular deity as has been made abundantly clear in the previous section. This consists in meditation in a quiet place and there practise Yoga till a state similar to deep

sleep is brought about. In this state of deep sleep the ascetic communes with the Infinite Spirit or the inexhaustible store-house of energy, which is supposed to be the highest creative prin- ciple behind the world structure. By this

communion the ascetic draws forth energy from that inexhaustible store-house and becomes powerful himself. This process of the realisation of the Infinite Spirit is what is called Sadhana. The deity is part of this psychic process.

The Tantras are, in fact, sciences dealing with psychic matters, and give directions for a variety of psychic exercises. It therefore stands lo reason that the Tantra is a science or a Vidya requiring competent pre- ceptors and efficient

disciples. Like all other sciences the Tantra is not also open to all and the sundry, but only for those who are initiated into the mysteries of the science, and are competent to follow the pres- cribed practices with patience and zeal.

These are the right type of disciples for Tantric practices, and may be called the Adhikarins or rightful persons. In many Tantric works long chapters are devoted to the qualifications of the preceptors *and disciples and there are also

rules for their respective competence to give or receive initiation.

The Adhikarin must have a certain equipment before he proceeds to receive his initiation in the Tantra from a preceptor. And, in fact, as the Tantra path is an exceedingly difficult path, the disciple is required to have a great deal

more equipment than is necessary for persuing any other Vidya known to ancient India. First of all, the neophyte must be patient, enduring, devoted and sincere, and he must serve his preceptor with whole-hearted devotion. But the most

important equipment nece- ssary for him is that he should be proficient in the art of Yoga and Hathayoga without which it is not possible to proceed with any Sadhana worth the name or with any difficult Tantric practice. The process of

the visualisation of the deity requires intensive training as the following account will show.

The difficult psychic process is described in detail and in an elaborate form in the Guhyasamaja which may be called the Bible of the Tantric Buddhists. A perusal of the book makes it clear that when the Bodhicitta or the Will to Enlightenment mingles with Sunya or the Infinite Spirit in the highest state of meditation the mind-sky is filled with innumerable visions and

scenes, until at la?t, like sparks the individual visualises letters or germ syllables, which gradually assume the shape of deities, first indistinct, then changing into perfect, glorious and living forms, the embodiment of the Infinite

Sunya. They appear in bright, effulgent, gorgeous and divine beauty in form, ornaments and dress. Violent deities in like manner appear before him in the most violent form con- ceivable, in an awe-inspiring manner with dishevelled hair,

blood-shot eyes, bare fangs, decked in ornaments of human skulls, severed heads and human bones, with frightful weapons and dress. These beings both benefic and malefic, are known as deities, and once realised they never leave the

ascetic but become instrumental in bestowing on the ascetic more and more spiritual and psychic powers.

I The process of the evolution of the deity is described in Tantric works, where clear-cut statements are made on the origin of the deities and their gradual evolution from the germ syllable. In the Advayavajra- sahgraha, for instance,

it is said : f

f "The form of the deity is an explosion of the Sunya. It is by nature non-existent. Whenever there is an explosion it must be Sunya in essence." 1 I

| In another place in the same book it is declared : /

I" From the right perception of Sunyata proceeds the germ-syllable ; from the germ-syllable proceeds the conception of an icon, and from the icon its external representations. The whole process therefore is one of dependent

origination."-' j

The equipment necessary for persons competent to worship and realize deities, and the nature of the evolution of the deities have already been indicated. Now it is necessary to state the views of the Guhyas- amaja regarding the

principles of god-realisation, and the various expe- riences through which the Sadhaka has to pass before the deity is realised and visualised. The Guhyasamaja 3 calls this process Upaya (means) which is recognised as of four kinds,

Seva, Upasadhana, Sadha- na and Mahasadhana. Seva (worship) is again sub-divided into two, namely, Samanya (ordinary) and Uttama (excellent). Of these two, the Samanya Seva consists of four Vajras : first, the conception of Sunyata ;

second, its transformation into the germ-syllable ; third, its evolution in the form of a deity, and the fourth, the external representation of the deity.

In the UttamaSeva (excellent worship) Yoga with its six limbs should be employed. These six limbs are : Pratyahara, Dhyana, Pranayama, Dharana, Anusmrti and Samadhi.. Pratyahara (control) is here descri- bed as the process by which the

ten sense-organs are controlled. Dhyana (meditation) is explained as the conception of the five desired objects through the five Dhyani Buddhas, namely, Vairocana, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha, Amoghasiddhi and Aksobhya. This Dhyana is again

sub- divided into five kinds : Vitarka (cogitation), Vicara (thinking), Priti (pleasure), Sukha (happiness), and Ekagrata (concentration).

Pranayama (breath control) is the control of the breathing process by which breath which is of the nature of the five Bhutas (elements) and the five kinds of knowledge, and is like a bright gem, is drawn from inside and placed as a lamp

at the tip of the nose and is meditated upon.

Dharana (meditation) is the meditation of one's own Mantra on the heart, and the placing of it on the Pranabindu (heart centre) after restraining the jewel of sense-organs. When this is done Nimittas (signs) make their appearance. These

signs are of five kinds and appear in succession. The first is the sign of the Maricika (mirage), the second is that of smoke, the third is of fire-flies, the fourth is of light, and the fifth of constant light like a cloudless sky.

Anusmrti (memory) is the constant meditation of the object for which the psychic exercise is undertaken, and by this Pratibhasa (revela- tion) takes place. After commingling the two elements Prajna (know- ledge) and Upaya (means) the

whole objective world should be concei- ved as contracted in the form of a lump, and this should be meditated upon in the Bimba (icon-circle). By this process the transcendental knowledge is suddenly realised by the worshipper and is

known as Samadhi (visualisation).

For the purpose of visualisation it is necessary that the process should be continued for six months and this is done according to the Guhyas- amaja always while enjoying all kinds of desired objects If within six months the deity does

not show herself the process should be repeated thrice while following the rules of restraint duly prescribed. If the deity is not visualised even after this, it should be forced by the practice of Hathayoga. By this Yoga the ascetic

most certainly attains the know- ledge of the deity.

The above incidentally shows what part is played by Rajayoga and Hathayoga in the process for the realisation of the deity. It shows also that the Tantra begins where Yoga ends. Therefore, the worshippers of the deity must first be

adepts in Yoga before they make an attempt to follow the more advanced science of the Tantra which obviously, is not meant for ordinary people. The conception of godhead in Buddhist as well as in the Hindu Tantra is thus philosophically most profound.

The individual soul is variously called the Bodhisattva ( Bodhi Essence), Bodhicitta (Will to Enlightenment), Jivatman (individual soul) while the Infinite or the Universal soul is variously known as Sunya Brahma and Paramatman. When

they combine in the state of the highest meditation and concentration, an artificial condition akin to deep sleep is brought about, and the deity appears in the mind sky in flashes and sparks. The nature of the Jivatman being finite, it

is not possible to realise the Infinite in its entirety, that is to say, the result of the mystic experience of the Jivatman also remains finite. And as the object for which the worshipper sits in meditation is different in differ- ent

cases the deity visualised also becomes different. It is the Bhavana (desire) of the worshipper which is of the nature of a psychic force that reacts on the Infinite Energy, giving rise to different manifestations according to the nature

of the reaction. The nature of this reaction is of illimitable variety and thus the resultant deity also appears in an infinite variety of forms, and this seems to be the chief reason why we find gods and goddesses of different forms in

the pantheons of both the Buddhists and the Hindus. The ascetic who visualises a particular deity, generally makes it a rule to record the process by which the visualisation of a particular deity took place, for the benefit of his

disciples in order that the latter may realise the deity in the easiest and most efficient manner.

The Infinite Energy is frilnva in Vajrayana^jmd this Sunya is invoked by the worshippers of different classes with different desires and differ^ ent degrees otjnental development. As Sunya isinvoked in for thou- sandandjane purposes, it

manifests itself in thousand and jane^jwayj^ in thousand and onejorms, and it is precisely in this manner that the numbeFof deitiesin the Buddhist pantheon increased to an enormous extentT^TKe psychic exercise prescribed in the case of

different deities is different in the Sadhanas. The Sadhanas become less or more difficult according to the mental capacity of the worshippers, who are generally classified as High, Middling or Low. The regulation of life in the case of

the worshippers of different classes become more or less stringent according to the degree of psychic progress.

In the realisation of the deity, there are thus three elements, the worshipper, the deity and their connecd9D_Q_Jsientity. These are fiamed ifr~Tfi5~TanirIc works as the Bodhicitta, the Mantrapurusa (Mantra body) and the Ahamkara

(identity). The worshipper is called the Bodhisattva (Bodhi essence), and , his mind is known as the Bodhicitta (Will to Enlightenment). The deity is the embodiment of the cluster of letters contained in a Mantra which are dynamized by exces- sive concentration and repetition. The sacred words or letters set up strong vibrations and

ultimately condense themselves in the form of deities and this is called the Mantrapurusa (Mantra body) or Mantra person. But before the Mantra person is visualised there must always be a complete identity between the Bodhiciita and the

Mantrapurusa. The subject is both interesting and important for the study of gods and goddesses, and therefore merits a detailed treatment.

The Vajrayana conception of the Bodhi mind appears to be the same as advocated in Yogacara, an idea of which can be gained by a reference to the Tattvasahgraha of Santaraksita. The Bodhi mind is like a conti- nuous stream of

consciousness which changes every moment^ the consciousness of the previous moment giving rise to or causing the consciousness of the succeeding moment. The chain of momentary consciousness which is without a beginning or an end,

operating in unison with the all powerful act-force leads it either to degradation or to emancipation according as the actions done are good or bad. The Bodhi mind is by nature surcharged with impurities such as desire, memory,

existence, non-existence, subject, object and the rest which are all unreal. To purify this chain of consciousness is the sole aim of the Bodhisattva, but so long as impurities are not removed, it will be subject to a series of

transmigrations either in the world of gods or men, or of animals, birds, ghosts and demons.

According as the impurities are removed one after another, the Bodhi mind commences an upward march in the different spiritual spheres, called Bhumis, and stays in them only so long as it is not qualified to ascend to a higher sphere.

The number of Bhumis are recognized generally as ten and the Sutra which describes them is called the Dasabhumika Sutra. The Bodhi mind obtains emancipation, or in other words when it crosses the ten Bhumis mentioned above, it is

rewarded with moniscience. These Bhumis are not meant for the Hinayanists but were exclusively designed for the Mahayanists who are the real Bodhisattvas. No Buddhist will be called a Bodhisattva who has no compassion for suffering

humanity or who will not be prepared to sacrifice his all for the benefit of others, The Vajrayanist concep- tion is the same, and it defines Bodhi mind as one where Sunya and Karuna (compassion) work in unison. In the eye of a

Vajrayanist the external world has much the same significance as it appears in Yogacara. The Tantras characterize the external world with its movable and immovable objects like a pot, picture, carriage, house, stone-house, mountains and

the rest as reduced by reason to mere appearances, in the same way as magic and dream are considered to be appearances. Therefore, the Vajrayanists hold that external objects have no greater reality than magic, mirage, shadow or dream, and their reality cannot be proved by reason.

The Mantras or mystic syllables constitute the backbone of Vajrayana worship, and are of illimitable varieties. The Mantras are mostly unmeaning words but they sometimes reveal the influence of some unknown language. The Vajrayanists

maintain that the Mantras are endowed with great powers. "What is there impossible" they say, "For the Mantras to perform if they are applied according to rules ?" It is also said that through repeated mutterings of the MantrdS such

power is generated that it can astonish the whole world. The Mantra has power even to confer Buddhahood or omniscience. The merits that accrue from the repetitions of the Mantra of Mahakala are so numerous that all the Buddhas taken

together cannot count them even if they were to count without celadon for a number of days and nights. By the DharanI of Avalokitesvara even an ass can memorize three hundred verses. The Mantra of Ekajata is said tQ be so powerful that

the moment it is uttered a man becomes free from danger, he is always followed by good iortune and his enemies are all destroyed. The repetition of the rnantra is however to be done with the greatest care, for instance, it should not be

muttered too quickly nor too slowly. The mind at the time of repetition should be concentrated on the letters of the Mantra and should be free from all evil thoughts, and the mantra should not be repeated when the mind is fatigued or

tired.

Thus it can be seen that the Vajrayanists believed that the Mantras were endowed with dynamic power. Their power consisted in the arrangement of the syllables, the purity of which is to be guarded with the greatest care. The Mantra is

required to be received with proper ceremonies from a competent preceptor. The Mantra is powerful when it comes from a preceptor who is pure, and has repeated conti- nuously so as to visualize the Mantra person or the deity sacred to the

Mantra. The letters of the Mantra can only be dynamized by conti- nual repetition by day and at night until the deity is visualized. When the Mantra becomes powerful the vibrations let loose by the Bodhi mind react on the universal Sunya

which explodes in consequence in the divine form of the deity and appears before his mind sky. Accor* ding as the calling signal is different in different cases the deity becomes different, and thus its number increases. The deities are

nothing but the forms created by the force of word or letter vibrations, and by continuous practice anyone can visualise the deity. The Mantra idea is not only logically correct but also philosophically profound.

The relation between the caller and the calling deity is one of identi- fication. It is called Ahamkara or the identity of the Bodhi mind with the deity, the manifestation of Sunya or the ultimate reality, The identity is established

with the Mantra "I am the goddess and the goddess is in me". The worshipper should conceive himself as the deity with the same complexion, form and limbs as described in the Sadhana and should, instead of worshipping any external object,

worship himself. The Bodhi mind and the deity apparently signify duality but their | duality disappears with enlightenment. The Bodhi mind is of the nature of Sunya and the deity is a manifestation of Sunya and, therefore, both have the

same origin. But to realise that the two are the same requires perfect knowledge. Continuous meditation and austerities enable the worshipper to shed the veil of ignorance which makes one thing appear as two. The Bodhi mind is further

called Karuna (compassion) and the ultimate reality as Sunyata, and when the two commingle, it is called Advaya or non-duality. As copper leaves its dirty colour (and become gold) when it comes in contact with the magic tincture (of

alchemy), even so, the body leaves off its attachment, hatred, etc. when it comes in contact with the tincture of Advaya. This Advaya is a form of cognition where the Bodhi mind commingles with Sunya and becomes one with it. To symbolize

this principle Vajrayana brought in the conception of the Yab-yum form of deities in which the deity appears locked in close embrace with his Sakti or the female coun- terpart. When the deity is single, it means that the female

counterpart has merged into the deity even as salt melts in water. The deity is Sunya and the female principle is the Bodhi mind, or the first is the ultimate reality and the female is Karuna (compassion). The Bodhi mind can become

ultimate reality through the one principle of Karuna. This Karuna is symbolized in the form of Avalokitesvara, the great com- passionate Bodhisattva who sacrificed his Nirvana in order to serve his fellowmen.

From the foregoing even a casual observer" can find that theVajrayan- ists formulated the principle that behind the creation there is arTinSomj- tablewill which multiplies in the formof words and gradually con- densethemselves in the

form of the_dejtj^ The iemale counterpart is a further grossenirig process.* T&JSLJS the creative process, grossening process andAe process of evolution.) This process can only be stopped by the princijpIeTof Karuna Tcompassion) which

gradually leads the Bodhi mind to soar higher and higher, and to become finer and thinner before it merges in unya. According jo Vajrayana, therefore, the reverse process of involution starts only when the Bodhi mind is sur* charged with Karuna or compassion.

5. The Pantheon.

The word Pantheon is derived from pan all, and theos god and therefore, concerns itself with all gods belonging to a community follow- ing the same religion. In Hinayana or Primitive Buddhism there was no pantheon to which worship was

offered by any Buddhist. But in Mahay an a a large number of deities was included and later, in its more advanced form of Vajrayana this pantheon became surprisingly large with deities of every description. \ Virtually, there was an

epedemic of deification in which every philosophical dogma, ritualistic literature, abs^ tract ideas, human qualities, even desires such as sleeping, yawning, and sneezing were deified or given a deity form.

The varied, extensive, and diversified pantheon of the Northern Buddhists owes its origin to Tantric Buddhism or Vajrayana. There are certain indications that Buddhism had no pantheon before Tantrism was well established. In very early

days Buddhism recognised thirty- three gods of the Hindus who were the residents of the Trayastrimsa Heaven which is one of the Rupa heavens. Buddha did not believe in gods or worship, and in the Saundarananda Kavya of Asvaghosa we find

Buddha discouraging his half-brother Nanda to touch his feet in token of worship. He told Nanda that he would not be in the least pleased by Nanda's taking the dust of his feet, but he would bless him if he would follow the precepts of

true Saddharma. Buddha was deified in Mahayana which considered him to be Lokottara or superhuman. } In Buddnist art also Jbfruddha images are not met with in the earlier schools such as J3anchi and Bharhut, and it is believed that the

Graeco-Buddhists of Gandhara were the first to carve out his image in stone.\ This is the view held by the celebrate3 French archaeologist Professor A. Foucher. 2 In Bharhut and Sanchi scenes connected with the life of the Buddha, such

as the dream of his mother Mayadev! (fig. 1), and the symbols of Buddha like the Bodhi Tree, his head-dress his foot-prints (figs, 2, 3,4, 5), and the rest used to be freely represented, but his actual likeness was regarded as too scared

to admit of representation. Dr. Coomaraswamy on the other hand has shown that the Mathura school of sculpture can have an equally strong claim to antiquity and probably for carving out the first image of Buddha. These are great

authorities and it is not possible here to examine their theories in detail. For the present work it is immaterial whether the claim for carving out the first image of Buddha is established in favour ofjsither Gandhara QjlMathura. It is enough to know that there are many images of Buddha in these two schools of art.

Besides the sacred symbols connected with Buddha's life and teachings, worship was offered by the Buddhists to numerous other objects. One of the most important among these objects is the Stupa which is regarded as the embodiment of the

Buddhis^lJmv^ with all the heavens as conceived in Buddhism The stupas received worship even in the life-time of theBy^Ih^^and continued throughout the centuries after his Mahaparinirvana J Such stupas are found in abun- dance in the

Buddhist countries, and a few celebrated stupas in Nepal are illustrated here in (Figs. 6, 7, 8) They are the Stupas of the Svayambhunatha (twlgo-Simbhu), the Bodhnath and Kathe Simbhu. Besides the Stupas, the Three Jewels of Buddhism,known by the names of the Rutjflha, Dharma and Sangha were conceived in the form of deities a ri (Twors hip wa s" freely offered to them by the Buddhists in both symbolic and human forms The images of the Holy Triad as obtained in Nepal are here illustrated. (Figs. 9, 10, 11). Out of the three, one Dharma is a goddess.

Later, a number of gods and goddesses are described in the Manjusrimulakalpa which is believed to be an earlier work than the Guhyasamaja which is dated circa A. D, 300 ] Again in the Prajna- paramita Buddha is worshipped elaborately

with diverse paraphernalia of worship. But even then it does not seem clear that Buddhism at this time had any conception of a well-defined and well-classified pantheon. It is in the Guhvasamaja that the idea of a pantheon, rationally

classified, is properly and systematically crystallised. _JHeje for the first time are found the descriptions of the five Dhyani Buddhas, tngi_ rnantras, their Mandalas^ and their baktis or remale^gjnitprparti These Dhyani Buddhas

represent the five Skandhas or the five cosmic elements of which the world is composed. They are here described as the progenitors of the five Kulas or families of gods and goddesses. The families owe allegiance to their progenitors who

are known as Kulesas or Lords of Families. In the Guhyasamaja it is said :

"The five Kulas (families) are the Dvesa (hatred), Moha (delusion), Raga (attachment), Cintamani (Wishing Gem), and Samaya, (convention) which conduce to the attainment of all desires and emancipation." -

The emanations or offsprings of these Dhyani Buddhas constitute their families. It is in this way that the Buddhists built a well-classified pantheon with its multiplicity of gods and goddesses, and when these were represented in art, they were required to show their origin by holding on their heads the miniature figure of their parental Dhyani Buddha. Every deity almost without exception was given various forms with two, four, six, eight, ten, twelve, sixteen and even more hands, and proportionately one head to three, four, six, and eight heads. They were given different colours, different expressions and different companions according as they were worshipped in the different Tantric rites and according as they were required to discharge different functions, from curing a disease to the killing of an enemy. The artists had a considerable hand in executing the images and they introduced their own traditions, provincialisms and innovations The votaries also according as they wanted to have their gods in a powerful form, added extra hands , heads and feet to suit their own ideas and whims, and it is precisely in this way that the deities increased to an amazing number.

The Guhyasamaja or the Tantra of Secret Communion which is perhaps the first book inculcating Vajrayana philosophy of Mahasukha is a product of circa 300'A.D. which is the time of Asanga. Quite naturally the Tantra could not get

publicity as the public mind was not prepared to receive the revolutionary innovations introduced in it. Thus thf Tonfra wj*nt into private hands and was handed down through an unbroken cbnin r>f Hums ^nrl disciples for thr^ hnndtw] y

pQrg 1>r> the most secret manner possible. It obtained publicity through the teachings and mystic songs of the Buddhist Vajracaryyas or Siddhas in about the middle of the 7th century. It is for this reason that references to the pantheon

in the general Buddhistic literature are not n^T"wi^ nor the accounts of the

Chinese travellers show much acquaintance with the pantheon, when they came to India to investigate the condition of Buddhism in India, Despite this certain names of Buddhist gods and goddesses are indeed met with in their writings,

though they do not pertain to the well classified pantheon referred to above. In the Sukhayativyha \yjrfch was translated into Chinese between A. D. 148*170 the name of Amitabha appears for the first time as the presiding deity of the

Sukhavati or thc_Akanistha heaven where he is believed to have brought forth Avalokitesyara into existence.* It should be remembered that in fKe Vajrayana works also this heaven has been characterized as the abode of all gods and

goddesses. In the smaller recension of the Sukhavati Vyuha which was translated into Chinese between A. D. 417 mention is made of two more gods namely Aksobhya as a Tathagata and Manjushri _as a^Bodhisattva^ Fa-Hien (A. D. 394-414) mentions the names of Manjushri ; Avaloktesvara, and the future Buddha Maitreya, while Yuan Cbwang (629-645 A. D.) refers to the names of Avalokitesvara, Harlti,

Ksitigarbha, Maitreya, Manjusn, Padmapani, Vaisravana, Sakya Buddha, akya Bodhisattva, and Yama together with such deified saints as Asvaghosa, Nagarjuna, Asahga, Sumedhas and others. I-Tsing (671-695 A.D.) mentions the names of

Avalokitesvara, Amitayus, Hariti, the Catur-Mahafajikas, Maitreya, Manjusri and Yama besides several others. Santideva (695-730 A.D.) in his oiksasamuccaya mentions the names of Aksobhya as a Tathagata, Gaganaganja as a Bodhisattva,

Simhavikridita as a Tathagata, Cunda, Trisamayaraja, Marici, Simhanada, Manjughosa and many others. ] After Santideva the Tantra of the Buddhists got wide publicity, and the Tantric works written after his time all referred to the

pantheon and described numerous gods, especially the Dhyani Buddhas a definite product of Tantric Buddhism. The Sadhana literatuie which describes the forms of gods and goddesses and lays down the procedure for worshipping them was

developed by the Mahasiddhas or great magi- cians like Saraha, Nagarjuna, Sabaripa, Anahgavajra, Indrabhuti and others, although it is very probable that the earliest Sadhana was composed by Asanga who flourished in circa 300 A.D. In the

Sadhana attributed to Asanga the Dhyani Buddhas and their emanations are referred to.

When a reference is made to the numerous images executed in the different schools of art it also becomes palpable that the Buddhist pantheon was not well developed before the Tantras got wide publicity injiboutjthe middle of the 7th

century AT)i InTKe Gandhara school, for instance, Jbesides the Buddha images, there are images of Jambhala Kubera, Indra, Maitreya, Haritl and several unidentified Bodhisattva images. In the Mathura school which was either

contemporaneous or somewhat later than the Gandhara school there are numerous Buddha and Bodhisattva images along with those of Kubera, the Yaksas and Nagas. The Mathura school extended to the early Gupta period 2 and here also later

Buddhist images of Tantric flavour are not met with. Not even the images of Avalokitesvara, Manjusri are to be found in this school. The case of the later Magadha school however, is otherwise. The Magadha school included the images found

in Sarnath, Nalanda, Odantapuri, Kurkihar, Gaya and other ancient sites in Bihar. The most flourishing period of the Magadha school



was contemporaneous with the reign of the Pala kings of Bengal and lasted till the Muhammadan ^conquest of Bihar and Bengal in the beginning of the thirteenth century A. D. In the Magadha school aj to be found a ^definite evidence of the

existence of a well classified pantKeoirTas conceive3"lrrVajrayana Buddhism. In most of the images there are figures of five Dhyani Buddhas on the halo round the head of the principal deity, as also others with miniature figures of

Dhyani Buddhas on the crown to indicate the origin of the deity installed. Again, unlike the Mathura and Gandhara schools there is a distinct dearth of Buddha images in later schools of art, and even when he is represented, he takes the

semi-mythical form of Vajrasana being flanked by Avalokitesvara and Maitreya on two sides. In the Magadha school therefore Buddha lost his original importance and became similar to the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya as is evident from the

numerous Sadhanas dedicated to the worship of Vajrasana Buddha with the earth touching signal. The Bodhisattva images are also not so stereotyped as they are found either in Gandhara or in Mathura. The Magadha school is characterised by

its wide variety of images of gods and goddesses and this will be apparent to any visitor who visits the museums at Sarnath, Nalanda, Patna, or even at Calcutta, and takes a round in the extensive ruins of the Odantapuri Vihara (Modern

Bihar) on the Bakhtiyarpur Bihar Light Railway. The same is the case with the ruins of Gaya, Kurkihar, Sahet-Mahet and Kasia. At Sarnath, the contents of the museum are rich with such interesting and symbolic images as Sadaksari

Lokesvara, Ucchusma Jambhala, Manjusri, Tara, Vasudhara, Marlci, all the Five Dhyani Buddhas, Vajrasattva the sixth Dhyani Buddha and numerous others belonging to the Vajrayana pantheon. Nalanda images are enriched with the same deities

as are found in Sarnath.


The Bengal school which is contemporaneous with the Magadha school is distinguished by the high class of art it developed and for its beauty of execution. Its flourishing period ranged from the 10th century till the conquest of Bengal by

the Muhammadans. Many of the specimens of the Bengal school are preserved in the museums at Calcutta, Dacca, Rajshahi, and the Vangiya Sahitya Parishad, and a large number of them are scattered about in the Pargana Vikrampur and in the

districts of Dinajpur, Rajshahi, Birbhum and Comilla. In this school many interesting and unique specimens of images belonging to Tantric Buddhism are met with. From the above it becomes clear that the artists were acquainted with the

descriptions of deities as given in the Sadhana literature, because the images and the Dhyanas as given in the Sadhana coincide most remarkably. In this school


are to be found such images as Heruka, Vasudhara, Jambhala, Arapa- cana, Khasarpana, Parnasabari, Simhanada, Manjuvara, Aparajita, Mahapratisara, Nairatma, Sadaksan Lokesvara, Mahasri Tara, Khadi- ravani Tara along with many others too

numerous to mention. Scholars desirous of having more information on the subject are recommended to refer to the excellent work of Dr. N. K. Bhattasali, entitled, The Iconography of Buddhist and Brhamanical Sculptures in the Dacca Museum

where incidentally images discovered elsewhere in Eastern Bengal have also been treated. Another monumental work on the subject is R. D. Banerji's Eastern Indian School of Mediceval Sculpture, published by the Archaeological Department

of the Government of India.

The images of Buddhist deities found at Ajanta, Ellora and the cave temples of Western India show signs of immature Tantra and may be assigned to a period before the 7th century A. D. although some of the paintings and sculptures are of

long antiquity. It does not seem that the Tantras were very popular with the Buddhists of Western India or that they were influenced by the teachings of the Tantra which was mainly a product of Eastern India. Had it not been so, the cave temples would have at least exhibited some of the Tantric deities such as Manjusrl, Tara, Khasarpana, Jambhala, Prajnaparamita and others. The Javanese art seems to have been profoundly influenced by the Bengal school, and the images of

gods and goddesses as found in the Borobudur temple show that they were acquainted with many deities of the Vajrayana pantheon As Vajrayana was mainly a product of Bengal it is probable that colonists carried their art and religion to

Java and Indonesia by the sea route, probably from the sea^port atTamralipti or from Chittagong and Orissa. The Prajnaparamita image produced in the Javanese school has been acclaimed as one of the finest specimens of eastern art,

ancient or modern.

After the destruction of Buddhism from India the priests of the celebrated monasteries of Bengal and Magadha who could save their heads from the hostile sword of the Muhammadans, fled to Nepal which is protected on all sides by the

mighty walls of the Himalayan mountains, and took refuge in that country, and thus kept the torch of Buddhism still burning there. The Bengal school of art which was carried by the priests was soon modified into a typical Nepalese art

when it came in contact with the native artists, and thus became stereotyped. But after the 18th century it became debased and crude. The general impression of the visitor who inspects the numerous monasteries in Nepal which are the

repositories of Buddhist images of diverse kinds, is that the dreamy sweetness and the sublime beauty


of the Bengal school could not be preserved in Nepal, although earlier specimens of really good art are not at all wanting in the Nepal school. The followers of Vajrayana who went to Nepal in order to make sure of their existence

converted a good many Newars of the land to Buddhism and carved out innumerable images of gods and goddesses in stone, metal or wood, so much so, that a student of iconography is overwhelmed at their wealth and variety. It is however

curious to note that the origin of almost all the monasteries in Kathmandu, Bhatgaon, and Lalitapattan dates from the 13th century, which shows unmistakably that these monasteries were founded almost immedia^ tely after the Muhammadan

conquest by the refugees fleeing from Eastern India.

The cumulative evidence of art, history, and literature leads one to believe that the pantheon of the Northern Buddhists was not widely known before the 7th century A. D. nor was the underlying philosophy, which may warrant the formation

of a pantheon, well developed before that time, although the origin of it is definitely earlier. This may be explained by the fact that the Guhyasamaja which for the first time inculcated the doctrine of the five Dhyani Buddhas and their

families, was composed in secret and transmitted in an occult manner for about three hundred years. This is one of the many reasons why neither the Guhyasamaja Tantra nor the Dhyani Buddhas nor the varied pantheon of Vajrayana could be

widely known. It is only in the Sadhana of Asahga as included in the Sadhanamala a definite reference to the five Dhyani Buddhas and their families is to be met with, and for that reason it is not improbable to connect Asahga with the

introduction of the very Guhyasamaja Tantra itself. The subsequent writers only got a glimpse of what filtered through the secret but very popular mystic organisations. After the 7th century secrecy was no longer necessary, as the

principles of Vajrayana were then fully established and widely spread through the teachings and mystic songs of the Siddhas and Mahasiddhas. The beautiful images produced by the priests and artists made the teachings doubly attrac- tive.

Great men came forward to advocate the cause of Vajrayana. Chairs for the study and teaching of Tantras were founded in the different and famous centres of learning such as Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramaslla and Jagaddala. Eminent scholars

like Santaraksita worked as professors of Tantra in the world famous university of Nalanda.



DHYANI AND MORTAL BUDDHAS.



The pantheon of the Northern Buddhists revolves round the theory of the five Dhyani Buddhas. The Buddhists believe that the world is composed of five cosmic elements or Skandhas. The five Skandhas are Rupa (form), Vedana^ (sensation),

SamjnS (name), Sahskara (conformation) and Vijnana (consciousness). These elements are eternal cosmic forces and are without a beginning or an end. These cosmic forces are deified in Vajrayana as the five Dhyani Buddhas. In the course of

time they were regarded as the five primordial gods responsible for this diversified creation, and thus Vajrayana took a polytheistic form, although polytheism can hardly apply to a system which considers ounya as the One, Indivisible

and Ultimate Reality. But so long as form could not be given to Sunya as an anthropomorphic deity, the system of five Dhyani Buddhas certainly had the flavour of polytheism. The priests and the Vajrayana authors were conscious of this

shortcoming, especially in view of the fact that all the six Hindu systems of philosophy tended to develop a highly monistic philosophy. They tried at first to cure this defect by the theory of the Kulas (families), and Kulesas (lord of

families) of gods and men, and thus divided everything into five groups. For each group, a particular Dhyani Buddha becomes the Kulesa or the primordial lord, all other groups taking their origin from him* Another grand conception of the

Vajrayana Buddhism is the theory of the highest god Yajra^hair a > a J?Q, ..ffd JggL jjjkuddha, the primordial monotheistic god who is the embodiment ofSunya to whom even the Dhyani Buddhas owe their origin. The theory originated in the

Nalanda monastery in about the 10th century. l Thereafter, a large number of images of Vajradhara must have been made in the different schools of art. The special Tantra dedicated to Adibuddha is the Kalacakra Tantra which appears to be

the original Tantra in which the doctrine of Adibuddha was for the first time inculcated. The Kalacakra Tantra thus is a product of the 10th century. Vajradhara was particularly popular in Nepal and Tibet where numerous images

1. The idea of an Adibuddha originated in the Nalanda Monastery in the beginning of the 10th Century A.D. See JASB, Vol. II ( 1833 ) pp. 57 ff. Also Vajradhara Vs. Vajrasattva in JBORS, Vol. IX, pp. 114fF.


of this primordial god are to be met with. Alexander Csoma de Koros places the introduction of this conception of Adibuddha in Central Asia in the latter half of the 10th century* It originated at Nalanda according to him in the

beginning of the 10th century, and no mention of the Adibuddha cult is made by any writer prior to this time. Homage is paid to Adibuddha in the shape of a flame of fire which the priests consider as eternal, selPbbrn

~ancT~self*existent. It is said in tHe~~Svayambhti Purana that Adibuddha first manifested himself in Nepal in the form of a flame of fire, and ManjusrI erected a temple over it in order to preserve the flame. This ancient temple is known

as the Svayambhu Caitya.


The conception of Vajradhara presupposes Adibuddha and, there- fore, is later than the first half of the 10th century. Vajrasattva, being a regular development of the Bodhisattva Vajrapani emanating from the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya, is a

little earlier, although the conception of Vajradhara and Vajrasattva are sometimes inextricably mixed up. In Vajrayana, Adibuddha is regarded as the highest deity of the Buddhist pantheon, the originator even of the five Dhyani Buddhas.

When represented in human form, he begets the name of Vajradhara and is conceived in two forms, single and Yab-yum. When single, he is bedecked in jewels, gaudy ornaments and dress, sits in the Vajra' paryahka or the attitude of

meditation with the two feet locked with soles of the feet turned upwards. He carries the Vajra in the right hand and the Ghanta (bell) in the left, the two hands being crossed against the chest in what is known as the Vajrahuhkara Mudra

(Fig 12). The Vajra (thunderbolt) here is the symbol for the ultimate reality called Sunya while the bell represnts Prajna or wisdom the sounds of which travel far and wide. Sometimes the symbols are shown on a lotus on either side, the

Vajra being on the right and the Ghanta in the left (Fig 13). In Yab-yum, his form remains the same as when single except that here he is locked in close embrace by his Sakti^or the female counterpart whose name according to Getty is

Prajnaparamita. The Sakti is somewhat smaller lri"sizerTs richly dressed and bedecked in ornarpents, carrying the Kartri (knife) and the Kapala (skull cup) in the right and left hands respectively (Figs. 14, 15). In these figures the

Kartri is the symbol for the destruction of ignorance, the JCapala stands for oneness absolute, while the double form Yab^yum represents that the distinction between duality and non^duality is unreal, and the two mix themselves into one

as salt mixes in water. The_deitv^ Vajiradhara is an embodiment ofthe Jhdghest. ^reality, , Sunya, ^jljLJE^SlP^rai^ta represents Karuna (compassion) and in close embrace they turn jntp one Sunya in which Karuna merges, and the duality

ceases.


Vajradhara



Vajradhara is described in Buddhist Tantric works and he has several forms. An important description in the Nispannayogavali is given below. This particular form of Vajradhara is three- faced and six-armed.

Vajradhara.

Colour Reddish White. Faces Three.

Arms Six. . Pose Tandava Dance.

Vajradhara is the principal deity in the Vajrasattva Mandala in the Nispannayogavali. He is described thus :

"Kutagaragarbhe Vajradharah. . .isadraktanu-viddhasitavarnah. . .trimu- kho mla-raktasavyetaravaktrah. . . sadbhujo vajra-ghantavirajitabhuja-

bhyam alingitasvabhaprajna savyakarabhy am krpanankusavarau

vamabhyam kapalapasabhrt ardhaparyahkena navanatyarasais-

tandavl." NSP. p. 8.

"In the innermost chamber of the Mandala there is Vajradhara. His colour is reddish white. He is three-faced. The right face is blue and the left is red. He is six-armed. With the two principal hands carrying the Vajra and the Ghanta he

embraces the Prajria. The two other right hands show the excellent sword and the Ankusa. In the two remaining left hands, he carries the Kapala and the noose. He stands in the Ardhaparyahka and dances the Tandava dance exhibiting the

nine dramatic sentiments".

Fig. 16 represents a three- faced and six-armed Vajradhara image without the Sakti in the Baroda Museum.

But Vajradhara was not universally accepted as the Adibuddha or the first creative principle. When the theory of Adibuddha was fully established the Buddhists seem to have ranged themselves into ,so many sects as it were, holding

different views regarding specific forms which the Adibuddha should take. Some considered one among the five Dhyani Buddhas as the Adibuddha, some acknowledged Vajrasattva as the Adibuddha. Many others were content to regard the

Boddhisattva such as Samantabhadra or Vajrapani as the Adibuddha. Thus the cult of Adibuddha was widely distributed amongst the different 'schools, which gave rise to as many different sects amongst the Tantric Buddhists.

Vajradhara or the Adibuddha is supposed to be the originator of the five Dhyani Buddhas, the progenitors of the five Kulas or families of Buddhist gods and goddesses. Next to Vajradhara the Phyani^jBu.ddhas or the Tathagatas are

important in Buddhist iconography and, therefore, requires treatment in detail. The Guhyasamaja Tantra (Tantra of Secret Communion) was the first to reveal their existence in a Sahglti (holy assembly) which is supposed to introduce new ideas into Buddhism.

In the Guhyasamaja l the Dhyani Buddhas are given a Mantra, a col- our, aSakti^a direction, and a guardian of the gate. As these Dhyani Buddhas are of primary importance in Buddhist iconography, it is nece- ssary to deal with their

origin in some detail here. The Guhyasamaja opens in a grandiloquent style with the description of a monster assem- bly of gods, Tathagatas, Bodhisattvas, Saktis, and various other divine beings. The Tathagatas present in the Assembly

requested the Lord Bodhicittavajra to define the Tathagatamandala or the magic circle of the five Dhyani Buddhas and in response to their request, the Lord sat in a special Samadhi (meditation) called the Jnanapradipa (lamp of know-

ledge), and his whole form started resounding with the sacred sounds of VAJRADHRK which is the mantra of the Dvesa family. No sooner the words came out, the sounds transformed themselves into the concrete shape of Aksobhya with the

earth-touching signal (Mudra).


Then the Lord sat in another meditation and soon became vibrant with the sacred sounds of JINAJIK, the principal mantra of the Moha family. The sounds condensed themselves into the concrete form of Vairocana with the Dharmacakra Mudra

and was placed in his front in the East.

Next with a third Samadhi (meditation) the Lord became resonant with the word RATNDHRK the principal mantra of the Cintamani family and soon became condensed in the human form of Ratnaketu with his favourite signal of Varada (gift

bestowing) and was placed to the south of the Lord.

The Lord thereupon took a fourth Samadhi and became resonant with the sacred sound of AROLIK, which is the principal mantra of the Vajraraga family. The vibrations soon grossened themselves in the human form of Amitabha with the signal

of Dhyana (meditation) and was placed behind the Lord in the west.

Next, the Lord assumed another Samadhi and soon became resonant with the sacred sound of PRAJNADHRK, the principal Mantra of the Samaya family. The vibrations after condensation gradually assumed the shape of Amoghasiddhi with his

characteristic symbol of Abhaya (assurance), and was placed by the Lord in the north.

Then the Lord sat in a series of special Samadhis, five in number, and became resonant with five different mantras. The vibrations in like

Guhyasamaja, chapter 1 is entirely devoted to the formation of the Dhyani Buddha mandala.


manner were condensed in the form of five goddesses as female counter- parts of the five Tathagatas already named and were placed in their appropriate positions.

Thus, the Lord in the first Samadhi became resonant with the sound DVESARATI which transformed itself into the form of his own queen and was placed on his own seat.

Next, he became resonant with the sound MOHARATI which took the shape of a goddess and was placed in the eastern direction as the queen of Vairocana.

Thereafter he became vibrant with the sound fRSYARATI which took the shape of a goddess and was placed in the southern direction as the queen of Ratnasambhava.

Next in another Samadhi the Lord became vibrant with the sound RAGARATI which soon took the concrete shape of a goddess and was placed in the western direction as the queen of Amitabha.

Then in a further meditation the Lord became resonant with the sound VAJRARATI which took the concrete shape of a goddess and was placed in the northern direction as the queen of Amoghasiddhi.

When all the Tathagatas were associated with their female counter- parts the Lord sat in four more meditations and through these created four guardians of gates for the four cardinal directions.

First, he sat in the Mahavairocanavajra Samadhi and became resonant with the sound YAMANTAKRT. These sound vibrations soon assumed the concrete shape of a violent deity, fearful to the Tathagatas, and was placed at the eastern gate.

Next, he became vibrant with the sound PRAJNANTAKRT. The sound vibrations soon assumed the form of a violent deity, fearful to the Vajra process, and was placed at the southern gate.

In a third Samadhi the Lord became vibrant with the sound PADMANTAKRT which soon took the form of a violent deity repre- senting the speech of the Tathagatas and was placed at the western gate.

Finally, the Lord sat in another Samadhi called the Kayavakcittavajra of the Tathagatas, and became vibrant with the sound VIGHNANTA- KRT which soon took the shape of a violent deity representing the body, speech and the mind of the

Tathagatas, and was placed at the northern gate.


The above account as recorded in the Guhyasamaja Tantra marks the beginning of the theory of the five Dhyani Buddbas, their counter- parts, their mantras and the guardian of the gates. \ The five Dhyani Buddhas ar* *hp Corner stones of

Buddhist Iconography on which the whole edifice of the Buddhist pantheon is crecte^ The five Dhyani Buddhas are the progenitors of the five Kulas orramilies of deities, and the community worshipping them were known as the Kaulas, and the


process of worship was called Kulacara or family conduct. These Dhyani Buddhas further split themselves up in the form of Bodhhisattva and their female principles who are responsible for creating everything found in existence. The forms

of deities are nothing but the gross forms of the different sounds, and thus the connection of the mantra with the deity is established. I

The five Dhyani Buddhas who are the embodiments of the five Skan- dhas or primordial elements are the progenitors of the five families of deities constituting the whole of the Buddhist pantheon. The emanated deities of these Dhyani Buddhas, as a rule, hold the miniature figure of the parental Dhyani Buddha on their heads and are usually of the same colour as that of the Dhyani Buddha and are placed in the same direc- tion as is assigned to their sires. This very

plan is followed most scru- pulously in almost all the Mandalas or magic circles as described in the remarkable work, Nispannayogavali of Mahapandita Abhayakara Gupta. '

The names, colours and the symbols of the five Dhyani Buddhas are stated briefly in the following verse occuring in the Sadhanamala :

Jino Vairocano khyato Ratnasambhava eva ca Amitabhamoghasiddhiraksobhyasca prakirtitah Varna amisam sitah plto rakto haritamecakau Bodhyahgl Varado Dhyanam Mudra Abhaya-Bhusprsau.



"The Jinas (victorious ones) are Vairocana, Ratnasambhava, Amita* bha, Amoghasiddhi and Aksobhya. Their colours are white, yellow, red, green and blue, and they exhibit the Bodhyahgl (teaching), Varada (boon), Dhyana (meditation), Abhaya

(protection), and Bhusparsa (earth-touching) attitudes of hands respectively/'

iThe Dhyani Buddhas are a peculiar kind of Buddhas who are not required to pass through the stage of a Bodhisatta. They were never anything less than a Buddha. They are always engaged in peaceful meditation, and they voluntarily abstain

themselves from the act of creation. To create is the work of their emanations, the Divine Bodhisattvas. As has been said already, the Dhyani Buddhas are five in number to which a sixth Vajrasattva is sometimes added. The Guhyasamaja Tantra makes it clear that all the five Dhyani Buddhas along with their female counterparts and the guardians of gates were known in circa 300 A. D. the time of the introduction of this new Tantra. That the five Dhyani Buddhas might have

owed their origin to the theory of the eternity of the five senses, seems to be borne out by a passage in the Cittavisuddhiprakarana l of the Tantric Aryadeva. I

But it may also be possible that the five Mudras which Buddha Sakya- simha made sacred by using on memorable occasions and which were constantly depicted in the Buddhistic figures of the different schools of art, gave rise to the five

Dhy an i Buddhas (Figs 17, 18). Advayavajra who flourished in the llth century, has written in one of his short works that the five Dhyani Buddhas took their origin from the theory of the eternity of the five Skandhas (elements), that is

to say, that the Dhyani Buddhas represented the five primordial cosmic forces which are responsible for creation. Vajrasattva, the sixth Dhyani Buddha, who is generally regarded as the priest of the five Dhyani Buddhas and is usually

represented with the priestly symbols, the Vajra and the Ghanta, is an embodiment of the five Skandhas collectively, and un- doubtedly a later addition to the pantheon of the Northern Buddhists. The Dhyani Buddhas are always represented

as seated on a full blown lotus, and in the meditative pose with legs crossed, the right foot crossing over and in front of the left, with the soles of both feet turned upwards. The hand that rests on the lap is sometimes empty, but in

most cases holds the bowl. The head is bare, the thick clustering curls radiate effulgence like a flame of fire The eyes are half-closed in-meditation showing the mind completely drawn inwards in perfect introspection. The dress consists

of an undergarment reaching from the chest to the knee, and secured by a scarf. The body is loosely covered by the habit of a monk, leaving only the right arm bare.

The Dhyani Buddhas are generally represented on the four sides of a Stupa which is the symbol of the Buddhist Universe, facing the foi!r cardinal points. Vairocana is the deity of the inner shrine and is, therefore, generally

unrepresented. But exceptions to this lule are by no means rare. He is occasionally assigned a place between Ratnsam* bhava in the south and Aksobhya in the East. Independent shrines are also dedicated to each of the Buddhas. .

The five Dhyani Buddhas are given each a special recognition symbol and a colour. The symbols are extremely important for the purpose of iconographical studies, because the female counterparts and the wrings of the DhySni-Bddhas

invariably display these symbols in orderto sKow^theit^ origin/ 1'fius Amitabha is given the Lotus as the recognition symbol.^ His Sakti Pandara and his Bodhisatta Padmpajii must exhibit the Lotus symbol in order to show that they are

the emanations of Amitabha. Similarly, all the other Dhyani Buddhas also have their own symbols and the name of the family is generally fixed from these symbols ; for instance, Amitabha is the progenitor of the Lotus family, Aksobhya is

the leader of the Vajra family, Ratnasambhava is the embodiment of the Jewel family, and so forth.


The Advayavajrasangraha gave special epithets to the Dhyani Buddhas to indicate their families, although these special epithets are not known from any other source. According to this authority, Amitabha is Padmakuli, Aksobhya is

Vajrakuli, Vairocana is Tathagatakull, Ratna- sambhava is Ratnakuli and Amoghasiddhi is Karmakuli. The Kula in the case of Vajrasattva is not given for the simple reason that he has neither family nor a special element.

Next to symbols, the colour of the Dhyani Buddhas is important. Each Dhyani Buddha has a special colour and this colour is required to be shown by all originating from each, Sometimes in classifying Buddhist deities there is no other

sure indication of the parental Dhyani Buddha except the colour. On the ground of colour alone, and in the absence of positive mention of the parental Dhyani Buddhas, several deities have been classified in this book in this manner.

A detailed description of the Dhyani Buddhas along with their female counterparts and their offsprings, the Bodhisattvas, now follows with relevant information regarding their forms and their statues and paintings. Descriptive quotations

from Tantric works have been incorporated to indicate the source of information wherever possible.]



AMITABHA. , ,



Colour- Red Vehicle Peacock /

Mudra Samadhi Symbol Lotus

| By far the most ancient among the Dhyani Buddhas is Amitabha who is said to reside in the Sukhavati heaven in peaceful meditation. He presides over the current Kalpa (cycle) which is Bhadrakalpa. As a Dhyani Buddha he does not create.

It is his Bodhisattva Padmapani, also known as Ayalokitesvara, who is responsible for creation. The form of Amitabha is described in the Pancakara section of the Advayavajrasamgraha thus : J

"Pascimadale Ravimandalopari rakta-Hnhkarasambhuto raktavarno Amitabhah padmacihnah samadhimudradharah samjnaskandhasvabhavo ragasarirah sukratmakah padmakull pratyaveksanajnanalaksano gris^ marturupaha mlarasasarlrah tavargatma


V'On the western petal on the disc of the sun there is Amitabha of red colour originating from the red syllable Hnh. | He has a lotus as his sign and he exhibits the Samadhi Mudra in his two hands. He is of the nature of the cosmic

element of Samjna (name), is an embodi* ment of attachment and belongs to the Lotus family. He stands for the vital fluid, and is endowed with the Pratyaveksana (looking after) 7


knowledge. He represents the summer season and the acid taste. He presides over the group of letters beginning with Ta (cerebrals) and rules over the evening twilight".

When represented on the Stupa, he always faces the West and the Nepalese Buddhists regard him as the fourth Dhyani Buddha. His two hands with palm open lie on his lap, one upon the other forming the Dhyana or the meditative mudra. His

colour is red and his Vahana is a pair of peacocks. His recognition symbol is the Lotus.

Images, sculptures, paintings and drawings of this description are found in all Buddhist countries including India, Tibet and China. \ One miniature painting of the Dhyani Buddha is reproduced in Fig. 19. Besides the two-armed form

various other forms are known of this and other Dhyani Buddhas. It may be remembered here that all the five miniatures reproduced here belong to the collection of Dr. Evans* Wentz.



PANDARA



I ' Colour Red Symbol Lotus

| Pandara is also called Pandaravasini. According to a Dhyana in the Advayavajrasahgraha she belongs to the Lotus family which is also the family of the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha. Pandara thus is the"~spiritual consort of Amitabha. \Her

form and nature are des* cribed as under : |

"Vayavyam candramandalopari Parhkarabljasambhuta Pandarava* sini rakta raktavarna padmacihna tejodhatusvarupa padmakula ragarakta." ADV. p. 43.

"In the Vayu corner on the orb of the moon there is Panda- ravasini originating from the ( red ) germ syllable Parh. I She is red in colour and has the Padma ( lotus ) as her recognition symbol. She is the embodiment of the element of

Fire. She belongs to the Lotus family and is full of attachment."

Images and paintings of this goddess are rare. She is however known in Nepal in paintings, and some of her sfejuettes are found in China A Fig 20 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the goddess. ^

Pandara is represented in Tibet 3 and China 4 . The illus" trations of drawings of all the five Buddhasaktis, Pandara and others are reproduced from Wright's Hutory of Nepal, Plate VI. These drawings are made by Nepalese painters.



PADMAPANI=

Colour Red Symbol Lotus '(

I Padmapani is the Bodhisattva attached to the Padma ( lotus ) family which is presided over by the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha whose spiritual consort is Pandara or Pandaravasim. The Lotus is the symbol of this family and the colour assigned

to this family is red. The Bodhisattva Padmapani begets the red colour and a full*blown lotus as his symbol. Padmapani is fairly well represen- ted in the Buddhist countries of the North including Tibet l and China./ One of his images is

illustrated in Fig. 21 2 .



2. AKSOBHYA.



Colour Blue Mudra Bhusparsa

Vehicle Elephant Symbol Vajra

Next in importance and antiquity is the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya whcTlsHnientioned as a Tathagata in the smaller recension of the Amitayus Sutra which was translated into Chinese between A. D, 384 and 417. Aksobhya is regarded as the

Second Dhyani Buddha by the Nepalese Buddhists. His description appears almost everywhere in Tantric literature. The Paficakara section of the Advayavajrasangraha perhaps gives the best description thus :

^Suryamandalastha-nlla-Humkaranispanno dvibhuja ekamukho Bhu-

sparsamudradharo vajraparyankl vijnanaskandhasvabhavah

vajrakuli sisiramadhyahnakatusruti'akasasabda-cavargo Aksobhya-

viuddhah". ADV. p. 40-41.

| Aksobhya originates from the blue syllable Hum which is placed on the orb of the sun. He is two-armed and one-faced, exhibits the Bhusparsa (earth-touching) mudrf and sits in the Vajraparyanka (adama"ntineleat) pose. He represents the

primordial cosmic element of Vijnana ( consciousness ). He is the embodiment of the Vajra family and represents the winter season, noon-time, pungent taste, faculty of hearing, the element of Ether and Sound and the Ca (palatal) group of

letters".- J

\Images, sculptures, statuettes and paintings of Aksobhya of this description are to be met with everywhere in Buddhist countries especially of the North. When represented in the Stupa he always

1. Getty : GNB. pp t 61, 62

2. This and other illustrations of the five Dhyani Bodhisattvas are in full- size bronzes. All these are to be found in the U Vahal in Nepal.


faces the East. His left hand rests on the lap while the right Crests on the~nght knee with the tips of the fingers touching the ground with palm drawn inwardly. JffisJVahana is a pair of elephants and his recognition symbol is the Vajra

or the thunderbolt.

Various other forms of Aksobhya are found in Tantric works,

some four^armed, some six-armed, some standing and some sitting,

some single and some in Yab-yumj| Some two-armed specimens are

reproduced here (Figs. 22, 23).

, /He is popular in Tibet 1 and China

(ii)

Colour Blue Arms Eight

Aksobhya is the principal deity in the Aksobhya Mandala according to Pindlkrama in the Nispannayogavall. He is described thus :

"Aksobhyah krsno raudrah sitaraktasavyetaramukhah savyakaraih kulacakrapadmani vamair-ghanta-Cintamani-khadgan vibhranah svabha- parsavajralingitah". NSP. p. 5!

| "Aksobhya is blue in colour and is angry-looking. The colour of his right face is white and that of the left is red. He holds in his right hands the Vajra (family symbol), the discus and the lotus. In the three left hands he carries

the bell, the Cintamani jewel and the sword. With the two principal hands he embraces the Prajna Sparsavajra by name", j



MAMAKI



1 Colour Blue Symbol Vajra

  • Nairrtyarh candramandalopari krsna-Mam-karabijasambuta Ma- maki krsnavarna krsnavajracihna abdhatusvabhava Vajrakula dve* sarakta"! ADV. p. 4!

"On the orb of the Moon in the Nairrta corner there is Mamaki originating from the blue germ syllable Mam. \ She is blue in colour and has the blue Vajra as her recogntion symbol. She is the embodi- ment of the element of Water and she

belongs to the Vajra family. She is full of enmity", f

Mamaki is very rarely represented. There are Nepalese drawings of this goddess J of which one specimen is reproduced here (Fig 24). She is known in Tibet and China.f

1. Gordon : ITL, p. 104 ; Getty : GKB, pp. 36, 37.

2. Clark: TLP, II, pp. 126, 129, 138, 244.




VAJRAPANL



Colour Blue Symbol Vajra

I The Bodhisattva Vajrapani with the Vajra symbol is the spiritual son of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya who is the progenitor of the Vajra family. His spiritual mother is Mamakl. Vajrapani, when represented, either stands or sits and

carries usually^ lotus on which is placed the family symbol of Vajra. Sometimes he holds the Vajra against the chest in one of his hands/ Some images of his are illus- trated here (Figs. 25, 26, 27).

He is known and widely represented in Tibet l and China 2 J



VAIROCANA



Colour White Mudra Dharmacakra

Vahana Dragon Symbol Discus

f Vairocana is mentioned along with the other Dhyani Buddhas in the Guhysamaja which is dated circa 300 A.D. He is regarded as the oldest^ ^^ t ' le ^ rst Dhyani Buddha by the Nepalese Buddhists and His place is in the sanctum of the

Stupa where he is the master of the whole temple and its contents. Naturally, therefore, he cannot be represented outside the Stupa, but exception to this rule is frequently met with in the important stupas of Nepal where he is assigned

a place between Aksobhya in the East and Ratnasambhava in the South. His form is frequently described in Tantric works, but the description occuring in the Pancakara section of the Advayavajrasahgraha is full. It is given below : |

"Purvadale candramandalopari Omkarajah Suklavarna*Vairocanah suklacakracihnah Bodhyahgl-mudradharah rupaskandhasvabhavah mohasvarupo vitavisuddhah tathagatakuli adarsatvena pratisthitah Hemantartuvisuddhah madhurarasasarlrah Kavargavyapl

prabhatasan- dhyatmakyasvabhavah". ADV. p. 41

Vj'Vairocana originates from the white syllable Om placed on the orb of the moon on the eastern petal of the lotus and is white in colour. His recognition symbol is the white Discus. He exhibits the Bodhyafigl mudra and represents the

cosmic element of Rupa (Form). He is of the nature of Moha (delusion) and is without bad companions, he is the embodiment of the Tathagata family, and is established as an embodiment of Adarsa (ideal) knowledge. He represents the Hemanta

season, the sweet taste, the Ka (guttural) group of letters, and the mornings and evenings of the day". \

1. Getty : GNB. p. 51

2* Clark : TLP. II. pp. 8, 11, 56, 197, 201.


When represented, Vairocana is white in colour, and his two hands are held against the chest with the tips of the thumb and forefinger of each hand united. His Vahana is a pair of Dragons or gryphons and his recognition symbol is shown

to be the Cakra or the Disc.

Instead of two, he may have many arms, and such descriptions are also met with in the Nispannayogavall./ Some of his two-armed images are reproduced here (Figs 28, 29). / His images are found in Tibet l and China a /

( ii )

Colour White Faces Four

Arms Eight

When Vairocana is four-faced and eight-armed he is called Vajra- dhatu and in this form he is described in the Vajradharu Mandala of the Nispannayogavall with the following words :

"Vairocano vajraparyankena nisannah subhrah sita-pita-rakta- harita^caturvaktro astabhujah savyavamabhyam dhrtasavajrabodhyangi- mudro* parabhyam dhrtadhyanamudro daksinabhyam aksamalasara- dharo vamabhyarh cakracapabhrt". NSP. p. 44-

"Vairocana is seated in Vajraparyahka and is white in colour. His four faces show white, yellow, red and green colours. I He is eight- armed. With the two principal hands holding the Vajra he exhibits the Bodhyahgl or the Dharmacakra

mudra. With the second pair of hands he shows the Dhyana mudra. The two remaining right hands hold the rosary and the airow, and with the two remaining left he carries the discus and the bow". |

Vajradhatu Buddha is mentioned in the Chinese collection 1 . The Chinese figure corresponds with the description given here and is illustrated in Fig 30.



LOCANA.



Colour White Arms Two

Symbol Discus

The Dhyani Buddhas are a]J associated with their Sakti or female counterpart and an offspring or Bpdhisattva. They fall into a separate group of five or six if Vajra$attva is added. Locana belongs to the Tathagata family to which the

Dhyani Buddha Vairocana also belongs. Thus Locana is the, Sakti or the female counterpart of the Dhyani Buddha Vairocana, f A short Dhyan^ in the Advayavajrasahgraha describes her form thus ; [


"Agneyakonadale candramandalopari sukla-Lom-karaja suklavarna Locana cakra-cihna prthvidhatusvarupa Tathagatakulodbhava mo* harakta". ADV. p. 42

"On the disc of the moon on the petal in the Agni corner there is Locaria originating from the white germ syllable Lom. J She is white. in colour, bears the recognition symbol of the discus, and is the embodi- "1*1 em of t h e

cosimc~eIenSnF"bT Earth. She belongs to the Tathagata fanuTy^anHTs steeped in delusion".

Paintings and sculptures of this goddess are rare, | A Nepalese draw- ing of the goddess is reproduced here in Fig. 31 Locana is represented in Tibet. *



SAMANTABHADRA



Colour White Symbol Cakra

I The Dhy ani Buddhas are the progenitors of the different families and they have each a spiritual consort and spiritual son. These spiri- tual sons are called the Bodhisattvas. The Bodhisattvas bear the same colour, and the same

recognition symbol whether they sit or stand. The Bodhisattva with the Cakra symbol is Samantabhadra and is thus affiliated to the Dhayani Buddha Vairocana with the Cakra symbol. He belongs to the Tathagata Kula. When represented,! he

either stands erect or sits in different sitting attitudes, such as Dhyana, Lalita or Bhadra poses on a full-blown lotus. He usually holds the stem of a lotus on which the family symbol, the Cakra, is shown.

Samantabhadra is known in Tibet 2 and China ;i and is frequently represented in the Buddhist countries of the North. | One of his images is illustrated here in Fig. 32.



4. AMOGHASIDDHI.



Colour Green Mudra Abhaya

Vahana Garuda Symbol Visvavajra

VThe Nepalese Buddhists consider him to be the Fifth Dhyani Buddha in order. His left hand lies open on the lap and the right exhibits the Abhaya ( protection ) mudra. His form is des- cribed in many places in Tantric works I but the one

appearing in the Advayavajrasahgraha appears to be the best and i$ quoted below : t

"Uttaradale suryamandalopari syama-Kham-karajah syamavarno- 'moghasiddhih visva-vajracihnabhayamudradharah Samskaraskandha-



avabhavo Varsarturupah [Karmakull] pisitap(s?)ahtiktarastmakah pavargavisuddhah ardharatrasvabhavah." ADV. p. 41-42

"Amoghasiddhi originates from the green syllable Kharh placed on the orb of the sun on the northern petal of the lotus, and is of green colour. /His recognition symbol is the Visvavajra or


the double thunderbolt. He exhibits the Abhaya ( protection ) mudra and represents the cosmic element of Samskara ( confor- ritotion ). He is the embodiment of the rainy season and is a demon by nature ; [ he belongs to the Karma family

] and he represents the bitter taste, the Pa (labial) group of letters and the middle part of the night."

When represented, his colour is green and he always faces the North. His Vahana is a pair of Garudas and his recognition symbol is the Visvavajra or the double conventional thunderbolt. Sometimes a serpent with seven hoods forms the

background and an umbrella. In front of his shrine, therefore, is found a small square pit which is meant for the snake

Statues and paintings of this Dhyani Buddha are found in large numbers in all Buddhist countries especially of the North* Some of them are reproduced here (Figs. 33, 34 ). } He is popular in Tibet * and China a f



TARA.



Colour Green Symbol Utpala

| Tara also called Tarim according to a Dhyana found in the PancSkara section of the Advayavajrasahgraha belongs to the Karma family to which evidently the Dhyani Buddha Amogha- siddhi is also associated. The green colour of Tara also

suggest: that she is the spiritual consort of Amoghasiddhi of green colour Her form and nature are given in the following passage :

"Atsanyarh candramandalopari kanakasyama-Tarh karaparinata TarinI syamavarna syamamlotpalacihna vayudhatusvarupa Karmakula Irsyarakta." ADV. p. 43.

"In the Isana corner on the orb of the moon there is TSrim originating from the germ syllable Tarn of golden green colour Her recognitipn_ symbol is a green night lotus. She is the embodiment of the element of Air/ SKe belongs to family

and is full of jealousy." 1



The same remarks apply to her images and paintings which are rare in India* One specimen of her images is illustrated here (Fig. 35 ), In Tibet 1 and China 2 she is widely known.



VISVAPANI


Colour Green Symbol Visvavajra. i

Visvapani, as the name indicates, is the holder of the Visvavajra or the double thunderbolt which is the symbol of the Dhyani Buddha Amoghasiddhi, whose spiritual consort is Tar a or Tarim. They all belong to what is called the Karmakula

to which the green colour is assigned. Visvapani thus is green in colour and shows the Visvavajra on a lotus. When represented, he may. stand erect or sit in different sitting postures. His images are sometimes found, and one specimen is

illustrated here ( Fig 36 ). Visvapani is known in Tibet r>


RATNASAMBHAVA.



Colour Yellow Mudra Varada

Vahana Lion Symbol Jewel !

I The Nepalese Buddhists regard him as the Third Dh>uni Buddha in order, and the earliest mention of his name may be found in the Guhyasamaja which is believed to have been composed circa 300 A.D. He is the progenitor of the Ratnakula,

and is described widely in the Buddhist Tantric works. Out of all descriptions the one given in the Pancakara section of the Advayavajrasahgraha is perhaps the besty Here Ratnasambhava is described as under : J

"Daksinadale suryamandalopari TranVkarajah pitavarno Ratnasam- bhavo ratnacihnavaradamudradharo vedanasvabhava'piiunasanrah rak- tatmako ratnakull samatajnanavan vasantarturupo lavanasanrah Tavar- gavyap! trtlyacaturtliapraharatmakah".

ADV, p. 41.

^"Ratnasambhava originates from the yellow syllable Train placed on the orb of the sun on the southern petal./ He is yellow in cqlour* his recognitiqn symbol is the jewel and he exhibits the Varada (gift" bSstnwing) Mudra. He represents

the cosmic element of VedanS (sensation) and is the embodiment of slander (pisuna). He presides over the blood in the human system, and belongs to the Ratna (jewel) family of deities. He possesses the knowledge of Samata (equality) and

presides over the spring season, the saline taste, the Ta (dental) group of letters and the third and fourth parts of the day and night", \

1. Getty : GNB, p. 127 2 Clark: TLP, II, pp. 60, 107, 171.

3. Getty: GNB, p. 10 i 10


When represented, his colour is yellow* and he alwayvS faces the South. His left hand rests on the lap with "opeiTpalm, and the TTgBt 'exhibits the Varada Mudra or the gift bestowing attitude. His Vahana is a pair of lions, and

theTCTOgnition symbol is the Jewel (Ratnacchata),

He may have more arms than two and in such forms he is described in^lhe Nispannaybgavali. ~Such forms alre also represented iti art."f"Some oT"his two-armed forms are only illustrated here (Figs 37, 38), \ He is widely known and

represented in Tibet 1 and China -./



VAJRADHATVI&VARI



J Colour Yellow Symbol Jewel

/ Vajradhatvisvarl, according to a statement in the Advayavajrasam* graha is the deity of the centre surrounded by the four Buddhasaktis, bocana, Tara, Pandara, and MamakL She is said to be the embodi- ment of the highest truth in

Mahayana Buddhism which is named differently as Tathata, Sunyata, Frajnaparamita and so forth :t . Vajradhatvisvan thus can be taken as the spiritual consort of Ratna- sambhava only, with the yellow colour and the jewel as symbol.

Images and paintings of this deity are still rarer than those of the other Buddhasaktis. / One of her Nepalese paintings is illustrated here (Fig 39). / She is known in Tibet *./



RATNAPANI


Colour Yellow Symbol Jewel

Ratnapani, as the name signifies, belongs to the Ratnakula which is presided over by the Dhyani Buddha Ratnasambhava, whose spiritual consort is Vajradhatvisvan. Ratnapani is of the same nature as the Dhyani Buddha and when represented,

he either stands erect, or sits in different sitting postures. He

stalk of a lotus on which appears the" Kula symbol hefe~thne Jewel (Ratnacchata). He is represented sparingly in the BuddTiist Countries of "the North, and a metal image of his found in Nepal is illustrated here (Fig 40). Ratnapani is

known and represented in Tibet 5 .



VAJRASATTVA.



Colour White Symbols Vajra and Ghanta

( Vajrasattva, the Sixth Dhyani Buddha, is regarded by the Nepal Buddhists as the priest of the Five Dhyani Buddhas. He is not repre-


sented in the Stupa like the other Dhyani Buddhas, but independent shrines are dedicated to his worship. His worship is always performed in secret and is not open to those who are not initiated into the mys- teries of Vajrayana.

Vajrasattva is represented in two forms, single and Yub-yum.

The notable feature of this Dhyani Buddha is that he wears all ornaments, rich dress and a crown instead of the poor dress of the other Dhyani Buddhas consisting of three rags (tricivara). Thus Vajrasattva appears more to be a

Bodhisattva than a Dhyani Buddha.

He sits cross-legged in the meditative pose like the other Dhyani Buddhas, and exhibits no special Mudra. He carries the Vajra in his right hand with palm upwards against the chest and the Ghanta (Bell) in the left hand resting against

the left thigh. His form is repeatedly described in Tantric works. jThe description given in the Advaya- vajrasafigraha is typical and is quoted below :

"Vajrasattvastu Hurhkarajanma suklo dvibhuja ekavaktro vajra- vajraghantadharo Kasayarasasanrah saradrtuvisuddho Yaralavadyatma- kah ardharatratah prabhatakalaparyanto Dharmadhatuparanama",

ADV, p. 41.

"Vajrasattva originates from the syllable HUM and is white in colour. He is two-armed and one-faced and holds in his two hands the Vajra and Vajra-marked Ghanta. |He represents the as- tringent taste, the Autumn season, the letters of

the alphabet ya, ra, la, and va, and the part of the night from midnight to day-break. His second name is Dharmadhatu". \

I When represented singly, he is exhibited before the public. The Yab"yum form is generally kept" secret. When represented in Yab- yumV'he is closely associated with his Sakti who is generally known as Vajrasattvatmika. He carries the

Vajra and the Ghanta in the same manner as when single, but the Sakti holds the Kartri in the right hand and the Kapala in the left (Figs. 41, 42). *

amongst the Dhyani Buddhas is anomalous. Vajrasattva is widely represented in Tibet l and China f



VAJRASATTVATMIKA



Colour White Symbol Kartri and Kapala

Arms Two

/ As all the Dhyani Buddhas have a Sakti each attached to them, even so the Sixth Dhyani Buddha Vajrasattva also can claim a Sakti. Vajrasattvatmika thus is the spiritual consort of the Sixth Dhyani Buddha Vajrasattva. Hejr Dhyana is

rarely found, in.. Tan- trie literature, but her form can Tie seen from the images where she is in close embrace with Vajrasattva in Yab-yum. In such cases she carries the Kartri in the right hand and Kapala in the left. /



GHANTAPANI



Colour White Symbol Ghanta

The Sixth Dhyani Buddha Vajrasattva and his consort Vajrasa- ttvatmika claim Ghantapani as their Bodhisattva. The recognition symbol of this Bodhisattva is the Ghanta or the Bell Like his spiritual sire he must be white in colour.

Ghantapani is rarely represented, and his images are very rare in Buddhist countries.



MORTAL BUDDHAS



Both the Mahayanists and the Hmayanists hold that a Buddha is one who is endowed with the thirty-two major and eighty mi- nor auspicious marks known as "external characteristics" as enu- merated in the Dharmasarhgraha, attributed to

Nagarjuna. He must have in addition, three kinds of mental characteristics, namely, the ten Balas or forces, eighteen Avenika Dharmas or peculiar proper- ties, and the four Vaisaradyas or points of self-confidence or assurance.

The Hmayanists, even in their earlier stages, recognised four bygone Buddhas, each having a peculiar Bodhi tree. Mahayanists also give several lists, though not systematically and thirtyjjwp different names have been recovered. The last

seven Jathagatas are well known, and are designated by the Mahyani* sts aT^MTOtlsi or^ Mortal Buddhas. These are, Vipasyin, Sikhi, Visvabhu, Krakucchanda, Kanakamuni, Kasyapa and Sakyasimha. The historicity of these Buddhas is still

uncertain excepting of course that of the last, but there are good grounds for thinking that Kanakamuni and Krakucchanda really w^re^ historical personages*

Attempts have been made to establish a fantastic connection between the last five Mortal Buddhas and the five Dhyani Buddhas and their Bodhisattvas by holding that the Divine Bodhisattvas


discharge their duties of creation through the agency of the five portal Buddhas. The theory may be current in Tibet ; it may ingeniously establish a new connection and may find strong support from scholars, but it is against all Tantric traditions of India.

When represented, the last seven Mortal Buddhas appear all alike ; I they are of one colour and one form, usually sitting cross-legged, with the right hand disposed in the Bhumigparsa

touching attitude)", which is^the MudrOpeculiar to Aksobhya and as^a matter ot t'act, it is not possible to identify a sculpture of the latter unless it is coloured or if no other identification mark is present. In paintings, the Mortal

Buddhas have -usually a yellow or golden complexion. The only possible chance of identifying them is when they appear in groups of seven. 1

Sometimes they are represented as standing, in which case they appear under a distinguishing Bodhi Tree and with a distinguish- ing Mudra. The Indian Museum image No* B, G, 83 (Fig. 45) is an image of this kind. It may be noted, however,

that Maitreya, the future Buddha, has been added to this group.



VAJRASANA



Gautama, the last of the group of the seven Mortal Buddhas, is widely represented both in sculptures and in paintings. His images date from a period anterior to the birth of Christ and the fascination of Indian sculptors for Buddha

images seems never to have diminished. Innumerable images of Buddha in innumerable attitudes and with, innumerable expressions have been discovered in India, as in those other countries which came under the influ- ence of Buddhism,

Images of Buddha, therefore, are an indepen- dent study by themselves.

The Sadhanamala furnishes us with several descriptions of Buddha Vajrasana sitting in the Vajraparyahka attitude, with his right hand displaying the Bhumisparsa pose. The Dhyana, as given in one of the Sadhana is quoted below :

"Savyakarena Bhusparsamudram utsahgasthitavasavyahastam kiisaya- vastravagunthanam mlagauraraktasyamacatur-Maropari visva-padmavaj- rSvasthitarh santam laksanavyanjanenanvitagatram. Tasya Bhagavato daksine Maitreya^Bodhisattvam gauram

dvibhujarh jatamukutinam savyakarena camararatnadharinam avasavyena nagakesarapuspacchata^ dharinam, Tatha vamato Lokesvarram suklam daksinakarena cama-

1* Colossal images of the Seven Mortal Buddhas representing them with the Bhu- mi^parla mudra appear in one of cave temples at Ellora. Fergusson and Burgess: Cave Templet of India, p. 383.


"The worshipper should meditate himself as (Vajrasana) who dis* plays the Bhusparsa Mudra in his right hand while the left rests on the lap. He is dressed in red garments and sits on the Vajra- marked double lotus placed on the four Maras of blue, white, red and green colour. He is peaceful in appearance and his body is endowed with all the major and minor auspicious marks,

'To the right of the God is Maitreya Bodhisattva who is white, two^armed, and wears the Jatamukuta (crown of matted hair), and carries the chowrie-Jewel in the right hand, and the Nagakesara flower in the left.

"Similarly, to the left of the principal God is Lokesvara of white complexion, carrying in his right hand the chowrie and the lotus in the left.

'These two gods should be meditated upon as looking towards the face of the (principal) god

"Here ends the Sadhana for Vajrasana"


Images of this divinity are found in overwhelming numbers in almost all Buddhist centres in India. The Indian Museum image (Fig. 46) is an example of this form of Gautama.

Buddha Sakyasirhha was conceived in another form which was called by the name of Durgatiparisodhana. This particular form of Sakya*- simha is described in the Nispannayogavali of Abhayakara Gupta.



DURGATIPARISODHANA.



Colour Yellow Face One Arms Two Mudra Dharamacakra

Sakyasimha, the embodiment of Mahavairocana, is the principal deity in the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala of the Nispannayogavali. He has been described in a short sentence :

"Cakrasya vedyam visvasarojasthasimhopari snoakyasirhhoBhagavan Mahavairocanah suvarnavarno dhrtadharmacakramudrah,

"NSP, p. 66.

"On the centre of the wheel on a lion placed on a double lotus sits the god Sri Sakyasimha, the embodiment of Mahavairocana of golden yellow colour, dispalying in his two hands the Dharmacakra Mudra".

Nepalese paintings of the deity are available, but sculptures are hot recorded anywhere, , ^



Like the Dhyani Buddhas, the Mortal Buddhas have also their res- pective Buddhasaktis through whom they obtained the seven Mortal Bodhisattvas. The Buddhasaktis are :


1. Vipasyanti

4. Kakudvatl

2. SikhimalinI

5. Kanthamalini

3. Visvadhara

6. Mahidhara

7. Yasodhara


Representation of these are not met with anywhere in India. Only one Statuette of the last Yasodhara is found in China * .



MORTAL BODHISATTVAS



They were brought into existence by their respective Mortal Buddhas and their Saktis. They are :


1. Mahamati

4 Sakamangala

2. Ratnadhara

5. Kanakaraja

3. Akasaganj

6. Dharmadhara

7. Ananda


The names of Yasodhara and Ananda are familiar names, the former being the name of Sakyasimha's wife and the latter that of his favourite disciple.

The relation between the Mortal Buddhas, their Buddhasaktis and the Bodhisattvas may be thus shown in a tabular form :

Mortal

Buddha

Mortal

Buddhasakti

Mortal

Bodhisattva

Vipasyi

Visvabhu

Krakucchanda

Kanakamuni

Kasyapa

Sakyasimha

Vipasyanti

SikhimalinI

Visvadhara

Kakudvatl

Kanthamalini

Mahidhara

Yasodhara

Mahamati

Ratnadhara

Akasaganja

Sakamangala

Kanakaraja

Dharmadhara

Ananda N*^,.^-



MAITREYA, THE FUTURE BUDDHA.


It would not be out of place to mention here the name of Maitreya who partakes of the nature of a Mortal Buddha, though he is not a Buddha yet. He is supposed to be passing the life of a Bodhisattva in the Tusita heaven, preparatory to

his descent to earth in human form. It is said that he will come to earth full 4000 years after the disappearance of Buddha Gautama for the deliverance of all sentient beings. Asahga is said to have visited Maitreya in the Tusita heaven

and to have been initiated by him into the mysteries of Tantra. He is the only Bodhisattva who is worshipped alike by the Hinayanists and the Mahayanists and his images can be traced from the Gandhara School down to the present time/

Hiuen Tsang records the existence of Maitreya in Udyana (U-chang-na). The sculptor, in order to ascertain his correct form, is believed to have gone several times to the Tusita heaven before carving it.

Maitreya may be represented as a standing figure, adorned with rich ornaments and holding in his right hand the stalk of a lotus He is distinguished from Padmapani mainly by the figure of a small Caitya which he bears on his crown. Getty

remarks that in Indian sculpture he shows in his hands the usual Dharmacakramu- dra ; in the left there is a vase, round, oval or pointed, or there may be the stems of flowers which support his two characteristic symbols, the vase and

the wheel. Maitreya may also be represen- ted seated as a Buddha, with legs either interlocked or dangling down. His colour is yellow, and his images sometimes bear the figures of the five Dhyani Buddhas, on the aureole behind. The small

Caitya on the crown of Maitreya is said to refer to the belief that a Stupa in the mount Kukkutapada near Bodh-Gaya covers a spot where Kasyapa Buddha is lying. When Maitreya would descend to earth he would go direct to the spot, which

would open by magic, and receive from Kasyapa the garments of a Buddha.


The Sadhanamala furnishes us with only one description of Maitreya as a principal divinity and several others in which he is represented as a minor god. When as a minor god, he accompa- nies others, he generally carries the chowrie in

the right hand and the Nagakesara flower in the left. The Sadhana describing the procedure of his worship has Dhyana :



Pita* MamYkaraparina tarn visvakamalasthitam trimukham

caturbhujarh krsnasukladaksinavamamukham suvarnagauram sattvaparyahkinam vyakhyanamudradharakaradvayam aparadaksi* navamabhujabhyam varadapuspitanagakesaramanjarldharam

nanalahka radharam atmanam Maitreyarupam aiambya


"The worshipper should meditate himself as Maitreya who ori- ginates from the yellow germ syllable "Maim". He is three-faced three-eyed, and four-armed. His right and left faces respectively are of blue and white colour. His complexion

is yellow like that of gold. He sits in the Paryanka attitude on an animal His two hands are engaged in exhibiting the Vyakhyana Mudra and he shows in his other right and left hands the Varada Mudra and a full-blown Nagakesara flower

with its branches He is decked in many ornaments. Meditating thus ..

This is the Sadhana for Maitreya.

A Nepalese drawing (Fig. 47) represents 'this form of Maitreya which follows the Dhyana in all .details except the vehicle. Maitreya is popular in Tibet 1 and his images are found in abundance in China 1 ',



THE BODHISATTVAS



I The term Bodhisattva consists of two words Bodhi (enlightenrrent) and Sattva (essence) and they represent a class of deities who derive their origin from the five Dhyani Buddhas representing the five primor- dial elements. The

Bodhisattvas 'thus connote all the ryale deities of the Buddhist pantheon, while their female counterparts are known by the generic name of Saktis. These Saktis should be distinguished from the Buddhasaktis who are fhe queens of the five Dhyani Buddhas-. The Bodhisattvas are sometimes represented in the company ot their Saktis who are seated either beside them or on their laps or in close embrace. Although all the male deities of the Buddhist pantheon can be called the

Bodhisattvas, they are ncveitheless separated in icono- graphic studies as an independent group. Thus, in the Nispannayogavali, three distinct groups of sixteen Bodhisattvas are mentioned and it is necessary to refer to them here along

with their iconography as found in this excellent book. Amongst the Bodhisattvas, Avalokitesvara ai^Maniyin are the chief and have wide popularity not only in this country, but also in other Buddhist countries such as Tibet, China and

Japan.! As the images of Avalokitesvara and Manjusri are found in <rlt~ these countries in large numbers and in a wide variety of forms they require obviously a separate treatment in subsequent chapters. The Nispannayogavall of

Mahapandita Abhayakara Gupta men- tions altogether ihree sets 1 of sixteen Bodhisattvas. Some names occur in one or two or all the three lists, which when analysed, give an account of twenty-five Bodhisattvas in all. These three lists

are headed in one by Samantabhadra and in two others by Maitreya, the Future Buddha. Images of many of these Bodhisa- ttvas are found in India, but their number is the largest in China as would be seen in the Two Lamaistic Pantheons by

Walter Eugene Clark. The three lists as given by Abhayakara Gupta are stated below for facility of comparison, before the Bodhisattvas are actually described with the help of the Dlvyanas.

List No. 1 Samantabhadra, Aksavamati, Ksirigarbha, Akasagarbha, Ganganaganja, Ratnapani, Sagaramati, Vajragarbha, Avalokitesvara, Mahasthamaprapta, Chandraprabha, Jalimprabha, Amitaprabha, Pra- tibhankuta, Sarvasokatamonirghatamati,



List No. 2


Maitreya,

Manjusri,

Gandhahasti,

Jnanaketu,

Bhadra- pala,

Sagaramati,

Aksayamati,

Pratibhanakuta,

Mahasthamaprapta,

Sarvapayanjaha,

Sarvasokatamonirghatamati,

Jaliniprabha,

Candrapra- bha,

Amitaprabha,

Gaganaganja,

Sarvanivaranaviskambhin.


List No. 3

Maitreya,

Amoghadarsin,

Apayanjaha-Saivapayanjaha,

Sarvasokatamonirghatamati,

Gandhahasti,

Surangama,

Gaganaganja,

Jnanaketu,

Amitaprabha,

Candraprabha,

Bhadrapala,

Jaliniprabha,

Vajragarbha,

Aksayamati,

Pratibhanakuta


Samantabhadra.



Colour Yellow and Blue Symbol Jewel

/ The Bodhisattva Samantabhadra (Universal Goodness) is important as the leader of the sixteen Bodhisattvas and thus is not a whit less important than the Future Buddha Maitreya who is at the head of the two other lists of Bodhisattvas.

Samantabhadra 's popularity is further exemplified by frequent mention of his name in the Nispanna* yogavali. Samantabhadra is popular both in Tibet and China where his images are frequent and numerous.

/ He is described several times in the Nispannayogavall and in several places his form is identical with that of his sire. But there are places where his independent forms are described which are important for the purpose of iconographic

studies. These are mentioned here./

In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala Samantabhadra is described as follows :

Samantebhadrah pltahsavyenavarado vamena utpalakhadgadharah.


  • ' Samantabhadra is yellow in colour, shows the Varada (boon) in the right Rand and holds on the left the sword on lotus." / | In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala he is described as :/

Samantabhadrah suvarnavarno ratnamanjaribhrddaksinapanih katisthavamamustih. NSP, p. 67.

"Samantabhadra is of golden colour, holds a bunch of jewels in the right hand", while the left rests on the hip,',' f

I Once again Samantabhadra is described in the Kalacakra Mandala. There he is described as : /

Samantabhadrah nllah savyairvajrakartriparasun vamah>ghanta> kapala*Brahmasirarhsi dadhanah. Brahmasirahsthane, utpalam va* Dharmavajrasamapanno'yam. NSP, p. 85.

1. For a full description see Hetty : GNB, p. 47, f.


Ghanta, the Kapala and the severed head of Brahma. Sometimes the head of Brahma is replaced by the Utpala. He is embraced by his consort Dharmavajra/' I

1 Although images of Samantabhadra are not rare in India, the bulk of his images are to be met with in China, At least five images of the Bodhisattva are found in Peiping alone. l \ Fig. 48 is a Nepalese drawing of the deity.

I Samantabhadra is popular in the Sadhanamala, although only one description of his is available. In the Lokanatha Sadhana he is described as : /

Samantabhadrah pitabho ratnotpalavarapradah

Sadhanamala, p. 49

"Samantabhadra is of yellowish colour, holds the jewel on a lotus and exhibits the Varada Mudra in his two hands." /


AKSAYAMATI


\: Colour Yellow Symbol Sword or Jar

IThe second Bodhisattva is Aksayamati (Indestructible mind) and his name is widely known in the Buddhist ritualistic literature. Aksa- yamati is described thrice in the Nispannayogavall.^

In the Manjuvajra Mandala Aksayamati is described as :

Aksayamatih suvarnavarno vamamustim hrdyavasthapya savyena varadamudrah. NSP, p. 50.

/ Aksyamati is of golden complexion, and shows the clenched left hand against the chest, and exhibits the Varada mudra in the right/' I

/ In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala, he is described somewhat differently as :/

Aksayamatih pitah savyena khadgam vamenaabhayakamalam bibharti. NSP, p 58.

/ "Aksayamati is yellow in colour and flourishes the sword in the right hand, while he exhibits in the left hand the Abhaya rnudra and the Kamala." j

I A third description of this Bodhisattva occurs* in the Durgati- parisodhana Mandala and he is described in the following words : Aksayamatih sito h^stabhyarh jnanamrtakalasadharl


/ "Aksayamati is white in colour and with his two hands holds the bowl containing the nectar of knowledge." /


( A Chinese statuette 1 depicts him in the form of the Dhyani Buddha Amoghasiddhi with the right hand raised against the chest in the Abhayamudra and the left resting on the lap. | Fig. 49 is a Nepalese drawing of the deity. Fig. 50

illustrates a Chinese specimen.


KSITIGARBHA



Colour Yellow or Green Symbol Kalpa Tree on Jar

The third Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha (matrix of the earth) is rarely represented. He is described twice in the Nispannayogavali. In one, he is identical with his sire Vairocana with the Cakra symbol. In another, Ksitigarbha is described in

the following words :

Ksitigarbhah pito daksinena krtabhusparso vamenabjastha*kalpa' drumadharah. ' NSP, p. 58.

"Ksitigarbha is yellow in colour, shows the earth -touching mudra in the right hand, and a lotus with the wish-giving tree (kalpavrksa) in the left."

Ksitigarbha is illustrated four times in the Peiping collection in different forms. y He is also found in Tibet. 1 Fig. 51 is a Nepalese drawing of the deity.

Under Lokanatha Sadhana in the Sadhanamala a further des- cription occurs of the Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha. Here he is des- cribed in verse as :

Ksitigarbhah syamavarnah kalasam cabhayaiii tatha.

Sadhanamala, p. 49.

"Ksitigarbha is of green colour, and shows in his two hands the jar and the Abhaya mudra/'



AKASAGARBHA


Colour Green Symbol Jewel

The Bodhisattva Akasagarbha (essence of ether) is also known by the name of Khagarbha, the words "Kha" and "Akasa" sig- nify the same thing "Sky" Akasagarbha is the Bodhisattva who lives in the womb of the sky.

Akasagarbha is described in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala of the Nispannayogavali. His form is depicted in the following words :

Akasagarbhah syamah savyena sarvaratnavarsl \amena ciritamani- bbrt. NSP, p 58.

"Akasagarbha is green in complexion, with the right hands he showers all kind of jewels and with the left, he holds the Cintamani (wish-giving) jewel."

Altogether four illustrations of Akasagarbha appear in the two Lamaistic Pantheons. In China, he is represented in three distinct forms. 1 Two statuettes show the lotus in the right hand and the Varada mudra in the left. The third is

three-faced and Mx-armed while the fourth shows the jewel in the right hand and the Varada mudra with the jewel in the left. Fig. 52 is a Ncpalcse drawing of the deity.

Akasagarbha is recognized by his second name of Khagarbba in the Sa llrmmala and under the Lokanatha Sadhana his form is described as follows :

Khagarlho nabhahsyamabho cintamanivarapradah.


"Khagarbha is green as the sky, holds the Cintamani jewel in' one hand and exhibits the Varada mudra in the other."



GAGANAGANJA



Colour Yellow or Red Symbol Kalpa Tree

/ The Bodhtsattva Gaganaganja is described four times in the Nispannayogavall. His colour is yellow showing his affiliation to Ratnasambhavh of yellow colour with the Varada mudra and the jewel. In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described

as:/

Gaganaganjah suvarnavarno vame vajramustim garvena katyam nyasya daksinam gagane bhramayan. NSP, p. 50*

/ "Gaganaganja is of golden yellow colour. In the left he holds the Vajra with in clenched hand which is proudly placed on the hip, while the right is flourished upwards in the sky." *

/ The Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala describes him with the follow- ing words ; '

Gaganaganjah pirah savyena Cintamanibhrd-vamena bhadraghata- valambitakalpavrksam dadhanab. NSP, p. 58.

I "Gaganaganja is yellow and shows the Cintamani jewel in the right hand. In the left, he holds the auspicious bowl from which is suspended a Kalpa (wish-giving) tree." I


/ A third description of Gaganaganja occurs in the Durgatipari* sodhani Mandala. There his form is as under: /

Gaganagnnjah sitapitah savyena padmasthadharmaganjadhanilh katisthdvamahastah. NSP, p. 67

I "Gaganaganja is whitish yellow in complexion. He holds the Dharmaganja on lotus in the right hand, while his left hand rests on the hip/ /

/ Ga^anaganja is also represented in the same form as his sire Ratna- sambhiua of yellow colour. In the Two Larnaistic Pantheons Gagana- gnnja occurs only once and he is of the same form as his sire Ratnasam' bhava,) Fig. 53 is a

Nepalese drawing of the Bodhisattva.

I Bodhisattva Gaganaganja is not unknown to the SaJhanamala. In the Loknatha Sadhana, a iJhort description of the deity is available. It runs as follows : (


Gaganaganja of red colour, holds the blue lotus and exhibits the Varda rnudra in his two hands." I



RATNAPAN1



ColourGreen Symbol Jewel or the Moon

The Bodhisattva Ratnapani (Jewel bearer) is described only once in the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala of the Nispannayogavall. Here he is described as :

Ratanapanih syamo daksinapanina ratnam vamenabjastha-candra- mandalam bibhranh. NSP, p> 58,

"Ratnapani is green in colour, holds the jewel in the right hand, and the disc of the moon on lotus in the left hand/'

He is the Bodhisattva of the Dhyani Buddha RatnasamHrava and as such, he is sometimes represented in Nepal and Tibet His image is not found in the Chinese collection. Fig. 54 is a Nepalese drawing of the Bodhisttva.



SAGARAMATI



Colour White Symbol Sea Wave or Conch

Bodhisattva Sagaramati ( ocean mind ) is twice described in the Nispannayogavali. In the Manjuvajra Mandala, he is described as: Sagaramatih sito hastadvayaprasaritah sarvahgulibhistaran^abhinayi


"Sagaramati is white in colour with both hands outstretched and the fingers displaying the sea-waves. "

In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala he is once again described as :

Sagaramatih sitah savyena samkhamvamena vajrakhadgam dadhanah.


"Sagaramati is white in colour, holds in the right hand the conch, and in the left a sword marked with a Vajra." Fig. 55 is a Nepalese drawing of Sagaramati.



VAJRAGARBHA



Colour Blue or Bluish White Symbol juMbdonuiiuKa Scripture

' The Bodhisattva Vajragarbha (matrix of Thunderbolt) is described twice in the NispannayogavalL In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala he is described as : I

Vajragarbho mlotpaladalavarno daksmena vajram vamena dasabhii' mikapustakadharah. NSP, p. 58.

Vajragarbha is of the colour of the petal of a blue lotus and holds in the right hand the Vajra and in the left the book called the Dasabhumika." | In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala Vajragarbha's form is depicted thus :

'

"Vajragarbha is of bluish white colour and holds the blue lotus in the right hand while the clenched left rests on the hip." *

His images are rare, and he is not represented in the Chinese collec- tion. Fig. 56 is a Nepalese drawing of Vajragarbha.



AVALOKITESVARA



(Colour White Symbol Lotus

The Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara (The Watchful Lord) also called Padmapani (Lotus bearer) is the spiritual son of^ the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha. He is one of the most popular Bodhisattvas <pf the Buddhist Pantheon having as many as 108

different forms. A separate chapter is devoted to this Bodhisattva in this work. Here only his special form that occurs in the Nispannayogavali in the list of Sixteen Bodhisattvas will be referred to. *

Avalokitesvara is described in the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala as: Avalokitesvarah subhrah savyena varado vamena sarojadharah.


"Avalokitesvara is white in colour ; he displays the Varada mudra in the right hand and in his left, he holds the lotus,"


Avalokitesvara is four times illustrated in the Two Lamaistic Pantheons ] Fig. 57 is a Nepalese drawing of Avalokitesvara,



MAHASTHAMAPRAPTA



Colour White or Yellow Symbol Six Lotuses or Sword

The Bodhisattva Mahasthamaprapta (one who has obtained great

strength) is described twice in the Nispannayogavali. In the Manjuvajra-

Mandala he is described us :

Mahasthamapraptah sito vamena sat-vikasitapadmadhari savyena varadah. NSP, p. 50.

"Mahasthamaprapta is white in colour and holds in his left hand a

bunch of six full-blown lotuses, while the right displays the Varada

mudra."

In the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala, he is once again described

with the following words :

Mahasthamapraptah pltah savyena khadgam vamena padmam dadhanah. NSP. p. 58

Mahasthamaprapta is yellow in colour. He holds the sword in the

right hand, and the lotus in the left/'

In the Chinese collection, Mahasthamaprapta occurs^ only once 1 '.

Fij?. 58 is a Nepalese drawing of Mahasthamaprapta.



CANDRAPRABHA



r White Symbol Moon on Lotus

I Bodhisattva Candraprabha (Light of the Moon) is described thrice in the NispannayogavalL In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as : Candraprabhah candravamo vamenotpalastha'candramandaladharl daksinena varadah NSP. p. 50.

,' "Candraprabha is of white colour like the moon. He holds in his left hand the disc of the moon on a lotus, and displays the Varada mudra in his right. "f

\ Candraprabha is described in the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala in the following words : \

Candraprabhah subhrah savyena vajracakram vamena padmastha^ candramandalam dhatte. NSP. p. 58.


In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala he is described differently as follows : I

Candraprabhah subhrah savyena padmasthacandrabimbam bibhri' nah katisthavamamustih. NSP. p. 67

I "Candraprabha is white in colour. He holds the moon on a lotus in the tight hand while the clenched left rests on the hip." 1

Thus the recognition symbol of Candraprabha is the moon on lotus. In the Chinese collection Candraprabha occurs only once 1 . Fig, 59 is a Nepalese drawing of Candraprabha



JALINTPRABHA



Colours-Red Symbol Sun*disc

The Bodhisattva Jaliniprabha (Light of the Sun) is also known by the name of Suryaprabha and he is described three times in the Nispan^ nayogavali. In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as : ]

Jaliniprabho rakto vamenotpalastha-suryamandaladhari savyena varadah, NSP. p. 50.

i "Jaliniprabha is of red colour. He holds the disc of the sun on a lotus in the left hand while the right displays the Varada mudrS.,

I Jalimprabha is again described in the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala as : 1

Jalimprabhah sitaraktah savyenasirh vamenabjasthasuryarh'


1 ' Jalimprabha is whitish red in complexion. He holds the sword in the right hand and the disc of the sun on a lotus in the left hand/' i In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala he is described further as :J Jalimprabho raktah savyena

vajrapanjararh bibhranah katisthavam- amustih. NSP. p. 67,

| *'Jaliniprabha ^s red in colour. He holds the Vajrapanjara (Vajra marked cage) in the right hand while the clenched left rests on the hip.)' H The symbol of Jaliniprabha is the disc of the sun and his red colour suggests that he is the

spiritual son of the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha. In the Chinese collection he is represented as Amitabha 2 J Fig. 60 is a Nepalese drawing of Jalimprabha.


AMITAPRABHA



Colour White or Red Symbol Jar

' The Bodhisattva Amitaprabha ( Boundless Light) also spelt as Amrtaprabha (Light of Nectar) is described t^jice in the Nispannayoga-


vali. Twice he is mentioned as of white colour and only once as red. It thus appears that Amitaprabha should belong to the family of Vairocana because of his white colour. His spiritual father will be Amitabha when he is red in colour, f

j In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala, Amrtaprabha is described as : I Amrtaprabhah subhrah mukutoparyamrtakalasabhrtsavyakarah katis* thavamamustih. NSP. p. 67.

t "Amrtaprabha is white in colour. In his right hand he holds the jar of nectar on the crown of his head. His clenched left hand rests on the hip."|

| In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is once again described as :< Amitaprabhah raktah hastadvayena abhisekakalasadharl,

NSP. p. 50.

| " Amitaprabha is of red colour and holds in his two hands the jar required in the bath of initiation. '|

I In the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala a further description of the deity appears :l

Amitaprabhah sitah savyena visvapadmarh vamena- bjasthakalasam bibhranah. NSP. p. 59.

| "Amitaprabha it> of white colour. With the right hand he holds the double lotus and with the left hand a jar on lotus. "I

| The jar of consecration is thus the recognition symbol of the Bodhisattva.i

Fig. 61 is an illustration of a Nepalese drawing of Amitaprabha.



PRATIBHANAKUTA



Colour Green, Yellow or Red Symbol Whip

Amitabha./ ( In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as : I

Pratibhanakutah syama utsangavamamustir-daksinena chotikapradah. . NSP. p. 50.

("Pratibhanakuta is of green colour. His clenched left hand is placed on the lap, while he flourishes the whip with the right hand."/ i His description in the Dharmadhatuvaglsvara Mandala is as follows ; Pratibhanakutah pito daksinena

chotikam vamena padmasthakrpanam dhatte. NSP, p. 59.

/ ^Pratibhanakuta is of yellow colour. With the right hand he holds the whip and with the left, a sword placed on lotus." /

The Durgatiparisodhana Mandala describes his form with the follo- wing words : f

Pratibhanakuto raktah savyenabjasthamukutadharl katisthavamamustih. NSP, p. 67.

' "Pratibhanakuta is red in complexion. With the right hand he holds the crown placed on a lotus, while his clenched left hand rests on the hip."/

He is not represented in the Chinese collection, nor his images are found in India. Fig. 62 is a Nepalese drawing of Pratibhanakuta,



SARVASOKATAMONIRGHATAMATI



Colour Whitish Yellow. Yellow or Red Symbol Staff

I' This Bodhisattva who destroys all sorrows and inertia is described thrice in the Nispannayogavali He is given twice the yellow colour or the colour of gold or whitish yellow and once the red. Thus the Bodhi- sattva undoubtedly belongs

to the family of the Dhyani Buddha Ratna- sambhava, although red suggests Amitabha also. * d The Durgatiparisodhana Mandala describes him as :| Sarvasokatamonirghatamatih sitapltamisravarnah dandabhrtsavyakarah katisthavamamustih. NSP.

p. 66. I r< Sarvasokatamonirghatamati is of mixed white and yellow colour. With his right hand he holds the staff while his clenched left hand rests on the hip. 5 ' 1

I The Manjuvajra Mandala describes him with the following words): Sarvasokatamonirghatamatih kanakakantih hastadvayasamputena praharabhinayi. NSP. p. 50.

  • "Sarvasokatamonirghatamati is of golden complexion. With his two hands joined palm to palm, he displays the attitude of striking."! , | In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala his description is as undetfy Sarvasokatamonirghatamatih

kurhkumavarnah savyena pancasucikakulisam vamena saktim dadhanah. fel $P, p. 59.

| Sarvasokamonirghatamati is of the red colour of Kumkuma (vermillion). With his right hand he holds the Vajra with five thongs and with the left, the Sakti ( javelin )J t

In the Chinese collection, this Bodhisattva is illustrated twice as Tamodghatamati and as Sokanirghatamati 1 . Fig. 63 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of Sarvasokatamonirghatamati.



SARVANIVARANAVISKAMBHIN



Colour White or Blue Symbol Sword and Book of all sins. Two independent forms of this Bodhisattva are described in the Nispannayogavall. His colour is either blue or white and thus he is the spiritual son of Aksobhya in one psychic school and of Vatrocana in another.

The Manjuvajra Mandala describes him as :


"Sarvanivaranaviskambhl is of either blue or white colour. With the left hand he displays the Bhusparsa (earth-touching) mudra ; with the thumb\ind the index finger joined together in the clenched right hand he displays the act of

pacification."

In the Dharmadhatuvagisvara Mandala he is described in the follow- ing words :


"Sarvanivaranaviskambhl is blue in colour. With his right hand he holds the sword and with the left the banner marked with a double thunderbolt/'

This Bodhisattva is also known by his shorter name of Viskambhin, and his statuettes occur at least four times in the Chinese collection 1 . He is popular also in Tibet-* Fig. 64 is a Nepalese drawing of the Bodhisattva.

This Bodhisattva under his shorter name Viskambhin appears also in the Sadhanamala. In the Lokanathasadhana his description is as under :


" Viskambhin is of the colour of ash, and holds the excellent jewel and the Varada mudra in his two hands." /



MAITREYA


Colour Golden Yellow Symbol Nagakesara Flower

] The Bodhisattva Maitreya who is supposed to be waiting in the Tusita heaven in order to come down to earth as the Future Buddha is described several times in the Nispamiayogavali Maitreya heads the list of Bodhisattvas in the

Manjuvajra Mandala. Although he takes the form of his spiritual sires Vairocana and Aksobhya two of his independent forms are nevertheless available, /


Maitreyah suvarnavarno dvabhyam krtadharmadesanamudro varada- savyakaro vamena sapuspanagakesarapallavadharah. NSP. p. 50 ( "Maitreya is of golden colour. With the two principal hands he displays the Dharmacakra mudra. The other two

hands show the Varada mudra in the right and the twig of a Nagakesara with flower in the left."/ I In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala his description is as under : /

Maitreyah pitah savyakarena nagakesarakusumarh vamena kundirh dadhanah. ' ' " NSP. p. 66.

I "Maitreya is yellow in colour. He holds in his right hand the flower of Nagakesara and with the left the mendicant bowl/'/

/ In the Chinese collection his statuettes occur at least six times and he is variously represented 1 . The Nagakessra flower is his chief recognition symbol both in China and in India. He is found also in Tibet"/ Fig. 65 is a Nepalese

drawing of the Bodhisattva. / In the Sadhanamala his description is simple : /

Maitreyah pitavarnasca nagapuspavarapradah. Sadhanamala, p. 49. ' "Maitreya is yellow in colour and shows the Naga flower and the Varada mudra/'/



MANJUSRI



Colour Golden Symbol Sword and Book

Like Avalokitesvara Manjusri is worshipped in all Buddhist coun^

tries and has a variety of forms. Manjusri has several names such

as Manjuvajra, Manjughosa, Dharmadhatuvagisvara and so forth.

His wide variety of forms, and his legendary origin deserve a separate

treatment in a later chapter.

As one of the sixteen Bodhisattvas Manjusri is taken as second

in the group headed by Maitreya. Manjusri does not find mention

in the list headed by Samantabhadta.

In the Manjuvajra Mandala Manjusri comes as a Bodhisattva in

the third circle of deities surrounding the principal god Manjuvajra

who is represented along with his Prajna or female counterpart.

According to Nispannayogavall, Manjusri should have the same for An

as the principal deity but he should have no Prajna,

Thus the form of Manjusri will be of the following description : Pltanllasuklasavyetaravaktrah sadbhujo daksinaih khadgavarada- banan vamaih prajnaparamitapustakanllabjadhanurhsi bibhranah.


3. For a detailed account of the legendary origin of the deity and his forms in Tibet, China and Japan. See Getty : GNB. pp. 112, 113


"Manjusri is three faced, with the three faces of yellow, blue and white colour. He is endowed with six arms ; in his three right hands he holds the sword, Varada mudra and the arrow, and in the three left shows the Prajnaparamita book,

the blue lotus and the bow."

Next to Avalokitesvara, Manjusri is important in the Buddhist pantheon as the God of Learning with the sword for destroying ignorance and the book of transcendental wisdom, His images are numerous, and the Chinese collection presents no

less than five different statuettes showing his great popularity in China 1 , Fig 66 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the Bodhisattva,

Manjusri as one of the eight Bodhisattvas is recognised by the favourite name of Manjughosa (soft voice) and under this name he is described in the Lokanathasadhana of the Sadhanamala The text is :

Manjughosah kanakabhah khadgapustakadharakah*


"Manjughosa is of golden colour and he holds in his two hands the sword and the book.



GANDHAHASTI


Colour Green or Whitish Green

Symbol Elephant's Trunk or Conch

1 The Bodhisattva Gandhahasti is mentioned in the Nispannayogavali as belonging to the group of sixteen Bodhisattvas headed by Maitreya and is described in two independent forms. In one prominence is given to the word 'Hasti' and in the

other to 'Gandha'. ' t In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as follows : / Gandhastih syamo vamena kamalasthahastikaradhari savye varadah. NSP. p. 50.

/ Gandhahasti is green in colour and holds in the left hand the trunk of an elephant on a lotus. The right hand exhibits the Varada mudra." /

| In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala on the other hand the Bodhisatt> va is described somewhat differently as -J

Gandhahastih sitasyamah savyena gandhasarhkhadharah katisthavamamustih. NSP, p. 66*

I "Gandhahasti is whitish green in colour. He holds in his right hand the conch containing sandal paste. The clenched left is placed on the hip." I


1 This Bodhisattva is represented only once in the Chinese collection. 1 His images are very rare. / Fig. 67 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the Bodhisattva.



JNANAKETU


Colour ^llow or Blue Symbol -Flag with Cintamani jewel


I The Bodhisattva Jnanaketu is mentioned as one ol the sixteen

Bodhisattvas under the leadership of Maitreya. Two independent forms of his are described in the Nispannayogavall. / ( In the Manjuvajra Mandala he is described as : /

Jnanaketuh plto vamena cintamanidhvajadharl savyena varadah. NSP. p. 50.

I "Jnanaketu is yellow in colour. He holds in his right hand the flag marked with the Cintamani jewel. The left hand displays the Varada mudra " /

In the Durgatiparisodhana Mimdala he is described somewhat differ^ ently as : t

Jnanaketu nilah cintamanidhvajabhrddaksinapanih katisthavamamustih. . NSP. p. 67.

I **Jnanaketu is blue in colour. He hold& in his right hand the flag marked with the Cintamani jewel. The clenched left hand rests on the hip." /

I Jnanakaketu occurs only once in the Chinese collection, where his form is identical with his sire Ratnasambhava L '| Fig. 68 is a Nepalese drawing of the deity.



BHADRAPALA


Colour Red or White Symbol Jewel.

1

The name of Bhadrapala occurs in the second list of sixteen Bodhis- attvas headed by Maitreya. At least two independent forms of this Bodhisattva are to be found in the Nispannayogavall. / j i In the Manjuvajra Mandala his form is

described with the following

words : i

Bhadrapalo raktavarno vamena ratnabhrd^daksinena varadah." . " ' ' NSP. p. 50.

/ Bhadrapala is of red colour. He holds in his left hand the jewel,

while the right displays the Varada mudra." J I In the Durgatiparisodhana Mandala again he is described Vsomewhat

differently as : /


I "Bhadrapala is white in colour. He holds in his right hand the glistening jewel, while his clenched left hand rests on the hip " /

t Bhadrapala is represented only once in the Chinese collection and there his form is identical with that of his sire Amitabha */. Fig, 69 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of Bhadrapala,

H 22. SARVAPAYANJAHA. Colour White Symbol Act of removing sin or goad.

Bodhisattva Sarvapayanjaha (Remover of all miseries) is also known by his shorter name of Apayanjaha and is described twice in the Nispannayogavali in two independent forms. I

( In the Manjuvajramandala this interesting Bodhisattva is described as : /


v "Sarvapayanjaha is white in colour. With his two hands he displays the act of removing all sins." /

(.In the Durgatiparisodhanamandala he is described as Apayanjaha with the following words : /


L" Apayanjaha is of white colour. With both hands he carries the Ahkusa (goad)/' /

I He is represented twice in the Chinese collection. In one he is identical with his spiritual sire Aksobhya with the Bhusparsa mudra and in another his right hand with open palm rests against the chest while the left shows the act of

forbidding. Perhaps this attitude is identical with the act of removing sin | y . Fig. 70 is a Nepalese drawing of tjae deity. Fig. 71 illustrates his Chinese stautette. % S 23. AMOGHADARSIN <</

Colour Yellow Symbol Lotus

1 The name of Bodhisattva Amoghadarsin appears in the third list of sixteen Bodhisattvas headed by Maitreya in the Nispannayogavali. The Durgatiparisodhanamandala contains the only one description as available in the work.- There his

form is described in the following words : \

, AmoghadarsI pltah sanetrambhojabhrd*daksinakarah katisthavamamu^tih. NSP. p. 66,


' "Amoghadarsi is yellow in colour. In his right hand he holds the lotus with its central core, while the clenched left rests on the hip."/

Amoghadarsin's statuette occurs thrice in the Chinese collection 1 . Fig. 72 is a Nepalese drawing of Bodhisattva Amoghadarsin.



SURANGAMA.



Colour White Symbol Sword.

\ Surahgama's name occurs in the third list of the sixteen Bodhis* attvas headed by Maitreya. In the Nispannayogavali his name is referred to twice only and his single independent form is described in the Durgatiparisodhanamandala as

under : |

Surangamah subhrah savyena asidharah katisthavamamustih


V " Surangama is white in colour. He holds the sword in the right hand, while the clenched left is placed on the hip." /

I In the Chinese collection Surangama is represented only once, and that too in a different form l> . I Fig. 73 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the Bodhisattva Surangama.



VAJRAPANL



Colour White Symbol Vajra.

The Bodhisattva Vajrapani although not included in the three lists of Bodhisattvas as available in the Nispannayogavali, is nevertheless important as one of the eight principal Bodhisattvas enumerated in the Sadhanamala in Sadhana No. 18

for Lokanatha. This list of eight Bodhisattvas is also headed by Maitreya and consists of :


1. Maitreya

5. Manjughosa

2. Ksitigarbha

6. Gaganaganja

3. Vajrapani

7. Viskambhin

4. Khagarbha

8. Samantabhadra


The description of Vajrapani also occurs under the Lokanathsadhana in the Sadhanamala. A half verse here describes Vajrapani :

Vajrapanisca suklabho vajrahasto varapradah.


"Vajrapani is of white colour, carries the Vajra in one hand and displays the Abhaya mudra in the other."

This Bodhisattva of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya is popular in China and at least five statuettes are noted in the Two Lamaistic Pantheons, Vol. II. l Tibetan specimens 2 of his image are also found.


This Chapter on the Bodhisattavas cannot be closed without a reference to a very important passage in the Nispannayoga- vali, where the Bodhisattvas are connected with their spiritual sires, whose forms they assume. In the

Vajradhatumandala 3 it is said that the four Bodhisattvas :


1. Maitreya

3. Sarvapayanjaha

2. Amoghadarsi

4 Sarvasokatamonirghatamati have the same form as that of the eastern Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya of blue colour.


The four Bodhisattvas :


1. Gandhahasti

3. Gaganaganja

2. Surahgama

4. Jnanaketu ^

have the same form as that of the southern Dhyani Buddha Ratnasam^ bhava of yellow colour.


The four: Bodhisattvas :


1. Amitaprabha

3. Bhadrapala

2. Chandraprabha

4. Jalimprabhs


have the same form as that of the western Dhyani Buddha Amitabha of red colour.


The four Bodhisattvas :


1. Vajragarbha

3. Pratibhanakuta

2. Aksayamati

4. Samantabhadra


have the same form as that of the northern Dhyani Buddha Amogha- siddhi of green colour.


Although this is a valuable iconographic information, it should, however, be noted that these are not absolute laws, but the views of only certain psychic schools of Buddhist Tantra. Be it noted, however, that the Central Dhyani Buddha Vairocana has no place in this classi- fication and none of the sixteen Bodhisattvas is affiliated to him* Nevertheless, the information as given in the Vajradhatumandala of the Nispannayogavali will be found to be of value in

identifying some of the Chinese statuettes where Bodhisattvas are given Dhyani Buddha forms.



BODHISATTVA MANJUSRI


There is no doubt that the place assigned to Manjusri in the Buddhist pantheon is one of the very highest. The MahSyanists consider him to be one of the greatest Bodhisattvas. They believe that the worship of Manjusrl can confer upon

them wisdom, re- tentive memory, intelligence and eloquence, and enables them to master many sacred scriptures. It is no wonder, therefore, that his worship became widely prevalent amongst the Buddhists of the North. They conceived him

in various forms and worshipped him with various mantras. Those who could not form any con^ ception of him according to Tan trie rites, attained perfection only by muttering his numerous mantras.

It is difficult to fix the exact time when Manjusrl entered the pantheon of the Northern Buddhists. His images are not found in the Gandhara and Mathura schools of sculpture, and Asvaghosa, Nagarjuna, Aryadeva do not mention him in their

works. His name occurs for the first time in the Aryamanjusrimulakolpa which is obviously a pre'Guhyasamaja work, and then in the Guhyasamaja Tantra which is dated circa 300 A.D. In this work there are at least four 1 references to

Manjusrl and three- to Man- juvajra. His name also occurs in the Sukhavati Vyuha or the Amitayus Sutra in its smaller recension 8 which was translated into Chinese between A.D. 384 and 417. Subsequent Buddhist works however give many

references to Manjusrl, and in the accounts of foreign travellers like Fa-hien 1 , Hiuen-Thsang, I*Tsing, Manjusri also finds mention. His images are to be found in the sculptures of Sarnath, Magadha, Bengal, Nepal and other places.

Many details about Manjusri are to be found in the Svayambhu Parana, dealing with the glories of the Svayambhuksetra in Nepal. The Adibuddha manifested himself here in the shape of a flame of fire, and so it is called the

Svayambhuksettra ( place of the Self- Born ). This place is consecrated with a temple of Adibuddha, and close to it is the Manjusri Hill now known as the Sarasvatisthana. The information about Manjusrl as gleaned from the Svayambhu Purana is given below in brief.



4. There is a considerable difference of opinion with regard to the divinity of Manjusrl mentioned by Fa-Hien. Legge ; Travels of Fa-Hien, p^ 46


It is said therein that Manjusri hailed from China, where he was living on mount Pancasirsa (the Hill of Five Peaks). He was a great saint with many disciples and followers, including Dharmakara, the king of the country. Receiving divine

intimation one day that the self-born Lord Adibuddha, has manifested himself as a flame of fire on a lotus on the waters of Lake Kalihrada in Nepal, he forthwith set out for that country along with a large number of his disciples, his

two wives and king Dharmakara, with the intention of paying homage to the deity. When he came to the lake, however, he found a great expanse of water surrounding the god rendering him quite inaccessible, and it was with immense

difficulty that he could approach the flame and offer his obeisance. Having at last succeeded in doing so, however, he cast about in his mind for some means of making the god accessible to all and he began a circuit of the lake. When he

reached the south- ern barrier of hills, he lifted his sword and clove it asunder. The hill was split into two, and the water rushed through that opening, leaving behind a vast strench of dry land, which is now known as the as the Nepal

Valley. The waters of the Baghmatl flow down even to this day through that opening, which is still called *'Kot-bar" or "sword-cut".


Manjusri lost? no time in erecting a temple over the flame of fire and on a hillpck nearby he made his own abode, and also a Vihara (or monastery) still known as the Manjupattana, for his disciples. Lastly, he made Dharmakara the King of

Nepal. These and many other pious deeds are ascribed to Manjusri in the Svayambhu Purana. Putting everything in proper order, Manjusri returned home and soon attained the divine form of a Bodhisattva, leaving his mundane body behind >.

From above it appears that Manjusil was a great man who brought civilization to Nepal from China. He had apparently extraordinary engineering skill, and was a great architect. It is not definitely known when he came down to Nepal from

China, but there is no doubt that in 300 A. D, he was well-known as a Bodhisattva. He wielded great influence on the minds of the Buddhists, and the Mahayanists worshipped him in various forms and in various ways. He is known in almost

all the countries in the continent of Asia where Buddhism had its sway* Various countries conceived various forms of Manjusri, but there was a definite Indian tradition with regard to the conception



of Manjusn and it is the purpose of this section to deal with the images that are purely Indian or are influenced largely by the Indian tradition.

It has been made abundantly clear that the Buddhists believe that their gods and goddesses affiliate themselves to the families of the five Dhyani Buddhas, and as such, various attempts were made to assign ManjusrI to a particular Dhyani Buddha. Sometimes in the Sadhanas he is made an offspring of Amitabha of red colour, and sometimes of Aksobhya with the blue colour. Manjusri also shows several colours showing his allegiance to several Kulas or families* The human

origin of Manjusri seems to be responsible for this kind of confusion. ManjusrI seems to have been deified in the same manner as Asvaghosa, Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Asanga and many others were regarded as Bodhisattvas in the time of Hiuen

Thsang.


Forty-one Sadhanas in the SadhanamSla are devoted to the worship of Majnusn, and in them are described several distinct forms of the Bodhisattva. In finding out the names of the different varieties of Manjusri special stress has been

laid on the mantras rather than on the colophons of the Sadhanas. It should always be noted that in determining the names of gods the mantras are the safest guides, especially when one deity has several divergent forms. The different

forms of Manjusri are described in the following pages one by one having distinct iconographic peculiarities.


In his simplest form Manjusri carries the sword in his right hand and the Prajn5paramita manuscript in his left* In representations sometimes the two symbols are placed on lotuses. Sometimes he is accompanied only by Yamari, sometimes

only by his Sakti or female counterpart, sometimes by Sudhanakumara and Yamari and sometimes again by the four divinities, Jalimprabha (also called Suryya- prabha), Candraprabha, Kesini and Upakesini. Though the last four are required to

be present with Arapacana, they are nevertheless found in others also.

Under the general name of Manjusri several of his Chinese images are noticed by Clark in his Two Lamaistic Pantheons 1 . A remarkable specimen showing Manjusri in the company of two principal Hindu gods, Ganapati and Visnu is found in

the Baroda Museum (Fig. 74).


VAJRARAGA



Colour White Mudra Samadhi

Asana Vajraparyahka

Vajraraga Manjusri is also known by the two names of Vak and Amitabha Manjusri showing his allegiance to the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha of red colour. Vajraraga is one-faced and two-armed. His



two hands are joined on his lap forming what is called the Samadhi or the Dhyana mudra. In this respect he is identical with the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha whose effigy he bears on his tongue. He differs from the Dhyani Buddha in respect of

his ornaments and dress. Images of this form of Manjusri are not altogether rare in India or in the Buddhist countries of the North. The Sadhanamala describes his form in the following Dhyana :

Dvibhujaikamukharh sitarh vajraparyankopari samadhimudrahastarh asesakumarabharanabhusitarh pancaclrakarh Manjusrlbhattarakarh... nispadya . vajrajihvopari Buddharh Amitabharh vicintya.. Orh Vakye- darh namah iti japamantrah".

Sadhanamala, p. 129


'The worshipper should think himself as Manjusri Bhattaraka who is two-armed and one^faced and has white colour. His two hands are joined in forming the Samadhi mudra. He is decked in all princely ornaments, wears the five pieces of

monkish garments... thus meditating ...he should think of the figure of Buddha Amitabha on v the adamantine tongue.. /Orh Vakyedarh namah' is the Mantra for muttering".

Fig. 75 illustrates a metal statuette of the god in the Baroda Museum. Fig. 76 illustrates a Nepalese drawing. Vajraraga is known in Tibet 1 and China 2 .



DHARMADHATU VAOI^VARA


Colour Reddish

White Face Four

Asana Lalita

Arms Eight

Stone or bronze images of Dharmadhatu Vagisvara are by no means common, but paintings are still made of him by the Citrakaras in Nepal. When represented he is white in colour with four faces, and eight arms, and he bears five jewels on

his diadem. He is clad in celestial garments and the leading sentiment displayed by him is one of Srhgara (amour). The two principal hands carry the bow and the arrow, the second pair has the noose and the goad, the third the book and

the sword, and the fourth the Ghanta and the Vajra. He may also have another form, exhibiting the Dharmacakra mudra in the first pair of hands instead of the bow and the arrow, and in the second pair the arrow and the vessel instead of

the noose and the goad. The Dhyana describing the former is given below :

"...Astabhujarh caturmukharh mulamukharh raktagaurarh daksinarh kumkumarunarh pascimarh padmaraktarh, uttararh pltaraktarh, dvabhy- am hastabhyarh dhanurbanandhararh, aparabhyarh pasankusadhararh,

1. Gordon : ITL, p. 66 illustrates his statue under the general title of Manjusri. I. Clark i TLP, II, pp. 120, 227.


punaraparabhyamPrajnaparamitapustakakhadgadharam,tathaparabhyam ghantavajradharam maHaragasrngararasojjvalam lalitasanastham visva- padmacandre divyavastrabharanam Amitabhajatamukutinam...


"The worshipper should think himself as the god Dharmadhatu- Vagisvara who is eight-armed, four-faced and of reddish-white colour. His right face is red, the face behind is of lotus-red colour, and the left is of yellowish-red colour. He

holds the bow and the arrow in one pair of hands, the noose and the goad in another pair, the Prajnapara- mita manuscript and the sword in the third and the Ghanta and the Vajra in the fourth. He displays the sentiment of Srngara

(amour), and sits on the moon on a double lotus in the Lalita attitude. He is decked in celestial garments and ornaments and bears on his Jatamukuta (crown of matted hair) the effigy of Amitabha",

(ii)

Colour Golden Yellow Faces Four

Arms Eight

Manjughosa is the principal deity in the Dharamadhatuvagisvara Mandala of the Nispannayogavall. His form may be given briefly as follows :

"Manjughoso Vajraparyanki. . .suvarnavarnah pita-nlla-rakta-sita-

mula-savyapascimavamamukho astabhujo dvabhyam Dharmacakra- mudrah savyaih krpana-bana-vajrani vamaih prajnaparamitapustaka- capavajra-ghanta vibhranah". NSP. p. 54.

"Manjughosa sits in the Vajraparyanka attitude is of golden

colour His four faces show the yellow colour in the first, blue in the right, red behind, and white left. He is eight-armed. With the two pricipal hands foe exhibits the Dharmacakra Mudra. The remaining right hands show the sword, the arrow and the Vajra, while the re- maining left carry the

Prajnaparamita manuscript the bow and the bell".

Three of his images are known to the Chinese collection of Peiping. 1 He is also found in Tibet 2



MANJUGHOSA.



Colour Golden Yellow. Mudra Vyakhyana

Vahana Lion Symbol Lotus in the left.

Four Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe this variety of Manjusri, which is known by the name of Manjughosa. When repre- sented, he closely resembles Manjuvara, with the difference that the



lotus here does not bear the book. It may also be pointed out that Manjughosa should have the lotus only in his left, but Manjuvara may have it on either side bearing the book. His complexion is golden yellow, he rides a lion, and is

decked in all sorts of ornaments. He is two-armed and displays the Vyakhyana mudra, and in his left there is the lotus. He is sometimes accompanied by Yamari in the left and Sudhanakumara in the right. The Dhyana as found in one of the

Sadhanas is given below :


"Manjughosarupam-atmanam pasyet simhastham kanakagauravarnarh sarvalankarabhusitam Vyakhyanamudravyagrakararh vamaparsve utpala* dharam Aksobhyamukutinam. Daksme Sudhanakumararh vame Yaman. takam pasyet... man tram japet Om Vagjsvara

Muh'* Sadhanamala p. 109

The worshipper should meditate himself as the deity Manjughosa who rides a lion, and is of golden yellow colour. He is decked in all ornaments, and his hands are engaged in forming the Vyakhyana (teaching) mudra. He displays the night lotus in his left, and bears the image of Aksobhya on his crown. On his right there is Sudhana^ kumara and on the left Yamantaka ... The Mantra Om Vaglsvara Muh should be muttered*'.

Some of the Sadhanas mention that he should sit in Lalitasana on the back of a lion while others are silent about the attitude or Asana. It is thus possible to conclude that he may sit in other attitudes also, such as the Vajraparyahka

or the Ardhaparyahka. His colour is generally yellow, but he may have the colour of Kunkuma as well.



SIDDHAIKAVfRA.


Colour White Mudra Varada

Symbol Lotus.

Four Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe the form of Siddhaika* vira and in one of these he is said to bear the image of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya on his crown (Mauli) thus showing the family connection with Aksobhya the progenitor of

the Vajra family. When represented, his left hand holds the blue lotus while the right displays the Varada mudra. The Dhyana in the Sadhanamala describes his form in the following words :

" Siddhaika viro Bhagavan candramandalasthah candropasrayah jagadudyotakan dvibhuja ekamukhah suklah vajraparyahki divyalan- karabhusitah pancavlrakasekharah.. vame nilotpaladharah daksine varadah.-.tato Bhagavato maulau Aksobhyam

devatyah pujarh kurvanti".

Sadhanamala, p. 140.

"God Siddhaikavira sits on the orb of the moon, is supported by the moon, and illumines the world. He is two-armed, one^faced and of white colour. He sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude, and is decked in celestial ornaments. His head is decorated with the effigies of the five Dhyani Buddhas....He carries the Utpala in the left hand and exhibits the Varada mudra in

the right. The goddesses pay homage to Aksobhya who is on the crown of the God",

In another Sadhana the description of the Mandala for Manjusri is given. The god in the form of Siddhaikavlra is painted red and is placed in the centre. He is accompanied by four deities, Jalimprabha, Candraprabha, Kasinl and Upaksinl.

These four deities more often accompany Arapacana, another from of Manjusri which will be described later, The Sadhanas are not generally explicit as to the Asana of the god. In Saranath his image is shown in a standing attitude (Fig,


A confusion is likely to arise between the forms of Loknanatha and Siddhaikavlra if they are both represented without companions and without the figure of the parental Dhyani Buddha on their crown, for both these deities have the same

symbol, the lotus and the same mudra, the Varada pose. In that case the image would most likely be identified as that of Lokanatha, who happens to be widely represented. Images of Siddhaikavlra, it may be added, are extremely rare.



VAJRANANGA.



Colour Yellow

Asana Pratyalidha. Hands Six or Four.

This form of Manjusri bearing the image of Aksobhya on the crown is known as Vajrananga, who is worshipped in the Tantric rite of Vasikarana, or bewitching men and women. His complexion is yellow, he is in the prime of youth, and bears

the image of Aksobhya on his crown. The two principal hands hold the fully expanded bow of flowers charged with the arrow of a lotus bud. The four remaining hands carry the sword and the looking-glass in the two right hands, while the

two left carry the lotus and the Asoka bough with red flowers. In another Sadhana the Asoka bough is replaced by Kankelli flowers. He may have an alternative form with four hands, in which case the hands carrying the mirror and the Asoka

bough are dropped. The Dhyana describing the six-armed variety of Vajrananga is given below:

Vajranahganama Arya-Manjughosam pltavarnam sadbhujam mula* bhujabhyam akarnapuritaraktotpalakalikasarayukta-kusumadhanurdha- ram; daksinadvayena khadgadarpanabhrtarh vamayugalenendlvararakta- sokapallavadharam; Aksobhyadhisthita-

jatamukutinarh pratyalldha- padam sodasavarsakaram mahasrhgaramurtim pasyet".


"The worshipper should think himself as Arya-Mafijughosa in the form of Vajrananga with yellow complexion, and six arms. With the two principal hands he draws to the ear the bow of flowers charged with an arrow of a red lotus bud; the

two remaining right hands carry the sword and the mirror, while the two left hold the lotus and the Asoka bough with red flowers. He bears the image of Aksobhya on his Jatamukuta, stands in the Prat^alidha attitude, appears a youth of

sixteen years and displays the intense Srngara Rasa "

Vajrananga as the name implies, is the Buddhist God of Love, the prototype of the Hindu God Madana in the Buddhist Pantheon. The flowery bow and the arrow of flowers are strikingly common to both. Unlike the Hindu Anahga, however,

several other weapons besides these are also attributed to the Buddhist God of Love, and an account is given below of how he makes use of them.

It is said in the Sadhanamala that in the act of bewitching a woman, the worshipper should imagine himself as piercing her bosom with the arrow of the lotus bud. The woman falU flat on the ground in a swoon, whereupon the worshipper

should visualise her legs as being tied by the chain which is the bow. Then he should imagine that the noose of the lotus stalk is flung round her neck, and she is drawn to his side. Thereupon, he should think that he is striking her

with the Asoka bough, is frightening her with the sword, and subsequently he has only to confront her with the mirror by which she LS completely subjugated ] . Fig. 78 illustrates a Nepalese drawings of the deity.



NAMASANGm MANJUSRF


Colour Reddish white

Asana Vajraparyaiika

Faces Three Arms Four

This form of Manjusrl with the effigy of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya on the crown is known as Namasahglti Manjusrl, to whom only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala is assigned In this Sadhana he is described as three-faced and four-armed, and

as bearing the image of Aksobhya on the crown. The first or the principal face is red, the second blue and the third white. Of his four hands, the first pair holds the bow and the arrow and the second the book and the sword. He sits in

the Vajraparyanka attitude on the lotus. The Dhyana describes him in the following terms :

"...Raktagauram padmacandropari vajrapar>afikanisannah ; pratha* mamukham raktaih, daksinam nifam, vame suklam iti trimukham, hastacatustayena yathayogam Prajnakhadgadhanurbanayoginam ratna-


kiritinamdvatrimsallaksananuvyanjanavirajitarh kumarabharanabhusitarh atmanam vibhavya tadanu sarva-Tathagatabhisekapurvakarh Akso- bhyamaulinarh atmanam vicintya . ... Sadhanamala p. 159*160

"The worshipper should meditate himself as Aryanamasangiti, who is reddish white in colour and sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude on the orb of the moon on a lotus. His principal face is red, the right blue and the left white and thus he

is three-faced In his four hands he carries the Prajna(paramita), the sword, the bow and the arrow according to custom. He wears a bejewelled crown and is endowed with the thirty-two major and eighty minor auspicious

marks. He appears a prince with princely ornaments Then the

worshipper after offering Abhiseka to all the Tathagatas, should further meditate himself as bearing the effigy of Aksobhya on the crown.' 1

Rare are the images of this form of Manjusri Fig. 79 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the deity.

Namasangiti Manjusn is known in China 1 . Fig. 80 illustrates his statuette in China.



VAGlSVARA


Colour Red of Yellow Asana Ardhaparyanka

Vahana Lion Symbol Utpa la

Vaglsvara is the tutelary deity of the Nepalese Buddhists and is widely worshipped in Nepal. The fact that innumerable prayer- wheels in Nepalese temples bear, in monumental Newari characters, the mantra "Om Vaglsvara Muh" stands witness

to his popularity.

One of the Sadhanas describes him as red in colour with all princely ornaments, and as seated on a lion in the Ardhaparyanka attitude. He carries the Utpala in his left hand, and the right is disposed in a graceful attitude. He may have

a yellow variety, which is known as the Maharajalila ManjusrI, and the Dhyana describing that form has already been quoted and translated by Professor Foucher. The red variety of Vaglsvara is described in the Dhyana thus :

"Pancavirakasekharam kumaram sarvabharanabhusitarh kuhkuma- runarh vamenotpalam daksinena Hlaya sthitarh sirhhasajiastharh atma* nam kumararupena cintayet...Om Vaglsvara Muh".

Sadhanamala, p. 105

'The worshipper should think himself as Vaglsvara whose head is beautified by the images of the five Dhyani Buddhas. He looks a prince, is decked in all ornaments, and has the complexion of Kunkuma. He carries the night lotus in his left

hand while the right is displayed artistically. He rides a lion and possesses princely

grace Orh Vaglsvara Muh.

The Indian Museum image (Fig. 81) of this divinity carries a bell in the right hand, and sits on a lion throne instead of a lion. The other image in bronze (Fig. 82) is a recent one, and represents the god somewhat differently. Vaglsvara

statuettes are found in Tibet 1 .



MANJUVARA


Colour- Golden Yellow Mudra Dharmacakra

Asana Lalita or Ardhaparyanka Symbol Prajnaparamita on lotus

Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to the worship of Manjuvara who is widely represented. He is yellow in colour, sits on the back of a lion, in the Lalita or the Ardhaparyanka attitude, and displays the sentiment of Srngara

(amour) lavishly. His two hands are joined against the chest in forming the Dharmacakra mudra which is the eternal symbol of instruction on the secrets of Dharma. He holds the stalk of one or two lotuses on which appears the

Prajnaparamita manuscript. The text of the Dhyana in one of the Sadhanas is givea below :

"Taptakancanabham pancavirakakumararh Dharmacakramudra- samyuktarh Prajnaparamitanvitotpaladharinarh simhastharh lalitakseparh sarvalankarabhusitarh...Orh Manjuvara Hum". Sadhanamala, p. 111.

"The worshipper should think himself as god Manjuvara of golden yellow colour with head decorated with the images of the five Dhyani Buddhas. His hands display the Dharmacakra mudra and he shows the blue lotus bearing the Prajnaparamita

manuscript. He rides a lion, sits thereon in the Lalita attitude and is decked in all ornaments... Orh Manjuvara Hum".

According to a second Sadhana Manjuvara should have the lotus in his left hand with the Prajnaparamita on it. He may sit in the Ardhaparyanka attitude and may be accompanied with the fierce god Yamantaka of blue colour, whose face

distorted with bare fangs is terrible to behold. Yamantaka carries the staff in one of his hands and touches the feet of Manjuvara with the other.

The image (Fig. 83) discovered at Bara in the district of Birbhum in Bengal 2 probably represents this form of Manjusn, with the miniature figures of the five Dhyani Buddhas over the head, and of the two divinities to the right and left of him. The figure to the right probably represents Sudhanakumara and the figure to the left is Yamantaka. The principal god here displays the Dharrnacakra mudra and from under his left armpit rises a

lotus which bears the Prajnaparamita manuscript as required by the Sadhana. The lotus to the right is added in order to maintain the balance with the lotus to the -left.

The lion vehicle of Manjuvara is sometimes absent, and in later images he may be found sitting in the Paryahka or any other attitude (Fig. 84). The lotus to the right which is not expressly required by the Sadhana sometimes bears the

book (Fig. 85), and sometimes the sword in order to preserve the balance in a better way (Fig. 86). One of the two Indian Museum images of Manjuvara has on either side of the god two feminine figures which no doubt represent the two

wives of Manjusri, Kesini and UpakesinL Manjuvara is well known in Tibet ]



MANJUVAJRA


Colour Red Faces Three

Arms Six Variety Yab-yum

The form of Manjusri called bv the name of Manjuvajra is some- what popular amongst the Tanrric Buddhists. Several of his forms are described both in the Sadhanamala and the Nispannayogavali of Abhayakara Gupta. In the Sadhanamala the

colour of his body including the principal face is red like Kunkuma, the right face is blue and the left white. He has six arms of which the principal pair is engaged in embracing his female counterpart. The remaining four hands carry

the sword, the arrow, the bow and the night lotus. He sits in Vajrasana or in the Vajraparyahka attitude on the orb of the moon supported by a lotus. The Dhyar.a is in verse and may be quoted as follows :

Kuhkumarunasanmurtir-nilasitatrayananah I Bhujadvayasamaslista"svabhavidyadharasyadhrk II Khadgabanabhujancapa^mlotpalaparigrahah I Visvadalabjacandrasthah vajrasanasasiprabhah II


"...His handsome body is red like Kunkuma and he is endowed with three faces of (Kunkuma) blue and white colour. He embraces his Svabha Prajna with two arms, of which one touches her face. He carries the Khadga, the arrow, the bow, and

the blue Utpala, sits on the moon on a double lotus in Vajrasana, and is radiant like the moon."

1. Gordon : ITL, p. 68 under the title of Dharmacakra Manjusri, Getty : GNB, pi. XXXV.


Manjuvajra is represented in Tibet }

(ii)

Colour Golden Yellow.

Faces Three


Arms Six.

Manjuvajra is the principal deity of the Manjuvajra Mandala in the Nispannayogavali. His form has been described thus :

"Shhhopari sattvaparyankanisanno Bhagavan Vairocanasvabhavo Manjuvajrah kamanlyakanakakantih... pita-mla-sukla'Savyetaravaktrah sadbhujo daksinaih khadgavaradabanan vamaih Prajnaparamitapustaka- nllabjadhanumsi vibhranah. NSP, p. 48.

"God Manjuvajra is seated on the back of a lion, is of beautiful golden colour and resembles Vairocana, His three faces have yellow blue and white colour. He is six-armed. In the three right hands he holds the sword, the Varada mudra and

the arrow. In the three left likewise he carries the Prajnaparamita manuscript, the blue lotus and the bow."


Colour Red Arms Six

Manjuvajra is the principal deity in a second Mandala dedicated to Manjuvajra in the Nispannayogavali. Here he is identified with the Sixth Dhyani Buddha Vajrasattva. The Kulesa of this god is Aksobhya according to a definite statement

in the Mandala. He is described thus : "Bhagavan Vajrasattvo Manjuvajra-rupah kuhkumarunah krsna- sitasavyetaravadanah pradhanabhujabhyam svabha'prajnalihgitosisa- rendivaracapadharo"... NSP, p. 2.

"The god Vajrasattva in the form of Manjuvajra is red like vermi- llion. His right face is blue and the left white. With the two principal hands he embraces his Prajna ; in the others he carries the sword, the arrow the lotus and the

bow."

Under the name of Manjusri his different forms are to be found in the Chinese collection a . Fig. 8? illustrates an eight-armed Manjuvajra with the akti in the Baroda Museum. It is both remarkable and beautiful.



MANJUKUMARA


Colour Red Vahana Animal

Faces Three Arms Six

Only one Sadhana is assigned to this form of Manjusri in the Sadhanamala, which depicts him as three-faced and six- armed, riding



on an animal. In his three left hands he carries the Prajnaparamita, the Utpala and the bow while the three right show the sword, the arrow, and the Varada pose. The extract is given below :

^Manjukumararh trimukharh sadbhujarh kunkumarunarh mlasitada- ksinetaravadanarh sattvaparyankinarh Khadgabanavaradam daksinakaia- trayarh, Prajnaparamitapustakanilotpalacapavad-vamakaratrayam sasrn- garakumarabharananivasanadikam

nanapuspamahasobhaciratrayavira- jitarh Tathagataparamanu-parighatitarh atmanarh dhyatva..."


"The worshipper should think himself as god Manjukumara, who is three-faced and six-armed, of red Kuhkuma, colour. His right and left faces have (respectively) the blue and white colour. He is seated on an animaL His three right hands

hold the sword, the arrow and the Varada pose, while the three left carry the Prajnapara- mita, blue Utpala and the bow* He is decked in princely ornaments and dress as befitting the Srfxgara (amour) sentiment hre displays. He wears the

three rags of a mendicant, which are richly decorated with various kinds of flowers. His body is composed of the parti- cles of the Tathagatas Thus meditating..."

Manjukumara is not known either in sculptures or in ancient paintings. Fig. 88 illustrates a drawing from Nepal.



ARAPACANA


Colour White or red Asana Vajraparyanka

Companions Four Symbols Book and Sword

Eight Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe the form of this divinity, which is sometimes white and sometimes red. He sits always in the Vajraparyanka attitude, but when he sits on an animal he is called Prajnacakra. He is accompanied by

the four divinities, Kesini, Upakesini, Candraprabha and Suryaprabha, and as the group of five originates from the five syllables, 'A', 'R', 'P, 'C' and 'N', the principal god is called Arapacana. When represented, the four companions of

Arapacana resemble the principal god in all respects.

None of the forms of Manjusri is so widely represented both in stone and in bronze as Arapacana. He is accompanied by his four attendants, but in some instances the companions are entirely absent. In one of the sculptures ( Fig. 89 )

preserved in the Dacca Museum 1 the four Dhyani Buddhas, Vairocana, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha and Amoghasiddhi (besides the usual four companions)* are pictured on the aureole behind, the centre at the top being occupied

by one of the companion deities resembling the principal god. The Java figure (Fig. 90) belongs to this class and shows the four companions as required by the Sadhana 1 .

The Nepal bronze (Fig 91) does not carry the book against the chest, but holds the stem of a lotus, which bears the book. The Baroda bronze (Fig. 92) also does likewise. Both these are without companions.

Arapacana is also called Sadyonubhava-Arapacana, or Sadyonu* bhava-Manjusrl. He is resplendent like the full moon, has a smiling face, is decked in all sorts of princely ornaments, and sits on a double lotus in the Vajraparyanka

attitude. He brandishes the sword in his right hand, while his left holds the Prajnaparamita book against his chest. Jalimkumara (or Suryaprabha) is in front of him, Candra^ prabha behind, Kesini to the right and UpakesinI to the left.

All these four divinities are replicas of the principal god. The Dhyana in one of the Sadhanas describes the principal god in the following terms :

' *. . .Khadgapustakadharinam akuncitapancaclram, raktavastrayuga- yutam srngaravesadharinam smitavikasitavadanam Sasankakantjtulya- sobharh visvadalakamalasthabaddhaparyahkam Sadyonubhavarapacan^ arupam atmanam-ikseta". Sadhanamala, p.


'The worshipper should think himself as Sadyonubhava'Arapecana, who carries the Khadga and the book, and wears the five cirakas(rags) which are slightly folded. His garments are of red colour, which befits the Srfigara Rasa he displays.

His face is radiant with a smile, and is resplendent like the moon. He sits on a double lotus in the Vajraparyanka attitude..."

This Sadhana further adds that the principal god should originate from the first syllable "A", Jalimkumara from the syllable "R", Candraprabha from P", Kesim from "C" and UpakesinI from "N". Manjusri should be in the middle, Jalimkumara

in front, Candra^ prabha behind, Kesini to the right and UpakesinI to the left. All of them should have white colour and should be identical with the principal god in appearance.

Arapacana is popular in Tibet 2 and China \ In Tibet his sword in the right hand is replaced by the bell in a remarkable statuette.

1. First published and identified as Manjusri in Grunwedel : Buddhist Art in India, p. 199.

2. Gordon : ITL, p. 68. Getty : GNB, pi. XXXV illustrates a unique image with the Ghanta in the right hand instead of the sword. By the sound of the holy gong ignorance seems to disappear.

3. Clark : TLP, II, p. 199 illustrates an image of Arapacana under the title ofManjus'ri.



STHIRACAKRA.



Colour White Symbol Sword

Mudra Varada Companion Sakti

The Sadhana for the worship of Sthiracakra has one remarkable feature which distinguishes it from the other Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala, namely, that it does not give the Dhyana at a stretch, but the information about his form is

scattered through- out the Sadhana, which again, is in verse. From the information gleaned from the Sadhana about his form it appears that in one of his hands he carries the sword, which by radiating light destroys the darkness of

ignorance, while the other is engaged in bestowing boons of all kinds, or in other words, displays the Varda pose. His colour is white and he is decked in garments of the colour of the bee ; he sits on the moon, supported by a lotus, and

wears the Cirakas which makes his body resplendent. He wears princely ornaments and displays the sentiment of passionate love. He is accompanied by a Prajna, who is beautiful, displays the sentiment of passionate love and laughs

profusely.

Images of this form of Mafijusn are rarely met with. The Vahgiya Sahitya Parisad (Calcutta) image No. C(d) 8/16 has a feint resemblance with the description given above, and may quite conceivably represent Sthiracakra. The special

feature of this image is that the sword appears on a lotus, the stem of which is held in the left hand of the god, while the right hand exhibits the Varada pose. He sits in the Lalitasana on the moon over a lotus, and is accompanied by

his Sakti who according to Indian custom occupies a position to the left of her consort (Fig. 93) '.

Sthiracakra is represented in the Chinese Collection 2 .



VADIRAT



Asana Ardhaparyahka Vahana Tiger

Mudra Vyakhyana

This form of ManjusrI is rarely to be met with either in stone or in bronze. One Sadhana only is devoted to the worship of this divinity which shows that this form was not very popular amongst the Vajraya- nists. Vadirat is of medium

height, neither very short nor very tall, and appears a youth of sixteen years. He sits on the back of a tiger in

1. This image is described in the Hand book to the Scluptures in the Museum of the Vangiya Sahitya Panshad, p. 33.


the Ardhaparyafxka attitude with his left leg slightly raised. He wears all sorts of ornaments, and exhibits the Vyakhyana mudra. The Dhyana which is in verse, describes the form of Vadirat in the follow* ing terms :

Svaccham sodasavatsarakrtidharam sarddulaprsthasthitam Vyakhyavyakulapanipadmayugalam vamardhaparyankinam I Dlrgahm napi na capi kharvamasamam saundaryarasyasrayam Ratnasvarnamaniprakaravividhalankaramalakulam II

Sarimad-Vadirat-Sadhanarh samaptam. Krtiriyam Panditasri

Cintamani*Dattasya ". Sadhanamala, p. 98.

The worshipper should think himself as (Vadirat), who is hand-

some in appearance (lit. pure or transparent), and appears a youth of

sixteen years. He sits on the back of a tiger. His lotus-like hands are

eagerly engaged in displaying the Vyakhyana mudra. His left leg is

slightly raised in the Ardhaparyahka attitude. He is neither tall, nor

very short, is unparalled by any, is the receptacle of all beauties in the

world, and is decked in various ornaments consisting of jewels, gold,

gems and other valuables.

Here ends the Sadhana for Vadirat written by the author Sri Cintamani Datta."

Vadirat is represented in the Chinese Collection J .



BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA



Avalokitesvara is famous in the Mahayana Pantheon as a Bodhisattva emanating from the Dhyani Buddha, Amitabha and his akti, Pandara. As Amitabha and Pandara are the presiding Dhyani Buddha and Buddhasakti of the present Kalpa (cycle),

namely, the Bhadrakalpa, Avalokitesvara is said to be the Bodhisattva who rules during the period between the disappearance of the Mortal Buddha, Sakyasimha, and the advent of the Future Buddha, Maitreya. The Gunakaranda- vyuha 3 gives

an account of his character, moral teachings and miracles and from it is learnt that he refused Nirvana, until all created beings should be in possession of the Bodhi knowledge and to that end he is still supposed to work and foster

spiritual knowledge amongst his fellow creatures. One of the passages in Karandavyuha 2 characterises him as taking the shape of all gods of all religions, nay, even the shape of the father and mother, in fact, the form of the worshipped

of any and every worshipper, to whom he might impart knowledge of Dharma. By a slow and gradual process, first human beings and then animals and other creatures would advance spiritually to obtain salvation. For all these reasons

Avalokitesvara is characterised as the best of the Sangha, the Jewel of the Buddhist Church or Sahgharatna.


The Sadhanamala gives altogether thirty-eight Sadhanas which describe a variety of forms of Avalokitesvara. Some of these forms have already been described by M. Foucher in his Etude sur V Iconogra- phie Bouddhique de Vlnde, Vol II with

translations in French of the Sanskrit texts of the Sadhanas.

From the Sadhanamala and allied works it is possible to individualize at least fifteen different forms of Avalokitesvara. All these forms are described in the following pages one by one. These fifteen by no means exhaust the forms of

Avalokitesvara since there is evidence that these forms even numbered one hundred and eight, each of them bearing distinct features and distinct names. In the Macchandar Vahal one of the numerous Viharas of Kathmandu in Nepal, there are

paintings in many colours of one hundred and eight varieties of the Bodhisattva,


executed on the wooden panel surrounding the main temple on three sides. These paintings appear to be at least two hundred years old, and they bear inscriptions in old Newari giving the names of deities they depict.

Clearly, from the view point of antiquity, this discovery is of lesser importance than the ones obtained from earlier Tantric works, but as the overwhelming number of forms is likely to throw a flood of light on the iconography of

Avalokitesvara, a description of all these varieties is given with their respective illustrations in a separate Appen- dix at the end of this volume.

Out of the fifteen different forms of Avalokitesvara mentioned above fourteen bear the figure of Amitabha on the crown, thus clearly revealing their origin. The fifteenth, Vajradharma by name, is said to bear the figures of the five Dhyani Buddhas on his crown.

Images of Avalokitesvara are found abundantly in India and Nepal. Out of these the typical one* are described in their appro- priate places. Such images are popular both in Tibet ] as well as in China 2 .



SADAKSARI-LOKESVARA


Colour White Arms Four

Mudra Anjali Symbols Rosary and lotus

Companions Manidhara and Sadaksarl Mahavidya

Four Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to the worship of this form of Avalokitesvara, of which two describe him in a group of three. In a third he is accompanied by Sadaksari Mahavidya, and in the fourth he is single. In all these,

the form of Lokesvara is the same. Below is quoted the Dhyana of the Sadhany describing him in a group of three :-

"Atmanam Lokesvararuparh sarvalahkarabhusitarh suklavarnam vamatah padmadhararh daksinato'ksasutradharam aparabhyam hasta^ bhyarh hrdi samputanjalisthitarh dhyayat. Daksine Manidharam tatta* dvarnabhujanvitam padmantaroparistham. Vame

tathaiva aparapadma- stharh Sadaksarlrh Mahavidyarh". Sadhanamala, p. 27.

The worshipper should think himself as [Sadaksarl] Lokesvara who is decked in all sorts of ornaments, white in colour, and four* armed, carrying the lotus in the left hand and the rosary in the right.

L Gordon : ITL, p, 44 illustrates a Tibetan drawing of Lokelvara with eleven heads and eight arms. This form is not described anywhere in Sanskrit. Getty : GNB, pp. 60-64.

2. References to statuettes from China are given at their appropriate places*


The other two hands are joined in forming the mudra of clasped hand against the chest. To his right is Manidhara, with the same colour and the same hands, sitting on another lotus. To the left is Sadaksari Mahavidya with identical form

sitting on another lotus".

The Dhyana of this god has been extracted from the Karandavyuha according to a statement in one of the colophons of the Sadhanas, The Mantra assigned to this form of Avalokitesvara is the famous "Orh Manipadme Hum" consisting of six

syllables which are here deified in the form of Sadaksari Mahavidya. When Lokesvara is associated with the Great Knowledge of the Six Syllables, he is called Sadaksari Lokesvara.

An artistic sculpture ( Fig. 94 ) depicting all the three deities of the Sadaksari group is preserved in the Sarnath Museum ] . In this group, Sadaksari Lokesvara is in the middle, the figure to the right is Manidhara and the female

figure to the left is Sadaksari MahSvidya. It may be noticed that under the seats of lotuses there are four diminutive figures which represent none else than the four guardians of the gates of the Sadaksari Mandala, as prescribed in the

Karandavyuha 2 .

Another artistic but mutilated image of the Sadaksari group (Fig. 95) is now to be found in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. In this piece both Manidhara and Sadaksari Mahavidya are shown in the peculiar attitude of sitting known as

Virasana.

A third image (Fig. 96) found in the district of Birbhum by Mr, K. N. Dikshit* of the Archaeological Department is also of the Sadaksari group, although it is mutilated beyond recognition. The central figure depicting Sadaksari Lokesvara

has lost two hands bearing the rosary and the lotus, but the marks are still there on the stone. The two hands exhibiting the Anjali mudra hold also the jewel.

Images of Sadaksari Lokesvara both singly as well as in groups abound in Nepal and almost every monastery in Nepal contains one or more images. A coloured image of this divinity appears in the temple of Bodhnath a famous place of

pilgrimage in Nepal.

Fig. 97 illustrates the principal deity as single in a beautiful bronze now preserved in the Baroda Museum.

When he appears in a group of two in the company of Sadaksari Mahavidya, the goddess may have another form depicting her in Vlrasana with yellow colour and two hands. Her right hand remains

1 Sarnath Catalogue, No. B (e) 6. PI XIV (b;

2. Karandavyuha, p. 74*

3. A. S. I* Eastern Circle, Annual Report, 1920-21, p, 27 and illustrated in pi. 1(2).

BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA * 127

empty, while the left holds the jewel. The Sarnath Museum image (Fig* 98) although mutilated, must represent this form of Sadaksari Mahavidya who can be readily recognised by the peculiar Asana which is uncommon in Buddhist iconography.

Another alternative is also prescribed in the Sadhanumala for all the three deities, and the Sadhana adds : Sometimes in the Sadhana of Sadaksan Mahavidya, Lokesvara holds also the lotus bearing the jewel and the book, Manidhara may

hold the jewel and the lotus but should be without the book. Sadaksan may hold the book and the lotus but should not have the jewel. 1



SIMHANADA.



Colour White

Asana Maharajalila Vahana Lion

Symbols (i)Sword on lotus, (n) Trisula entwined by a snake

Four Sadhanas also are devoted to the worship of Sirhhanada, who is regarded by the Mahayanists as the curer of all diseases. He is one of the most popular forms of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, and his images are by no means rare in

India, At Patan in Nepal, all the more important monasteries have two images of Simhanada, either in stone or in bronze, on either side of the staircase leading to the sanctum. He appears in many forms only slightlv different from one

another. The four Sadhanas alike describe him as follows :

"Atmanarh Simhanada-Lokesvararuparh bhavayet, svetavarnarh trinetrarh jatamukutinarh nirbhusanarh vyaghracarmaprabhrtarh sirhha- sanastharh maharajalilarh candrasanarh candraprabharh bhavayet. Dak sine sitaphanivestitarh trisularh

svetarh, vame nanasugandhikusuma* paripuritapadmabhajanarh. Vamahastat uttharh padmopari jvala- tkhadgarh". Sadhanamala, p. 63.

'The worshipper should think himself as Simhanada Lokesvara of white complexion, with three eyes, and the jatamukuta (crown of matted hair). He is without ornaments, is clad in tiger-skin, and sits on a lion in the attitude of princely

ease. He is seated on the orb of the moon and is radiant like her. In his right there is a white trident entwined by a white snake, and in his left there is a lotuS'bowl full of fragrant flowers. From his left hand rises a lotus on which

there is a sword burning like fire".

Images of Simhanada are by no means rare and are rather easy to identify because of clear-cut symbols. Fig. 99 is the famous image of Simhanada from Mahoba carrying a rosary 1 . Fig. 100 is a Nepalese statue at the gate of a monastery. Fig. 101 illustrates a sculpture from Magadha, while Fig. 102 is a small bronze of Simhanada with- out the lion, from Nepal.

Simhanada wears no ornaments and this feature of his images differentiates him from Manjusri when he is on the back of a lion.

Simhanada is popular both in Tibet 2 and in China 8 .



KHASARPANA



Colour White Symbol Lotus

Mudra Varada Asana Lalita or Ardhaparyahka

Companions Tara, Sudhanakumara, Bhrkuti, Hayagriva

Khasarpana is described in a number of Sadhanas in the Sadhana- mala, which fact points to his popularity. The peculiar feature of this god is that he is invariably accompanied by the four divinities Tara, Sudhanakumara, Bhrkuti and

Hayagriva. The principal figure is the same as Lokanatha, two-armed, and one faced, carrying the same symbol and exhibiting the same Mudra ; the difference lies in the fact that Lokanatha has only two companions, Tara and Hayagriva while

Khasarpana has two in addition, namely, Bhrkuti and Sudhana- kumara. He is of white complexion, and sits either in the Lalita or the Ardhaparyahka attitude. Below is given a somewhat lengthy Dhyana describing the god :

"Atmanam Bhagavantam dhyayat himakarakotikiranavadatarh deham, urdhvajatamakutam Amitabhasekharam visvanalinanisannam sasimandale, ardhaparyahkanisannarh sakalalankaradharavigraham smeramukham dvirastavarsadeslyam daksine varadakaram

vamakarena sanalakamaladharam , karavigalatpiyusadhat abhyavahararasikam tada^ dhah samaropitordhvamukham mahakuksim atikrsam atisitivainarh Sucimukham tarpayantam srimat-Potalakacalodaranivasinam karuna^ snigdhavilokanarh

srhgararasaparyupasitaih atisantam nanalaksanalah- krtarii. Tasya puratas-Tara daksinaparsve Sudhanakumarah.

Tatra Tara syama, vamakaravidhrtam sanalam utpalam daksina* karena vikasayanti nanalahkaravati abhinavayauvanodbhinnakucabhara. Sudhanakumarasca krtanjaliputah kanakavabhasidyutih, kumararu- padhari vamakaksavinyastapustakah

sakalalankaravan. Pascime Bhrkuti Hayagriva uttare.

Tatra Bhrkuti caturbhuja hemaprabha jatakalapini, vame tridandlka- mandaludharihasta daksine vandanabhinayaksasiitradharakara trinetra.


Hayagrivo raktavarnah kharvalambodarah urddhvajvalatpingalakesah bhujagayajnopavitl kayilatarasmasrusremparicitamukhamandalah rakta* vartulatrinetrah bhrkntikutilabhrukah vyaghracarmambarah danda- yudhah daksinakarena vandanabhinayi.

Ete sarva eva svanayakananapreritadrstayo yathasobham avasthitas* cintanlyah...


"The worshipper should think himself as the god (Khasarpana) from whose body radiate rays of a crore of moons* He wears the Jatamukuta (crown of matted hair), holds the image of Amitabha on his head, and sits on the moon over a double

lotus in the Ardhapary- afika attitude. He is decked in all sorts of ornaments, has a smiling face, is aged about twice eight years, exhibits the Varada pose in the right hand, and holds the lotus with a stem in the left. He is an expert

in distributing the stream of nectar that flows from his hand, and Sucimukha who stands below with an uplifted face, a protruding belly and very pale appearance receives the same. He resides in the womb of the mount Potalaka, looks

beautiful with compassion, is full of the sentiment of Srngara (amour), is extremely peaceful and is endowed with various auspicious marks "Before him is Tara and to the right is Sudhanakumara "Here Tara is green. She causes to blossom

with her right hand the lotus flower with a stem held in her left. She has many ornaments and her breasts are oppressively heavy due to adolescence

"Sudhanakumara, again, has his two hands joined ( anjali ), is resplendent like gold, and has the appearance of a prince. He carries the book under his left arm-pit and is decked in all ornaments. "To the West of the god is Bhrkun and to

the North Hayagrlva "Here Bhrkutl has four arms, is resplendent like gold has matted hair, carries the staff with three horns and the Kamandalu in the two left hands. The two right show the mudra of bowing in one and the rosary in the

second. She has three eyes.


"Hayagriva is red in colour and is short, with a protruding belly. His hair rises upwards in the shape of a flame, and he has a snake as his sacred thread. His face is recognised by a deep brown pair of moustaches; his eyes are red and

round; his eye-brows are distorted in a frown. He is clad in tiger-skin, has the staff as a weapon, and his right hand exhibits the act of bowing.

"All these deities should be meditated on as disposed in a befitting and artistic manner, with their eyes directed towards the face of the principal deity. Here ends the Sadhana for Khasarpana.'* 17


The finest image (Fig. 103) of Khasarpana was discovered by the late N. K. Bhattasali in the Pargana Vikrampur in Eastern Bengal *. The sculpture is recognized to be one of the best products of Bengal art. Had the central figure been

mutilated like the one reproduced in Fig. 104 it would still be possible to identify Khasarpana by means of the four companions to the right and the left of the principal god. Images of Khasarpana are found in Tibet 2 and China *.



LOKANATHA



Colour White Symbol Lotus

Mudra Varada

Four Sadhanas are devoted to the worship of the Lokanatha form of Avalokitesvara. He is single in three Sadhanas and only one Sadhana describes him as accompanied by Tara and Hayagriva. The same Sadhana adds further that Lokanatha should

be accom- panied also by the eight Bodhisattvas : Maitreya, Ksitigarbha, Vajrapaiji, Khagarbha, Viskambhin, Samantabhadra, Manjughosa, and Gagana- gafija, and by the four goddesses : Dhupa, Puspa, Gandha, and Dlpa, and by the four guardians of the gates : Vajrahkusi, Vajrapasi, Vajras- phota and Vajraghanta, In other words the Sadhana gives the constitution of the whole Mandala of Lokanatha. The principal god has two hands and carries the lotus in the left hand

and exhibits the Varada pose in the right, exactly like Khasarpana previously described. The Sadhana which is in verse is given below :

"Purvavat-kramayogena Lokanatham sasiprabharh I Hrihkaraksarasambhutam jatamukutamanditam II Vajradharmajatantahstham asesaroganasanam I Varadam daksine haste vame padmadharam tatha II Lalitaksepasamstham tu mahasaumyam prabhasvaram I

Varadotpalakara saumya Tara daksinatah sthita II Vandanadandahastastu Hayagrivo'tha vamatah I Raktavarno maharaudro vyaghracarmambarapriyah' 1 II

Sadhanamala, p. 49,

"Following the same procedure as before, the worshipper should think himself as Lokanatha, resplendent like the moon, as springing from the sacred syllable Hrih and wearing the Jatamukuta,

"He has within his matted hair the figure of the god, Vajradharma, is the destroyer of all diseases, exhibits the Varada tnudra in the right hand and carries the lotus in the left.


"He sits in the Lalita attitude, is peaceful and resplendent. To his right is Tara, who has a peaceful appearance, exhibits the Varada mudra and carries the lotus.

"To the left is Hayagnva, who displays the gesture of bowing and carries the staff in his two hands. He is red in colour, appears terrible and is clad in the" garment of tiger-skin".

Later, the Sadhana adds an account of the deities constituting the Lokanatha Mandala, including the Bodhisattvas and the gate- keepers. The relevant text is given below :

'Tadvaratakastadale padme Maitreyadirh ca vinyaset I Maitreyah pitavarnasca nagapuspavarapradah II Ksitigarbhah syamavarnah kalasarh cabhayarh tatha I Vajrapanisca suklabho vajrahasto varapradah II Khagarbho nabhahsyamabho cintamani-

varapradah I Manjughosah kanakabhah khadgapustakadharakah II Gaganaganjo raktavarno nilotpalavarapradah I Viskambhi tu ksaravarno ratnottamavarapradah II Samantabhadrah pitabhah ratnotpalavarapradah I Dhupadicaturddevi ca

Vajrankusyadidvaragah II Varnayudhe yathapurvarh mandalasyanusaratah I Evamvidhaih samayuktarh Lokanathsrh prabhavayet II".


(t On the eight petals of the lotus [on which the god sitsj should be placed the gods Maitreya and others. Maitreya is yellow in colour carries the Naga (kesara) flower and exhibits the Varada pose. Ksitigar- bha is of green colour,

carries the Kalasa and exhibits the Abhaya pose. Vajrapani is whitish in colour, carries the Vajra and exhibits the Abhaya mudra. Khagarbha has the colour of the blue sky, carries the Cintamani and exhibits the Varada mudra. Manjughosa

is of golden complexion and carries in his two hands the sword and the book. Gaganaganja is of red colour, carries the lotus and exhibits the Varada mudra. Viskambhin is ash-coloured, carries the excellent jewel and exhibits the Varada mudra. Samantabhadra is yellowish in complexion, carries the jewel on a lotus and exhibits the Varada mudra. The four goddesses Dhupa and others (accom- pany Lokanatha) and the (four goddesses) Vajrankusi and others guard the gates,

their colour and weapons being in accordance with the canons the Mandala. In this way Lokanatha should be meditated upon by the worshipper".

When represented, Lokanatha is generally alone and is occasion- ally accompanied by Tara and Hayapilva. In paintings of the com- plete Mandala alone all the companion deities are expected to be


present. Lokanatha may sit in three attitudes according to three different Sadhanas ; he may have the Lalita, the Paryanka or the Vajraparyahka attitude. Out of all images of Lokanatha so far discovered, the one from Mahoba is perhaps

the best and the most artistic (Fig. 105), There is a fine bronze of Lokanatha (Fig 106) in the Baroda Museum. The Sarnath image (Fig- 107) shows the miniature figure of Amitabha in the Samadhi mudra on the crown. The Nepal image is made

of pure ivory (Fig. 108). These last two represent Lokanatha in the standing attitude,



HALAHALA



Colour White Faces Three

Hands Six Companion Prajna

Three Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to the worship of Halahala Lokesvara. Images of this divinity are rarely to be met with in India, but in Nepal there are some, though they do not strictly follow the Sadhana. The

distinguishing feature of Halahala is that he is generally accompanied by his Sakti or female energy whom he carries on his lap. The Sadhanas all enjoin the presence of the Sakti, but in a stone image from Nepal (Fig. 109), he is

represented alone. According to the Sadhana the god should be seated, but the image above referred to represents him in a standing attitude. The Dhyana contained in one of the Sadhanas is in verse and reads as follows :

"Hrlhkarabijanispannarh Halahalam mahakrpam I Trinetrarh trimukham caiva jatamukutamanditarh II Prathamasyam sitam niladaksinam vamalohitam I Sasankardhadharam murdhni kapalakrtasekharam II Jatantahsthajinam samyak sarvabharanabhusitam I

Sitaravindanirbhasam srngararasasundaram II Sadbhujam smeravaktram ca vyaghracarmambarapriyam I Varadam daksine panau dvitiye caksamalikam II Trtlye saranarttanam ca vame capadharaih tatha I Dvitiye sitapadmam ca trtlye stanameva ca II

Vamajanuna sitam Svabhadevlrh dadhanam. Vamena kamaladharam daksinena bhujena Bhagavadalifiganaparam kusumasobhitajatakalapam, Daksinaparsve sarpavestitam trisulam, vamaparsve padmasthakapalam nanasugandhikusumaih sampurnam,

raktapadmacandre Hlaksepasthi- tam vibhavayet Bhagavantam. M Sadhanamala, pp. 65-66.


"The worshipper should think himself as Halahala, the Great Com- passionate, originating from the sacred syllable Hrih, with three eyes, three faces and matted hair rising upwards in the shape of a crown. The first (or the principal)

face is white, the right blue and the left red. He bears on his head the crescent and the Kapala. The Jma Amitabha is within his matted hair and he is decked in all ornaments. He is resplendent like the white lotu.s and appears beautiful

by the sentiment of passionate love he displays. He has six arms, a smiling face and is fond of garments of tiger-skin. He displays the Varada mudra in the first right hand, the second has the rosary, while the third flourishes the

arrow. The first left hand carries the bow, the second the white lotus and the third touches the breast (of his Sakti). He carries the Sakti of his own creation on the left lap. She shows the lotus in the left hand and the right is

engaged in the act of embracing the god Her Jata (matted hair) is decorated with flowers. To their right is the Trisula entwined by a snake, and on the left is the Kapala on the lotus, full of fragrant flowers. The god sits in the Lalita

attitude on the red lotus 1 '.

One image of Halahala is found in China ] .



PADMAN4RTTESVARA



(I) Eighteen Armed

Face - One Arms Eighteen

Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyahka Symbol Double lotus in all hands

Three Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to the worship of this variant of Avalokitesvara, all entirely different and describing three widely different forms of the deity. It is, therefore, necessary that all the three Dhyanas

should be quoted and translated. There is no difficulty in taking the three to refer to Padmanarttesvara, because all doubt is set at rest by the fact that the Mantra, where mentioned, is in all cases the same, and that the Sadhanas

always designate him as Padmanarttesvara.

Images of Padmanarttesvara are rare in India. Fig. 110 illustrates one good example from Nepal. It follows the Dhyana given below :

'Tadmanarttesvaramnayena Arya-Avalokitesvara-Bhattarakarh atma- narh vibhavayet ekamukham astadasabhujarh ardhaparyahkinam Ami* tabhajatajutamandalam sarvakarair-visvapadmadharinam, yoginlvrnd- aparivrtam, daksinavamaparsvasthita-Tara-

Sudhana-Bhrkuti-Hayagrlvam divyalahkaravastrabhusanam ." Sadhanamala, p. 77.



"The worshipper should think himself as Bhattaraka Avalokitesvara in the form of Padmanarttesvara, who is one-faced and eighteen^armed. He stands in the Ardhaparyahka attitude, and on his Jatamukuta there is an effigy of Amitabha. He

carries the double lotus in all his (eighteen) hands and is surrounded by a host of Yoginis. His right and left sides are occupied by Tara, Sudhana, Bhrkuti and Hayagnva. He is decked in all kinds of divine ornaments and dress".

The Asana prescribed in the Sadhana is the Ardhaparyanka. This Asana may have two \arieties ; the ordinary, which is also called the Maharajalila, as in the cases of Vaglsvara and Simhanada, and the dan- cing variety, (ardhaparyankena

natyastha) as in the cases of Heruka, VajravSrahi and others. As the word 'narttesvara' means the "God of Dance 7 ' or the "God in a dancing attitude" the Asana of Pad man antes- vara may be taken as the dancing variety of Ardhaparyanka,

and this is borne out by the fact that the Nepal image illustrated in Fig. 110 shows the god in this particular attitude. This image hails from the Sarasvatl- sthana or the Manjusri Hill at Svayambhuksettra in Nepal. Though the god is

here represented with only two of the companion deities, yet the principal figure corresponds in all details, to the description given in the Sadhanamala.

One statuette of this god is found in China l . This Chinese statuette is illustrated in Fig. 111.

(II) Two-Armed

Colour Red Companion Sakti

Mudra Sue! Symbol Lotus

Vahana Animal

Another form of Padmanarttesvara is described in a second Sadhana. and the Dhyana contained therein runs -as follows :

"Padmanarttesvaram atmanam bhavayet sattvaparyankanisannarii dvibhujaikamukham raktam sakalalankaradharam Amitabhamukutam vamaparsve Pandaravasinlsamaslistam alinganabhinayasthitavamabhu' jena raktapadmadharam, narttanabhinayena

Sucimudraya vikasayada- paradaksinakaram...". Sadhanamala, p. 75.

'The worshipper should think himself as Padmanarttes\ ara, who is seated on an animal, is two-armed and one-faced. His colour is red, and he is decked in all kinds of ornaments ; he bears the effigy of Amitabha on the crown and is

embraced by Pandaravasinl in the left. His left hand, which carries the lotus, is raised in the act of embracing ( the Sakti ), while the right shows the Sucimudra in the act of dancing... J \


The same Sadhana which contains the Dhyana quoted above, gives a description of the Mandala, and adds the information that the lotus on which the god sits has eight petals. The petals contain one goddess each. For instance, on the East

petal there is Vilokinl, white in colour and carrying the red lotus. The South is occupied by Tara of green colour, holding the Palasa and the lotus flowers. Bhurim is in the West, is yellow in complexion and carries the Cakra and the

blue lotus* Bhrkuti is in the North, with white colour holding the yellow lotus. In the North-East there is Padmavasini, who is yellow in colour and holds the red lotus. The South-East is occupied by Visvapadmesvari, who is sky-coloured

and holds the white lotus. The South* West is occupied by Visvapadma, who is white and carries the the black lotus. In the Norh-West there is Visvavajra of variegated colour holding the double lotus ] .

Fig. 112 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the principal deity although it does not agree with the Sadhana in all details.

(Ill) Eight- Armed

Colour Red Arms Eight

Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyahka

One Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes an eight-armed form of Padmanarttesvara. The Dhyana contained therein is given below :

"Namah Padmanarttesvaraya.

Tatra Visvapadmopari candre rakta-Hrihkaraparinatam Padmanar- ttesvaram raktavarnam ekamukham jatamukutinam trinetram, asta- bhujam sarvalankarabhusitam sarpayajnopavitam ardhaparyahkena tandavam. Prathamabhujadvayena nrtyabhinayam,

dvitiyadaksinabhu- jena hrdi vikasayantam sucimudram, vamabhujena raktapadmam sirasi dhrtam, trtlyabhujadvayena vajravaddandatrisuladharam, caturtha- bhujadvayena aksasutrakundikadharam, astadevlparivrram, evambhutarh Padmanattesvaram

Lokanatham bhavayet/' Sadhanamala, p. 76.

4 Salutation to Padmanarttesvara !

Here the worshipper should think himself as Padmanattesvara, on the moon over the double lotus, originating from the sacred syllable Hrlh. He is red in colour with one face, the Jatamukuta, three eyes and eight arms. He is decked in all

sorts of ornaments, wears the sacred thread of a snake, and dances in the Ardhaparyaftka attitude. The first pair of hands exhibits the dancing pose ; the second right shows the Sucimudra against the chest, the second left holds a red lotus over his head.; the third pair carries the staff and the Trisula, stamped with the Vajra ; while the fourth pair carries the


rosary and the water^pot. The principal god is surrounded by eight goddesses. In such a manner the god Padmanarttesvara Lokanatha should be meditated upon".



HARIHAR1HARIVAHANA


Colour White Arms Six

Vahana Sithha, Garuda and Visnu

The composition of the deity is so queer that great difficulty is experienced in recognizing the images of this form of Avalokitesvara, called by the peculiar name of Harihariharivahana. The Sadhana gives a description of the god, but is

practically silent as ro why such a special name is given to this particular variety of Lokesvara. India has not given uptil now any image of Harihariharivahana and it is rare even in Nepal. There is only one sculpture at

Svayambhuksettra and a bronze in one of the monasteries at Pattan, and both of them follow the Sadhana faithfully. The lion is lowermost, on it rides Garuda. On the back of Garuda, again, rides the Hindu god Visnu with the four symbols,

the conch, the discus, the mace and the lotus. On the shoulder of Visnu rides Lokesvara. The lion, the Garuda and the god Visnu, all have 'Hari' as their synonym and because the vehicle of Lokesvara is composed of three 'Hari's, the

principal god acquires the name of Harihariharivahana. Two Sadhanas in the Saclhanamala are devoted to the worship of this form of Arya Avalokitesvara and the Dhyana in one of them describes the god in the following terms :-

Harihanharivahanodbhavam Bhagavantarh Arya-Avalokitesvaram sarvangasuklam jatamukutinam santavesam daksinakarena Bhagavantarh Tathagatam saksinam kurvantam dvitl>ena aksamaladharinam trtlyena duhkuhakam lokam upadesayantam vamena

dandadharam dvitiyena krsnajinadharam trtlyena kamandaludharam simha*garuda-visnu- skandhasthitam atmanam dhyatva..."


"The worshipper should think himself as the Harihariharivahana form of god Avalokitesvara, white in all limbs, with the Jatamukuta (crown of matted hair) and clad in graceful garment?. He cites the Tathagata as witness with one of his

right hands, carries the rosary in the second, and instructs deluded people with the third. He carries the staff in one of his left hands, the deer-skin in the second and the Kamandalu in the third. He sits on the shoulder of Visnu below

whom there are Garuda and the lion. Thus meditating..."


In the drawing of Hariharharivahana illustrated in the Appendix there is a snake below the lion. The snake also has the synonym of 'Hari' in Sanskrit, and that is how a snake is added, although it is not required by the Sadhana. Fig. 113

is a Nepalese drawing of the god and here instead of the deer-skin in one of the left hands, an actual elephant is seen. In other respects the drawing represents the principal god in all details. This deity is also known in China 1 .



TRAILOKYAVASANKARA


Colour Red Asana Vajraparyanka

This variety of Lokesvara is also known by the name of Uddivana or Oddiyana Lokesvara or Lokesvara as worshipped in Uddiyana which was, in the middle ages, a great centre ofTantric learnmg.lt has already been shown that there are good

grounds for identifying this Uddiyana with the village of Vajrayogini in the Pargana Vikrampur in the district of Dacca now in Eastern Pakistan. This form of Lokesvara does not seem to have been widely represented. There is a bronze

image of the god in the Kva Vahal at Pattan in Nepal, but it does not follow the Sadhana in all details. Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to the worship of Trailokyavasahkara and the Dhyana contained in one of them is given

below :-

"Lokesvaiam sarvahgamaharagaraktarh ekamukham dvibhujam trinetram jatamukutamanditam vajrankitapasahkusahastam raktapadme vajraparyahkanisarmam div^abharanavastravibhusjtam atmanam vicintya". Sadhanamala, p. 80

"The worshipper should think himself as Lokesvara whose limbs are reddened b> the intense sentiment of passion, ar d who is one-faced, two-armed and three*eyed. He w r ears a crown of matted hair, and carries in his two hands the noose

and the goad stamped with the Vajra. He is seated on a red lotus in the Vajrapar>ahka attitude and is decked in celestial garments and ornaments. Thus meditating.. "

The Dhyana, it may be noticed, does not expressly mention the name of Trailokyavasankara which is given in the colophon. It further says that the Sadhana is composed by the great Tantric savant, Sarahapada, famous in the Middle Ages as

one of the eighty-four Mahasiddhas 'Great Mystics'. Two illustrations of this form of Avalokitesvara occur in the Two Lamaistic Pantheons of Clark 2 * Fig. 114 illustrates one of the statuettes in China.



RAKTAIOKESVARA



( I ) Four Armed

Colour Red Arms Four

Companions Tara and Bhrkuti

Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala are devoted to his worship, but the two Dhyanas describe two widely different forms of the god. It is necessary, therefore, to quote and translate both the Dhyanas. One of the Dhyanas describe him thus :

"Daksinottaraparsve Tara-Bhrkutidevidvayasahitam Arya^Avalo- kitesvara-Bhattarakarh raktavarnam raktama.yambaranulepanarh pasah- kusadhanurbanadharamcaturbhujam,.raktakusumavatasokataroradhastat avasthitam atmanarii vicintayet...

Rakta-Lokesvarasadhanam" Sadhanamala, p. 83

"The worshipper should think himself as Arya^Avalokitesvara, who is flanked in his right and left by the two goddesses Tara and Bhrkuti. He is red in colour, wears red garments and is besmeared with red unguents. He carries in his four

hands, the noose, the goad, the bow and the arrow., and stands under the Asoka tree, which has blossomed into red flowers. 1 '

The colophon of the Sadhana attributes to him the name of Rakta- Lokesvara and this name is given simply because his colour is red. Images of Rakta-Lokesvara are rare. A few can be seen in the Kva Vahal at Pattan in Nepal. Statuettes of

Rakta-Lokesvara are found in China under the title of Caturbhuja Avalokitesvara *. This Chinese statuette is illustrated in Fig. 115.

( II ) Two-Armed

Colour Red Symbol Lotus

Mudra Opening of the Petals

The second Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes a two-armed form of the god Rakta-Lokesvara* This two-armed form is not met with either in painting or in stone. The Dhyana contained in the Sadhanamala describes this two-armed form in the

following words :

  • 'Raktavarnam Amitabhagarbha jatamukutadharam vamakaragrhita- raktapadmam tacca daksinakarena vikasayantam vividhalankaravastra- vibhusitam...". Sadhanamala, p. 84

"The worshipper should think himself as Rakta-Lokesvara of red colour, having a Jatamukuta (crown of matted hair) bearing the effigy


of Amitabha. He carries the red lotus in the left hand, and opens its petals with the right and is decked in various ornaments and dress../'

A reference may here be made to the Dhyana of Vajradharma another variety of Lokesvara, equally unrepresented, whose form will be described later in this chapter. The forms of Rakta-Lokesvara and Vajradharma are almost identical with the

difference that the Sadhana enjoins for Vajradharma, the Vahana of a peacock.



MAYAjALAKRAMA



Faces Five Hands Twelve

Asana Pratyalidha Colour Blue

As the Sadhana for the worship of this particular form of Avalokit* esvara, occurs originally in the Mayajala Tantra, this peculiar name has been given to the deity. This is the only fierce form of Lokesvara known to the Indian

Buddhists, although fiercer forms are to be met with in the Tibetan Buddhist Iconography. The Dhyana given in the Sadhanamala describes him in the following terms :

"Bhagavantam Arya-Avalokitesvaram krsnavarnam pratyalldhasthaih suryamandalasthitarh pancamukham trinetram dvadasabhujarh sita- raktadaksinamukhadvayam tatha pitaharitavamamukhadvayam daksina" bhujaih damaru-khatvanga-ahkusa-

pasa"vajra'Saradhararh, vamabhujaih tarjam-kapala'raktakamala'mani'cakra-capadharam darhstrakaralasakal' avadanarh sanmudropetam sardramundamalalankrtasai Iram nagnam sarvahgasundafarh atmanam jhatiti pratyakalayya..."


"The worshipper should think himself as Arya^Avalokitesvara, whose colour is blue. He stands in the Pratyalidha attitude, on the orb of the sun. He is five^faced, three-eyed, twelve-armed, with the two right faces of white and red

colour, and two left of yellow and green colour. He carries in his right hands the L Damaru, 2. the Khatvanga, 3. the goad, 4. the noose, 5. the Vajra and the 6. the arrow, and in the left hands the 1. raised index finger, 2. the Kapala,

3. the red lotus, 4. the jewel, 5. the discus, and 6. the bow. His faces look terrible with bare fangs. He wears the six bone ornaments and his person is embellished by the garland of heads. He is nude and appears beautiful in all limbs.

Thus quickly meditating..."

One illustration of this form of Lokesvara occurs in the Two Lamaistic Pantheons of Clark l . His statue can be seen in Nepal at Svayambhuksettra. A Nepalese drawing of this form is illustrated in the Appendix.

1. Clark V TUMI, p. 267 VTao (talk)


NfLAKANTHA



Colour Yellow Asana Vajraparvahka. Mudra Samadht Symbol Bowl of Jewels Companions Two serpents on either side

One Sadhana only is devoted to the worship of this form of Lokes- vara, which is almost identical with that of Amitabha, his sire, whose image he bears on his head. Indeed, this mark of descent and the sacred thread he wears, constitute

the only points of difference between them. Amitabha being a Dhyani Buddha, has no father. Nilakantha, according to the Sadhana, is accompanied by two serpents. The Dhyana is given below

"Bhagavantam pitavarnam ardhacandrahkitajatamukutinam Amita- bhopalaksitasirahpradesam raktapadmoparisthitam ; krsnasaraharina- carmani vajraparyankinam samadhimudropari nanaratnaparipurnaka- paladharinam eneyacarmakrtayajnopavltinam,

vyaghracarmambara- dharam nirabharanam Nilakantham nilagutikavisistakantham ; parsva- dvaye parasparabhisambaddhapuccha'Samaniphanavisista-Bhagavadavalo- kanaparordhvamukhakrsnasarpadvayopalaksitam atmanam evarh vibhavayet-..


"The worshipper should think himself as the god Nilakantha, who is yellow in colour and whose Jatamukuta is adorned with the crescent and the effigy of Amitabha. He sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude on a red lotus, on which is spread

the skin of black deer. He exhibits the Samadhi mudra with his two hands carrying the Kapala (bowl) filled with a variety of gems. His sacred thread is made of the deer-skin (eneya-carma). He wears the tiger-skin, and bears no ornaments

(on his person). His throat shows the blue pill (of poison). The two sides of the god are occupied by two cobras with jewels on their hoods and tails entwined with each other. They look towards the god. Thus mediating..."

Apparently, the conception of this god has been modelled on the Hindu deity Siva, who is said to have saved the world from destruction by swallowing the poison that issued from the mouth of Vasuki, the lord of serpents, while the gods

and demons were churning the ocean together. The poison, could it have entered Siva's stomach, would surely have destroyed him, but it remained in his throat, and as the colour of the poison is said to be blue, there is a blue spot in

the white throat of the god. That is the reason why the name Nilakantha (Blue- throat) has been given to Siva. As this particular form of Lokesvara has also the same name, it may well be that its origin was the Hindu god Siva Nilakantha.


A confusion is likely to arise in the identification of the images of Nilakantha and Vajraraga, a variety of Manjusrl, if rheir respective sires are not represented. The only point of distinction in that case would be the total absence

of ornaments and rich garments in the case of Nilakantha. If the image bears princely ornaments and is richly clad, it must be identified as that of ManjusrL

In the temple of Bodhnath in Nepal, a coloured image of this god is found, but here he is alone, without the serpents. The other image, (Fig. 116) hails from the monastery at Sarnath. In this sculpture two tiny figures carrying bowls are

seen instead of two serpents.

One statuette of this deity occurs in the Chinese collection l .



SUGATISANDARSANA



Colour White Arms Six

One short Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes this form of Avalokitesvara. The Dhyana for Sugatisandarsana describes his form in the following words :

Sugatisandarsana-Lokesvara-Bhattarakam suklavarnarh sadbhujam varadabhayaksamaladharam daksme, vame padmakunditridandidharam ca ratnabharanabhusitarh vratasutradharinarh jatamukutarh padmopari candramandalasthitam saumyaruparh

bhavayet". Sadhanamala, p. 88

The worshipper should think himself as Bhattaraka Sugatisandarsana Lokesvara white in complexion, six-armed, showing the Varada and Abhaya poses and the rosary in the three right hands, and carrying the lotus, the water-pot and the staff

with three horns in the three left hands. He is decked in ornaments and jewels, wears the sacred thread and a crown of matted hair. He stands on the moon over lotus and is peaceful in appearance'*.

Fig. 117 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of Sugatisandarsana Lokesvara which agrees with the Sadhana in major details.


PRETASANTARPITA



Colour White Arms Six

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes this form of Avalokitesvara. The Dhyana describing the form of Pretasantarpita is brief and is worded as follows :

"Jatamukutinarh sadbhujam prathamabhujadvayena varadau dvitlya- bhujadvayena ratnapustakau trtiyabhujadvayena aksamalatridandikam, sarvalankarabhusitarh vratasutradharinam saurnyamurtim, padmopari candramandale sthitam svetavarnarh

vibhavayet".



"The worshipper should think himself as Pretasantarpita Lokesvara who bears the Jatamukuta (crown of matted hair), is six^armed, exhibits in the first pair of hands the Varada poses r carries in the scond pair the jewel and the book, and

in the third pair holds the rosary and the Tridandi (staff with three horns). He is decked in all sorts of ornaments, wears the sacred thread, has a graceful appearance, stands on the orb of the moon on lotus, and is white in colour/'



SUKHAVATl LOKESVARA


Colour White Faces Three

Arms Six Asana Lalita

Companion Sakti

A description of the deity occurs in the Dharmakosasafigraha of Amrtananda. Nepal abounds in images of SukhavatI Lokesvaia both in stone and in bronze, though his images are not found in any other Buddhist country of the North. The

description above referred to runs as follows :

    • Trimukhah svetavarnah sadbhujah dakse mudrah, saraksepa-japa- mala-varadani, vamesu dhanuh-kamala-Tarorusamarpanani lalitasanah kamalopari, Vajratara-Visvatara-Padmatarabhih parivrtah. Upari caityah.

SukhavatI Lokesvarah"

"Sukhavati Lokesvara is three-faced, white in colour, and six-armed. One of his right hands is in the act of shooting an arrow, the remain- ing two have the rosary and the Varada pose. In two of his left hands he carries the bow and the

lotus, and the third is placed on the thigh of Tara. He sits in Lalitasana on the lotus, and is surrounded by the goddesses Vajratara, Visvatara, Padmatara and the like. There is a Caitya on the top".

Fig. 119 illustrates a sculpture from Nepal representing the deity SukhavatI Lokesvara. Here the god is in the company of his Sakti but is without the other companions as prescribed.



VAJRADHARMA



Colour Reddish White

Vahana Peacock Symbol Lotus

One Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes this form of Avalo* kitesvara. The distinguishing feature of this god is that he rides a peacock. The Sadhana in question is entirely in verse, and the


relevant portion containing the description of the form of Vajradharma is given below :

'Tarn sitarh raktavarnam tu padmaragasamadyutirh 1 Pancabuddhamukutadharam harsenotphullalocanarh II Vamato spardhaya nalam dhrtva sodasapatrakam I Padmam vikasayantanca hrdi daksinapanina II Mayuropari madhyasthe nisannam candramandale

I Sattvaparyankamabhujya sasrngararasotsavam II Caityantahsthamahakarma-kutagaraviharinam I Bhavayet Vajradharmagryam nityam Bodhim avapnuyat." II


'The worshipper should conceive himself as excellent Vajradharma, of reddish white complexion, bright as the Padmaraga gem, who bears the effigies of the Five Dhyani Buddhas on the crown. His eyes beam with delight ; and he holds with

pride the stem of a lotus with sixteen petals in his left hand and with the right causes it to blossom against his chest. He sits on the moon over lotus on the back of a peacock, enjoys his seat of the animal and displays the delightful

sentiment of amour. He moves in the sanctum of the Caitya, the place for great performances. He ( the worshipper ) certainly receives the Bodhi who meditates (upon him) in this manner."

Fig. 120 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the deity. A statuette also occurs in the Chinese collection ] .


The conception of Avalokitesvara is as old as the third century B. C. He was first ushered into existence by the Mahasanghikas, about the time of Asoka, in their work, entitled, Mahavastu Avadana, where he has been characterised as the

"Bhagavan who takes the form of a Bodhisattva, whose duty it is to look round (Avalokita) for the sake of instructing the people and for their constant welfare and happiness" 2 . This Avalokita Bodhisattva no doubt gave rise to the

concrete form of Avalokitesvara, even before the second century A. D. and his images can be traced from the Gupta period onwards. He first appears in the Sukhavati Vyuha 3 , and a passage in the Karandavyuha where he is said to manifest

in all possible forms of godhead for the sake of the ignorant and to bring salvation to


3. This work was first translated into Chinese between A.D. 1 48 and 1 70 while the smaller recension was translated into the same language between A.D. 384 and 417. Max Muller : Sukhavati Vyuha, introduction* pp. iii-iv.


mankind, accounts undoubtedly for the great number of his forms. As different people belonged to different faiths, this Compassionate Bodhisattva wa* obliged to assume the shape of all gods of all faiths, nay, even the shape of father

and mother. Avalokitesvara thus is given no less than 108 forms which are painted on the walls of the Macchandar Vahal atKuthmandu in Nepal with inscriptions for the purpose of identification. All these paintings have been copied out by

an expert Nepalese artist, and are illustrated in this book in an Appendix. To this a reference mav be made for the numerous forms of Avalokitesvara.


Besides Avalokitesvara and a few forms of Manjusn already des* cribed, only two male divinities in the Sadhanamala emanate from the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha. These are Mahabala and Saptasatika Hayagrlva. Their parental Dhyani Buddha, it

may be remembered, is distinguished by his red colour, the family symbol of lotus, and the Samadhi mudra he displays. His offsprings Mahabala and Hayagrlva belong, therefore, to the lotus family and should show the signs characteristic

of the family. They are studied below in the order of their importance.



MAHABALA


Colour Red

Asana Pratyalidha

Arms Four

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala is devoted to the worship of Mahabala- a fierce emanation of the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha The Dhyana is given below :

"Mahabalarh ekamukharh caturbhujarh sarvangaraktam urdhva- pingalasarpavabaddhakesarh daksinabhujabhyarh sitadanda-sitacamara- dhararh vamabhujabhyarh vandanabhinaya-sapasatarjamkararh \yaghra- carmanivasanarh sarpabharanarh

pratyalldharh damstrakaralavadanam suryamandalaprabhumalinarh Amitabhamukutinarh dhyatva..."


'The worshipper should think himself as Mahabala with one face, four arms and red complexion. His brown hair rises upwards and is tied by a snake. He carries in his two right hands the white staff and the chowrit while the two left show

the mudra of bowing and the raised index finger. He is clad in tiger-skin, wears ornaments of snakes and stands in the Pratyalidha attitude His face looks terrible with bare fangs and he is bright like the orb of the sun. He holds the

effigy of Amitabha on the crown".

Two statuettes of Mahabala are known to the Chinese collection at Peiping l .



SAPTASATIKA HAYAGRIVA



Colour Red

Symbols Vajra and Danda

Special Feature Horse-head

I Hayagriva has several other forms and these will be described at their appropriate places. One of these forms is said to bear the effigy of Amitabha on its crown This particular form of Hayagriva, therefore, should refer to the

spiritual son of Amitabha with the red colour and the Samadhi mudra, The present Sadhana describing his form states in the colophon that it is restored from the Saptasatika Kalpa. This particular form of Hayagriva, therefore, is

designated as the Saptasatika Hayagriva. \The Dhyana contained in the Sadhana is given below :

"Raktavarnarh mahabhayanakarh trinetrarh kapilasmasruraudrarh brhadudararh damstrakaraimarh dantausthakapalamahnarh jatamuku- tinarh Amitabhasiraskarh, Dvitlyamukharh bhimabhayanakarh nilarh hayananarh hihikaranadinarh

Brahmandasikharakrantarh dvitlyena bhavagraparyantarh astanagopetarh kharvavamanakararh vyaghrcarma- nlvasanarh sarvalankarabhusitarh sakaladevasurarh tarjayantarh grhita- vajradandarh...vicintayet". Sadhanamala, p. 509*

V'The worshipper should conceive himself as (SaptasatikaJHayagnva) of red complexion, who is t erFi BIy a w e ^inspirTng , with three-eyes, and a brown beard. He is angry and has protruding belly. His face appears terrible with bare

fangs ; he wears a garland of skulls with teeth and lips, is crowned with his Jata and the figure of Amitabha. His second face is distorted like that of a horse, which is blue in colour and neighs incessantly. He tramples on the top of

the wqrld with one leg and the bottom of the world with the other. He wears ornaments of eight serpents, is short and dwarfish, is clad in tiger- skin and decked in all ornaments. He threatens all the gods and Asuras, and holds the Vajra

and the staff (in his two hands)".

It may be noticed that the Dhyana is not clear about the number of hands and faces ; but it seems from the description that Hayagriva is endowed with a principal face, terrible in appearance, over which there is the horse's head. This

horse's head over the principal face, is found only in case of Hayagriva, and distinguishes him from all other Buddhist deities. But when, as a minor god, he accompanies others, the horse's head is not seen as a rule. In such cases, the

Danda or the staff serves as the identification mark. From the Dhyana it also appears that he is two-armed and carries the Vajra and the Danda, the Vajra being generally held in the right hand, while


the Danda is carried in the left. About the name, however, the colophon is certain, and it asserts that this Sadhana has been restored from the Saptasatika Kalpa, that is to say, a ritual work consisting of letters that can make up seven

hundred verses in the Anuscubh metre.

Images of Hayagriva are found in Tibet J and China -.

The female divinities that emanate from the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha are three in number, the most important and popular among them being Kurukulla, to whose worship no less than fourteen Sadhanas are devoted in the Sadhanamala. Two

Sadhanas are devoted to Bhrkuti and one Sadhana only to Mahasitavati. who is also included in the list of the Pancaraksa deities or the Five Great Protectresses. These goddesses as a rule are not represented in stone or bronze ;

paintings, however, are made by the Nepalese artists even in modern times.


KURUKULLA



She is one-faced and may have two, four, six or eight arms. When she is six -armed, she bears the effigies of the five Dhyani Buddhas on her crown. When two-armed, she is called Sukla Kurukulla, and when she is four-armed she is called

by the names of Tarodbhava Kurukulla, Uddiyana Kurukulla, Hevajrakrama Kurukulla and Kalpokta Kurukulla.

Kurukulla is said to confer success in the Tantric rite of Vasikarana or the rite of enchanting men, women, ministers, even kings. Some of the Sadhanas contain many interesting methods of casting spells on different people. The mantra of

Kurukulla is

Hum Hnh Svaha". When this mantra is muttered ten thousand times, mi merilffe~~T?ewitched. Thirty thousand times would prove sufficient to subdue a minister, but the subjugation of a king requires no less than a lakh. She can even confer

on her devotees the power of subduing all ministers and kings.

Images of Kurukulla are found in Tibet ix and China 4 and she is very popular in these countries. The different forms of Kuiukulla as available in the Sadhanamala are dealt with in the following pages.




SUKLA KURUKULLA


Colour White

Symbols Rosary and the Bowl of Lotus

Vahana Animal

Asana Vajraparyahka

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala states the method whereby she should be propitiated. The Dhyana contained therein is a long one and runs as follows :

"Atmanam Bhagavatlrh aksasutrotpalamrtakundim savyavasavya- panibhyam dadhanam, trinetram Padmadhrkpramukhaih sarva-Tatha- gataih Vmadisodasadevlbhir-abhisiktam Amitabha-virajitananapuspo- pasobhitajatamukutam srhgaradirasopetam,

kincit-savyapanipallava- sthaksasutramalokamanam, ksirambhodhisvetavarnabjastham-amrtafxko* pari sattvaparyahkasanastham, kahkana^keyura-kundala-nupuramukta- haradivyavastradivibhusitam nllanantabaddhakeslm piyusavarna-Vasu- kikrtaharam,

rakta-Taksakakitakarnograkundalam, durvasyama-Kar- kkotakakrtayajnopavltam, sukla-Padmanagendrakrtaharam, mrnalavar- na-Mahapadmakrtanupuram, pita-Sankhapalakrtakankanam, dhuma bhravat-Kulikakrtakeyuram, subhravarnam sravadamrtavigraharh

karu- nardracittam bhavayet.

Sukla-Kurukulla'Sadhanam". Sadhanamala, pp. 362-363

"The worshipper should think himself as the goddess (Kurukulla), who carries the rosary and the cup of Utpala full of nectar in the right and left hands respectively. She is three- eyed and is offered bathing water by (the Bodhisattvas)

Padmapani and others, by all the Tathagatas and the sixteen damsels beginning with Vina. She wears the Jatamukuta which is decorated with various flowers and the miniature figure of Amhabha. She displays the sentiment of passion- ate

love, and other sentiments, and turns slightly to have a look at the rosary which she carries in her leaf-like hand. She sits on an animal and rests on the nectar- like lap of the white lotus, that rises from the ocean of milk. She is

decked in bracelets, armlets, ear-rings, anklets, pearl-necklace, and is clad in celestial garments. Her hair is tied up by the serpent Ananta of blue colour, her necklace is formed by the milk-coloured Vasuki, and her prominent ear-

ornament (Kundala) by red Taksaka, her sacred thread is the green Karkkotaka, her girdle is the white Padma the lord of serpents, her Nupura (anklet) is the serpent Mahapadma of the colour of the lotus stalk, her bracelet is the yellow

Sahkhapala, her armlet is Kulika of the colour of smoky clouds. She is white in colour, and seems to diffuse nectar. She possesses a heart which is melting with compassion."


This lengthy description is sufficient to give one a vivid picture of the form of Sukla-Kurukulla, which has many features in common with the other varieties to be described briefly hereafter. It is not necessary to quote and translate

all the Dhyanas given in the Sadhana- mala, because that would only serve to increase the bulk of the book unnecessarily.



TARODBHAVA KURUKULLA



Colour Red Arms Four

Asana Vajraparyanka Vahana Kamadeva with wife on Rahu

Five Sadhanas differing but slightly from one another describe this form of Kurukulla designated as Tarodbhava Kuiukulla in the Sadhanas According to the information supplied by the Sadhanas, Tarodbhava is red in colour with red

garments, red ornaments and the seat of a red lotus. She has four arms. The two left hands show the Abhaya mudra and the arrow, and the two right carry the bow and the red lotus. She sits in the Vajraparyanka attitude and under the seat

appear Kamadeva and his wife riding on the demon Rahu. She has a red aureole behind her, she wears the effigy of Amitabha on the crown, and resides in the Kurukulla mountain. She is in the fulness of youth and displays amorous

sentiments. Sometimes she is seen charging a flowery arrow on the flowery bow, ready to strike.



UDDIYANA KURUKULLA



Appearance Terrible Colour Red

Asana Ardhaparyahka Vahana Corpse

Arms Four

This form of Kurukulla is called in Sadhanas Uddiyana Kurukulla or Kurukulla as worshiped in Uddiyana (mod. Vajrajogini). This form of the goddess looks rather fierce, with the garland of heads, the five skulls on the head, protruding

teeth and tongue, garments of tiger-skin, and brown hair rising above her head in the shape of a flame. Her eyes, red, round and moving, are three in number. She is four-armed ; the principal pair of hands is engaged in drawing to the

full the flowery bow charged with an arrow of red lotus, while the second pair holds the goad of flowers and the red lotus.. She is red in colour and sits in the Ardhaparyahka attitude on a corpse.



ASTABHUJA-KURUKULLA


Arms Eight

Colour Red

Asana Vairaparyahka Mudra Trailokyavijaya

As has already been pointed out, Kurukulla may have another form with eight arms which is described in the only Sadhana devoted to her worship. This Sadhana is attributted in the colophon to the great Siddhacaryya Indrabhuti, who

flourished about 700 A. D. and who had a daughter even more illustrious than himself, Laksmmkara by name, well-versed in the doctrines of both Vajrayana and Sahajayana. The goddess described in this Sadhana is not terrible like the six-

armed Mayajala Kurukulla or the four-armed Uddiyana Kurukulla, but is mild, youthful and compassionate The most important feature of the Sadhana us that it gives the description of a complete Mandala which comprises the principal goddess

and twelve surrounding divinities. For a better understanding of the form of this goddess and of the consti- tution of the Mandala, it is desirable that the Dhyana should be quoted in extenso and translated :

"Kurukullam Bhagavatim astabhujam raktavarnam raktastadala- padmasuryye Vajraparyankanisannarh kutagaramadh^anivasinirii pra- thamakaradvayena Trailokyavijayamudradharam, avasistadaksinakaraih ankusarh akarnapuritasaram varadamudram

dadhanam. parisistavama- bhujaih pasam capam utpalam dadhanam, sakalalankaravatlm bhavayet.

Purvadale Prasannataram, daks nadale Nispannataram, pascimadale Jayataram, uttaradale Karnataram, aisanadale Cundam, agneyadale Aparajitam, nairrtyadale Pradipataram, vayavyadale Gaurltarafica dhyayat. Etasca sarvah raktavarnah Panca-

Tathagatamukuta vajra paryahkanisanna daksinabhujabhyam varadamudra-akamapurita'Sara- dhara. vamabhujabhyam utpalacapadharah.

Purvadvare Vajra vetallrh lambodaram vikrtamukhim raktavarnam Aksobhyamukutam, daksinahastabhyarh tarjany-ankusadharam, vama* karabhyam vajraghantapasadharam

Daksinad\'are Aparajitam pltavarnam Ratnasambhavamukutam dak- sinahastabhyam dandahkusadharam, vamahastabhyam ghantapasa- dharam.

Pascimadvare Ekajatam krsnavarnam urdhvakesam lambodaram dantavastabdhaustham Amitabamukutam, daksmakarabhyam vajrahk- sadharam vamakarabhyam ghantapasadharam.

Uttaradvare VajragSndhanm kanakasyamarii Amoghasiddhimukutam vikrtamukhim lambodaram, daksinabhujabhyam khadgankusadharaih



"The worshipper should think himself as goddess Kurukulla, who is eight-armed, red in colour, sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude, on the orb of the sun over the lotus with eight petals and resides in the sanctum ; she displays the

Trailokyavijayamudra in her first pair of hands, and shows in the other right hands, ahkusa, the arrow drawn up to the ear and the Varada pose, In the remaining left hands she holds the noose, the bow and the Utpala ; she is decked in

all kinds of ornaments.

On the east petal is Prasannatara, on the south is Nispannatara, on the west Jayatara, on the north Karnatara ; on the north-east petal is Cunda, on the east Aparajita, on the south-west Pradlpatara, and on the north-west is Gauritara.

All these deities have red colour and the five Dhyani Buddhas on their crowns. They sit in the Vajraparyahka attitude and show in the two right hands the boon and the arrow drawn up to the ear, and in the two left hands the Utpala and

the bow.

In the eastern gate is Vjijravetali, who has a protruding belly, distort- ted face, red complexion, the effigy of Aksobhya on her crown, and carries in the two right hands the Tarjani and the goad, and in the two left the Vajraghanta and

the noose.

In the southern gate is Aparajita, who is yellow in colour and has the effigy of Ratnasambhava on her crown ; she carries in her two right hands the staff and the goad, and in the two left the bell and the noose.

In the western gate is Ekajata, who is blue in colour with hair rising upwards over head, and a protruding belly ; she bites her lips with her teeth, bears the image of Amitabha on her crown and carries in her two right hands the Vajra

and the goad, and in the two left the bell and the noose.

In the northern gate is Vajragandhari, golden in complexion, who bears the image of Amoghasiddhi on her crown, has a distorted face and portruding belly, and carries in her two right hands the sword and the goad, and in the two left the

bell and the noose.

All these four goddesses stand in the Alidha attitude"


MAYAjALAKRAMA KURUKULLA


Asana Vajraparyanka Arms Six

ColourRed

Another form of Kurukulla is known as Mayajalakrama Kurukulla since the Sadhana describing it is said to have been restored from


the now lost Mayajala Tantra by the Tantric author Krsnacarya l . This form of Kurukulla is six-armed. In accordance with the Sadhana she sits in the Vajraparyafika attitude, on the sun over the red lotus of eight petals. She is red in

colour and is clad in red garments. She exhibits the Trailokyavijaya mudra in the first pair of hands, shows the Abhaya mudra and the sprout of a white Kunda flower in the second, and the rosary and the Kamandalu in the third. She bears

the images of the five Dhyani Buddhas on the crown, and sits on the back of the serpent Taksaka. She has another form with six arms, which is not expressly called the Mayajala Kurukulla, and is described in another Sadhana. According to

that Sadhana, she exhibits the Trailokyavijaya mudra in the first pair of hands, and carries Ankusa and the red lotus in the second pair, and the full- drawn bow charged with an arrow in the third. Images of Kurukulla are rare.

4. BHRKUTf

Colour Yellow Arms Four

Bhrkuti is another goddess emanating from the Dhyani Buddha, Amitabha of red colour. She is already familiar as a companion of Avalokitesvara as a minor goddess. When she accompanies Khasar- pana she is yellow in colour and four^armed.

She carries in her two left hands the Tridandi and the Kamandalu. One of the two right hands is raised in the attitude of bowing, while the other carries the rosary. Bhrkuti is also worshipped as a principal goddess, and two Sadhanas in

the Sadhanamala are devoted to her worship. She is described in the following words :

"Caturbhujaikamukhirh pltarh trinetrarh navayauvanarh Varada- ksasutradharadaksinakaram tridandikamandaludhaiavamakararh Amita- bhamudritam padmacandrasanastharh Bhagavatlrh dhyatva... Bhrkutisadhanarh.' 1 Sadhanamala, p 341.

"The goddess Bhrkuti should be conceived as four-armed, one- faced and yellow in colour, three-eyed and as blooming with youth. She shows the Varada mudra and the rosary in her two right hands, and carries the Tridandi and the Kamandalu

in the two left. Her crown is stamped with the effigy of Amitabha. She sits on the orb of the moon over a lotus. Thus meditating.,.."

Another Sadhana adds the information that she should be peaceful in appearance and should wear a crown of matted hair. Images of

1. Sadhana No. 181, Sadhanamala p. 372.

EMANATIONS OF AMITABHA 153

Bhrkuti are rare, but they are known in Tibet ] and China 2 . Fig. 123 illustrates one of the Peiping images.

5. MAHASITAVATl.

Colour- Red Arms Four

Asana Ardhaparyanka

All the five goddesses constituting the Pancaraksa group are said to emanate from one or another of the Dhyani Ruddhas. Mahasltavatl is affiliated to her parental Dhyani Buddha Amitabha. The short Sadhana describing her form is as

follows :

"Mahasita (sicsita) vati caturbhujaikamukhi rakta daksinabhujadvaye aksasutiavaradavati vamabhujadvaye vajrankusahrtpradesasthapustaka- van Jlrhbija Amitabhamukutl ardhaparyahkasthita nanalahkaravatl suryasanaprabha ceti 1 '.

Sadhanamala, p. 401 .

"Mahasitavati js four-armed, one-faced, and red in colour. She shows in her two right hands the rosary and the Varada pose, and in her two left hands the Vajra and the Book against the chest. She originates from the syllable 'Jim', bears

the effigy of Amitabha on the crown, sits in the Ardhaparyanka attitude, and is decked in various ornaments. She sits on the orb of the sun ynd glows like the sun".

Images of this goddess are found in Tibet " and China 4 .

1. Getty: GNB, pp, 124-125.

2. Clark: TLP, II, pp. 160 t 171, 288.

3. Getty : GNB, p, 139.

4. Clark : TLP, II. pp, 206 and 275 under the title of SttavatL 20

CHAPTER V

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA I. GODS

The number of deities emanating from the Dhyani Buddha Akso- bhya is quite large, larger than that of the emanations of any other Dhyani Buddha. The blue colour of Aksobhya is associated with the terrible deities in the Sadhanamala and

with the gruesome rites in the Tantras, and the deities emanating from this Dhyani Buddha are generally of blue colour and terrible in character both in deed and in appearance. With the exception of Jambhala, the God of Wealth, all the

male emanations of Aksobhya have a terrible appear- ance with distorted face, bare fangs, three blood-shot eyes, protruding tongue, garland of severed heads and skulls, tiger-skin and ornaments of snake.

Amongst the deities emanating from the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya Heruka stands pre-eminent. Heruka and his yab-yum form Hevajra are the chief gods in this group and they have numerous forms, many with different names. For the sake of

clarity and convenience these forms have been separated for treatment, especially when a characteristic name is supplied by the Sadhanas to such forms. The Four Guardians of Gates treated later under the Chapter : 'Collective Deities'

are of fierce appearance and figure prominently amongst the offsprings of Aksobhya. The deities coming under the Vajra Family of Aksobhya are described below one by one.

1. CANDAROSANA.

Colour Yellow Arms Two

Symbols Sword and Tarjanipasa

Candarosana is also called Mahacandarosana, Candamaharosana and Acala. Four Sadhanas are devoted to his worship and he is always represented in yab-yum. Prabhakarakirti is said to be the author of one of the Sadhanas the major portion of

which is ia verse. Another Dhyana describing the god runs as follows : .

"rI-Candamaharosanam Bhagavantam atasipuspasaftkasamLAcala- paranamanam dvft>htrjaih kekaraksaih damstravikliralamahaghoravada- nam ratnamaulinaih damstraniplditadharam mundamalasiraskam

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 155

araktacaksurdvayam daksine khadgadhararh tarjampasahrdayasthavama- kararh sitasarpayajnopavltarh vyaghracarmanivasanam nanaratnaviraci- tabharanarh bhumilagnavamacaranam isadunnatadaksinacaranam suryyaprabhamalinarh atrnanarh vicintya..

Aksobh^amukutinarh dhyayat." Sadhanamala, p. 172.

"The worshipper should think himself as Sri-Candamaharosana, whose colour is like that of the Atasi flower and whose second name is Acala. He is one-faced, two-armed and is squint-eyed. His face appears terrible with bare fangs. He wears

a jewelled head-dress, bites his lips and wears on his crown a garland of severed heads. His eyes are slightly red, and he carries the sword in his right hand and the noose round the raised index finger against the chest in the left. His

sacred thread consists of a white snake ; he is clad in tiger-skin and he wears jewels. His left leg touches the ground while the right is slightly raised. He is radiant as the sun and.. bears on his crown the effigy of Aksobhya. Thus

the god should be meditated upon".

It should be noticed that the Dhvana is silent about the Sakti in whose embrace the god should remain in yab-yum, but if the Buddhist priests are to be believed and if the testimony of the Nepalese Citrakaras has any value, it must be

assumed that Candaro* sana is always represented in yab-yum and should not be represented singly. Candarosana is the most important figure in the celebrated Candamaharosana Tantra dedicated to his worship. His worship is always performed

in secret and the god is kept secluded from public gaze. Even if there be a bronze image it is practically inacces- sible to any one except the initiated.

Fig. 124 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the deity. As Acala and Acala-Vajrapani he is popular in Tibet ' .

2. HERUKA

Colour Blue Arms Two

Symbols Vajra and Kapala Variety Single

Heruka is one of the most popular deities of the Buddhist pantheon and a regular Tantra, the Heruka Tantra, is devoted to his worship. Heruka is worshipped singly as well as in yab-yum. When he is in yab-yum he is generally known as

Hevajra and in this form he is popular in Tibet, Many of his forms aie described in the Sadhana- mala in its numerous Sadhanas, arid the additional ones are derived from the Nispannayogavall of Abhayakara Gupta.

1. Getty: GNB, pp. 52 and 170. ~

156 -BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY

In the Sadhanamala the worship of Heruka is said to confer Buddhahood on his worshippers, and he is said to destroy all the Maras (mischievous beings) of the world* A Dhyana in verse in the Sadhanamala describes his form in the following

words ; Savastharfa ardhaparyahkam naracarmasuvasasam I Bhasmoddhulitagatranca sphuradvajranca daksinam II Calatpatakakhatvahgam vame raktakarotakam I Satardbamundamalabhih krtaharamanoramam II Isaddamstrakaralasyam raktanetrarii

vilasinam 1 Pihgorddhvakesam Aksobhyamukutam karnakundalam II AsthyabharanavSobham tu siralvpancakapalakam I Buddhatvadayinam dhyayat jaganmaranivaranarh II

Sadhanamala, p. 473.

'The worshipper should conceive himself as the god (Heruka) who stands on a corpse in the Ardhaparyahka attitude. He is well clad in human skin and his body is besmeared with ashes. He wields the Vajra in the right hand and from his left

shoulder hangs the Khatvahga with a flowing banner, like a sacred thread. He carries in his left hand the Kapala full of blood. His necklace is beautified by a chain of half-a- hundred severed heads. His face is slightly distorted with

bare fangs and blood-shot eyes, His brown hair rises upwards and forms into a crown which bears the effigy of Aksobhya. He wears a Kundala and is decked in ornaments of bones. His head is beautified by five skulls. He bestows Buddhahood

and protects the world from the Maras (wicked beings)' 5 .

In another Sadhana for the worship of this particular kind of Heruka the Khatvahga is described as being marked with a Vajra of five thongs and decorated with a banner with jingling bells, human heads and double lotus, the lower part of

the Khatvahga resembling the Vajra with one thong. The Sadhana does not mention the number of heads in the necklace, but says simply that they are strung with guts. His left leg rests on the double lotus (and not on the corpse) while the

right is placed on the left thigh in a dancing attitude.

The image ( Fig. 125 ) discovered by Mr. N. K. Bhattasali and deposited in the Dacca Museum, agrees in all details with the descrip- tion given above. Though the hands are broken it can yet be discerned that the right wielded the Vajra

and the left carried the Kapala against the chest. The attitude in which he stands is called the dancing attitude in Ardhaparyahka. His head-dress in decorated with five skulls and the effigy of Aksobhya. The Khatvahga has an overflowing

banner attached to it, and at the end of the banner small bells can be seen.

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 157

3. HEVAJRA.

In the Hevajra Mandala of the Nispannayogavall, Heruka ij> the principal deity, thus showing that their is only a very thin line of demarcation between the two, Heruka and Hevajra , When Heruka is accompanied with his Prajna, he begets

the name of Hevajra. In the Mandala no less than four distinct forms of Hevajra are described. In all these Hevajra is accompanied with his Sakti whose name differs according to the numbers of his hands.

( i ) Two-Armed

Colour Blue Face One

Arms Two Prajna Nairatma

When two-armed, Heruka gets the name of Trailokyaksepa and his form is described in the following words :

"Trailokyaksepah krsno Ardhaparyanki ..ekamukho Jvibhujo vajrahkitaraktapurnakapalabhrd-vamakarakrodita... Nairatma.. Vajrodd- andasavyabhujah." NSP, p. 14

4 'Trailokyaksepa (Heruka) is blue in colour and dances m the Ardhaparyahka attitude... He is one-faced and two-armed. With the left hand carrying the skull cup, full of blood and marked with a Vajra, he embraces his Prajna Nairatma...

The right holding the Vajra is raised*".

The same form is again described in the Sadhanamala which gives the additional information that the Sakti carries the Kartri in the right hand and the Kapala in the left ] .

(n) Four Armed,

Colour Blue Face One

Arms Four Prajna Vajravarahi

When four-armed, Hevajra shows all the characteristics of the two- armed variety with the difference that here the Prajna is known by the name of VajravSrahi. His description in the Nispannayogavall is short and is worded thus :

"Athava caturbhujo dvibhujavat. Aparabhujabhyam savabha-Vajra- varahisamalingita ityeva visesah". NSP, p. 14

"Or, he may be four-armed and appear similar to the two-armed form. In the two other hands he embraces his Sakti VajravarUhl of his own creation. This is the only difference".

1. Sadhanamala, p. 462*


In the Sadhanamala, one Sadhana is also devoted to the worship of this particular form of Hevajra. Here also Hevajra is four-armed and is embraced by his Sakti who is identical with him in all respects/ Hevajra carries in his four hands

the blue Vajra, the sword, the Khat> vahga and the jewel. The Khatvanga does not however hang from his shoulder but is carried in one of his hands.

(ill) Six-Armed

Colour Blue Face Three

Arms -Six Prajna Vajrasrnkhala

When Hevyjra is six-armed and in yab-yum his main form remains the same, with the difference that here he is three-faced and six-armed, carrying additional symbols. He is described thus :

"Athava Sadbhujah krsnah krsnasitaraktatrimukhah...Vamair-vajra' ghantam dhanuh kapalam ca dadhanah savyair-vajram banam trisulam ca vajravajraghantanvitahastabhyam svabha-Vajrasrhkhalamalihgitah. '

NSP. p. 14.

"Or, he (Hevajra) may be six-armed and blue in colour. The principal, the right and left faces show blue, white and red colour. In the three left hand& he holds the bell marked with a Vajra, the bow and the skull-cup. In the three right

hands he carries the Vajra, the arrow and the trident. He embraces with the two hands carrying the Vajra and the Ghanta the Prajna Vajrasrhkhalaj^f his own creation.

ColourVBlu

Arms Sixten Prajna Nairatma

Legs Hour

The fourth type of Hevajra according to Hevajra Mandala is sixteen- armed and is alike in appearance with the three other forms described before. The difference lies in his having eight faces and four legs ; with his four legs he

tramples upon four Hindu gods instead of standing upon a corpse as in the three others. His form is described rather elaborately in the Mandala in question as under :

"Caturtho Hevajrah sodasabhujo Aksobhyamudrito Nairatmasama pannah. Kintvasya catvaro marah praguktasavasthane. Tatra Skandha- maro rupato Brahma pltah, Klesamaro Visnuh krsno, Mrtyumaro Mahesvarah subhro, Devaputramaro Sakrah gaurah.

Tesu Bhagavan dvabhyam Ardhaparyafikavan aparabhyam Alidhastha iti catuscaranah krsno astasyah. Mukhantu mulam krsnaifa hasat savyam suklam,

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA , 159

vamam raktam, urddhvam vikatadamstram sesam krsnani. Daksina- bhujesu vajram khadgam banam cakram casakam trisulanvankusarh ca ; vamesu ghantam, padmam, dhanur-udyatakhatvahgam, kapalam, tarjanipasam ca." (NSP, pp. 14-15).

"Hevajra of the fourth* class is sixteen-armed and bears on his crown the effigy of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya. He embraces his Sakti Nairatma. Instead of the corpse under his legs as aforesaid, he has four Maras under his four legs. The

first is Skandha Mara in the form of Brahma of yellow colour, the second is Klesa Mara in the form of Visnu of blue colour, the third is Mrtyu Mara in the form of Mahesvara of white colour, and the fourth is Devaputra Mara in the form of

Sakra of white colour. On them the four-legged god stands with two legs arranged in Ardhaparyanka and two others in Alldha. He is blue in colour and has eight faces. The principal face is blue, the right has a smile and is white, the

left is red, the fourth is on the top of his head with distorted teeth. All other faces are blue in colour. In the right hands he carries 1, the Vajra, 2. the sword, 3. the arrow, 4- the discus, 5. the wine-glass, 6, the staff, 7. the

Tusula, and 8. the goad. In the left hands the holds 1. the bell, 2. the lotus, 3. the bow, 4. the raised Khatvahga, 5. the skull-cup, 6. the jewel, 7. the raised index finger and 8. the noose-..",

Hevajra is popular in Tibet ] and China -.

4. BUDDHAKAPALA

Arms Four Colour- Blue

Sakti Citrasena Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyanka

Only one Sadhana gives the description of this god, who is, in all probability, another form of Heruka. The Sadhana says that when Heruka is embraced by Citrasena he gets the name of Buddhakapala, He has one face and four arms, and his

hands hold the Khatvahga, the Kapala, the Kartri and the Damaru ; he is embraced by his Prajna, Citrasena, and remains in yab-yum. He is slightly different from the four-armed variety of Heruka as the following Dhyana in the Sadhana will

show :

"Mahaviro ghorasamharakarakah mlavarno mahavapuh asthyabhara- nam-afdhaparyahkanrtyastham mundamalavibhusitam mukute Akso* bhyadharinam ekavaktram caturbhujam, vame Khatvahgakapalam, daksine kartridamarukam Prajnalihgitam ; vame

Citrasena matta nagna muktakesi sarvabhayarahita devi."

lr -Getty * GNB, 142, 1431 " A Tibetan image is" illustrated in Gorden : ITL, p. 83. 2. TLP, II, p. 236.


Srimato Buddhakapalasya Sadhanam" Sadhanamala, pp. 501-502

"The worshipper should think himself as (Buddhakapala) who is a great hero, the supreme destroyer, of blue complexion and gigantic stature. He has ornaments of bones, stands in Ardhapa- ryahka in a dancing attitude, is decked in garlands

of heads, bears the effigy of Aksobhya on the crown, is one-faced and four- armed. He carries the Khatvanga and the Kapala in the left hands and the Kartri and the Damaru in the right, and is embra- ced in the left by the Prajna,

Citrasena by name, who is intoxi- cated, nude, and fearless, Thus meditating.. "

The same Sadhana later on gives the details of the Mandala, and goes on to say that Buddhakapala is surrounded by twenty - four goddesses arranged in three circles. The first circle has Sumalim (blue) in the east, Kapalim (yellow) in the

noith, Bhima (green) in the west and Duija>a (white) in the south. The next circle has Subhamekhala (east), Rupim (north), Jaya (west) and Kauven (south) , KaminI (north-east), Mahodadhi (north-west) Karim (south-west) and Marini

(south-east). The outermost circle has Bhimadarsana (east) Ajaya (north), Subha (west) OstarakI (south) , Suraksmi (north-east), Vikalaratri (north-west), Mahayasa (south-west) and Sundari (south-east). Besides these, there are the four guardians of gates : Sundara (east) Subhaga (north), Priya- dar&ana (west) and Nairatma (south). Excepting the four deities of the innermost circle, all the goddesses have blue colour two arms, one face, ornaments of bones, brown hair

rising upwards but no garlands of heads. They carry the Kapala in the left and the Kartri in the right, and dance in the Ardhaparyahka attitude*

Fig. 126 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the principal god in the embrace of his Sakti Citrasena but without attendants. Buddhakapala is represented in the Chinese collection at Peiping l . He is also represented singly in a remarkable

statuette in the Baroda Museum. (Fig. 127).

5. SAMBARA

(i) Two-Armed

Colour Blue Asana- Alidha

Vahana Kalaratri Symbols Vajra and Ghanta Prajna Vajravarahi

One Sadhana only in the Sadhanamala describes the procedure for the worship of Sambara who is only another form of Hevajra- He is

1. TLP, II. pp. 103, 237,

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 161

two-armed and one-faced, and bears the effigy of Aksobhya on his crown. He appears terrible with his garment of tiger-skin, the garland of heads, a string of skulls round the head, three eyes and the Alidha attitude, in which he

tramples, upon KalaratrL The Dhyana is in verse and describes the god in the following terms :

"Lalatasthakapalani candrardham murdhni dharayet I Sanmudra-mundamall ca visvavajri trilocanah II Alidhapadavinyaso visvaksaravivartinim I Sabhairavam Kalaratrimarudho vyaghracarmabhrt II Aksobhyasekharah kubjo vajraghantajatanvitah 1

Viro'sau Vajravarahl vajrasrkpurnakapalabhrt II Khatvangamekhala rakta trmetra mundamalim I Pancamudra muktakesl digvastra Buddhasekhara II

Dvibhuja-Sambaropadesah samaptah "

Sadhanamala, p. 504

"The worshipper should think himself as Sambara with a string of skulls over his forehead and the crescent moon on the top. He wears the six auspicious ornaments and a necklace of heads. He shows the Visvavajra [on his head-dressj and is

three-eyed. He stands in the Alidha attitude and originates from a combination of all the letters of the alphabet. He trample** upon Bhairava and Kalaratri and is clad in tiger-skin. He shows the effigy of Aksobhya on his crown and is

blue in colour. He carries the Vajia and the Ghanta ; has matted hair, displays heroism and is embraced by his Sakti Vajravarahi holding the Vajra and the Kapala full of blood. Her girdle is the Khatvahga, her colour is red and she is

three-eyed, bhe wears a garland of severed heads, is endowed with the five auspicious symbols, has dishevelled hair and no garment. She shows the image of Buddha (Vairocana) on her crown."

Sambara has another form with four faces and twelve arnii> and in this form he is mentioned in the Nispann ay OE avail.

(ii) Twelve- Armed

Colour Blue Faces Four

Arms Twelve Sakti Vajravarahl

Sambara is the principal deity in the Sambara Mandala of the HispannayogavalL The Sakti of Sambara is Vajravarahl. Sambara thus


is only another form of the great god Heruka. Here he is four-faced and twelve^armed. The description is quoted below in brief :

    • Bhagavan...BhairavakalaratryavalIdhacaranabhyam akrantah krsnah krsnaharitaraktapitapurvottaradi-caturmukhah...Dvadasabhujah savajra- vajraghantabhujayugmalingita-Vajravarahlko bhujabhyam...saraktaprasr> tagajacarmadharah tadaparaih

damaru-parasu-kartri-trisulani vibhrat, vamairwajrankitakhatvafiga-raktapuritakapalaih vajrapasam Brahmasi- rasca navanatyarasarasih." NSP, P. 26

"God (Sambara) ..stands in the Alidha posture on the prostrate forms of Bhairava and Kalaratri. He is blue in colour and his four faces on the east, south, west and north are blue, green, red and yellow in colour.. He is twelve-armed.

With the two principal hands carrying the Vajra and Vajra-marked bell, he embraces his Sakti Vajravarahi. With the second pair... he carries the elephant skin from which blood trickles down. In the remaining four right hands he holds the

Damaru, the axe, the Kartri and the trident. The four left hands show the Vajra-marked Khatvahga, the skull cup full of blood, the Vajra-marked noose and the the severed head of Brahma... He displays in full the nine dramatic

sentiments".

The parental Dhyani Buddha of Sambara is Aksobhya and that of Vajravarahi is Vairocana according to a statement contained in the aforesaid Mandala J .

Sambara is popular in Tibet 2 and China '.

6. SAPTAKSARA

Faces Three Arms Six

Asana Alidha Prajna Vajravarahi

This variety of Hevajra is called Saptaksara or 'seven-syllabled' because his Mantra consists of seven syllables. Like Dvibhuja-Sambara mentioned above, he is also embraced by Vajravarahi, who in all respects resembles her consort. Like

Sambara this god also tramples upon Kalaratri and holds the Visvavajra on the crown. He has also the crescent on his head, is endowed with the six suspicious symbols, and stands in the Alidha attitude on the orb of the sun* He has three

faces of blue, yellow and green colour and carries the Vajra, the Ghanta and the human skin in the three left hands and the Kapala the Khatvahga and the TrisQla in the three right.

1. MSP, p. 28.

2. Two images oi Sambara are illustrated in A, K. Gordon : ITL, pp. 83, 84. See also Getty : GNB, pp. 145. 150

3. As Sambararaja Buddha he is mentioned in Clark ; TLP, II, pp. 80 and 90.

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 163

The Sadhana further adds that on each of the six spokes of the wheel of the sun on which the god stands there are six deities, namely, (commencing from the right) Herukl, Vajravarahi, Ghoracandi, Yajra- bhaskan, Vajraraudri and

Vajradakinl. They have respectively blue, yellow, red, green, smoky and white colour. All of them ha\e dis- hevelled hair, fierce appearance, three eyes and the quarters as garments. They carry the resounding Damaru and the Ghanta in the

first pair of hands, and the human skin in the other pair. They stand on the orb of the sun placed on a corpse. Their head-dresses are decora- ted with rows of skulls, and they stand in the Alidha attitude.

In another Sadhana devoted to the worship of Saptaksara, a slight variation is noticed. In it, it is said that the god carries, in the first pair of hands, engaged in embracing the Prajna, the Vajra and the Ghanta ; m the second pair,

the human skin only, and in the third pair the Kapala and the Trisula. The Khatvunga hangs from his shoulder as usual. Vajravarahi is identical with the Prajna men* tioned before, with this difference that she should have in her second

pair of hands the bow and the arrow instead of the human skin.

1. MAHAMAYA

Colour Blue FacesFour

Arms Four Prajna Buddhdakinl

Mahamayahvayam devam caturmukham caturbhujarh I Ahke yasya tatha devi catasro diksu caparah M II

"The god called Mahamaya is four-faced and four-armed. He has on his lap a goddess and four others in the four cardinal directions.

Hevajra takes the name of Mahamaya when he is embraced by his Sakti BuddhadakinI and remains with her in yab-yum. This variety of Heruka, as the verse above indicates, has four faces and four arms and is accompanied by four goddesses in

the four cardinal points. Two Sadhanas (Nos. 239, 240) in the Sadhanamala are devoted to the worship of the deity, one of which is attributed to Kukkuripada celebrated as one of the eighty- four Mahasiddhas who flourished in early times.

Below is given a summary of the description of the Mandala of Mahamaya.

Mahamaya is terrible in appearance. His body is besmeared with ashes and his hair streams upwards in the shape of a flame of fire. He is blue in colour and his head-dress is decorated with a row of skulls. His four faces are of blue,

yellow, white and green colour, and he carries in his four hands the Kapala, the arrow, the Khatvahga, and the bow. He is endowed with five auspicious symbols, has a torque round the neck and bracelets on his wrists* He is clad in human

skin,


has three eyes in each head, and flames of fire radiate from his body. He appears beautiful in his sentiment of mixed anger and delight, and stands in the Ardhaparyanka in a dancing attitude. He is embraced by Buddhadakim, who is red,

carries the same weapons and has the same appearance and symbols as those of Mahamaya. Her four faces are red, yellow, white and green.

The four petals in the four cardinal directions of the lotus seat are occupied by the following goddesses, '

(1) VajradakinI in the east, who is blue in colour with four faces of blue, yellow, ,white and green colour, and carries the Khatvahga and the Ghanta in the two left hands and the Vajra and the Kapala in the two right.

(2) RatnadakinI of yellow colour is in the south, with four faces of yellow, blue, red and green colour. She carries the flag and the jackal in her two left hands and the Trisula and the jewel in her two right.

(3) Padmadakim in the west is of reddish white colour, has four faces of red, yellow, blue and green colour, and carries the bow and the Kapala in her two left hands arid* the arrow and the double lotus in the two right.

(4) Visvadakim in the north, of green colour, who has four faces of green, yellow, red and blue colour, and who carries the Pasa and the Kapala in her two left hands and the Khatvanga (or the sword) and the Damaru in the two right.

These four deities exhibit wrath, have their heads decorated with a number of skulls, have garlands of heads still wet with blood, three eyes and portruding teeth. Their brown hair stream upwards in the shape of a flame, and flames of

fire radiate from their {persons.

In the Nispannayogavali, Mahamaya also finds mention and the description given therein is quoted below :

"Mahamayahva-Herukah krsno-'rkaprabho.. nilapkasvetaharita- mulasavyapascimavama-caturmukhah. . .savyabhujabhy am kapalasarau vamabhyam khatvahgadhanusi dadhanah...ardhaparyahkena tandavi."

NSP.p.*22.

4 *The form of Heruka called Mahamaya is blue in colour and resem- bles the dazzling sun.... He is four-faced ; the principal face is blue, the right yellow, the one behind is white and the left green. ...He holds in his two right hands

the skull cup and the arrow, and in the two left the Khatvanga and the bow... He dances the Tandava dance in Ardha* paryahka".

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 165

Mahamaya is known both in Tibet ] and in China '.

8. HAYAGRIVA

Colour Red Faces Three

Arms Eight Asana Lahta

Appearance Terrible.

[One form of Hayagrlva, as an emanation of Amitabha, has already been discussed in the previous chapter, but there is another form of the god that emanates from the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya.J The Dhyana describing him runs as follows :

"Arya-Hayagrivarh raktavarnurh trimukharh astabhuiarh prati- mukharh trinetrarh nilasitadaksmetaravadanarh sarpabharanam lahtak- sepapadanyasarh sakrodhadrstmiriksanam, prathamamukharh smerarh lalajjihvarh, daksinamukharh

darhstravastabdhaustharh, vyaghracarmam- .vasanarh vajra-danda^karanamudra-sarodyatadaksinakaracatustayarh tar* janika-svakucagraha-padma-dhanurudyatavamakaracatustavarh Aksobh- yamaulinarh dhyayat/' Sadhanamala, p. 508.

[The worshipper should conceive himself as Arya-Hayagriva of red colour, with eight arms and three faces, each face with three eyes. His right and left faces are blue and white respectively and he has snakes for ornaments. His legs are

arranged in the Lahta attitude and he looks wrathful. His first face has a smiling appearance, the right has a protruding tongue and he bites his lips in his left. He is clad in tiger-skin and shows in his four right hands the Vajra, the

staff, the Karana pose and the raised arrow. Of the four left hands, one has the raised index finger, the second touches the breast and the two remain- ing ones hold the lotus and the bow. He bears the effigy of Aksobhya on his crown". I

Fig. 128 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the deity. It vanes a little from the description given in the Sadhana, /The hand that ought to be touching his own breast displays a different mudra and the hand that ought to display the

raised index finger only has a noose round it. Nevertheless, the sketch is important as it shows a miniature head of a horse on the head, to show that he is really Hayagrlva "Horse-neck". The rare Karana pose shown in the picture is

noteworthy.

Hayagrlva is popular both in Tibet :i and in China 4 . Fig. 129 illus- trates a Chinese statuette of Hayagrlva.

1. A. K. Gordon : 1TL, p. 83 ; Getty : GNB, p. 144.

2. Clark : TLP,II, pp. 82, 237.

3. A. K. Gordon : ITL, pp. 90, 93. Sec also Getty : GNB, p 163

4. Clark : TJLP, II. pp. 59. 164, 172, 198.


9. RAKTAYAMARI

Colour Red Face One

Arms Two Variety YatvYum

Several Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe the manner in which the deity should be worshipped. In one of the Sadhanas, it \s said that the colour of the deity varies in accordance with the different functions he has to discharge. For

instance, in the Santikavi" dhi (rite of pacification) the deity is white and faces the east ; in Paustika rite he is yellow and faces the north ; in Vasyavidhi (rite of subdviing) he is red and faces the west, and in Akarsana

(attraction) he is blue and faces the south, and so on. Of these varieties the red and blue are the most popular ; in other words, his worship is mostly performed with a view to enchanting men and women and to forcibly subduing them and

bringing them to the worshipper. When Yamantaka^ is red he is called Raktayaman and when he is blue he is called Krsnayaman. Yamari or Yamantaka may either be worshipped alone or in conjunction with his Prajna. He should have the head of

a buffalo on his shoulders and should ride a buffalo. Getty l records a tradition current in Tibet which gives the origin of this fearful god.

There was once a holy man who lived in a cave in deep meditation for fifty years after which he was to enter Nirvana. On the night of the forty-ninth year, eleventh month and twenty-ninth day two robbers entered the cave with a stolen

bull and slaughtered it there. But when they discovered the presence of an ascetic, a witness to their crime, beheaded him and lo ! his body assumed the ferocious form of Yama, and taking up the bull's head he set it up on his headless

shoulder. He then killed the two robbers and drank their blood fiom the cup made out of their skulls. In his fiery and insatiable thirst for victims he threatened to depopulate the whole of Tibet. The Tibetans appealed to their Tutelary deity, Manjusri, who thereupon, assumed the fierce form of Yamantaka and defeated Yama in a fearful struggle

Whatever might be the truth of the tradition, it sufficiently explains the presence of eulogies of Manjusri, in the Sadhanas for Yamantaka. It may be noted, however, that the Sadhanamala is absolutely silent about Yama, both as a

principal deity or as an opponent of Yamantaka. Yama is the god of Death amongst the Hindus. The Buddhists created a killer of Yama in Yamantaka and it must have been an achievement

I. Getty : GNiB, pp. 152-153.

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 167

then. Under the title of Yamantaka he is known in Tibet l . Under the title of Yamantakavajra he is found in China -.

Six Sadhanas are devoted to the worship of this variety of Yaman- taka. He is one*faced and two-armed and is embraced by the Prajna who is his own creation. The Dhyana describing ins form is as follows :

    • Atmanarh Yamantakarh ekamukharh dvibhujarh pratyalidhapadarh raktaparipurnakapalavamakararh sardrapitamundankitasitadandadaksi- nakararh nagabharanavibhusanarh pihgalordhvakesarh vyaghracarmam- baradhararh Aksobhyamukutinam svabha-

Prajnahhgitam mahisopari visvadalakamalasuryastharh dhya> at. Bhagavatmca dvibhujaikamu- khirh, vicitrabharanarh alidhapadasthitarh maduvihvalarh skhalad- vyaghracarmamsukam Bhagavata sSaha samputayogena pratyalidhena- vasthitarh evaih

vicintya..."

Sadhanamala p. 530.

    • The worshipper should tlnnk himself aj> Yamantaka, one-faced and two-armed, who stands in the Pratyiidha attitude, carries the Kapala full of blood in the left hand and the white staff surmounted by a yellow head still wet with blood,

in the right- He is decked in orna- ments of snakes and his brown iiair rises upwards. He weais gar- ments of tiger-skin, bears the image of Aksobhya on the crown, and is embraced by his Svabha Prajna. He stands on the orb of the sun

over the double lotus on the back of a buffalo. He (the worshipper) should also meditate upon the Bhagavati (Prajna) who is one-faced, two-armed, and has variegated ornaments. She stands in the Pratya- lidha attitude, is intoxicated with

wine, wears garments of tiger-skin which slips down her waist and remains in yab-yum with the god, both standing in the Pratyalldha attitude. Thus meditating... ".

10. KRSNAYAMAR1

Colovn Blue Varieties Four

Eight Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe his different forms. He may have one face and two arms, or three faces and four arms, or three or six faces and six arms. One six-armed variety is des- cribed also in the Nispannayogavali.

Krsnayamari is represented singly as well as in yab^yum. His different forms are dealt with one by one in the following sections.

1, Getty : GNB, p. 164.

2. Clark : TLP, II, pp. 52, 73.


(i) T wo*- Armed

Colour Blue Face One

Arms Two Variety Single

Symbol Staff

This twoarmcd form of Krsnayamari is without any companion. The Dhyana in the Sadhanamala describes his form thus :

"Yamarim vicintayet atmanam pratyalldhapadasthitam ekamukham dvibhujaifo nilavarnarh daksinakare vajrankitodyata-niladandam vama- kare tarjampasam hrdi, evambhutam Yamarim. visvadalakamalopari suryasthamahisarudham bhavayet/ Sadhanamala,

p. 547

"The worshipper should conceive himself as (Krsna) Yaman who stands in the Pratyalldha attitude, is one-faced, two-armed and of blue colour. He brandishes the staff marked with a Vajra with the right hand, and shows the raised index

finger with the noose against the chest in the left. In this form Yamari should be meditated upon as standing on the orb of the sun on a double lotus and as riding a buffalo/'

(ii) Four- Armed

Appeatance Terrible Variety Yab-yum

Faces- -Three Arms Four

Companion Prajna.

The form of Yamari with three faces and four arms looks terrible and awe-inspiring. He is represented in yab-yum, and the Dhyana describes his form in verse as follows :

'* ..Yamariratibhisanah 1

Kathoravarhikanthabhah savyasuklarunetarah II Krodhaparyahkayogena visvabjaravisamsthitah I Svabhavidyadharasvadarasayanamahasukhah II Kadarordhvajjvalatkesah pingabhrusmasrulocanah I Phamndravrndanepathyo mrnaladhavaladvijaih II

Mudgarasidharah savye vame rajivaratnadhrk" II

Sadhanamala, p. 544

4 'Yamari is terribly fierce, is of deep (blue) colour like that of the throat of a peacock, and his right and left faces are of white and red colour (respectively). He stands on the orb of the sun on a double lotus in an angry mood. He

enjoys the bliss of partaking the nectar from the lips of the Prajna of his own creation. His hair stands on his head in the shape of a flame of fire, and his beard and the eyes are of brown colour. His ornaments are formed by the host

of the lords of twice-born serpents who are white like stalks of lotuses. He carries in his right hands the Mudgara and the sword, and in his left the lotus and the jewel".

(iii) Six-Armed

Asana Alidha Faces Three or Six

Arms Six Variety Single

The form of Yamari with three faces and six arms, is fierce in appearance as the previous ones, and is single. He is three-faced, and all his faces show a protruding tongue, canine teeth, three eyes, and contorted brows. He has a big

belly, is short and dwarfish m appear- ance and wears a garment of tiger-skin. He carries the Vajra, the sword and the Musala in his three right hands and the goblin (Vetali) the axe and the lasso m his three left According to another

state- ment in the Sadhana, he carries the sword, the Mudgara and the Vajra in the three right hands and the Ghanta, the Vajrapasa and the Musala in the three left. The same Sadhana further says that though he is represented generally as

three-faced and six-armed, he may also have six faces and six legs, with the same weapons. The Dhyana for the worship of this six-faced and six-legged variety of Yamantaka runs as follows :

"Yamantakam kruddham urdhvakesarh krsnarh sanmukharh sad- bhujam satcaranam mahisarudham pratyahdhasthitaih naramundarun- dairvibhusicam atihhayanakakararh vyaj*hracarmamvasanam daksine khadga-mudgara-vajrani, vame ghanta-vajrapasa-

musalan dharayantam mukute Aksobhyam vibhavayct". Sadhanamala, p. 546

heads, and has a very ferocious appearance. He is clad in garments of tiger-skin, carries in the three right hands the Khadga, the Mudgara and the Vajrd, and in the three left the Ghanta, the Vajrapaba and the Musala. He bears the effigy

of Aksobhya on the crown/*

Yaman of blue colour is the principal deity in the Yamari Mandala of the Nispannayogavali. Here his form is three-faced and six*armed like the one previously described. The description may be briefly given thus :

"Krsna-sita-rakta'mula-savya-vamavadanah sadbhujah kartrikapa- lancita-Sdvyetarakarabhyam svabhaprajnasarnalihgitah savyabhyam vajrasi vamabhyam cakrabje vibhranah". NSP, p. 36

23


"Yamari's three faces show the blue, white and red colour in the principal, the right and the left. He is six-armed. In the principal pair of hands carrying the Kartri and the Kapala he embraces the Prajna of his own creation. In the two

remaining right hands he carries the Vajra and the sword, and in the two left he carries the discus and the lotus."

As Yamantakavajra he is known in China l and two statuettes of his are illustrated in Two Lamaistic Pantheons of Clark.

11. JAMBHALA

Faces Three Arms Six

Variety Yab-Yum

Jambhala has undoubtedly a greater antiquity behind him than that of the five Dhyani Buddhas. Jambhala again is a Yaksa and that indicates his non-Buddhist origin. This may be one of reasons why he could not be assigned to any one as

parental Dhyani Buddha. In other words Jambhala is similar to ManjusrI whose sire also could not be definitely determined. In the Sadhanamala the parental Dhyani Buddha of Jambhala is either Ratnasambhava or Aksobhya. Images of Jambhala

are to be met with in the Gandhara, Mathura, Sarnath, Magadha, Bengal and Nepal sculptures. For the purpose of this section, however, the form emanating from Aksobhya is important. Here he is three-faced and six-armed and is represented

in yab-yum. Though the Dhyana does not mention the colour, it can be presumed that his colour is blue which is the colour of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya from whom he takes his origin. Jambhala as the god of wealth commanded great respect

amongst the Buddhists, and received worship in various forms in all Buddhist countries. The Dhyana in the Sadhanamala describes his six-armed form as follows :

"Jambhalarh trimukharh sadbhujarh Aksobhyajatamukutinarh daksi- natribhujaih matulunga-nkusa-banadharam prathamavamabhujaikena vama-parsvasthita-Prajnalingitam aparavamabhujabhyarh sapasanakuli- karmukudhararh atmanarh nispadya../'

Sadhanamala p. 564

'The worshipper should conceive himself as Jambhala, three-faced and six-armed, on whose matted hair there is an image of Aksobhya. He carries in his three right hands the citron, the goad and the arrow. He embraces the Prajna with the

first left hand, carries the mongoose tied round with a lasso and the arrow respectively in the second and the third. Thus meditating...".

1* TLP, Vol. II, pp. 52, 73. For a Tibetan specimen see Gordon : ITL, p. 90

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 179

Jambhala is known in Tibet ] . Two statuettes of the six*armed Jambhala are to be found in the Chinese collection at Peiping -.

12. UCCHUSMA-JAMBHALA

Appearance Terrible VahanaKuvera vomitting jewels

Asana Pratyalidha

Ucchusma also called Dimbha, being a variety of Jambhala, bears also the imag^ of Aksobhya on his crown. He may however, have the image of Ratnasambhava instead, and as an emanation of Ratnasanv bhav a Jambhala will be described later.

Several Sadhanas are devoted to his worship, and the Dhyana describing him with the image of Aksobhya on his crown runs as follows :

"Atmanam Bhagavantam Ucchusmam pancavarsakumarakrtim kharvarh visvapadmastham candropari sarpabharanabhusitarh ratna-* mukutim muncad^ratnamukhapitahgasupta-Dhanadasya lalatam daksi- nena caranena caranadvyarh vamenakrantamurtim

pratvalidhapadam ; nagnarh urdhvalihgarh lambodaram ; hrdi daksinapanistharaktapur- nakapalabhimukhadrstim ; vamajahghasaktavamakarena ratnacchatod' garyyadhomukhanakullm aviddhadhollakarnadvayarh ardhendu (sekha- ram)

damstrakaralavadanam raktavarttulatrinetrarh krtabhrkuti lalatam pihgordhvakesarh Bhusparsamudra'nil'Aksobhyamunimastakarh... M

Sadhanamala, p. 577.

u The worshipper should meditate himself as the god Ucchusma, who appears a child of five years and is dwarfish. He stands on a double lotus on the moon, is decked in ornaments of snakes and has a jewelled headdress. He stands in the

Pratyalidha attitude and presses with his right leg the forehead of the sleeping Dhanada of yellow colour with his mouth vomitting out jewels. His left leg rests on the two legs (of Dhanada). He is nude, and his membrum virile is pointed

upwards. He has a protruding belly, and has his eyes fixed on the Kapala full of blood which he carries in his right hand against the chest. He holds in his left hand the mongoose vomitting out jewels, on his left thigh. His ears are

large and unpierced and he has a crescent on his crown. His face is distorted with bare fangs, and his three eyes are red and round. His brows are distorted, and his brown hair rises upwards. He bears on his crown the image of Aksobhya

of blue colour displaying the earth-touching attitude*'.

1. Getty : GNB, p 159.

2, Clark : TLP, II, p. 310 under the title of Sadbhuja Jambhala, and on p. 203 as Sadbhuja Jambhala vajra.


The Sarnath image (Fig. 130) illustrates this form of Jambhala standing on Dhanada or the Hindu god of wealth. Streaks of jewels may be noticed as coming out of Kuvera's mouth. The peculiar feature of this sculpture is that here Dimbha

is accompanied by his Sakti Vasudhara.

13. VIGHNANTAKA

Asana Pratyalidha Colour Blue

Symbols Tarjanlpasa and Vajra

Vighnantaka is closely associated with three other gods, Padmantaka, Yamantaka, and Prajnantaka, who are generally represented as guardians of the gates in the Mandala. Vigtmantaka is represented in various forms. The name is significant

as the word "Vighna" or "obstacle" refers to the Hindu god Ganesa. Only one short Sadhana in the Sadhanarnala describes his form in the following terms :

"Atmanarh pratyalldhapadasthitarh ekamukharh dvibhujarh nilava- rnarh varnakarena tarjanikapasam, daksinakarenodyatavajrarh bhayana- karh pihgalordhvakesam.

Vighnantakasadhanam. Sadhanarnala, pp. 558-559.

"The worshipger should conceive himself as (Vighnantaka) who stands in the Pratyalidha attitude, is one-faced, two-armed, and blue in colour. He carries in his left hand the Tajampasa, and wields the Vajra in the right. He is terrible in

appearance and his brown hair rises upwards. His seat is on the orb of the sun placed on a lotus".

This Sadhana is silent about the prostrate figure of Ganesa whom he tramples under his feet, thereby giving significance to his name as already indicated. It may be pointed out here that the god Ganesa, whom the Hindus consider to be the

remover of all obstacles, is regarded as the most dangerous obstacle by the Buddhists ! As to the origin of this god there runs a Nepalese legend that at a certain time an Odiyana Pandit was performing a Tantric rite on the bank of the

Baghmati river near Kathmandu in order to obtain Siddhi (perfection).

-Ganesa, it is said, being strongly opposed to the idea, began throwing dangerous obstacles in the way of the due performance of the rite. The Odiyana Pandit finding himself helpless, invoked the god Vighnan- taka, the destroyer of all

obstacles, and lo ! Vighnantaka appeared in a fierce and terrible form, armed with destructive weapons and gave hot chase to Ganesa, who was by this time, flying in terror, and in 'no time overcame the latter.

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 18 1

In the statuette illustrated in Fig. 131 it may be seen how Vighnantaka is trampling heavily on Ganesa and the latter, in order keep up the dignity of his godhead, exhibits the Abhaya pose even in his agony! The form in which Vighnantaka

is said to have appeared before the Odiyana Vajracaryya has six arms. He carries in his two principal hands the Kartn and the Kapala against the chest ; the rest carry the Damru and the goad in the right, and the Trisula and the noose

with the TarjanI in the left,

The original image is in the Baroda Museum collection. Vighnan- taka is known also to the Chinese collection at Peiping l .

14* VAJRAHUNKARA

(i) Two-Armed

Appearance Terrible Symbols Vajra and Ghanta

Mudra Vajrahuhkara Arms Two

Asana Pratyalidha Vahana Siva

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes the form of the god Vajrahuhkara, who is so-called because his two hands carrying the Vajra and the Ghanta exhibit the Vajrahuhkara mudra. The Sadhana says that the god originates from the

sacred syllable 'Hum' which is irresistible like the Fire of Destruction, is blue in colour, and dazzlmgly bright. The Sadhana adds further :

"Tadutpannam maharaudrarh Vajra hunk ara-samjnak am I Attahasarh maharaudrarh ksepayantarh tridhatukarh II Ghantavajraprayogena mudrabaddhakaradvayarh I Pratyalldhapadenaiva Bhairavakrantabhlkararh" II

Sadhanamala, p. 506

The worshipper should conceive himself as the god Vajrahuhkara, who originates from that syllable (Hum) and is terribly fierce in appearance. He laughs horribly, is wrathful, und disturbs the three worlds. His two hands carrying the

Ghanta and the Vajra are locked in the Vajrahunkara mudra. He tramples upon Bhairava, in the Pratyalidha attitude, and inspires awe."

It may be pointed out that though Vajradhara also displays the Vajrahuhkara mudra and carries the Ghanta and the Vajra in exactly the same way as Vajrahuhkara does, there are many differences between their forms* Vajradhara sits in the

Vajraparyahka attitude on a lotus and has a peaceful and graceful appearance, while Vajrahuhkara stands in the Pratyalidha attitude, tramples upon Bhairava, a form of the Hindu god Siva, and has a terrible appearance. No connection can, therefore, be established between the two.

Vajrahunkara images are known to the Chinese collection at Peiping l although they are not generally found in India.

(ii) Six-armed

Colour Blue Faces Three

Arms Six

Vajrahunkara is the principal deity in the Vajrahunkara Mandala of the Nispannayogavali, and is identified with Trailokyavijaya, He is three-faced and six-armed. With his two principal hands arranged in the Trailokyavijaya L> mudra and

holding the Vajra and Ghanta he embraces the Prajna of his own creation. With the two remaining right hands he holds the goad and the noose, and with the two left he shows the skull-cup and the Khatvanga :>>

As Vajrahunkara and Trailokyavijaya he is known m China 4


15. BHUTADAMARA


Colour Black as collyrium Appearance Terrible

Arms Four Mudra Bhutadamara.

Three Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe the form of Bhutd- damara, who is terrible and awe-inspiring, with ornaments of snakes, canine teeth, and garlands of skulls. The Dhyana runs as follows : "Atmanarh pasyet raudram

jvalamalakulaprabham 1 Caturbhujam rrahakrodharh bhinnanjanasamaprabham II Daksine vajramullalya tarjayan vamapamna I Damstrakaralavadanam nagastakavibhusitam II Kapalairfalamukutam trailokyam api nasanam I Attahasam mahanadaih

trailokyadhisthitam prabhum II Pratyalldhasusamsthanam adityakotitejasam I Aparajitapadakrantam mudrabandhena tisthati II

Bhutadamara*sadhanarh." Sadhanamala, p. 521

(% The worshipper should conceive himself as (Bhutadamara) who is wrathful in appearance and whose person radiates fiery flames. He is four*armed, terribly angry, and is bright like a broken lump of

1, Probably the fame as the Vajrahunkara mudra* For a description of this mudra see Gordon : ITL, p. 22


collyrium. He weilds the Vajra in the right hand and shows the Tarjam in a threatening attitude in the left. His face appears terrible with bare fangs and he is decked in ornaments of eight serpents. He has the garland of skulls on the

crown and is capable of destroying the three worlds. He stands firmly in the Pratyalidha attitude and is resplen- dent like myriads of suns. He tramples under his feet, the god Aparajita, and exhibits his special mudra/

From the Dhyana above quoted it will appear that the two principal hands of the god exhibit the Bhutadamara or the Damara mudra l while the other two carry the menacing Vajra in the right and the Tarjam in the left. The description of

this mudra appears in the same Sadhana.

Bhutadamara is the principal deity in the Bhutadamara Mandala of the Nispannayogavali. Hert he tramples upon the prostrate form of Aparajita, and is violent in appearance. He is four-armed. He wieids the Vajra in the right hand raised m

a menacing attitude. In the left he shows the Tarjam and the noose. With the two principal hands, he shows the Damara mudra -.

According to statement in the Nispannayogavali the spiritual father of Bhutadamara is Aksobhya (Atra cakresasya kuleso'ksobhyah, NSP.p. 74).

He is known in China under the name of Bhutadamara Vajrapani J .



16. VAJRAJVALANALARKA


Colour Blue Faces Four

Arms Eight Asana Alidha

Vahana Visnu and his wife.

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes his form. He is four-faced, eight-armed, stands in the Alidha attitude, and tramples upon Visnu, who is accompanied by his wife. He is blue in colour and has a terrible appearance. The Dhyana

describes him in the following terms :

"Vajrajvalanalarkarh mlavarnam jvalamalakulaprabham caturmu- kham astabhujam srfxgara-vira-bibhatsa-karunanvitacaturmukham, ca- turbhir-daksinakarair-vajra-khadga-cakra-banadhararh caturvamakarair- ghanta-capa-pasa-

khatvahgasaktavicitrapatakadharam jvaladanalakapila- sikhakalapamatibhlsanamahahivalaya-kankana-katisutra-nupura-"kanthi^

1. For a description of this mudra see Gordon: ITL, p. 20 and for a picture, ibid, p. 62.

2. For further information on the subject, see Bhattacha^yya, B ; The Cult of Bhutadamara in the Proceedings of Patna Oriental Conference.

ka-kundala-mukutabharanam mahamayacakraracanacaturam sapatmkair Visnum-alidhapadena akramya avasthitam bhavayet."


"The worshipper should conceive himself as Vajrajvalanalarka of blue colour, whose person radiates fiery flames* He is four-faced and eight-armed, and his four-faces display the sentiments of love, heroisnij disgust and compassion. He

carries in his four right hands the Vajra, the sword, the Cakra and the arrow, and in the four left the Ghanta, the bow, the noose and the Khatvanga surmounted by a banner of varie- gated colour*-. His brown hair resembles a burning

flame and he is decked in ornaments of bracelet, armlet, girdle, nupura, torque, ear-ring and crown consisting of the (eight) great lords of the frightful ser- pents. He stands in the Alidha attitude and tramples upon Visnu with his

consort who are clever in enveloping everything with their great Maya (deception).



17. TRAILOKYAVIJAYA



Colour

Blue Faces Four

Arms Eight

Asana Pratyalidha

Vahana Gauri and Siva

Trailokyavijaya is also of blue colour, terrible in appearance, and awe-inspiring. Two images of this divinity have been noted by Prof. Foucher, one from Java and the other preserved m the monastery of the Hindu Mohant at Bodh Gaya. The

Dhyana describes his form in the following words :

Trailokyavijaya-Bhattarakam rnlam caturmukham astabhujam ; prathamamukham krodhasrhgaram, daksmam raudram, vamarii bibhat- sarh, prstharh virarasam ; dvabhyam ghantavajranvitahastabhyam hrdi vajrahunkaramudradhararh ; daksinatrikaraih

khatvahgankusabana- dharam, vamatrikaraih capapasavajradharam ; pratyalidhena vama* padakranta-Mahesvaramastakam daksinapadavastabdha-Gaunstanayuga- lam ; Buddhasragdamamaladivicitrambaiabharanadhannam atmanam vicintya..." Sadhanamala,


"The worshipper should meditate himself as Trailokyavijaya Bhattaraka of blue colour, four- faced and eight-armed. His first face displays the sentiment of wrathful passion, the right rage, the left disgust, and the face behind the

sentiment of heroism. He exhibits the Vajrahuhkara mudra with the two hands bearing the Ghanta and the Vajra against the chest. He carries in his three right hands the Khatvanga, the goad and the arrow, and in the three left the bow, the noose and the Vajra. He stands in the Pratyalldha attitude, tramples upon the head of Mahesvara with his left leg, while the right presses upon the bosom of Gauri. He wears garments of variegated colours, and many ornaments and garlands

assigned to the Buddhas. Thus meditating..."

This god is known in Tibet l and China -.



is. PARAMAVA



Faces Four Arms Eight

Legs Four Vahana Four gods and four

goddesses

It has already been said that Paramasva "Great Horse" is another form of Hayagrlva "Horse-Neck" as the word "asva" in Paramasva indicates. In the Sadhana it is said that he should have four faces, but in reality he has seven faces, for

one of his faces is said to be Brahmamukha, or the face of Brahma, who is credited with four faces. The other peculiar feature of this god is that he has four legs, each trampling upon two deities. The Dhyana contained in the Sadhanamala

is quoted below :

'Taramasvam raktam caturmukham astabhujam catuscarnam ; prathamamukham krodhasrhgararh trilocanam, daksinam raudram, vamam Brahmamukham murdhni lalitoddhulitosthamharitasvamukham ; ekena daksinatripatakadharakatena

visvavajrasahitenottisthabhinayam kurvantarh ; ekena vamakhetakahastena visvapadmam dharayantam ; pu- nardaksinatripatakakarena uttisthabhinayam kurvantam punarvamaka- rena saktim dharayantam ; punardaksinakarabhyam khadgam bananca,

avasistavamakarabhyarh dandam capanca dharayantam. Pratyalldhena daksinapadaikena Indramm Sriyanca akramya sthitam, dvitiyodaksi- nacaranena Ratim Pritinca vamaprathamapadena Indram Madhu- karanca, vamadvitlyapadena Jayakaram Vasantanca,

ityatmanam dhyayat..." Sadhanamala, pp. 510-511. -

"The worshipper should think himself as Paramasva, of red colour four^faced, eight*armed and four-legged. The first face with three eyes displays angry passion, the second depicts wrath, the third is the face of Brahma, and the fourth on

the top is green, distorted like a horse with its lower lip beautifully protruding. He weilds the double Vajra, in one of his right hands with three fingers erect (TripatakaJ and in one of his left hands carries the staff with the double

lotus. Another

1. Gordon J ITL, p. 60 ; See also Getty GNB, p.

2, Clark : TIP, II, pp. 116. 168.

24


right hand, with three fingers erect, is raised upwards, and the other left carries the Sakti (dart). The remaining two right hands carry the Khadga and the arrow, and the remaining left carry the staff and the bow. He stands in the

Pratyalldha attitude, and tramples with one of his right legs upon Indram and Sri, and with the second Rati and Prlti ; with one of the left legs Indra and Madhukara, and with the other left Jayakara and Vasanta".

Fig. 132 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the deity Paramasva. In the picture the horse-head is noteworthy, which also occurs in the case of another god, Hayagnva.

19. YOGAMBARA.

Colour Blue Faces Three Arms Six Variety Yab-Yum

oakti Jnanadakini

God Yogambara is the principal deity of the Yogambara Mandala or the Nispannayogavall. His form is there described in the following words :

"Simhopari visvambhojacandre ardhaparyarikanisanno Bhagavan Yogambarah krsnah krsna-sita-rakta-mulasavyavamamukhatrayah. . . sadbhujo vajravajraghantabhrdbhujabhyam krsnam suklam va Jnana- dakinim pltabhujangabhusanamalihgitah

savyabhyarh stanabanau vamabhyarh abjabhajanadhanusl dadhanah" NSP, p. 32.

"Yogambara sits in Ardhaparyanka on the moon on a double lotus placed on a lion. He is blue in colour and is three* faced. His principal face is blue, the right white and the left red. He is six^armed. In his two principal hands carrying

the Vajra and the Vajra-marked bell he embraces his Prajna Jnanadakini who is either blue or white in colour, and is decked in ornaments of snake. In the remaining two right hands he holds the breast and the arrow, and in the two left he

shows the lotus bowl and the bow "

The blue colour of the deity shows that Yogambara belongs to the family of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya. Yogambara is known in China '. His Chinese statuette is illustrated in Fig. 133.

20. KALACAKRA.

Colour Blue Faces Four

Arms Twenty-four

Kalacakra is the principal deity in the Kalacakra Mandala of the NispannayogavalL The famous Tantra of the Buddhists called the 1. Clark :TLP, II, pp. 239, 81, 103

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA 187

Kalacakra Tantra introduces the cult of Kalacakra into Buddhism. Vimalaprabha is the commentary on the Kalacakra Tantra which is referred to in the Nispannayogavall. It is thus probable that the cult of Kalacakra came into vogue in the

10th century. According to the Kalacakra Tantra, the cult was given the name of Adibuddhayana or Adiyana. From the Vimalaprabha it is evident that by introducing the worship of Kalacakra, the circle of time, an attempt was made to bring

the warring communities of the Hindus and the Buddhists under the same banner, and unite them against the cultural penetration of the Mlechhas from the Western borders of India where the followers of Islam were daily growing strong and

were destroying old and ancient civilizations.

The form of Kalacakra as described in the Nispannayogavall is elaborate and somewhat grotesque. But it is necessary to give an idea of his form as briefly as possible. He is here described thus :

"Uttananahgarudrahrdayayoralidhena nrtyan Bhagavan Kalacakrah krsno.,..vyaghracarmambaradharo dvadasanetrascaturmukhah....trigrlvo bhagavan . satskandho'sau. . .dvadasabahurupabahutah prabhrti catur- vimsatisahasrah. Tatra daksinau dvau

bahu miau dvau raktau dvau suklau tatha vamau evam karascatvarah.-.savya vamasca...

Daksinesu karesu krsnesu vajra^khadga-trisula-kartrikah ; raktes- vagni*bana*vajr'5nkusah ; suklesu cakra^kunta-danda-parasavah.

Vamesu krsnesu ca vajra-ghantaphalake vikasitamukhakhatvahgaih raktapurna-kapalam ca ; raktesu kodandapasau maniratnaih pundarl- kam ca ; suklesu darpana'vajra'Srhkhala'Brahmasirasca.

NSP, pp. 83^84.

"God Kalacakra dances in Alidha attitude on the bodies of Anahga and Rudra lying on the back. He is blue in colour. He wears tiger-skin and has twelve eyes and four faces. He is endowed with three necks and six shoulders. With the

principal twelve hands on each side and the subsidiary hands, the total number of his hands is twenty-four thousand. Two of his right hands are blue, two red and two white. The hands are similar in the left. Thus along with subsidiary

hands, four are blue, four red and four white. They occur both in the right and in the left.

In the four right hands of blue colour are held the Vajra, the sword, the Trisula and th^ Kartri. In the four hands of red colour are fyeld the Fire, the arrow, the Vajra and the Ahkusa. And .in the three white hands are shown the

discus, the knife, the rod, and the axe.


In the four left hands of blue colour are shown the Vajra-marked bell, the plate, the Khatvanga with the gaping mouth, and the Kapala full of blood. In the four hands of red colour can be seen the bow, the noose, the jewel and the lotus.

In the four hands of white colour, there are the mirror, the Vajra, the chain and the severed head of Brahma/'

Kalacakra is known to the Chipese collection and a presentation of his form is given in the Two Lamaistic Pantheons. Images or paintings pf Kalacakra are rarely found in India. He is popular in Tibet i as ,well as in China ~. Fig. 134

illustrates a Nepalese drawing of Kalacakra. The blue colopr of the god suggests that his spritual sire is Aksobhya.

1. Getty : GNB, p. 146. A full description and a fine picture are given in Gordon : ITL, pp . 84, 85.

2, Clark : TLP, II, pp. 49, 233*

CHAPTER VII

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) II. GODDESSES

Compared to the other Dhyani Buddhas the number of goddesses emanating from the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya is large. Some of the goddesses are well known and popular in the Buddhist countries of the north but many Sadhanas are not assigned

to them. It has already been pointed out that the emanations of this Dhyani Buddha are, as a rule, terrible in appearance and awe-inspiring in character. The goddesses emanating from Aksobhya are likewise blue in colour, and partake of

the fierce nature of the male divinities. The genuinely peaceful and benign deities such as Prajnaparamita and Vasudhara are exceptions to the rule. The goddesses emanating from the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya are described below one by one.

/

1. MAHACINATARA ^

Asana Pratyalidha Appearance Terrible

Vahana Corpse Arms Four

Two Sadhanas are devoted to the worship of Mahacinatara or Tara of Mahacina (Great China) and two Dhyanas, one in prose and the other in verse describe one and the same form of the goddess. She is also known in Buddhist Tantric

literature as Ugratara, and the Vajrayogini temple at Sanku in Nepal, contains in the sanctum a figure of Ugratara. This Ugratara or Mahacinatara of the Buddhists has been incorpora^ ted in the Hindu pantheon under the name of Tara, and

is now regard- ed as one of the ten Mahavidya goddesses. The Dhyana in the Sadhanamala describes her form in the following verses :

"Pratyalldhapadarh ghoram mundamalapralambitam I Kharvalambodaram bhimam nilanirajarajitarh II Tryambakaikamukharh divyam ghorattahasabhasuram I Suprahrstam savarudham nagastakavibhusitam II Raktavarttutanetranca vyaghracarmavrtam katau

I Navayauvanasampannam pancamudravibhusitam II Lalajjihvam mahabhimam sadamstrotkatabhisanam I Khadgakartrikaram savye vamotpalakapaladharh II Pihgograikajatam dhyayat maulav-Aksobhyabhusitam II Mahacinatara- Sadhanam", Sadhanamala, p,

210


'The worshipper should conceive himself as (Mahacma-Tara) who stands in the Pratyalldha attitude, and is awe-inspiring with a garland of heads hanging from the neck. She is short and has a protruding belly, and her looks are terrible.

Her complexion is like that of the blue lotus, and she is three-eyed, one-faced, celestial and laughs horribly. She is in an intensely pleasant mood, stands on a corpse, is decked in ornaments of snakes, has red and round eyes, wears the

garments of tiger-skin round her loins, is in youthful bloom, is endowed with the five suspicious symbols, and has a protrudiug tongue. She is most terrible, appears fierce, with bare canine fangs, carries the sword and the Kartri in the

two right hands and the Uptala and the Kapala in the two left. Her Jatamukuta of one coil is brown and fiery and bears the image of Aksobhya within it."

This is the Dhyana in the Sadhanamala, the earliest manuscript of which belongs to A. D. 1165. According to the colophon, the Sadhana for Mahaclnatara has been restored from the Mahacina-Tantra, which should therefore be earlier than the

earliest extant manuscript of the Sadhanamala. As the Sadhana in verse is attributed to Sasvata- vajra it is certain that the Dhyana, just quoted, was not in existence before Sasvatavajra. Now, in the Tararahasya of Brahmananda, who

flourished in the middle of the 16th century and in the Tantrasara of Krsnananda Agamavaglsa an almost identical Dhyana is stated descri- bing a goddess of the name of Tara :

"Pratyalidhapadam ghoram mundamalavibhusitam I Kharvam lambodanm bhimam vyaghracarmavrtam katau II Navayauvanasampannam pancamudravibhusitam I Chaturbhujam lolajihvam mahabhimam varapradam II Khadgakartrisamayukta-savyetarabhujadvayam I

Kapalotpalasamyuktasavyapaniyuganvitarh II Pingograikajatam dhyayenmaulav-Aksobhyabhusitam I Balarkamandalakaralocanatrayabhusitam II Jalaccitamadhyagatam ghoradamstram karalinim I Savesasmeravadanam stryalahkaravibhusitam II

Visvavyapakatoyantah svetapadmoparisthitam I Aksobhyadevlmurdhanyastrimurtirnagarupadhrk" II

Tantrasara, p 415 et sqq.

A comparison of the two Dhyanas will at once reveal how the original composition of Sasvatavajra has been modified in the Tantra- sara by a Hindu Tantric author. Some lines have' been added to the original Dhyana and all grammatical

errors are rectified. f This is evidently the recognized method of Hinduizing a Buddhist Tantric deity.

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 191

It is remarkable that the Hindus retained in their Dhyana the effigy of Aksobhya bespeaking as it does, the Buddhist origin of the goddess, for it is well known that the Hindu gods or goddesses are not in the habit of wearing a miniature

figure of their sires on the crown. More- over, Aksobhya is unknown in the Hindu pantheon except when he is borrowed from the Buddhists, and the Hindus fail to explain the desirability of putting his figure on the crown of Tara.

Figs. 135, 136 illustrate the Buddhist form of Tara or Mahacmatara, and shows in what different forms she is represented in Nepal in modern times. It may be pointed out that the corpse under the feet of the Hindu Tara is not a corpse

properly speaking, but it is the prostrate form of Mahadeva to whom she is attached as a Sakti.

2. jANGULf ,

Jahguli is widely worshipped amongst the Buddhists as a goddess who cures snake-bite and even prevents it. According to a Sahglti in the Sadhanamala she is as old as Buddha himself, and the secret of Jahguli and the mantra for her

worship are said to have been imparted to Ananda by Lord Buddha. Besides, the Sahglti, four Sadhanas des- cribe the procedure of her worship and give elaborate mantras for the extraction of poison from the body of the snake^bitten. These

four Sadhanas describe three entirely different forms of Jahguli, two with one face and four arms and one with three faces and six arms. Images of Jahguli are found in Tibet l and China -.

(i)

Colour White Symbol Snake, or Vina

Mudra Abhaya

In two Sadhanas Jahguli is described as having one face and four arms. In both cases she is alike in all respects except for the weapons she carries in her hands. In one of the Dhyanas she is described as follows :

"Atmanarh Arya*JahguIiruparh sarvasuklarh caturbhujarh ekamuk^ ham jatamukutinim suklam suklavasanottariyam sitaratnalahkara- bhusitarh suklasarpairvibhusitarh sattvaparyahke upavistarh mulabhuja- bhyarh vmarh vadayantlrh

dvitiyavamabhujena sirasarpadharimrh apara* daksinenabhayapradam candrarhsumalimrh dhyayat..."

Sadhanamala, p. 253*

1, Getty: GNB, p. 123

Z. Clark ; TLP, II, pp. 204, 217, 28 1


'The worshipper should meditate himself as Arya Janguli who is all white in complexion, four-armed, one-faced, wears the Jatamukuta and a white scarf. She is decked in white ornaments of gems and white serpents and rests on an animal.

She plays on the Vina with the two principal hands, carries the white snake in the second left and exhibits the Abhaya mudra with the second right, and is radiant like the moon."

In a second Sadhana she is said to exhibit the Varada mudra in the second right hand. Fig. 137 illustrates a Nepalese drawing of the two- armed form of Janguli.

(ii)

Colour Green Mudra Abhaya

Symbols Trisula, Peacock's feathers and Snake.

The second variety resembles the first in many respects, but the Sadhana ] does not mention the animal-seat or the particular Asana in which Janguli should stand or sit. The symbols also are different namely, the Trisula, peacock's

feathers and the snake. The mudra, however, is the same Abhaya mudra.

(iii)

Faces Three Arms Six

Vahana Snake Colour Yellow

The third variety of Jahguii has three faces and six arms. Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala, one in prose, and the other in verse, describe this form. The Dhyana contained in one of these runs as follows :

"Arya-Jahgulirh atmanam jhatiti nispadayet pltam, trimukham sadbhujarh nllasitadaksinetaravadanam kbadgavajrabanadaksinahasta- trayam satarjanipasavisapuspakarmukavamakaratrayam sphltapha- namandalasirahstham

sarvadivyavastrabharanabhusitam kurrari- laksanojjvalam Aksobhyakrantamastakam dhyatva..."

Sadhanamala, p. 248

"The worshipper should quickly conceive himself as Arya-JahgulI, who is yellow in colour, three-faced, and six-armed; Her faces to the right and left are blue and white. She carries the swordj the Vajra and the arrow in the three right

hands, and the Tarjani with the noose, the blue lotus and the bow in the three left hands; She rStfe : on the expanded hood of the serpant, is decked in celestial ornaments and dress, is resplendent with the auspicious marks of a virgin,

and bears the image of Aksobhya on head. Thus meditating,.."

1. Sadhana No. 121, Sadhanamala p. 251.

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 193

The Hindu goddess Manasa or Visahari has a marked resemblance to the appearance of Janguli and some of the Dhyanas in the Hindu Tantric works for the goddess distinctly give her the epithet of "Jahgull".

3. EKAJATA.

Colour Blue Appearance Terrible

Attitude Pratyalldha

Ekajata is one of the most powerful goddesses in the Vajrayana pantheon. It is said in the Sadhanamala that if a person listens to her mantra but once, he is at once freed from all obstacles and is attended always with good fortune, his

enemies are destroyed and he becomes religiously inclined, even attaining the level of a Buddha. Four Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala dovoted to the worship of Ekajata, describe three different forms of the goddess. She may have one face

with two, four or eight arms.

The main features of the goddess aie given in one of the Sadhanas, the Colophon of which asserts that the Sadhana has been restored from Tibet ( Bhota ) by Arya Na^arjuna, who was famous in the mediaeval ages as one of the eighty-four

Siddhapu* rusas of India. The general description of the goddess given in the Sadhana is as follows :

"Krsnavarna matah sarvah vyaghra-carmavrtah katau I Ekavaktrah trinetrasca pihgordhvakesamurdhajSh II Kharva lambodara raudrah pratyalidhapadasthitah I Sarosakaralavaktra mundamalapralambitah II Kunapastha mahabhima Maulav-

Aksobhyabhusitah I Navayauvanasampannah ghoiattahasabhasvarah II Visvapadmopari suryye cintamyah prayatnatah" II

Sadhanamala p. 266.

"All these (three) forms (of Ekajata) are of blue colour, have the tiger'skin round their loins, are one-faced and three*eyed, and have brown hair rising upwards on their head. They are short, pot- bellied, wrathful and stand in the

Pratyalldha attitude, they have faces distorted with anger ; with garlands of heads hanging from their necks, they rest on corpses, are terrible in appearance and bear the image of Aksobhya on the crown. They have youthful bloom and

laugh horribly and they should be conceived on the orb of the sun over the double lotus."

25

194

BUDDHIST ICONOGRAPHY

This general description oaly applies to the following three forms of Ekajata with one face and two, four or eight arms : 4 (i) When two-armed, she carries the Kartri and the Karota (skull-cup) in her two hands (Fig. 138).

(ii) When four-armed, Ekajata carries the arrow and the sword in the two right hands and the bow and the skull in the two left. In two other Sadhanas describing the four-armed variety, her appearance undergoes a slight modification. Here

she holds in the first pair of hands the Kapala and the Kartri, while the other pair shows the Utpala and the sword. She may hold also the rosary instead of the sword (Fig. 139).

(iii) When eight-armed, she carries the sword, the arrow, the Vajra and the Kartri in the four right hands and the bow, the Utpala, the Parasu and the skull in the four left hands.

Images of Ekajata are found in almost all Buddhist countries of the North. She is known in Tibet l as well as in China L> .

"^ 4* VIDYUJJVALAKARALL Faces Twelve Arms Twenty-four

Colour Blue Asana -Pratyalldha

Vahana Indra, Brahma, Visnu and Siva

SYMBOLS :

Left

1. Bow 7. Wine-glass

2. Noose 8. Utpala

3. Tar jam 9. Bell

4. Banner 10. Parasu

Right

1. Khadga 7. Dart

2. Vajra

3. Cakra

4. Jewel

5. Ankusa

6. Arrow

8. Mudgara

9. Musala

10. Kartri

11. Damaru

12. Rosary

Another variety of Ekajata is

10.

5. Mace 11. Brahmasiras

6. Trisula 12. Kapala

known as Vidyujjvalakarali,

who is said to have originated from the sweat of Buddha. This form of Ekajata, with twelve faces and twenty-four arms, is rarely met with in sculptures either in stone or in bronze. The Dhyana is rather long and it describes the goddess

vividly thus :

"Dvadasamukham mahakrsnavarnam caturvimsatibhujam caturmar- asamakrantm svetakapalopari pratyalldhapadam mahapralayagnisa- maprabham vivrtasyam hahakaram lalajjihvam sarosam vikrtakoti* bhimabhrkutltatodbhrunetracaladvartulam bhayasyapi

bhayahkarlm

1. Gordon: ITL, p. 76, Getty: GNB, pp. 125-126

2. Clark: TLP, II. p. 284

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 195

kapalamSla sirasi bhusitam vyadairalafikrtam sanmudropetam pratha- mamukharh mahakrsnam tatha daksinamukhapancakam sitapitaharita- raktadhumravarnanca, vamamukhapancakam raktasitapitaharitasitarak- tanca, urdhvamukham dhumram vikrtam

kruddham, sarvamukhani damstrakaralavadanani, trinetrani, jvalitordhvapihgalakesani , sarosam kharvalambodarirh pmonnatapayodharam vyaghracarmanivasanam dak- sinadvadasabhujesu khadga-vajra-cakra-ratnacchat-ahkusa-sara-sakti'inu- dgara-

musala-kartri'damaru'aksamalikafica, vamadvadasabhujesu dha-

asirah-kapalanca.

Suprahrstam savarudham nagastakavi bhusitam I Navayauvanasampannarh hahattahasa-bhasuram II Pihgograikajatam dhyayat maulav-Aksobhya' bhusitam II

Iti Vidyujjvalakaralinamaikajatasadhanam "

Sadhanamala, p. 257

"The worshipper should conceive himself as (Vidyujjvalakarali) who has twelve faces, deep blue colour and twenty-four arms, she tramples upon the, four Maras (Brahma, Visnu, oiva and Indra), stands on white skulls in the Pratyalldha

attitude, is terrible like the Fire of Destruction, has a wide open mouth from which comes the sounds of 'ha' *ha'. She has protruding tongue, is wrath- ful, has eyes round and moving, and her forehead is distorted owing to the frequent

contortions of the brows. She is more awe- inspiring than Awe itself, and her head is decorated with a garland of skulls ; she is decked in ornaments of snake, and is endowed with the six auspicious symbols ; her first face is of deep

blue colour and the five faces to the right are white, yellow, green, red and smoky in colour ; the five faces to the left are of red, white, yellow, green and whitish red colour. The face on the top is of the colour of smoke, distorted

and displays anger. AH her faces look terrible with bare fangs and three eyes ; her brown hair rise upwards in the shape of a flame ; she is short and has a protruding belly. Her breasts are full and heaving ; she is clad in tiger-skin,

and carries in her twelve right hands, 1. the sword, 2. the thunderbolt, 3. the discus, 4- 'the jewel, 5. the elephant*goad, 6. the arrow, 7. the dart, 8. the hammer, 9. the pestle, 10. the saw, 11. the drum and 12. the rosary ; and in

her twelve left hands she has 1. the bow, 2. the noose, 3. the raised index finger, 4. the flag, 5. the mace, 6. the trident, 7. the wine-glass, 8. the blue lotus, 9. the bell, 10..the axe, 11. the severed hea*d of BrahrtiS, 12. and the

skull. In an extremely happy


irtood she rides a corpse, is youthful, appears resplendent with terrible laugh, wears a Jatamukuta, which is brown and fiery and which bears the image of Aksobhya on it."

Here ends the Sadhaha for Vidyujjvalakarali, anocher form of Ekajata."

( 5. PARNASABARI.

Colour Yellow Fa ces T hree

Arms Six Vahana Vighnas

Asana Pratyalldha

The worship of Parnasabari, it is believed, is effective in pre- venting out-breaks of epidemics and in assuring safety to the terror- striken, The epithet Tisac? given in the mantra shows that she was regarded as one of the demi-gods,

half human, half divine. Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe two forms of the goddess, one with the image of Aksobhya on the crown and the other ^ith that of Amoghasiddhi. In one, her faces are lit with pleasant Smiles, and in

another she smiles but has an irritated expression ill the same. Curiously enough, the two images that have been discovered in Eastern Bengal, both have the effigies of Amoghasiddhi on the crown. The Dhyana describing Parnasabari of

yellow colour with the image of Aksobhya on her crown, runs as follows :

"Bhagavatim pltavarnam trimukharh trinetram sadbhujarfa prathama- mukham pitam, daksinam sitam vamam raktam, lalitahasinim sarva lankaradharam parnapicchikavasanam, navayauvanoddhataih plnarh... daksinabhujaih vajraparasusaradharimrh

vamabhujaih satarjanikapasa- parnapicchikadhanurdharimm puspavabaddhajatamukutastha-Akso- bhyadharimm suryyaprabhamandalinlm adho vighnan nipatya sita* padmacandrasane pratyalldhastham, hrdvamamustitarjanyadho vigh- naganan santarjya

daksinavajramustipraharabhinayam ..bhavayet.

Parnasabarl-Sadhanam" Sadhanamala, pp. 306-307.

    • The worshipper should conceive himself as (Parnasabari) of yellow complexion, with three faces, three eyes and six arms. Her first face is blue, the right white and the left red, and she smiles in a pleasing manner. She is decked in

all sorts of ornaments, bears a gar- ment of leaves, is arrogant in her youthful blopm, is stout in appear- ance and carries in her right hands the Vajr?, the Parasu and the arrow, and in her left the Tarjam with the noose, the cluster -

of leaves and the bow. Her Jatamukuta is decorated with flowers and the image of Aksobhya ; she has the effulgence of the sun as her aureole, stands in

EMANATIONS OF AKSOBHYA (CONTINUED) 197

the Pratyalldha attitude on the moon over the white lotus, trampling under her feet the Vighnas. She threatens the host of (otherj Vighnas with the clenched fist of the left hand exhibiting the TarjanI against the chest, and shakes her

right fist at (the host of the Vighnas) .."

The mutilated image (Fig. 140) in the Indian Museum, with three faces and six arms trampling upon Ganesa, probably represents this form of Parnasabarl, as the word 'Vighna' in the Sadhanamala often refers to Ganesa. The above-mentioned

Sadhana, further states that Parnasabarl may have an alternative form with four arms and the image of Aksobhya on the crown, in which case she will carry the Vajra and the Parasu in the two right hands, and the TarjanI with the noose,

and the cluster of leaves in the two left, omitting the bow and the arrow.

Images of Parnasabari are also found in Tibet ! and in China ~.

PRAJNAPARAMITA

Prajnaparamita is the embodiment of the Mahayana Scripture of the same name which was, according to the Buddhist tradition, restored from the nether regions by Nagarjuna in the second century A. D. Buddha is said to have entrusted this

Book of Transcedental Knowledge to the care of the Nagas in the nether regions, as in his time people were not sufficiently intelligent to grasp the true meaning of the doc- trines it contained. The worship of Prajnaparamita was very

popular among the Buddhists, and Arya Asahga is credited to have composed one of the Sadhanas for her worship which is said to confer wisdom and erudition on her devotees Nine Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe the procedure of her

worship, and of these only two are assign- ed to the kula of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya. She too, like Manjusri, could not be assigned to any one of the Dhyani Buddhas because the Prajnaparamita scripture was chronologically earlier than

the Dhyani Buddhas. The two Sadhanas describe the white and the yellow forms of" the goddess. Images 8 of Prajnaparamita are found in Tibet 4 and China s

SITAPRAJNAPARAMITA

Colour White Asana Vajraparyahka

Symbols Lotus and Book

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes the form of white Prajnaparamita with the image of Aksobhya on the crown. She is two* armed, one-faced, sits in the Vajraparyanka attitude on a white lotus, and carries the red lotus in the right hand and the Prajnaparamita Book in the left. She is decked in all sorts of ornaments, has a beautiful face and pleasant

expression, unlike other emanations of Aksobhya.

The Dhyana runs as follows : "Dvibhujam ekavadanam sitavarnam manoramam I Ardhacarcarakesanca svetambhoruhasarhsthitam II Padmam daksinahaste tu raktavarnam vibhavayet I Prajnaparamitam vame vajraparyahkasamsthitam II Sarvalahkarasampurnam bhavayennabhimandale I

Ankarajnanasambhutam paramanandakarinim II . Aksobhyamudrita ceyarh

Sukla*Prajnaparamita-Sadhanam'\

The worshipper should meditate on the navel the form of Sitapra-jnaparamita, as two-armed, one-faced, white in colour, and beautiful in appearance, with half curly hair, as sitting on the white lotus, carry- ing in her right hand the

red lotus, and the Prajnaparamita Book in her left. She sits in the Vajraparyahka attitude, and is decked in all sorts of ornaments. She originates from the knowledge of the letter *Am' and releases immense delight... This goddess is

stamped with the image of Aksobhya (on the crown)."

(ii) PlTAPRAJNAPARAMITA Colour Yellow Mudra Vyakhyana

Distinctive Mark Book on lotus to the left.

The yellow variety of Prajnaparamita with the effigy of Aksobhya is identical in form with the one described above, except with regard to the colour and the rnudra. She is yellow in complexion, bears the image of Aksobhya on her

Jatamukuta, wears celestial ornaments, and her two hands display the Vyakhyana attitude* On a lotus to her left rests the scripture Prajnaparamita 1 .

The celebrated image of Prajnaparamita (Fig. 141) of Java belongs to this variety, and tallies in all details with the description given in the Dhyana.

KANAKAPRAJNAPARAMiTA

Colour Golden

Mudra Dharmacakra

Asana Vajraparyanka

Symbol Book on lotus on two sides.

This form of Prajnaparamita is identical in all respects with one of the forms described previously. The difference lies in the fact that although she exhibits the Dharmacakra mudra with her two hands, there are two books on two lotuses

rising from under her two arm-pits. She is golden in colour l . The Java figure of Prajnaparamita illustra- ted previously has only one lotus bearing the book in her left, but the Indian Museum image (Fig. 142) with two lotuses on either

side, each bearing a manuscript, may definitely be identified with this variety of Prajnaparamita.

7. VAJRACARCIKA

Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyahka Arms Six

Colour Red Distinctive feature Emaciated body

Vahana Corpse Appearance Terrible

Only one Sadhana in the Sadhanamala describes the form of Vajracarcika and the Dhyana contained therein runs as follows :

"Vajracarcikam trinetrarh ekamukhim ardhaparyahkatandavam mrtakasanastharh, krsangim damstrotkatabhairavarh narasiroma- lavibhusitakanthadesam asthyabharanavibhusitam pancamudradharimm Aksobhyamukutinirh vyaghracarmanivasanam muktakesim

sadbhujam daksine vajrakhadgacakradharinlm vame kapalamanikamaladharam raktavarham karmanurupatah sukladivarnayuktanca dhyatva"

Sadhaiiamala, p. 395.

4 The worshipper should conceive himself as Vajracarcika, who is three^eyed and one^faced, dances in the Ardhaparyahka attitude on a corpse, is emaciated in appearance and looks terrible with bare fangs. Her neck is embellished by a

garland of human heads, and she is decked in ornaments of bones, is endowed with the five auspicious symbols, bears the image of Aksobhya on the crown, is clad in garments of tiger<skin and has dishevelled hair. She is six-armed and

carries in her three right hands the Vajra, the sword, and the Cakra and in her three left the Kapala, the jewel and the lotus. She is red in colour but changes to white and other colours in accordance with the different purposes for

which she is invoked. Thus meditating..."

r Sadhana No, 154, Sadhaaamala, pp. 313-314

The accompanying sketch, (Fig. 143) gives a vivid idea of her terrible form, with the skeleton of her fleshless body showing through the skin in all its nakedness, and her vulture-like claws enhancing the fierceness of her appearance.

A statuette of this goddess is found in China } .

MAHAM ANTRANUSARINL

Colour Blue

Arms Four

Mudra Varada

The remarks made in the case of Mahasltavati, an emanation of Amitabha and one of the Pancaraksa goddesses, apply to the case of Mahamantranusarim also. This goddess is another of the Pancaraksa goddesses, and as her colour is blue, she

affiliates herself to the family of the Dhyani Buddha Aksobhya Only one short Sadhana des- cribes her form, and theDhyana contained therein is as follows :

"Mahamantranusarim caturbhujaikamukhi krsna daksinabhujadvaye vajravaradavati vamabhujadvaye parasupasavau Humkarabija Aksobhya- kintim suryyasanaprabha ceti"

Sadhanamala, p. 401.

1 'Mahamantranusarim is four-armed and one- faced, is blue in complexion, shows in her two right hands, the Vajra and the Varada mudra and in her two left the Parasu and the noose. She originates from the syllable "Hurh'\ bears the image

of Aksobhya on the crown, sits on and glows like the sun."

Images of this deity are known in Tibet * J and China *'.

MAHAPRATYANGIRA

Colour Blue

Arms Six

One short Sadhana only is assigned in the Sadhanamala to Maha-pratyafigira. The Dhyana describing her form is as follows :

  • 'Mahapratyahgira krsna sadbhujaikamukha khadgankusavarada- daksinahasta raktapadmatrisula-hrdayasthasapasatarjamyuktavamahasta Humblja Aksobhyamukuta sarvalahkaravati rupayauvanasampanna".

"Mahapratyahgira is blue in colour, six-armed, and one-faced. She shows in her three right hands the sword, the goad, and the Varada mudra, and in her three left hands she holds the Tarjam with the noose against the chest, the red lotus

and the trident ; she originates from the syllable "Hum", bears the image of Aksobhya on her crown, is decked in all sorts of ornaments, and is young and beautiful.

Figs. 144 and 145 illustrate two Nepalese drawings of the goddess Mahapratyangira. They conform to the description given in the Sadhana. The ivory image from Nepal (Fig 146) with innumerable heads is also worshipped as Mahapratyangira.

This goddess is found also in China ! .

DHVAJAGRAKEYURA

Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe two widely different forms of Dhvajagrakeyura. In one the effigy of Aksobhya on the crown is expressly mentioned, but in the other, the Dhyani Buddha is absent. The weapons are also different, and

in one case she is three-faced and in the other four-faced. In all other respects, however, the forms are identical.

Images of Dhvajagrakeyura are found in China -.

(i) Three-Faced.

Colour Blue Faces Three

Arms Four Appearance Terrible

Asana Pratyalidha

The Dhyana describing Dhvajagrakeyura, with three faces and four arms and with the effigy of Aksobhya, runs as follows :

"Dhvajagrakeyura krsna trimukhl caturbhuja raktasyamadaksina^ vamamukhi khadgapasadharidaksinakaradva^ a vajrankitakhatvahgaca* kravamahastadvaya urdhvapifigalakesi suskapancamundalahkrtasiraska vyaghrajinavasana damstrakaralamukhl

pralambodari pratyalidhapada suryasanaprabha pltavastrakancukim Humbija Aksobhyamukuta."

"Dhvajagrakeyura is blue in colour, three-faced, and four-armed, with the right and left faces of red and green colour (respec- tively). She carries the sword and the noose in the two right hands, and the Khatvahga stamped with a Vajra and the Cakra in the two left, has brown hair rising upwards on her head which is embellished by a row of five shrivelled heads. She wears garments of tiger-skin, and has faces distorted with bare fangs. She has a protruding belly, stands in the Pratyalidha attitude,

has her seat on and glows like the sun, wears yellow garments and jacket, originates from the syllable 'HunY and bears the image of Aksobhya on the crown".

(ii) Four Faced

Faces Four Arms Four

Colour Yellow

As already pointed out, Dhvajagrakeyura has another form, with four faces and four arms carrying the sword and the Cakra in the two right hands, and the Tarjanipasa and the Musala, marked with a Vajra, in the two left.

A Trisula hangs from her left shoulder. Her first face is yellow, left red, right white, and the face above is distorted and is of the colour of smoke. In all other respects her form is identical with the one described above.

VASUDHARA

Mudra Varada

Symbol Ears of Corn

Colour Yellow

Vasudhara figures in the pantheon of the Mahayana Buddhists as the consort of Jambhala, the Buddhist god of wealth. Only three Sadha- nas are devoted to her worship and in one of these only is she said to bear the image of Aksobhya. The

two others assign her to the Dhyani Buddha Ratnasambhava. It may be noticed, by the way, that Vasudhara is of a greater antiquity than the Dhyani Buddhas themselves. The Dhyana describing the goddess with the figure of Aksobhya on the crown runs as follows :

"Vasudharam Bhagavatim dhyayat, kanakavarnam sakalalankarava* tim dvirastavarsakrtim daksinakarena varadam, vamakarena dhanyama- njaridharam Aksobhyadharinim. Purato Bhagavatim Srivasundharam daksinato Vasusriyam pascimatah

Srivasumukhim, vamato Vasumati- sriyam ; etascadyaksarabijah svanayikasamanarupascintaniyah.

"The worshipper should conceive himself as the goddess Vasudhara of golden complexion and decked in all sorts of ornaments. She ap- pears a young girl of twice eight years, exhibits the Varada mudra in the right hand, carries the ears of corn in the left, and bears the_ imag< jof Aks^tmjon the crown) ." In front ofThe goH3ess should be con ceived SrlvasunBhara, in the right Vasusri, in the west Srivasumukhi, anc in the left Vasumatisn.

These four goddesses originate from the firs syllables of their names, and are identical in form with the principa goddess' '.

Images of Vasudhara are found in the Buddhist countries of th< North including Tibet l .

NAIRATMA

Asana Dancing in Ardhaparyahka

Colour Blue

Appearance Terrible

Vahana Corpse lying on its back.

Symbols Kartri and Kapala.

Two Sadhanas in the Sadhanamala describe her form, which is in many respects, similar to the form of Vajravarahi with the Kartri and the Kapala, the principal point of difference being the position of the corpse which forms their Vahana,

When it lies on its chest it is Vajra- varahl, but if it lies on its back the goddess is Nairatma. There are other distinguishing features also For instance, Vajravarahl being an emanation of Vairocana, should bear the image of Vairocana

on the crown ; while Nairatma, being an emanation of Aksobhya, should bear the image ot Aksobhya instead. Moreover, the excrescence near the the right eai of Vajravarahl must be absent in the case of Nairatma. In all other respects there

is a remarkable resemblance between the two. The Dhyana in one of the two Sadhanas describe the form of Nairatma in the following terms : p

"Savahrccandrasthardhaparyahkanatyasthitam Nairatmam krsnam ekamukham urdhvapiiigalakesam Aksobhyamukutmim damstrakaralay lalajjihvam, daksinena kartridharimm, vame kapalakhatvahgadharimm, raktavartulatrinetram pancamudravibhusanarii

The worshipper should conceive himself as Nairatma who stands in the Ardhaparyahka in a dancing attitude on the moon over the chest of a corpse. She is blue in colour, has brown hair rising upwards, and bears the image of Aksobhya on

her crown. Her face looks terrible with bare fangs and protruding tongue, and she carries the Kartri in the right hand and bears the Kapala and the Khatvahga in the left. Her tbi&e eyes are red and round, and she is endowed with the five auspicious symbols."

The word 'Nairatma' means 'no-soul* and is another name for Sunya, in which the Bodhisattva merges on the attainment of Nirvana. Gra- dually, the conception of Sunya took the form of a goddess in whose embrace the Bodhisattva is said to remain in eternal bliss and happi- ness, Nairatma gets the blue colour, because the colour of Sunya according to the Buddhist tradition, is like the colour of the sky, which is blue.

The Indian Museum image No. 3941 (Fig. 148) is the only image of this goddess which conforms to the description given in the Sadhana just quoted. Here the goddess, in accordance with the Dhyana, has a terrible appearance with canine teeth, garland of heads and three eyes rolling in anger. She stands on the corpse lying on its back, and dances in the Ardhaparyahka attitude* Burning flames radiate from her person, and her hair rise upwards in the shape of a flame. She is decked in the five auspicious symbols, the Kanthika (torque), Rucaka (bracelets), Ratna (jewels), Mekhala (girdle), and Bhasma (ashes) or the Sutra (sacred thread) in the form of a garland of heads. She bears the image of her sire

Aksobhya on her crown and carries the menacing Kartri in the right hand. The left hand holding the Kapala is broken. The Khatvafiga, as usual, hangs from her left shoulder.

The Vangiya Sahitya Parishat bronze (Fig. 149) shows the above characteristics, but the Khatvafiga is lost. It is lost in the same way as small weapons in Nepalese and Tibetan bronzes are often found missing. Nairatma is popular in China

JNANADAKINL

Colour Blue

Faces Three

Arms Six

Kulesa Aksobhya

Jnanadakini is the principal deity of the Jnanadakim Mandala of the Nispannayogavali. She is described thus :

"Jnanadakim nilasya...savyam suklarh...vamam raktasrhgaraih... daksinabhujatraye urdhvikrtakhatvangam parasurh vajranca vamatraye ghantaraktapurnakapalakhadgah." NSP, p. 12

"Jnanadakini has a blue face.. .the right is white... the left is red and amorous... In the three right hands she carries the raised Khatvanga, the axe and the Vajra. In the three left there are the bell, the cup full of blood and the sword/'

VAJRAVIDARANi

Vajravidarani is described in the Dharmakosasangraha of Amiv tananda as follows :

"Vajravidarani pancamukhi dasabhuja ; dakse ankusa-khadga-sara- vajra-varada ; vame pasa-carma-dhanU'dhvaja'abhaya pratyalidhasana".

Dharmakosasahgraha Fol. 44A.

"Vajravidarani is five^faced, ten-armed, carries in the right hands the goad, the sword, the arrow, the Vajra, and the Varada mudra, and in the left the noose, the shield, the bow, the flag and the Abhaya pose. She stands in the Pratyalldha attitude".

According to the Sadhanamala all the deities that emanate from the the Dhyani Buddha Vairocana have generally the white colour or the colour assigned to Vairocana. Several goddesses have the images *of Vairocana on their crowns, thus

showing that they are all emanations of this particular Dhyani Buddha. Some of the deities are expressly stated in the Sadhanas to be "Vairocanakulodbhava" or "born of the family of Vairocana" The deities emanating from this Dhyani

Buddha are said to reside in the interior of the Caitya, since Vairocana, it may be remembered, is the lord of the sanctum of the temple or the Stupa. Among the deities emanating fiom Vairocana Marici seems to the first in importance and

popularity. She is even regarded as the consort of Vairocana. Vairocana is distinguished from the other Dhyani Buddhas by his white complexion and the Dharmacakra mudra he dis plays in his two hands.

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