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The Vajrabhairava tantras

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Editor Dr. Tadeusz Skorupski The Institute of Buddhist Studies P.O. Box 443, Tring Herts, HP23 6PX Tel: (01442) 890882 Fax: (0171) 436 3844

The School of Oriental and African Studies University of London, Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square London, WC1H OXG Tel: (0171) 323 6248 Editorial Board Professor Т. Н. Barrett, University of London Professor Emeritus C. R. Bawden,

University of London Professor S. Collins,

University of Chicago Professor Dr. R. E. Emmerick,

University of Hamburg Professor R. Gombrich,

University of Oxford Dr. F. Hardy, University of London Professor P. Kvaerne, University of Oslo Dr. J. K. Locke, Kathmandu, Nepal Professor Emeritus K. R. Norman,

University of Cambridge Professor D. Seyfort Ruegg,

University of London Professor Emeritus D. L. Snellgrove,

University of London Dr. P. Williams,

University of Bristol Dr. A. Yuyama, Tokyo, Japan Published by

The Institute of Buddhist Studies, Tring, U.K. Correspondence concerning editorial matters and contributions should be addressed to the Editor.

Request for subscriptions and sale of individual issues should be sent to the Publisher.


The Vajrabhairava tantras Tibetan and Mongolian Versions, English Translation and Annotations by Bulcsu S iklos Published by


Contents Bulcsu Siklds, 1996 All rights reserved.


I. Vajramahabhairava Tantra

II. Ritual Procedure Tantra of Vajrabhairava
III. The Myth
IV. The Three Chapter Tantra
V. The Musk Shrew Rites


I. Rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po 7 rgyttd
II. Rdo rje jigs byed kyi rtogpa 7 rgyud
Ш. Gtam rgyud kyi rtogpa
IV. Rdo rje jigs byed kyi rgyud rtogpa gsumpa
V. Chu cchu nda ra
7 rtogpa PART THREE:


I. Yeke vcir ayuyulicyci-yin tantr-a

П. Vcir ayuyuluyci-yin onul-un tantr-a

HI- Domuy-un onul

IV. Vcir ayuyuluyci-yin tantr-a yurban onul-tu

Bibliography Glossary of Selected Terms Index IX xi xiii xv 3 21 27 51 65 67 75 79 115 137 139 153 159 187 209 211 225 267 273

Preface I would like to express my gratitude to Dr Tadeusz Skorupski and Professor Charles Bawden to whom this work is dedicated.

This work is a direct result of the generosity of the British Academy for whose willingness to support research in unconventional areas I am most grateful. A visit to Mongolia in 1987 to check the Rgyal rtse them spangs ma and Urga Kanjur versions was made possible by the British Council.

I also wish to thank the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, for making all necessary academic facilities available. Finally I wish to acknowledge the debt I owe to the late Tsenshap Serkhong Rinpoche whose teachings started the chain of events which led to this book. B.S.

List of Illustrations Vajrabhairava Frontispiece (Reproduced—with kind permission—from N. Tsultem, Development of the Mongolian National Style Painting, "Mongol Zurag" in Brief, Ulan Bator, 1986.) Mandala of Vajrabhairava At the end of the book (Reproduced—with kind permission—from R. Vira & Lokesh Chandra, A New Tibeto-Mongol Pantheon, Satapitaka Series vol. 21, Part 14, New Delhi, 1977.)


A Independent revised xylograph of the Thrte Chapter Tantra (Text IV). BL British Library. BLM Buddhist Literature of the Manchus, Wahavens 1981. BSBL Descriptive Bibliography of the Sanskrit luddhist Literature IV. Tsukamoto et al. 1989. С Mongolian Kanjur ms in RLC. CBL Chester Beatty Library; catalogue: Snellgnve & Bawden 1969. D Derge Kanjur; catalogue: Ui etal. 1934. 1OL India Office Library, London.

LSOAS Library of the School of Oriental and Afrcan Studies, University of London. M Mongolian. Ma. Manchu. MH Materials for the History of Tibetan Litenture I-III. Lokesh Chandra 1963. ^ MLBT Multilingual Buddhist Texts, Chandra (ed) 1980. MSR Musk Shrew Rites (text V). N Narthang Kanjur; catalogue: [Otani Daigiku] 1930-32. NC Naritasan catalogue; Yoshimizu (ed.) 198*. P

Peking Kanjur (catalogue of T edition: Sizuki 1962 (also [Otani Daigaku] 1930- 32); of M edition: Ligeti 1942); and Tenjir (catalogue of T edition: Suzuki 1962; of M edition Rinchen 1964 (incomplete)). PLB Die Pekinger lamaistischen Blockdrucke ;Heissig 1954 R StogPalace Kanjur; catalogue: Skorupsk 1985. RLC Royal Library, Copenhagen; catalogue:

Ffeissig & Bawden 1971. RPT Ritual Procedure Tantra (text II). S Rgyal rise them spangs ma Kanjur, catalogue: Bethlenfalvy 1982. SB T: Gsung 'bum; M: Sumbum ("Collected Works") SD Tohoku University catalogue (Sendai); Kmakura et al. 1953. SE SubudErike; Sagaster 1967. SED Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Monier-Wiliams 1899. SHC Sven Hedin Collection; catalogue: Eimer n.d.]. SPMT Sankrtyayana 1937-8.

SSP Sa skyapa'i bka' 'bum, reprinted Tokyo 1968. SSTU [[[Sanskrit]] Seminar of Taisho University] 1955. T Tibetan. ТВ Toyo Bunko, Tokyo; catalogue: Poppe, Hurvitz & Okada 1964. TCT Three Chapter Tantra (textlV).

TD Tibetan-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terminology, Rigzin 1986. THB Tibetische Handschriften und Blockdrucke (1-4: Taube 1966; 7: Wilhelm «$, Panglung 1979). TSD Tibetan-Sanskrit Dictionary, Chandra 1976 (2nd.ed).

U Urga Kanjw; catalogue: Bethlenfalvy 1980. VMT Vajramahabhairava-tantra (Text I). * has been reserved for words or phrases reconstructed from T which are absent from standard Sanskrit lexicographical sources; and for unattested readings in T andM. < > enclose passages in the translations which appear as verse in the T versions. refers to entries in the bibliography. [ ] also indicate spurious or reconstructed titles, words added in translation and anonymous authorship. Note on Transcriptions Sanskrit and Tibetan are transcribed as usual (note T gy- and ny- versus g.y- and n.y).

Mongolian is transcribed with graphically indistinguishable pairings resolved. The Mongolian Kanjur translations show evidence of great care in transcribing Sanskrit words and these transcriptions here take precedence over the more usual M forms (hence tantr-a is preferred to dandir-a (C) or dandr-a; though other transcriptions have also been used in the bibliography for ease of reference to catalogues).

Mongolised forms are retained throughout in commoner cases.

Hyphens link elements of single words as defined by the reach of vowel harmony. In Tibetan verse translations of Sanskrit verse, paired verses of seven syllables each are usually transcribed in a single line separated by jj. In the absence of the Sanskrit originals, and to maintain correspondence with the Mongolian translations, individual seven-syllable half-slokas are given one line each. xiv


I Introduction to the Vajrabhairava Tantras special features of the Vajrabhairava Tantras The wrathful buffalo-headed Buddhist tantric deity Vajrabhairava 'Vajra Terror' is one of a number of deities known as Yamantaka, the 'Ender of Yama\

This latter name refers to the primary mythic role of these deities which is the subjugation and conversion of the originally non-Buddhist deity Yama, familiar in his Hindu role of ruler of the Underworld.

Several treatises concerning Vajrabhairava have been preserved in Buddhist canonical collections and it is these that form the basis for later Vajrabhairava practice in Central and East Asia.

The canonical texts translated in this work provide instruction in the invocation and yoga of Vajrabhairava in two main forms, the Vajramahabhairava of the VMT and the six-headed six-armed Vajrabhairava of the RPT, thereby enabling successful performance of the rituals described.

These rituals aim at the attainment of superhuman powers, primarily those of killing, subduing, driving away, controlling and the like.

These rituals operate through the performance of yoga (T rnal Ъуог or sbyor ba, the union of the devotee and the deity), therefore the rituals are performed by Vajrabhairava himself.

As Vajrabhairava is dominant over Yama, some of the rituals are described as working through the devotee's ability to control Yama.

The tantras preserved in the Tibetan Kanjur are divided into four categories according to the New (Gsar ma) Tradition of Tibeto-Mongolian scholarship1 which is based on the canonical collections established by Bu ston rin chen grub (1290-1364; —>) in the 14th century.

These four categories are:

i. action tantra (kriya-tantra; T bya rgyud);

ii. performance tantra (carya-tantra; T spyod rgyud);

iii. yoga-tantra (T rnal Ъуог rgyud); and iv.

highest yoga-tantra (anuttara-yoga-tantra; T rnal Ъуог bla med rgyud).

or accounts of the Dge lugs pa classifications and interpretations of the anuttara-yoga-tantra see Mullin 1988:

283-306; the account of Jaya Pandita bio bzang 'phrin las (Thob yj&\ summarised and analysed by Wayman 1973: 233-36); L. Chandra's introduction to Dawasamdup kazi (1987: 7-8) and Mkhas grub rje's discussion (Lessing & Wayman 1968: 250-69).

The last two categories involve the self-generation (atmotpada; T bdag bskyed) of the practitioner as a deity {i.e. yoga), and of these two categories it is the anuttara-yoga-tantra to which the Vajrabhairava tantras belong.

The anuttara-yoga-tantra can be further classified into father {pitr; Tpha) and mother (matr; 7 ma) types2 determined by the degree of emphasis placed on illusory body {mayakaya; T sgyu lus) or clear light (prabhasvara; T 'odgsal) practices respectively.3

The main anuttara-yoga-tantras of the mother class are those of Heruka-Cakrasamvara,4 while the father types are subdivided into tantras using i. desire; ii. hatred; and iii. ignorance.

5 The primary male anuttara-yoga-tantra cycle using desire is that of Guhyasamaja (Secret Assembly), while the main cycle using ignorance is that of the deity Vajrarali.

The tantras of Vajrabhairava and of the other forms of Yamantaka (Krsnayamari and Raktayamari) are the main tantras using hatred as the path.

Though the tantras of Vajrabhairava cover most of the topics of anuttara-yoga-tantra, the Tibetan devotee Lhun grub pandita bio bzang lhun grub (15th c; )

lists five special doctrines (T khyad chos) particular to the Vajrabhairava cycle:6

i. the inauspicious circumstances of our degenerate age will not adversely affect one who adheres to the deity Vajrabhairava as tutelary (istadevata;

T yi dam); ii. Vajrabhairava has intestines and a hearth as attributes which indicate that the doctrines of illusory body and clear light as expounded in the Guhyasamaja -tantra are included in his practice;

iii. Vajrabhairava has a skull-staff (khatvanga; T kha twam ga) as an attribute which indicates that bliss and emptiness as explained in the (female) Samvara-tantra are included in his practice; iv.

it is not just that the hearth symbolizes clear light as above, it is also a sign that the wisdom of Vajrabhairava himself is greater than any other; and v. those who adhere to Manjushri necessarily attain enlightenment since he is the progenitor of the Buddhas, and since those who hold to Vajrabhairava as tutelary have the bodily manifestation of Manjushri at the outset and the conclusion [of the practice of Vajrabhairava), they will therefore be sustained by Manjushri as well (5r-v). 2

The revelation of the Vajrabhairava Tantras

The extant tantras of Vajrabhairava are said in the VMT colophon to be fragments of a complete tantra in a hundred thousand chapters which exists among the dakini (T mkha' gro ma).

The dakini, beings who can pass between the various realms of the universe, have guarded the tantras of Vajrabhairava since its origination as enlightened speech.

Several sources including the colophon of the VMT and the history of Jonang Taranatha give the worldly place of origin of all the Yamantaka tantras including those of Vajrabhairava as U rgyan, a Tibetan toponym equivalent to the Sanskrit Oddiyana, normally identified with the Swat district of Pakistan.

7 There may be a specific reason for the appearance in Oddiyana of a tantric cycle based on a Saiva-Buddhist domination of the deity Yama.

In an Iranian-dominated region in the pre-Islamic age one may reasonably expect a religious role for Yama.

Apart from the ubiquity of myths suggesting a common Indo-lranian, if not Indo-European, origin for Yama, a modern relic of his worship has been preserved amongst the Kafirs of the deep valleys of the East Hindukush.

To this day they retain — albeit tenuously — independent oral mythologies and religious practices possibly stemming from common Indo-lranian roots.8 In these mythologies a leading role is played by the Kafir equivalents of the Indian deity Yama.

Opposition by and to Yama and his worshippers could have provided motivation for the tantric Buddhists of Oddiyana to promote and cultivate deities of the Yamantaka type (including Vajrabhairava), deities which relied on domination of Yama — and Yama alone 9 — for their effectiveness.

The association of the deity known as Terrifier (bhairava; T 'jigs byed) to the Yamantaka group was no random event since Bhairava is Siva.

In dominating a locally powerful Yama, new meaning had been given to the older mythical incorporation of the Hindu Yama into the Siva

2. The translations 'father' and 'mother' tantras are preferred by most authors (TSD 261), though 'male' and 'female' have also been used (Mullin 1988).

The terminology may well be linked to the Indian usage of pitr to mean '(deified) ancestor';

pitr-tantra can then be defined as a text belonging to the ancestral path (pitryana) to which the deities Siva (= Bhairava) and Yama/Yamantaka amongst others are linked.

Such teachings would be defined in opposition to those of the divine path (devayana ) type which involve liberation from existence.

This may conceal an earlier duality contrasting pitr-tantra to matr-tantra, tantras of the 'mothers' (ancestral goddesses).

The cycle of the deity Kalacakra (Tenzin Gyatso 1985; Sopa, Jackson & Newman 1985; Dhargyey 1985; Mullin 1991) is classified separately as neutral (though not by Tsong kha pa for whom Kalacakra is a mother tantra; Wayman 1973: 234n);

Jaya Pandita also classifies the Manjusri-nama-samgiti (trs. Wayman 1985) in this neutral category (apparently because this treatise has commentaries from both anuttara-yoga and yoga-tantra viewpoints; Wayman 1973: 234). 3.

These are the second and fourth of the sixyogas of Naropa (Evanz-Wentz 1958: 155ff.).

4. Jaya Pandita's complete listing with a correlation of these categories with the tantra section of the Kanjur can be found in Wayman 1973: 233-36.

5. This subdivision (taken from the thirteenth Dalai Lama; Mullin 1988: 295) does not accord with Jaya Pandita's sixfold classification, though the principles differ.

6. These features are said to have been originally revealed to Tsong kha pa by the bodhisattva Manjushri (the listing in Sharpa Tulku & Guard 1991: vii is in part different).

7. Confirmation of this identification for Oddiyana may be sought in the floral and faunal elements of the VMT which broadly accord with such a North-West Indian interpretation (asses and camels occur, for example) despite Lokesh Chandra's suggestion of a South Indian location for Oddiyana (1978: 73-78).

A concordance of fauna and flora from the VMT with identifications and ranges can be found in Siklos 1994. 8.

In his study of these religions Jettmar (1978) assumes that the Yama worship of the Kafirs is borrowed from India as a response to the Buddhicising of their realm.

I consider this improbable (1996) given the ancient Iranian element present in the region.

The Kafirs of the Hindukush would have been more likely to maintain worship of their own pre-Buddhist deities including the unconverted Yama in the face of any Buddhist hostility.

9. Other Indian deities appear seldom in the Vajrabhairava tantras.

A conceit used at several points demeans Indra through comparison with the (human) victim of hostile rites. Vajramahabhairava is described as 'devouring Indra, Brahma, Mahesvara, Visnu, etc' (VMT IV: 141r).

Also, in contrast to the iconography of certain other tantras Vajrabhairava tramples the local Swat fauna under his feet (VMT IV: 141v), though later more elaborate grimoires (sadhana; T sgruh thabs) and paintings do show Hindu deities under the creatures under Vajrabhairava's feet.

group of deities,10 a tested model which could be relied on in the new environment of the Hindukush valleys.

The presence of the wider Siva-Bhairava element requires brief consideration of the post-Parthian religious environment in the territories of the Tokharian Kusana Dynasty (c. 10- c. 233) which founded an Empire of unprecedented cultural and artistic level drawing on Iranian, Greek and Indo-Buddhist elements.

The second emperor Kadphises II is reported also to have supported Saiva Tantrism in his domains which extended over much of West India and numismatic evidence in the form of coins with trident and bull motifs can be adduced in support of this view (Sastri 1956: 70).

Under his illustrious successor Kaniska Buddhism of a proto-Mahayana type was widely promoted and in the general climate of tolerance Saiva elements flourished outside the mainstream Buddhist communities.

It would be natural for any Tantrism involving 6aiva deities to be expressed in Buddhist terms within the Kusana empire, and equally natural to find religio-mythological opposition to Iranian deities such as the unconverted Yama.

The Sassanid invasions resulted in the subjugation of the Indian Kusana empire to Persia, but though the political climate was hostile to Buddhism, Saiva Buddhism could have continued relatively unmolested in the fastnesses of the Hindukush.

Indeed the Bactrian Kusana empire which retained a tenuous hold over the North Hindukush until the mid-fifth century ensured the continuation of some aspects of Graxo-Tokharian Buddhism with implied — albeit perhaps limited — acceptance of the Saiva-Dyonisiac component especially if this was anti-Iranian.

The Hephthalite (huna; "White Hun"; i.e. Avar or Chionite) invasions which destroyed the Bactrian Kusana Empire were the culmination of long enmities stretching back to the eviction of the Tokharians from their East Turkestan homelands (c. 160 ВС) by the Wu sun tribes belonging to a wider Hun coalition.

From 456 to 557 Oddiyana and North-West India including the Hindukush was under Hephthalite rule.

Their destruction of 10. Concerning the Hindu Yama, Bhattacharji observes: 'Yama on his own is a minor god with limited jurisdiction confined to the after-life and consequently he cannot directly control the land of the living.

Whereas by being associated with the Siva-complex he becomes an organic part of a much bigger whole, for, although Yama is frequently called Kala, it is only as he imbibes the attributes of the Siva-complex more and more that he becomes the true representative of Time, for Siva is Mahakala. And behind this we have the tremendously powerful philosophical concepts of Karman, rebirth and metempsychosis' (1970: 53).

This incorporation in turn has echoes of Siva's subjection of Rudra, replayed in the mythology of Buddhist tantric deities of the Heruka type. 11.

The Buddhist element had been present in the area in the pre-Kusana period. After Asoka's unification of most of India (r 268- c. 232 ВС)

Buddhism extended to the furthest reaches of his domain including the Hindukush borderlands (Hsuan-tsang recorded Asoka-style pillars in Oddiyana in the seventh century).

Succeeding Bactrian Greek rule over North- West India was not unfavourable to Buddhism.

The Milindapunha (r/.v. Norman 1983: 110-12), a debate between Menander(r. с 161-150 ВС) and the monk Nagasena, is the best-known Buddhist work of this period.

The Iranian albeit Hellenised Saka maintained tolerance towards all religions in their realms providing active encouragement to Buddhists in their attempts to restore religious monuments (Emmerick 1983: 953).

Though succeeding Parthian rule reasserted Iranian influence and severed links between relict Greek kingdoms in the Hindukush and Hellenistic territories further west, general religious tolerance was maintained.

The Kusana period can be understood as a reassertion of the Hellenic element in available Indo-Buddhist terms. the Buddhist monastic centres of North-West India including Oddiyana (Ashraf Khan 1993: 10) can be seen as subordinate to a wider general campaign against many manifestations of Kusana and Sassanid rule.

Hephthalite rule ended с 558 when the Eastern Turks overran Zavulistan but the preeminence of the latter in the Hindukush and Tarim Basin was soon challenged by the Tibetans under Srong btsan sgam po ( r. 620-649) and by 630 the main Eastern Turk groups were subject to T'ang China.12 Xhe Turk sahi Dynasty retained nominal rule over much of the Hindukush until the consolidation of Islam by Alp Tigin in 962 and the subsequent establishment of Ghaznavid rule (977-1191; Esin 1980: synoptic table).

Before their final destruction by Islam smaller Saiva-Buddhist communities had had the option of withdrawal into the surrounding mountain fastnesses thereby ensuring the survival of their traditions. The emergence of tantric kingdoms on the ruins of earlier Mahayana ones would be likely on this basis (q.v. p. 8) especially in the less violent period from 700-980.

Saiva influence from Kashmir could also have made itself felt from this time onwards. Indrabhuti I (c. 750- 800) seems to have been the first of the Oddiyana rulers to adopt Tantric Buddhism, the only religion able to fulfil his request: 'give me some method to gain enlightenment while I enjoy the five sensual pleasures together with my gathering of women' (Templeman 1983: 24 from Taranatha's Bka' babs bdun Idan ).

Indrabhtiti's origins and motivations remain obscure, however. Taranatha states: 'he was by nature Vajrapani, the lord of secrets. One is unable to think about the antiquity or origins of such things' (Templeman op. cit.).

The initial appearance of the main Vajrabhairava treatises in all probability dates to this occult period of Oddiyana's history.

Yamantaka is present in several tantras which predate the Vajrabhairava treatises.

In the Guhyasamaja-tantra. dated by Wayman to the fourth century, Yamantaka makes two appearances (as one of the eleven wrathful {krodha) deities and at the eastern gate of the mandala; 1977: 99, 123-24).

In the Mahdvairocana-sutra datable to the mid-sixth century (Wayman 1992: 10) only Yama is specifically mentioned;

Yamantaka does appear in the vidhyddhara section of the associated garbhadhatu mandala along with Acala and Trailokyavijaya on the basis of the Mahdvairocana-sutra reference to additional 'innumerable ш/ra-holders' being present (Snodgrass 1988: 269).

Vajrabhairava and the two Yamaris are absent from the garbhadhatu and vajradhdtu mandalas.

The Manjusri-mula-kalpa which shows links to the Avatamsaka-sutra is of uncertain date; the fifty-third chapter is an early Pala production datable to с 750 (Nakamura 1980: 319) but the rest is earlier.

The Manjusri-mula-kalpa says, in a description of the bodhisattva: '[[[Manjusri]]) is quite splendid, entirely surrounded by a ring of flames, seated in the lotus posture, as he glances at Yamantaka, the Lord of Wrath, while facing the main entrance of the mandala with a graceful expression.

On his right side below the lotus one should raw Yamantaka, the Lord of Wrath, terrible in appearance, entirely surrounded by a ng of flames, with his gaze fully directed toward the great bodhisattva, on whose command he attends' (41 I. 20- 42 1. 3 of the edited text, trs. Snellgrove 1987: 194;

An account of the destroyed temples and monasteries of Oddiyana can be read in the ravelogue of the Chinese pilgrim Hsuan tsang whose journey the temporary T'ang subjection of the Eastern Turks had made possible (Beal 1884).

also Macdonald 1962: 105ff.)- A fragmentary mention of Vajrabhairava can be found at the beginning of the seventh chapter of the Manjusri-nama-samgiti (this may be an interpolation since Wayman recognises 'there is an acute problem of where the chapter begins'; 1985: 83).

This mention serves to confirm the Vajrabhairava-Yamantaka association as well as the association of both with Manjushri.

The link of VajrahQmkara and Trailokyavijaya with Vajrabhairava is also confirmed by this text (op. cit. 32); this presumably is the specific canonical basis for the incorporation of the triad (albeit with Yamantaka for Vajrabhairava) into the garbhadhatu.

The dating of the Manjusri-nama-samgiti is however uncertain.

Further references in pre-tenth century tantras to Vajrabhairava include the early eighth century Sarvadurgati-parisodhana-tantra wherein Vajrabhairava is listed under this name as one of the 54 deities of the Durgatiparisodhana-mandala (Skorupski 1983: 87-91);

there is also a mandala of the nine bhairavas headed by Mahabhairava (without the vq/ra-prefix) with Vajrapani appearing as Trailokyavijaya in the centre of the mandala {op. cit. 59-61).13

Vajrabhairava's appearance in such Buddhist texts predates, and provides the motivation for, the revelation of his own tantras.

The Tibetan historian Taranatha (b. 1575) recorded the biography of Lalitavajra, the revealer to a wider Indian tantric audience of the Vajrabhairava and Yamari tantras.]

A Lalitavajra, a tenth century scholar from the monastery of Nalanda in Bihar whose tutelary deity was Manjusri, noticed references to Vajrabhairava in unspecified texts, perhaps one of the Manjusri treatises.

His guru was unable to provide further elucidation and advised propitiation of Manjusri; accordingly Lalitavajra performed the appropriate practice for twenty years before receiving a vision of the deity who told him to visit the land of Oddiyana and retrieve the tantras of Yamantaka.

Taranatha continues: 'Lalitavajra went to Uddiyana = Oddiyana and competed in magic power with a number of heretical yoginis there.

Their gaze rendered him unconscious. Returning to consciousness he prayed to Vajrayogini. He received a vision of Vajravetala Vajra-ghoul who conferred on him the consecration (abhiseka) of the Yamari-mandala.

He then meditated on the completion stage (sampanna-krama) of the four yogas for two and a half months and attained the great siddhis {mahasiddhi). As a mark of this he subdued a wild and violent buffalo, attracted it towards 13.

The extensive treatment of Yamantaka and Manjusri in the Krodhuvijayakalpaguhya-tantra probably predates the Vajrabhairava texts but the absence of a proper colophon (Skorupski 1985: 273) and full analysis makes its position uncertain. Other tantras hint at earlier links through the Oddiyana tantric dynasty.

Thus Indrabhuti's sister Laksmlnkara authored several works on Chinnamunda Vajrayogini {i.e. Chinnamasta, identified with Vajravarahi);

Yamantaka is invoked at the beginning of some of the main treatises in which the dread female element is emphasised to an extent comparable to the overwhelming maleness of the Vajrabhairava treatises (Benard 1994: 74).

The Vajrabhairava of the VMT and RPT are 'solitary heroes' (ekavira; T dpa' ho gcig pa), but when other Yamantaka forms are provided with 'consorts' they come from this female group. 14. The brief account here is from Taranatha's general history of Indian Buddhism (Chattopadhyaya 1970).

Taranatha also authored a more detailed history of the Yamantaka cycle (unpublished English translation by G. Sparham) on the basis of which this account will doubtless require revision. himself and rode on it ... he then wanted to take from the Dharma- treasury of Uddiyana the Yamari and other tantras for the welfare of all future living beings.

The dakinis said "you can take as much as you can commit to memory in seven days".

He prayed to his chosen deity and committed to memory the Tantra of Black Yamari who is the Body, Speech and Mind of All Tathagatas, the Three Chapter [= TCT], the Seven Chapter [= VMT] and many other fragmentary dharanis and longer treatises.

He extensively propagated these in Jambudvipa [= India)' (translation based on Chattopadhyaya 1980: 242-АЪ).

It is interesting that Lalitavajra receives a direct transmission from Vajravetala and the dakinis with no human guru as intermediary while the texts are shown already to be present.

The implication may be that these were retrieved from an environment in which human lineages involving Yamantaka were absent. Indeed, Lalitavajra meets only hostile heretical yoginis and the Buddhist community is noticeable by its absence in the above account.

What role, if any, can be assigned to the Oddiyana tantric ruler Indrabhuti II (the 'middle Indrabhuti' of Taranatha's Bka 'babs bdun Idan) is open to question (Chattopadhyaya 1970: 241n).

He is regarded as a contemporary of Lalitavajra and is one of the gurus of Tilopa through whom the RPT was transmitted. However, Tilopa's accepted dates (988-1069) imply that any visit by him or Lalitavajra to Oddiyana would have post-dated the Turk capture of Peshawar and the subsequent establishment of Ghaznavid Muslim rule throughout North-West India.

On this basis Indrabhuti II {so accepted by Snellgrove (1959: 11-14) to explain chronological irregularities in the transmission of the Hevajra-tantra) could not be part of the Vajrabhairava lineages at a time when a tantric royal lineage was no longer present.

The human revelation of the Vajrabhairava tantras thus starts with Lalitavajra whatever the antecedents may have been in earlier Oddiyana from Indrabhuti I's time onward (c. 750-800).

It is then possible that Lalitavajra, given the "heretic" (i.e. Saivite) environment, could locate merely non-Buddhist Bhairava treatises in Oddiyana.

The refusal of the dakini to allow him to take the texts necessitating memorising and subsequent writing down would have provided an opportunity for Buddhicising the texts.

The lineages given for the various Yamantaka texts by Jaya Pandita (Thob yig, glegs bam 4, fol. 257v-258r; ) indicate that the VMT is the primary text of the cycle transmitted by Jnanadakini to Lalitavajra, while the other texts — the Myth, RPT, TCT and MSR15 — were directly transmitted from Vajrabhairava to Lalitavajra.

Of the related Yamari treatises Lalitavajra is also the revealer of the Sarvatathagata-kayavakcitta-krsnayamari-nama-tantra, receiving this from Vajradhara via Jnanadakini, but in the lineage of the Yamarikrsnakarmasarvacakra-siddhikara-nama-tantra he is shown as receiving the tantra from the yogins JnanaSri and Dipadhiya, while he does not figure in the lineage of the Sri-raktayamari-tantra. This leaves the Srimad-raktayamdri-tantra concerning which Jaya Pandita gives no 15.

The Kanjur also contains a Vajrahhairava-dharam not translated here (-»), and a text entitled Srl-vajra-hhairava-vidarana-tantraraja; T Dpalrdo rje 'jigs hyed mam par 'jams pa'i rgyud kyi rgyalpo containing teachings on types of vajra which does not belong to the Vajrabhairava cycle.

information as he had not received the transmission of the text (T lung ma thob ).

Lalitavajra is also credited with the authorship of several works preserved in the Tenjur {) on various aspects of the teachings and practices of the Vajrabhairava and Krsnayamari cycles, including a commentary on the VMT. The post-Lalitavajra (and рге-Tibetan) lineages given by Jaya Pandita similarly show a distinction between i. the RPT, Myth, MSR and TCT; and ii. the VMT.

A complex picture of the post-Lalitavajra transmission of the Vajrabhairava tantras emerges from the standard lineage histories. Taranatha's account (Chattopadhyaya 1970: 242^5, 325-29) together with the Kanjur colophons produces a uniform result while Jaya Pandita's later lineages (op. cit.) are different.

Gos lo tsa ba Gzhon nu dpal in the Blue Annals (Roerich 1949) is noticeably less well-informed on Vajrabhairava lineages than on certain others.

Briefly, VMT was transmitted by Lalitavajra to his disciple, the Vikramasila gwu Lilavajra (—») and thence down the line of Vikramaslla gurus (Chattopadhyaya 1970:

325) of whom Tathagataraksita (—>) and Kamalaraksita (—>) wrote separate works on Vajrabhairava which are preserved in the Tenjur. Lilavajra and Kamalaraksita, ninth Vikramasila guru, successfully protected their temple by using Yamantaka rites against Turk (turuska) invaders who made seventeen incursions into North India between 1001-1027 (Basham 1954: 72).

Bharo, joint translator of the VMT with Rwa lo tsa ba rdo je grags, had an unspecified direct relationship to the Vikramasila lineage; a more indirect relationship stems from Atisa who received Yamataka teachings from Kamalaraksita.

RPT was transmitted either from Indrabhuti or Lvavapa to Tilopa (988-1069) whose disciple Lalitavajra was; from Tilopa the main line of transmission continues down through Naropa (1016-1100) ultimately to Mar pa (1012-1097) who met Ati£a in India and translated the text into Tibetan with Amoghapada.

TCT is harder to trace since the connection between Lalitavajra and the joint T translator Uyamadra is not specified in the sources used. Rong zom chos kyi dbang po, the second T translator, was also a guru of Mar pa. MSR is an unspecified text transmitted to Rwa lo tsa ba by Bharo (Atisa is given as joint translator of this text in some colophons); consequently Jaya Pandita assimilates it to the VMT lineage.

No tracing of the lineage of the Myth would be appropriate or feasible in the absence of a colophon, however this text too is traditionally assimilated to the VMT lineage (Jaya Pandita, Thobyig glegs bam IV. 257v).

3. Transmission of the Vajrabhairava Tantras to Tibet The Bengali pandita Atisa (982-1045) was invited by the ruler of the West Tibetan kingdom of Mnga' ris for the purification and revival of the Buddhist doctrine after the apostatic activities of Glang dar ma had restored the preeminence of the indigenous Bon religion in Central Tibet.

The presence of the Yamantaka tantras in Mnga' ris would be explixable in terms of the direct route from Oddiyana along the Upper Indus to West Tibet;16 however, tradition insists on the route via Vikramasila in Bihar (then under the rule of the pro-tantric Pala Dynasty) despite the periodic extension of Mnga' ris power to Baltistan and Chitral.

Atisha's revisions provided the textual basis for later practice throughout the Gsar ma schools of Tibetan Buddhism, although most organisational aspects of his new Bka' gdams pa school are the work of his disciple 'Brom ston (1005-1064) whose foundation in 1056 of the temple complex at Rwa sreng provided a secure base for the dissemination of the Bka' gdams approved new tantras including those of Yamantaka and Vajrabhairava.

Most significant of the Rwa sreng associated translators was Rwa lo tsa ba rdo rje grags who studied in Nepal under Bha ro phyag rdum (Mahakaruna).

The latter accepted an invitation to Rwa sreng where the T translations of the VMT and MSR17 were completed. Rwa lo tsa ba fixed the transmission fee for the VMT as one srang (roughly an ounce of precious metal) compared to one zho (a tenth of a srang) for the Krsnayamari-tantra and other tantras not of the Yamantaka cycle. It is small wonder that the full list is given the title The Golden Books by 'Gos lo tsa ba gzhon nu dpal (Roerich 1949: 376).

Rwa lo tsa ba utilised some of the funds for the restoration of temples and other pious works.

The rebuilding of the main part of Bsam yas monastery]] destroyed in 986 is the most significant such action with which he is credited.

The cycle of Vajrabhairava has always played a major part in the religious life of the various Gsar ma schools of Tibetan Buddhism, though other schools prefer to evoke Yamantaka in different forms.

Amongst those schools which relied on Bka' gdams pa approved works and therefore cultivated the tantras of Vajrabhairava, the Sa skya school was particularly noted for its mastery of the cycle.

As the direct inheritors of the Bka' gdams pa tradition, throughout their history the Dge lugs pa likewise maintained the prominence of the deity who is one of the three central anuttara-yoga-tantra deities they preferentially cultivate.

The T phrase gsang bde 'jigs gsum refers collectively to the main deities of these three cycles:

Guhyasamaja (T Gsang bsdus),

Samvara (T Bde mchog) and

Vajrabhairava (T Rdo rje 'jigs byed).

The cultivation of these three tantric cycles amongst the Dge lugs pa seems to derive from the originator of the school Tsong kha pa (1357-1419; -») who performed the full grimoires (sadhana;

T sgrub thabs) of these three deities as part of his daily practice, and who also performed an extensive retreat on the Vajrabhairava practice in his 55th year (Thurman 1982: 28).

The Dge lugs pa also considered Vajrabhairava to be the special protector of the anuttara-yoga-tantra, while Yama as Dharmaraja was pressed into service as the special (T thun mong ma yin pa) protector of the Dge lugs pa themselves (Lessing 1942:

76). Within the Tibeto-Mongolian Dge lugs pa world the history of the Yamantaka cycle is in the main the history of its transmission from master to disciple, most often within a monastic context.

Most of the chos byung (transmission histories) dealing with Tibet and Mongolia concentrate on the establishment of lineages linking contemporary

16. This was the route taken by the Rnying ma tantras of the various Yamantaka forms, amongst much else.

The analysis of these Rnying ma forms and their treatises would be necessary for a full appreciation of Oddiyana Tantrism and its transmission to Tibet.

Suffice it to say that the Gsar ma approved tantras of Yamantaka/ Vajrabhairava are outnumbered by their Rnying ma equivalents.

17- Jaya Pandita dismisses a further lineage for the TCT stemming from Pha bong kha pa (—>) as false (Thob yig IV: 257v). The Myth is not specifically listed presumably because this short text has no translator's colophon in the Kanjur.

masters with those of the past and therefore with Lalitavajra himself and through him ultimately with the dakim and the deities of the Yamantaka group.

The complexity of these lineage histories increases with time and all the Tibeto-Mongolian Gsar ma authors on Vajrabhairava and Yamantaka listed in the Bibliography are ultimately members of the same lineage tree.

From the time of Bu ston (1290-1364; —») onwards the five texts translated here are better considered a single unit since their textual history becomes part of the wider history of the Kanjur and Tenjur and monastic practice comes to be standardised around formal sadhana (T sgrub thabs) texts (Sharpa Tulku & Guard 1990) rather than around the canonical texts.

Each of the Gsar ma mandalas of Vajrabhairava (VMT 1: n. 9) also has its own particular lineage and many ranking Dge lugs pa would have been possessed of many or all appropriate lineages. 4.

The worship of Vajrabhairava among the East Mongols and Manchus An exception to the limitation of Vajrabhairava worship to incarnates, monks and ascetics of Gsar ma schools may be found in Prajnasagara's Mongolian language hagiography of the Tor-yud Mongol missionary Neici Toin (1557-1653).

Its account of the spread of the deitiy's18 worship amongst the East Mongols is at odds with the mostly secret monastic transmission of his doctrines through approved lineages and is therefore of particular interest.

In short, Neici toin achieved the conversion of the previously shamanist East Mongols through the promotion of widespread Vajrabhairava worship, the fearsomeness of the deity in comparison to the established Mongol gods (M tngri) and possibly also the cattle associations being relevant factors in ensuring lasting appeal.

More specifically, Neici toin's tactics for achieving the conversion of the East Mongols fall into two broad categories as identified by Heissig (1953: 519).

These are, first, the demonstration of the inferiority of Shamanism through the magical superiority of Buddhism and through the destruction of non-Buddhist idols (M ongyun);

and second, the substitution of the worship of the Dge lugs pa Gsang bde 'jigs gsum triad and in particular Vajrabhairava19 for the worship of pre-Buddhist deities.

The substitution was effected in part by bribery.

Neici toin's patron the Ttisiyetti khan of the Qorcin is recorded as having offered cattle to those able to memorise Vajrabhairava invocations; other gifts of gold, silver, silk, furs and so forth are also recorded (Heissig 1953: 527).20

This popular dimension was devised with 18. The iconography indicates that in an East Mongol context Yamantaka means Vajrabhairava rather than the two Yamaris.

The name Yamantaka is phonetically more suited to Mongolian than the name Vajrabhairava and this consideration may have led to the precedence of the former.

19. Specifically the form used was the Arban yurban-tu vcir ayuyuluyci, Vajrabhairava with 13 Buddhas (Heissig 1953: 526), the standard Dge lugs form as transmitted by Rwa lo tsa ba. 20. Neici toin did incur the wrath of the ecclesiastical authorities for his indiscreet approach.

The following charge against him was presented to the Emperor Shun chih (Elhe Taifin, r. 1662-1722) by the Sa skya pandita of the time:

This Neici toin lama wandering amongst the Northern Mongols behaves like a Buddha bestowing on all his followers Buddha names like White Yamantaka, Yellow Yamantaka, Black Yamantaka, Red Yamantaka, Green Yamantaka and White Vairocana.

He furthermore lets everybody, from the carriers of cattle troughs, manure collectors and fuel-gatherers on, who are not able to distinguish the good the connivance of the first Pan chen Bio bzang chos kyi rgyal mtshan (Dharmadhvaja), a noted exponent (—>) of the Vajrabhairava cycle under whom Neici toin had studied at Bkra shis lhun po. According to Prajnasagara the Pan chen predicted Neici toin's future work among the East Mongols;

21 the implication may be that the guiding hand of the former was responsible for this new departure (bearing in mind the injunction of VMT 7: 147v).

Amongst the East Mongols, therefore, popular treatises on various types of magic (still broadly in keeping with the aims of the canonical texts) came to be prefaced with invocations to Vajrabhairava and Yamantaka.

The East Mongol hunting rites Gun dharam (Buu-yin tarni) and Gun incense-offering (Buu-yin sang) (Rinchen 1959: 38-40; the latter translated in Bawden 1968: 121-22) start in this manner in contrast to the earlier West Mongol (Oirat) versions lacking the invocation (Buugiyin tenggeriyin sang; reproduced as text 1 in Yondon 1978: 141).

In contrast to the East Mongolian situation, only one of many lamaist adaptations of North and South Mongol origin invokes Yamantaka, as Heissig observes (1953: 515).

Neici toin's missionary activity amongst most East Mongol groups established Dge lugs pa Lamaism as the primary religion in these areas by the second half of the 17th century.

This meant that the Manchus in their extensive diplomatic and cultural dealings with the East Mongols were also exposed to Buddhist tantric influences.

22 Though the Manchus remained in the main true to their old faith23 a respectful from the bad. recite the Yamantaka and other prayers, the most profound of the Buddhas and the most secret of the Vajra doctrines' (Heissig 1953: 526).

The Sa skya nom-un qayan responsible for this accusation is probably not to be identified with Secen corji, lamaist ambassador to the Manchu court in 1637 or 1643 contra Heissig 1953.

The Emperor refused to adjudicate in a religious matter and referred the issue to the fifth Dalai Lama whose representative decided against Neici toin.

His quasi-punishment was banishment to Koke qota (Huhhot) with 30 of his followers.

His later incarnations, the Neici toin qutirytus, continued to reside in Koke qota (no. 58 in Pozdneyev's list; 1978: 324). 21.

By Neici toin's time the bulk of the Ordos, Tiimet, Caqar and Qalqa Mongols had been reconverted to Lamaism by force of khanal decrees during the second half of the 16th century with Vajrabhairava worship playing no particular part in the process.

Of the main remaining shamanist East Mongol groups all but one (the Ujumucin) were visited by Neici toin (Heissig 1953).

22. It is possible to trace at least one specific religio-genealogical connection between Mongols and Manchus involving Yamantaka. Dayan khan \r. 1470-1543), a direct descendant of the Yuan ruling house, was converted to Dge lugs Buddhism by initiation into the Vajrabhairava cycle.

This lineage seems to have been maintained amongst succeeding Mongol Khans of the post-Yuan period until their subjection to the Manchus. In the process of subjection Ligdan Khan's (r. 1604-1634) heir Erke Qongyur (r. 1634) was married to the daughter of Abahai (1592-1643), second Emperor of the Ch'ing Dynasty (Dharmatala 1987: 144,474). 23.

Heissig, amongst others, tends to underestimate the similarities between elements of Altaic Shamanism and elements of Tantrism and therefore sees conflict in their relationship rather than compromise (the very title of his seminal 1953 paper on Neici toin's autobiography shows this).

The Vajrabhairava doctrines tend not to accord with the general vision of Buddhism as a religion characterised by non-violence so there is no need for surprise when one encounters references to East Mongol lamas presiding over animal sacrifices.

To illustrate the point: Heissig is probably right when quoting the twin sacrifice of a horse and a cow to Heaven and Earth as demonstrating the absence of lamaist influence on Manchu ritual in the 17th century; however, the paired horse and bull rites of the Vajrabhairava syncretism with considerable politico-diplomatic value did emerge. Official Manchu acceptance of elements of Dge lugs Tantrism can be dated to 1636-1638 when the Yellow Temple was built in the ancestral capital Mukden.

The Vajrabhairava-centred religion of East Mongolia meant that any involvement with Dge lugs pa Buddhism would have to take the deity into account. As a manifestation of the bodhisattva Manjusri, Vajrabhairava's relationship with the Manchu ruling house rested partly on the basis of the phonetic similarity between the words Manjusri (the bodhisattva of wisdom) and Manchu (Ma manju; the self-styled wisest nation of the Empire).

Manjusri was considered the special patron of the Manchus, just as Vajrapani and Avalokitesvara protected Mongols and Tibetans respectively, power and compassion being the characteristics which these nations saw in themselves.

Predictably, the Manchu Emperors were regarded as manifestations of Manjusri.

This is repeatedly made clear in Dharmatala's history (1987: 97, 102f.), but perhaps the most graphic demonstration of the identity is the portrait of Ch'ien lung (Abkai weyiheye; r. 1736— 1796) as Manjusri / Tsong kha pa from the Yung ho kung (reproduced in Lessing 1942: pi. XVII).

The promotion of Vajrabhairava worship after the Manchu move to Peking is a natural consequence of associations and doctrines learnt during the 17th century from the East Mongols and not solely part of a wider plan to attract the East Mongols' religious attention to Peking, thereby reducing the draw of the Lhasa-Urga Dge lugs axis.

Irrespective of the motivation, the development of Peking as a centre for East Mongolian Lamaism necessarily meant continued emphasis on the Vajrabhairava cycle.

The sixth hall of the great Yung-ho-kung (Palace of Harmony) in Peking was devoted entirely to the evocation of Vajrabhairava and the other forms of Yamantaka as was a temple (the Yamantaka-yin sirme) which was responsible for the publication of several Mongol language works on Vajrabhairava.

The Mongol Kanjur containing Toin corji's translations (originally produced for the Ligdan Khan manuscript Kanjur in 1628-1629) of the VMT, RPT, Myth and TCT was published in Peking in 1717-1720 and the Mongol Tenjur also containing the MSR followed in 1742-1749. The translation and imperially-sponsored publication in Manchu and Chinese of a series of Vajrabhairava works partly by the first Lcang skya qutuytu ngag dbang bio bzang chos Idan (—>) was also undertaken.

The second Lcang skya rol pa'i rdo rje formally reestablished the preceptor-protector relationship with the Emperor Ch'ien-lung which Sa skya lamas had first developed with the Mongol khans of the Yuan.

This confirmed the Lcang skya qutuytus as the highest-ranking incarnate lineage resident in Peking and gave them the power to attempt substitution of Vajrabhairava worship of approved type (taking place in a monastic environment with due consideration of Tsong kha pa's Graded Path (T lam rim) doctrine) for the unstructured popular worship promoted by Neici toin, Pan chen bio bzang chos kyi rgyal mtshan and the Dga' Idan siregetu ngag dbang bio gros rgya mtsho (—>', Sagaster 1967: 128).

Texts in Mongolian for popular worship of the deity continued to be produced.

The most notable author of Mongol Vajrabhairava adaptations was the Mergen diyanci blam-a-yin gegen bio bzang bstan pa rgyal mtshan {/I. 18th c), an incarnation of Neici toin's disciple Mergen diyanci, whose collected works were tantras are close and demonstrate the need for caution.

Ultimately both practices may stem from the same ancient Central Asian source. niiblished in Peking between 1780-1783 (-^).

These works are fundamental to an understanding of the popular syncretic Dge lugs Buddhism of East Mongolia.

The association of the city of Peking with Vajrabhairava during the Manchu period Iso took on a literal sense.

Peking was topographically identified with the mandala of Vajrabhairava as a means of protection with a statue in Pei-hai representing the deity himself, and the Forbidden City, the Imperial City and the Outer City forming three concentric mandates (Lessing 1956: 140).

The essential point may well have been concealed from Lessing since the Vajrabhairava at the centre of the Forbidden City would have been the Manjusri Emperor himself in any protective or wrathful function while the relevant rituals would have centred around the representative statue.

By the principle of yoga, protection of Peking could thus be rendered an act of self-protection by this fiercest ofvajrayana deities.

Twentieth-century history amply demonstrates the failure of this protective function (though not the personal enlightening function) amongst the wrathful divinities of Tjbeto-Mongolian Buddhism and their devotees.

Nevertheless, such failures in the past (the destruction of Oddiyana Buddhism and then Pala Tantrism) have never prevented Vajrabhairava from reasserting himself on an ever larger scale, continuing to 'tame those difficult to tame'. These English translations can be seen as part of this process. 5.

Summaries of the Vajrabhairava Tantras i. Vajramahabhairava Tantra Chapter I:

The Mandala Preliminaries discussed include locations for practice and types of superhuman powers obtainable through Vajramahabhairava.

The appearance of the mandala painted by the practitioner on the prescribed cloth is then described (rather than the appearance of the actual mandala which is the residence of Vajramahabhairava).

This painted mandala is a map of the divine residence.

The revelation of this painted mandala (generated as the deity's mandala) is the primary purpose of the tantric initiation ritual, and since this initiation is required in order to read, study and practice this text, the mandala is described in the first chapter.

The various flesh-offerings and other ritual activities are then listed as part of the description of the devotee.

The measure of success in the rituals is the appearance of Vajramahabhairava who bestows the superhuman power requested. Chapter 2: Performing Rituals The acquisition of powers (siddhi; T dngos grub) using certain ritual substances is described in this chapter.

First, a diagram of a 16-section magic wheel is described.

Krtes of killing and striking down with disease using the wheel are given, and then a snort rite involving the hiding of the wheel in various locations for various results, 'here follow rites of killing, immobilising, separating and driving away, all sPecjfymg use of the wheel.

Rites of driving away, separating, sowing discord and lng, none involving use of the wheel are given next.

Then rites of driving away, kill immobilising, controlling and summoning, all using the wheel are described. A Datura rite for driving the subject insane and then killing him is given.

There follow: a wheel-rite of slaying, a wheelless rite of separating, a wheel-rite for causing the limbs of a couple to be pierced by weapons, and a wheel-rite for immobilising a girl. The chapter closes with warnings in both prose and verse. Chapter

3: Assembling the Spells

This presents the three spells (mantra;

T sngags) of Vajramahabhairava (Root, Deed and Heart Spells) spelt out syllable by syllable. Chapter 4: Visualisation This describes the meditative generation of Vajramahabhairava and his appearance.

The instruction starts from emptiness and constructs the emanation form (nirmanakaya; T sprul sku) of Vajramahabhairava via a sequence of elemental mandalas, seed-syllables (bija\T sa bon), Manjushri, and a wrathful vajra.

The deity is then described in his full form, and the attributes held in his 32 hands are listed, as are the creatures trampled under his 16 feet.

A more detailed description of his 9 heads follows. An account of the recitation of the spells while visualising their syllables on the solar disc in the heart precedes the closing verse describing the devotee.

Chapter 5: Painting the Image This describes the painted image of Vajramahabhairava.

The personal qualities of the painter and a list of suitable surfaces are given. The deity is then described as in the preceding chapter.

The cemeteries around Vajramahabhairava are briefly described along with some of their inhabitants. Injunctions to secrecy and feasting close the chapter.

Chapter 6: Burnt Offerings

This describes the procedure of burnt offering for ritual success, instructions for the performance of burnt offerings for killing, separating, driving away, immobilising and causing the abandonment of a city are specified.

The devotee is briefly reminded of the need for meditative union (yoga; T sbyor ba) during these rituals.

Burnt offerings are prescribed for the following: immobilising a woman, pacifying, increasing, summoning, causing insanity, financial ruination, ruling all lands, enslaving, bringing a person and his wealth under control, bringing a king and his retinue under control, bringing all human worlds under control, bringing all women under control, driving away (2x), bringing a person under control and summoning. The chapter closes with a denial of the need for detailed explanations and exhortations to secrecy and solitude.

Chapter 7: Meditation

This details the attainment of powers through meditation without external supports (unlike the ritual and burnt offering chapters in which substances of various kinds are used).

Two meditative rites of killing are described followed by a rite of causing conflict, two rites of driving away, a rite for summoning women, and a rite for reviving one bitten by a venomous snake.

A rite for melting the mind of enlightenment (bodhicitta;

T byang chub kyi sems) is given.

The final rite is for bringing a king and his ministers into the devotee's power.

Final injunctions to secrecy precede definitions of good and bad disciples. ii.

The Ritual Procedure Tantra of Vajrabhairava

Chapter I:

Meditation on Method and Wisdom

This chapter describes the meditative generation of Vajrabhairava ('method'; upaya; T thabs) and provides miscellaneous philosophical teachings on emptiness and its relation to deity yoga ('wisdom1; prajna;

T shes tab ). Preliminaries include a list of attainable powers and suitable locations. A six-headed, six-armed and six-legged form of Vajrabhairava is described.

There follow instructions on understanding illusoriness, on manipulation of the subtle body and on understanding non-conceptual thought as the cause of liberation.

Chapter 2: Yoga

Various rituals performed by means of magic diagrams, images and substances are described in this chapter.

The visualisation for spell recitation is given first, then specifications for a protective amulet.

The following three rites are then detailed: conquering a country, separation, and killing.

Locations for hiding the diagram for obtaining various powers are given. Miscellaneous rites precede a longer rite involving a wheel drawn in blood aimed at various results.

A rite of separation is described, and then an amulet for various purposes.

The deity then lists the spells. Vajradhara then briefly describes Vajrabhairava and in particular mentions a form suitable for killing. Chapter 3: Painting the Image The preliminaries and materials for painting an image of Vajrabhairava are specified.

A detailed description of the six-headed, six-armed and six-legged Vajrabhairava is given. An account of the cemeteries and their denizens follows.

The chapter closes with an injunction to secrecy.

Chapter 4: Burnt Offerings This starts with an account of the hearth and the meditation accompanying burnt offerings.

Ingredients and number of repetitions for a series of burnt offerings aimed at various powers are listed.

The need for earnest application and compassion is stressed. Conceptual dualistic thought is denigrated. Offerings are listed and spell recitation is encouraged; then types of burnt offering for various purposes are described.

Various miscellaneous observations on the benefits of practice, the need for secrecy and so on are also presented.

Ingredients and number of repetitions for a series of burnt offerings aimed at various powers are listed.

The types of mental state accompanying the rites are listed.

The text closes with injunctions to meditation, assertions of easy attainment of powers through these practices, and injunctions to secrecy.

ш. The Myth This short text has no Sanskrit title, and the supplied T title (Gtam rgyud) seems to be a later descriptive addition (it means simply 'myth1 = akhyana, with rgyud ^ tantra).

The text tells of the initial conversion of Yama to Buddhism by Vajrabhairava, and the way in which Yama and his entourage offered their life-essences in the form of syllables to Vajrabhairava.

iv. The Three Chapter Tantra24 Chapter 1:

Drawing the Wheel Preliminaries involving purification and worship are described. Detailed instructions are given for constructing spells out of an elaborate magical wheel identified with Yama's city which is inhabited by syllables.

Seed-syllables and rays of light corresponding to the rites are listed. A meditative rite for uniting pledge and wisdom-mandalas follows. Types of cloth and ink are specified.

The directions in which the devotee should face, and the directions in which the various wheels turn are listed. The union of the cloth wheel and the deity's wheel is again mentioned.

A list of spells for ritual purposes follows. The chapter closes with a listing of potential flaws and errors which wouldjeopardise success.

Chapter 2: Turning the Pledge-substances into Potion Contradictory instructions are provided for making a magic potion to be drunk and used as ointment by the practitioner.

Chapter 3; Subsidiary Factors Subsidiary instructions are provided for ritual success.

These include listings of helpful factors, the correct sequence for ritual activities and the results of ritual success.

The importance of confidence and faith is stressed, as is the uselessness of reasoning and dualistic thinking.

An account of the importance of devotion and the master-disciple relationship closes the work. v.

The Musk Shrew Rites

The rites described in this text involve primarily the use of the skin and other parts of the Musk Shrew Suncus murinus (amongst other ingredients) for success in a wide variety of rituals. vi.

The Commentaries The commentaries preserved in the Tenjur are not word-by-word analyses of the entire VMT, perhaps because of the dire warnings contained in the text (VMT 7: I47r).

Much useful information on ritual is however provided including details on the evocation of Vajrabhairava which amount to full grimoires (sadhana; T sgruh thabs) presented as comments on the term yoga.

A selection of observations from the commentaries of Vajrasiddha, Sonasrl and Lalitavajra (text 2; ) is given in the notes.

Looking at the commentarial identifications (e.g. those explaining the items held in the deity's hands; VMT 4: 141 r), it is hard to avoid the conclusion that the Buddhicising of the text is as much of a priority as its exegesis.

The frequently given warning that tantras are meant to be read only with the accompaniment of their commentaries stems not necessarily from any inherent obscurity or ambiguity in the texts but from their quasi-Buddhist character.

This needs spelling out because it is sometimes stated that the tantras are incomprehensible without commentaries.25

As a requirement for using the texts, a commentary takes a distinct second place to consecration since it is only the latter which enables the devotee to practice the rituals of the cycle.

For the view that commentaries are not completely indispensable we need look no further than the end of VMT 6: 'Just as I shall not provide specifics so he should not provide specifics for others.

A devotee who does so will not attain the powers. I have also explained in other tantras how specific explanations should not arise. Not even a Vajrasattva would succeed were he to speak of the specifics of what is to be done.'

24. There seems to be just one version of this text with the title of sri-vajrabhairava-tantraraja-trikalpa, and this is a blockprint from the Dge lugs pa stronghold of Yeke Kiiriye (Urga) in Qalqa Mongolia printed in the company of version A of the VMT.

This text is also present in the Kanjur where it is given the title $ri-krsnayamari-tantraraja-trikalpa and thereby associated with the deity Black Yamari and not Vajrabhairava.

The spells (mantra) as given do support the association of this text with Vajrabhairava. 25.

Sangharakshita states: '[the tantras} are more or less unintelligible without the traditional commentary.

This is not only because the latter may describe in greater detail rituals and yogic exercises, for example, to which the text contains only an allusion as to matters well known, or because it "translates" the cryptic and frequently symbolic language of the text into its equivalent in the abstract conceptual idiom of standard Mahayana philosophy, whether Madhyamika or Yogacara. The commentary is important mainly because it helps to complete the framework of metaphysical and spiritual reference within which alone it is possible for the tantric methods of practice to function' (1985: 254).

II Textual Introduction Sanskrit or Sanskritised Prakrit manuscript versions of the RPT, Myth, MSR and TCT are absent from the standard collections.1 Two late defective Sanskrit mss. of the VMT are listed in the standard catalogues (-»). The complete Sankrtyayana ms. has not survived and no photographic copy exists at the Bihar Research Society, Patna. The Nepalese mss. seem not to have been copied in the course of the German-Nepalese Manuscript Preservation Project and their presence in Kathmandu has not been confirmed. Since these mss. can not at present contribute to the establishment of a critical text of the VMT, reliance on the older T versions is the only philologically appropriate course. The T and M translations of the VMT, RPT, the Myth and the TCT edited here are the basis for the English translation.

The edition and translation of the MSR is based on a collation of its T versions only. All the T and M translations used (bar those of the MSR and bar the blockprint A) are contained in different versions of the canonical collection known as the Kanjur (T bka' 'gyur). Collation of the Tibetan translations: i. VMT from Kanjurs P, U, S, D and R and from the extra-canonical print A. ii. RPT from Kanjurs P, U, S, and D. iii. Myth from Kanjurs P, U, S, D and R. iv. MSR from Kanjur U and Tenjur P only. v. TCT from the extra-canonical print A and from Kanjur P. Collation of the Mongolian translations: i-iii. VMT, RPT and Myth from P and the ms. copy C. iv. TCT from P only.

Since these T and M texts are translations, criteria of correctness are hard to establish if the Sanskrit originals are defective, corrupt, lost or later than their own T translations. Also, there is often little to choose between the alternative readings found in the various Kanjurs. The editor can only choose what seems more 'correct' without any guarantee that the 'original' is more closely approached thereby. However, in the case of the VMT many of the alternative readings of the extra-canonical blockprint A 1- These sources have been catalogued by Yuyama (1992). VMT is listed in the union catalogues of Yamada (1959: 169) and Tsukamoto etal. (1989: 248). Many other catalogues were independently checked. VMT and RPT are also absent from the extensive German-Nepalese ms. microfilm project (Dr H.-O. Feistel, personal communication; also Sastri 1915). It is not inconceivable that certain Hindu tantras on Mahabhairava and Bhairava might be textually connected with the tantras translated and edited here.

could be chosen over the Kanjur readings were it merely criteria of correctness that were being followed. A is however a corrected version in which the editor has located each difficulty or ambiguity and has altered the text in a convenient or obvious way, and the text is thus of no use in establishing the original T, let alone the Sanskrit. Because most work on the history of the Kanjur focuses on the relationships between the various Kanjurs as collections of texts rather than on the relationships between individual texts contained within, no conclusion drawn on the basis of comparative research into the Kanjur editions is necessarily valid for the history of individual texts within it. Cross-contamination and extra-canonical input into the editorial process are further complications.

The extra-canonical version A of the VMT must have been familiar to the editors of U (and also of the Lhasa Kanjur), for example. In the editions presented in this essay the principle of minimal interference with the T and M texts has been followed, and only a very few readings unsupported by the versions available have been suggested. Misspellings are included in the critical apparatus only when meaningful syllables are the result. In cases where there is little to choose between the available readings, the readings supported by the majority of versions or the readings of the earlier versions have been chosen.

The Mongolian version was originally prepared from the Tibetan version P, so the edition provided here diverges slightly from the edited T text (though it has been checked against the edited T and readings have been chosen on this basis). It is not usual editorial practice to incorporate readings from direct copies of a text into the critical apparatus, but in this essay a Mongolian manuscript copy С of the relevant volume of the printed Kanjur has been used to control the readings of the latter.

Certain lines omitted in TP and therefore MP are supplied by the copy С implying that the editor of С was familiar with a version other than P (though not necessarily an M version). Though the benefit of the doubt has always been given to the Mongolian translation, it has very occasionally been corrected on the basis of the T against both M versions. The pagination of both T and M versions is based on the P blockprints (with the exception of the T TCT taken from A) and the punctuation is also taken from P with occasional modifications.

There follow some brief observations on: the independent blockprint A; the Rgyal rtse them spangs ma Kanjur versions, and the Mongolian translations. The extra-canonical blockprint A For the interpretation of phrases in the VMT the independent extra-canonical blockprint given the identification mark A (all readings from which are presented in the critical apparatus) is of more use than the commentaries since it provides clearer equivalent phrases which give an indication of how the text was understood by the Dge lugs pa community of Urga in Mongolia where the blockprint was produced.

Most of these clarifications seem accurate and useful, though in a few difficult cases the text has been misinterpreted. It is curious that A is often closer to R and S than to D or P. Examples of the alterations in this blockprint are: i. recasting of sentences such as de'i dbus su 'dod pa'i dngos grub for the more difficult dngos grub dang dngos grub ma yin pa la (VMT 135v); ii. technical alterations such as nga rgyal dang Idan pas 'possessed of divine pride' for mnyam par hzhagpas 'meditatively equalised1 (VMT 136v); iii.

clarifications such as bsgrub bya de'i for the ambiguous de'i (VMT 137r); iv. major alterations of unknown origin such as gzhon nu mams kha sbub tu byas nas zhabs kyi 'og tu mnan pa / 'jigs su rung ba'i thod pas thod byas pa for gnod sbyin la sogspa za ba (VMT 141r); v. additions unsupported by other versions such as bya rgod dang (VMT 142v) in a list of birds in the mandala; or mnyam par bzhag pas added at various points (e.g. VMT 142r); or che ge mo added after bu mo in ritual instructions (VMT 143v); vi. omissions such as that of gshin rje'i sngags kyis (VMT 144r), presumably on the basis that no such spell is provided elsewhere in the text; and vii. changes in word and sentence order such as at VMT 147r. A's version of TCT is, by contrast, obfuscatory though several readings are an improvement on P.

For example, A's insistence on grangs 'enumerate' instead of P's drangs 'draw/ pull out' makes feasible the instructions on the magic wheel in Chapter 1. Preferring any reading from A over the textually more trustworthy P can be justified only by the obscurity of certain passages in this text. The Rgyal rtse them spangs ma manuscript S The carefully written manuscript Kanjur S preserved in the State Library in Ulan Bator could be regarded as no more important than any other ms. Kanjur (e.g. Stog Palace (R), Berlin, London, Taipei or Tokyo) were it not for the rumour (Bethlenfalvy 1982: 6-7) that this was the personal copy of the original compiler of the Kanjur Bu ston. Until this is demonstrated, no firm conclusions can be reached on the importance of the readings it provides, but for the time being, the following observations can be made:

There is a curious omission of a rite for petrifying women at VMT 144r which would indicate that a source independent of this Kanjur (and the closely related ms. R) was used as the basis for the other versions collated here. The blockprint U (the editors of which relied heavily on S) restores the passage.

There are several unique readings (more common in the RPT than in the VMT) which are more significant than the usual alternatives common in these texts (such as gzhag/bzhag, etc.).

Examples are: ma he gdong ba'i sbyor ba gsang ba gnas te (sic, no la after gsang ba) for ma he gdong ba'i sbyor has nga rgyal la gnas te (VMT 145v); mgo dang mtha' ma gnyis Idan bya for miyi sa bon gnyis Man bya (RPT 147v); kha dang lag pa bshal ba'i sngags so for mchod pa'i'o (RPT 151r).

There is another alteration at RPT 151r with shes rab mo dang mnyam du sbyor 'united with the Wisdom Woman' replaced by srin po rab tu khros pa 'dra 'like a very wrathful demon'. This suggests that the editor of S considered the Vajrabhairava of the RPT to be without consort (ekavira; T dpa' bo gcig pa 'solitary hero') as is the Vajramahabhairava form from the VMT. The majority of the spells of Chapter 2 of the RPT (151 r) are unique to S (among the collated editions) and hint at two separate traditions for this text.

The Mongolian translation (P and the ms. copy C) Though Toin corji's translation is generally accurate and shows much evidence of careful thought, there are also certain peculiarities, most of which are found in the translation of the sometimes difficult RPT.

Tibetan verse translations of Sanskrit verse often sacrifice T particles representing Sanskrit grammatical endings for the sake of syllabic consistency.

In such cases the prose M translation has proved useful for providing missing grammar, though there is no guarantee that this grammar is being supplied correctly from the point of view of the (missing) Sanskrit original. M displays occasional confusion between i. nominative and instrumental: yoginis kiged dakinis ideyu instead of yoginis kigeddakinis-iyar idegdeyii, VMT 185r; and ii. accusative and genitive: e.g. tikudel tiilegsen-i jajar-tur niyuju instead of ... tulegsen-ti ..., VMT 172v. The confusion between cases i. is due primarily to occasional translating of T ergative constructions using instrumentals unaccompanied by passives, or leaving objects in the nominative. Confusion between cases ii. seem mostly scribal (many are corrected in the ms. copy C).

There are other cases — M's reading at VMT 184v is dulayan-dur rasiyan-iyar tein btiged gesiigsen-i, and this involves a dative where an instrumental would be correct and an instrumental for a correct genitive. The copy С only corrects the first (duiayan-iyar).

There are also several errors: masi ayuyulujci er-e em-e {RPT I91v) 'a terrifying man and woman1 is found for skyi bung rub tu 'jigs 'terrifying clouds', with M reading T *skyes bud which does not fit the context. Another example is ulajan bolyan iiiledcii (RPT 191r) 'making it red1 for T dam por drud byas 'making it taut7 (reading T *dmar par). Over-adherence to P (notably in TCT) has led to error even when the correction is obvious; thus M has idegen for TP's printing error bza' (1.4r), though later (195v etc.) the text correctly has gray ( = T gzd).

The semantic boundaries of Mongolian (and Tibetan) words used are determined by the semantic boundaries of the Sanskrit words they translate and not by those of the words in their native contexts. These meanings are often absent from the standard M dictionaries (Lessing 1960; Kowalewski 1844). M kisuyan 'shell, oyster', for example, is used to translate T nyaphyis (= *sukti) meaning 'a vessel made from a skull' since a common meaning of the Sanskrit word in other contexts is 'mother-of-pearl'.


I Vajramahabhairava Tantra (I34v) I prostrate to the glorious Vajramahabhairava, the great Lord of Wrath. [i. Chapter 1: The Mandala) < Now1 I shall duly explain the evocation of Vajrabhairava, he who terrifies and causes fear to the gods.2

Firstly, for this the devotee ensures that all requirements as to suitable and pleasing places are met.

3 Such places are: cemeteries, riverbanks, solitary trees,

4 places with a single lingam, valley junctions, mountain peaks, deserted houses, temples of the divine mothers.

5 temples of gods, battlefields, cities, forests and marketplaces. In these and other such places should the devotee be.6

The yogin who has received the empowerment of this vo/ra-wheel tantra of Vajramahabhairava will, by means of these rites, succeed in consecration, summoning, killing, driving away, separating, immobilising; in the sword, the eye-ointment, subterranean journeys, pills,

1. Here, as in the other tantras of this cycle, the standard canonical opening evam maya krutam (T 'di skad bdag gis thos, 'thus have 1 heard') is absent.

Some amtttara-yoga-tantra texts can begin with *rahasya parumam rame (T gsang ba mchog gis dgyes '[I] delight in the highest of secrets') — for example, the Samvara-tantra (SD 368).

Tsong kha pa's disciple Mkhas grub rje (1385-1438) discounted the possibility of classifying anuttara-yoga-tanlra treatises on the basis of their opening sentences as male or female respectively (Lessing and Wayman 1978: 253).

VMT has T de nas (= atha), translated here as 'now'.which may imply a previous setting of the scene in some more extensive original version (according to tradition still in the possession of the dakinl). See Snellgrove's discussion (1959: (I) 16) of the process by which the extant versions were extracted from the mass of available material. 2.

The variety of readings leads to several interpretations for this opening verse. P's de yis implies de= bsgrub pa 'by means of which [practice] one ... terrifies the gods'. S de ni, confirmed unusually by M tere kemebesii suggests de - the deity, 'he is the one who ... terrifies the gods'.

A's version des ni supports P, but U's de nas 'thence' suggests editorial doubt. 3. T la could be 'with regard to' or 'in' suitable places. M introduces a first person: tarnicin her sedkiljokistu: yambar hiige.sii orun-dur aju:: цатщ kereg-Ud-i hi biitiigegdekui. 4. 'In the shade of one tree, not touched by the shade of any other' (Sonasri 148vl). 5.

Lalitavajra (2: 110v6) says that these mothers (matrka; T ma mo) are seven in number. The names of these goddesses have been given in a general Indian context as Brahmi, Mahesvari, Kaumari, Vaisnavi, Varahi/lndrani and Camunda (SED 807; also other lists). Rnying ma listings can be found in Nebesky-Wojkowitz 1956: 269ff 6.

Similar lists are found in other tantras. The Hindu Yugini-tantra lists an empty house, a riverbank, a mountain, a crossroads, a cemetery, a lonely place or a Siva-ekidinga as places suitable for the performance of its skull rite (Banerjee 1988: 336). European witches' sabbats took place at similar types of location — cemeteries, mountain peaks, under oak trees and at crossroads, for example (Robbins 1959: 416ff).

transmutation, the elixir vitce, treasure; and in ghosts, zombies, ghouls, male and female spirits, serpents, etc? For the rites the devotee first anoints his body with the ashes of a cremated corpse8 and at midnight with dishevelled hair he paints the mandala9 in a cemetery or in one of the other places while in the yoga of the exalted Buffalo-headed One [= Vajramahabhairava].

The mandala is square10 with four gates (135r) adorned with four tympana.i2 The[re are] bells, silk banners and other ornaments covered in garlands of flowers. In 7. This list of superhuman powers or attainments (siddhi; T dngos grub) falls into three groups: 

a) consecration, summoning, killing, driving away, separating and immobilising; b) the sword, the eye-ointment, subterranean journeys, pills, transmutation (= turning base metals to gold; q.v. Rasayanasastroddhrti:, discussed in Fenner 1981), the elixir vita; and the treasure (= ability to locate treasure).

Group b) contains five of the eight usual 'great powers' (mahasiddhi; T sgrub chen; TD 82) to which are added 'the elixir vita;' and 'treasure'. Not in the VMT list are 'swiftness of foot' (T rkang mgyogs), 'invisibility' (T mi snang bu'i sgrub pa) and 'power of flight' (T mkha' spyod). At the end of this first chapter at the point where the devotee asks the deity to bestow the attainments, only five of group b) are listed with the omission of'pills' and 'the treasure'. It is however the powers of group a) on which the VMT concentrates (with the exception of consecration which is implied in the mandala description).

The third section c) (bhuta, vetala, pisaca, yaksa, yaksi, naga) is a list of beings which can be brought under the devotee's control. 8. For the significance of ashes in Saiva mythology reference may be made to O'Flaherty 1971: 2^35. 9. The mandala described here is identical to the nine- or seventeen-deity mandala of 'Od byung of Skyo (T skyo lugs rdo rje 'jigs byed lha bcu bdun gyi dkyil 'khor) in the Ngor collection of mandala paintings.

For Skyo lo tsa ba 'od zer byung nas see the Blue Annals (Roerich 1949: 1087). There are other mandalas of Vajrabhairava illustrated in the Ngor collection (Bsod rnams rgya mtsho (reprinted) 1983: nos. 54-59).

These are: No. 54a: ngor lugs rdo rje 'jigs byed ro lang brgyad dang phyag mtshan sum cu so gnyis kyis bskor ba'i dkyil 'khor (Ngor Tradition Vajrabhairava mandala with 8 ghouls and 32 symbols); no. 54b: mal lugs rdo rje 'jigs byed ro lang brgyad dang phyag mtshan sum cu so gnyis pa'i dkyil 'khor (Mal Tradition Vajrabhairava mandala with 8 ghouls and 32 symbols); no. 55: rwa lugs rdo rje 'jigs byed lha bcu gsum gyi dkyil 'khor (Rwa Tradition Vajrabhairava mandala with 13 deities); no.

57: zhang lugs rdo rje 'jigs byed lha bzhi bcu zhe dgu'i dkyil 'khor (Zhang Tradition Vajrabhairava mandala with 49 deities); no. 58: hu lugs rdo rje 'jigs byed gtso rkyang la phyag mtshan sum cu so gnyis kyis bskor ba'i dkyil 'khor (Bu = Bu ston rin chen grub)

Tradition Vajrabhairava mandala with 32 symbols);

no. 59; dge lugs rdo rje 'jigs byed gtso rkyang gi dkyil 'khor (Dge Tradition solitary Vajrabhairava mandala). These are schematised with deity and symbol-listings in Bsod nams rgya mtsho 1991.

10. 'It is foursquare because it is unequalled' {Sonasri 148v4). 11. The gates are the four doors to liberation which are 'emptiness (T stong pa nyid), signlessness {mtshan ma med pa), wishlessness (smon pa med pa) and effortlessness (mngonpar 'du byed med pa)' (Sonasri 148v4). 12.

The four tympana are the 'four meditative states' (dhyana; T bsam gtan) (Sonasri I48v5). The four meditative states can be 1. the four meditative states of the form realm (T gzugs khams kyi bsam gtan bzhi); or 2. the four meditative states as explained in the lower tantras (T rgyud sde 'og ma nas hshad pa'i bsam gtan bzhi); or 3. the four absorptions of meditative states (T bsam gtan gyi snyoms 'jug bzhi).

The four elements of categories 1 and 3 are simply numbered from one to four with no other terminological indication of their specific characteristics. Group 2 contains i. the meditative state of the four aspects of recitation (T bzlas hrjod van lag bzhi'i bsam gtan); ii. meditative state of abiding in fire (T me gnas kyi bsam gtan); iii. meditative state of abiding in sound (T sgra gnas kyi bsam gtan); and iv. meditative state resulting in liberation at the conclusion of sound (T sgra mthar thar pa ster ba'i bsam gtan). For further details on categories 1 and 3, as well as other classifications, see TD 455-56. each comer and in the alcoves by the entrances there are half-moons13 adorned with a;ra-jewels.l4

The wheel drawn in the centre has nine sections and is round. One of the gates is open while the rest are shut. In the centre he draws a corpse, in the east a head, in the south an arm, > in the west entrails, in the north two legs; in the eastern corner a skull, in the southern a skull with the hair still attached, in the western a cemetery cloth and in the northern corner a man impaled on a stake.

These are the symbols within the wheel.15

Next, the symbols outside the wheel:16 on the terrace in the east he draws a curved knife, a single-pointed spear, a pestle, a small knife, a single-pointed vajra and an iron goad-hook.

On the southern terrace he draws an axe, an arrow, a skull-staff,17 a staff, a wheel and a vajra -noose. On the western terrace he draws a vajra, a sword, a knife, a shield, a bow, a bell and a banner. On the northern terrace he draws a threatening hand-gesture, a three-pointed pendant, the hide of an elephant, a vajra -hammer, a lance and a hearth. At the four gates and the four corners huge ghouls18 should be drawn.

If he desires the highest attainments he offers a lamp containing human fat. He offers the flesh of a human, an ass, a camel, a dog, a jackal, a buffalo, an elephant, an ox, a gayal, a ram, a deer and a boar.19 He also offers the flesh of a vulture, an owl, a crow, a hawk, a heron, a duck, a crane, a peacock, a junglefowl, a myna and an eagle (135v). Fully entered into meditative equipoise20 he performs the ritual deeds of eating, feasting,21 burnt offering and food offering.

He sprinkles blood in all corners 13. 'The half-moon indicates the dripping mind of enlightenment' (Sonasri 148v7). Bodhicitta (T byang chub kyi sems), 'mind of enlightenment' in tantric contexts is the crown cakra (T 'khor h\ psychic nerve centre) when activated by the deflection of prana (T rlung; 'psychic energy') into the central channel from the two side channels.

When the crown cakra is heated by the ascending current, it melts, hence the attribute 'dripping' (used in the brief verse in VMT 7). The procedure is described in detail by Geshe Kelsang (1982: 17-66). 14. 'The vajra is emptiness, the jewel is compassion' (Sonasri I48v6). 15.

The dismembered corpse in the cardinal directions which forms half of these symbols (T mtshan ma'i phyag rgya), is reminiscent of the scattering of the demon Rudra's dismembered body to the eight directions. The slaying of Rudra by the tantric Buddhas (heruka; T he ru ka) is a recurrent theme in the tantras; this event has its echoes in the eight cemeteries (astamahdsmasana; T dur khrod chen po brgyad) surrounding the residence of wrathful deities. 16.

These are also the items held in the deity's hands, q.v. the description in VMT 3. 17. VMT n. 87. 18. These ghouls (vetala; T ro langs) are 'two armed, one-faced, with three red eyes, golden hair, standing, naked, with bared teeth, black in colour, holding a curved knife and a blood- filled skull-cup' (Sonasri 148rl-2). Reference may be made to Wytie 1964 and Boord 1993: 41^5 for further information. 19.

The identifications of these mammals and birds have been discussed in more detail along with all floral and faunal references in the VMT in a separate paper (Siklos 1994). Throughout it has been assumed that the creatures listed are wild since there is no indication to the contrary.

The Tibetan words used sometimes indicate domesticity when the Sanskrit equivalent has no such connotation. So, for example, khyim bya 'domestic fowl' is the nearest Tibetan equivalent of kukkuta or kukkubha, the Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus.

For further information on the mythological associations of the fauna and flora of the texts, Mani 1975 and Majupuria & Joshi 1988 may be consulted.

20. ' "In meditative equipoise" means being in meditative union with Vajrabhairava' (Sonasri 148r3). 21. In the Hevajra-tantra (II.iv.6-8), the following description is given of feasting:

The yogin is from Kollagiri, the yogini from Mummuni. Loudly the drum resounds; love is our of the mandala.

In yogic union with the glorious Buffalo-headed Vajrabhairava22 he offers all non-sacrificial food offerings.23 A close friend who has calmed his own ego should anoint him with vairocana ,24 or he should do it himself, and then at midnight, naked and with hair dishevelled, he sounds his skull-drum and, uttering 'ha ha', he equalises in meditation, and, desirous of attainment, enters the mandala of Vajrabhairava.

He offers delicious drugs and well-flavoured foods. Then, he considers whether he will succeed or fail,25 and begins by thinking of the Buffalo-headed Vajramahabhairava. Sitting in front of him with the right side drawn in and possessed of divine pride, with mind one-pointed and equalised in meditation, he recites the ten-syllable spell. Then, should the great Bhairava arise,26 the devotee must not be afraid. If he becomes afraid demonic interference will occur.

If there is such interference he will not attain the powers. Therefore the devotee must not be afraid, and if he is not, the glorious Vajramahabhairava will be pleased.

Pleased, he will ask: 'What do you want?7 To that the knowledge-holder replies: 'Please bestow on me whatever power I wish for — the sword, subterranean journeys, the eye-ointment, transmutation, the elixir vitce\ If he says this, it will doubtless be bestowed.

If after all the devotee fails to attain these powers, he will certainly attain all lesser types.27 This is the first chapter explaining the mandala from the yoga-tantra of the cycle of the glorious Vajramahabhairava. the highest manifestation of Manjusri. business and not dissention. Meat is eaten there zestfully and intoxicants are drunk ...

Worthy are we who are present; the unworthy are kept away. We take the fourfold preparation and musk, frankincense and camphor.

Herbs and special meat are eaten with relish. We come and go in the dance with no thought of pure and impure. Limbs adorned with bone ornaments and the corpse duly present, intercourse occurs at the meeting, where the untouchable is not kept away' (translated by Snellgrove 1959: 1.101 and also (differently) 1987: 169).

For a lengthy discussion of tantric feasts see Snellgrove 1987: 160-70. 22. Here 'Vajrabhairava' (two-armed form) rather than the full form ('Vajramahabhairava') described below. 23.

Naivedyu (T lha bshos) are non-sacrificial ('non-vedic') food offerings.

These have been formalised into small white dough-offerings surmounted by parasols (Nebesky-Wojkowitz 1956:354.492).

24. The use of vairocana (T mam par snang mdzad) 'brilliant, illuminating' to mean a substance is linked to Vairocana's central position in the pancatathagata arrangement.

Urine occupies the central position in the arrangement of the tantric offering of the 5 ambrosias (pancamrta; T hdudrtsi Inga) and this is a likely identification. However, the Candamaharosana-tantra and its commentaries use vairocana to mean fieces and identify aksohhya with urine (George 1974).

This may be explained by the element-colour reversal peculiar to the Vatrocana-Aksobhya pairing in the pancatathagata arrangement (white Vairocana with element Ether to which is assigned the colour blue versus blue Aksobhya with element water to which is assigned the colour white).

I fail to understand Lalitavajra's comment (2. 113r) mam par snang mdzad kyis his byug hyu ha ni sa ru vai ro tsa na'i sgras lus byug pa 'o. 25. All versions except A read 'afterwards, thinking of success or failure' with T dngos grub dang dngos grub ma yin pa possibly equivalent to siddhyasiddhi (SED 1216).

A simplifies to 'thinks of what he wants to attain'. T de'i steng du isagre 'in the beginning'. 26. P reads 'jigs pa chert po byitng na 'if great fear arises, the devotee should not be afraid'. A's emendation has been followed. 27. T las is synonymous with (magical) power (siddhi) here.

In general las has been translated as 'rite' whenever possible, though strictly speaking it means 'the activity of effectively performing a rite' or, more simply, a 'tantric deed'. hi. Chapter 2: Performing Rituals) jsjext I shall explain methods for the set of rituals.

The wrathful devotee should perform the killing, the driving away, etc., in due sequence by abiding in the yoga of the glorious Vajramahabhairava.

Firstly, the devotee should cleanse himself of all impurities.28 This is because he is the lord of the yoga29 In the yoga-tantras, the one in union with the deity should do this since he himself is the lord of the yoga.

For this ritual the devotee who desires to kill should, in union with the Buffalo-headed One, naked, with dishevelled hair and facing south, draw the sixteen-section wheel of Vajramahabhairava on a cemetery cloth in venom, blood, salt, black mustard, margosa andthornapple30juiceusingapen made from a raven feather or from human bone.

When he has placed it in between two fires31 along with the name of the subject of the rite, he surrounds it with the ten-syllables and writes eight HUMs.

In the corners the syllable PHAT is to be written. Anointing himself with warm butter he places the diagram within two crania.

When he has placed this above three hearths, he should kindle a fire in cremation wood. Then he tramples it out with his left foot and recites the ten-syllable spell.

By this means the subject will definitely die forthwith. Or, if he wants the subject to be afflicted by a disease he puts this same wheel within two crania, digs a half-cubit down below a hearth, places it there and kindles a fire. If he does this the subject will be stricken with the disease.

1 have explained the preparation of the sixteen section wheel for this (136v), but a particular feature here is that the syllables of the subject's name and of the spell are to be written alternately.

32 He sprinkles the cemetery cloth with leavings picked at by a crow together with the items mentioned previously and with vairocana, and on it draws the wheel according to the rite given earlier. If he hides it in a cemetery, the subject will die. If he hides it beside a single tree, the subject will be driven away.

If he hides it in a place with a single lingam. the subject will be separated. If he hides it in water, the subject will be petrified. If he places it inside a house, the subject will be pacified. If he takes it out and washes it, the subject will be released. Furthermore, this rite will be explained: he draws the wheel of Yama on a cemetery cloth using the previous rite.

He makes an eight-inch image of the subject from earth from a cemetery, a cross-roads, a place with a single tree, an anthill, a riverbank, a place with a single lingam, by a royal gate, and from vairocana, ш/>*я-water and cremation charcoal. He puts the spell of the wheel at the heart of that image and stabs that in five places with a dagger33 made from human bone. He pierces all its joints 28. A and D read re shig sngags pas gsaiipar bya sfe 'each devotee should kill', which does not suit the context. 29. The 'lord of the yoga' here is the central mandala figure, i.e.

the devotee as Vajramaha bhairava. 30. The thorn apple (Datura) rites of the VMT have been treated separately in Siklos 1993. 31. The fires are syllables RAM' (Sonasri I49v3). 32. The translation is tentative. P reads srel 'alternate', which M confirms with selgiigdekiii, but other versions (D, R, U, S) have spel 'increase' (= vrdh-), i.e. the vowels take vrddhi,

33. KUa (T phur bti), translated here as 'dagger', is a ritual peg or pin based on the the cosmic mountain Mandara which Indra fixed to the bottom of the primordial waters thereby pinning down the serpent Vrrra. It is a symbol of the cosmos, usable for pinning down any inimical spirit or for acts of slaving at a distance. KUa are usually made of khadira wood or iron.

with sharp thorns. He places it within two crania, and, out of earth from the seven places and an anthill he makes an image of Yama one cubit in size, baring his teeth, with a huge belly, one head, two arms, holding a knife and a noose, naked and with hair dishevelled.

He places the two crania at its heart and, at midday or midnight, hides it in a cemetery or a cremation-site. He keeps it facing south for a long time and then turns it face down and buries it. He should go home, enter meditative equipoise and if, while in the yoga of the (137r) Buffalo-headed One, he recites the ten-syllable spell with the subject's name, the subject will die in three days. If he takes it [= the cranial vessel] out and washes it, [the subject) will be released [from it].

Now the rite of immobilising: on the skin of a musk shrew34 he writes the ten-syllable spell in venom and the other substances. Filling that skin with dust from the footprint of the subject and with earth from a place where [the subject) has urinated, he ties it up with [the subject's] hair.

Then he should mix up the urine of an ass with vairocana and fill a clay bowl with it. He places the device in it and places it on a cremation fire. He tramples the fire out with his left foot, and, if he recites the ten-syllable spell while in the yoga of Yama, the subject will be immobilised in a day.

This is the practice for those who in the end are unable to attain skill in magic.35 The devotee should perform this rite in great wrath. Now the rite of separating: having drawn the wheel of Yama according to the above rite, he makes a bull and a horse out of earth from the seven places, puts one on top of the other, puts the wheel into their hearts and puts them beside a margosa tree.

Also, he draws the wheel in bull and horse blood — this is the particular feature of this spell. If he enters meditative equipoise, they [= a couple] will be separated in tbree days. Then, if the devotee wants to drive someone away, he should make a camel out of earth from the seven places and should then imagine on its back a wind mandala in the shape of a half-moon transformed from the syllable YAM.

Above it he imagines the subject, and on his back he imagines the form of Yama holding a staff in his hand. He thinks that the subject is beaten with that staff and is led off facing south.

If he draws the wheel along with the subject's name according to the rite told of above and places (137v) the wheel at the [camel's] heart, he will definitely be driven away in seven days. though human bone is recommended by the yoga-tantra.

For a discussion of the main issues regarding the origins and practicalities of Idla worship reference may be made to Boord 1993 which is based primarily on the extensive Rnying ma literature on the Ma. 34. Q. v. the Musk Shrew Rites (MSR; Text V). DPU read rte'u to 'colt' or 'foal' (when it is equivalent to kisora), though M contradicts P this time translating chucchundara as ktirene 'espece deputois'

Kisora is also recorded in the meaning of 'youth' (SED: 284), a possible interpretation. 35.

This sentence depends on the precise meaning of the expression T rje.s su bziing ha. This is interpreted here as "anugraha 'proficiency in magical skill' (i.e. - 'facilitating by incanta tions' SED 32, nominal equivalent to amigmhin 'proficient in magical skill').

'Those who do not attain bestowal', involving a less obscure meaning of anugraha, does not lead to a much clearer result. Now the explanation of this rite: at noon he anoints an outcaste36 with clarified butter and, after climbing a margosa tree, he brings him up there ; he scrapes the butter from his body with an oyster shell and makes him stay there.

When he has obtained that clarified butter, he gets a Siva-banner37 and the soot from the smoke produced while burning it he mixes into that butter and smears this on the shoe of the person he wants to drive away; or, if he sprinkles it on the arms and legs of that person, he will instantly be driven away.

Now the explanation of this rite: on a cemetery cloth or on birch bark he draws the wind mandala in crow's blood with a crow feather. In the centre of the wind mandala he adds the name of the subject and binds it to the neck of the consumer of offerings.38 He who is in union with the Buffalo-headed One seizes the crow, faces south and releases it. Instantly he39 will journey to whatever place the crow does. Moreover, concerning driving away: he anoints himself with hot clarified butter and takes the nest of a consumer of offerings from a margosa tree. After burning that nest in a fire made from wood from an ancestral forest he collects the ashes.

The person on whose head he sprinkles some will be driven away. Also, for the rite of separating, he puts together the wings of a crow and an owl and the hair of a brahmin and an outcaste and kindles a fire of thorn apple wood. Burning these items in this smokeless fire he takes the ashes and, if he puts the ashes in between a woman and a man after reciting the ten-syllable spell, they will instantly be separated. Then, using a cemetery cloth he writes the subjects' names while moistening it with venom and other substances (138r). He puts an ichneumon pelt and a snakeskin in it and rolls it up.

The people in whose house he burns40 this will fight amongst themselves. Then, he who wishes to kill makes an image in fasces and urine and sprinkles powdered bone on it. At midnight with hair dishevelled and facing south in the yoga of the Buffalo-headed One he chops it up and burns it. The person whose name has 36. 'Wrathful one' could, less probably, refer to the image of Yama made in the previous paragraph.

The phrase clearly means candala ('outcaste') elsewhere in the texts. 37'Blue, or if you cannot get one, white1 according to A. 38. According to the Uttara-ramayana (Mani 1975: 366) the 10 headed demon-king Ravana interrupted a ceremony attended by the gods.

The latter fled in the forms of various birds, Yama choosing a crow for his form. In gratitude Yama blessed crows and gave them the right to partake of bali food-offerings put out for the ancestors. 39. It is tempting to interpret in such a way that the subject of the rite (sadhya; T bsgrub bya, 'what/who is to be subdued/ accomplished', i.e. the 'victim" of the rite) is the practitioner himself, but this suggestion is hard to justify given the number of occasions in the text where bsgrub hya refers to the person the rite is directed against. Perhaps on an advuita basis such distinctions would matter little. 40- T sbas 'hide' instead of sbar 'kindle' (rather than 'bum') would be neater, but all versions readsbar.

been written on it41 will instantly die. This practice has been spoken of by the great Vajrabhairava himself.42 Then, he who wants to drive someone away draws the ten-syllable spell in the sixteen-section wheel with the person's name on a victory banner using the substances mentioned above and cremation-ash.

If he places it in a margosa tree, that person will be driven away. Then, he who wants to immobilise draws the wheel of Yama on a stone slab or a cloth in orpiment and turmeric with the intended victim's name and places it [there].43 If he does this, that person will be immobilised. If the devotee wants to bring someone into his power he puts together earth from an anthill, saffron, bezoar,44 orpiment and turmeric, and makes an image of the male or female subject sixteen inches high.

He draws the wheel of Yama on birch bark using bezoar and blood from his ring finger, and, on his placing it into the heart of the image, he makes offerings with red flowers three times. If, facing west, he recites the ten-syllable spell, within seven days even Indra will come into his power — not to mention a mere person.

Then, if he wants to summon someone, for that he draws the wheel in bezoar and blood from his ring finger on a [~ that person's] skull and heats this in an acacia fire. If he recites [the spell] with the name of the person, that person (138v) will instantly be summoned with the speed of the wind.

Then, if the devotee wants to drive someone insane, he takes thorn apple fruit and, mixing it with human flesh and worm-eaten sawdust, offers it in food or drink. He recites the spell and that person will instantly go insane and then die within seven days. Now, in addition this rite will be explained.

He writes the spell of Yama in venom and the other substances on a cremation cloth and makes an image using human oil45 41. 'Whoever's name you do/make it with will instantly die'. This can be taken as meaning 'whoever's name you recite while doing it will instantly die', but the alternative chosen seems more likely. 42. The temptation to succumb to A's emendation kyis {< kyi) has not been resisted.

Reading kyi produces "I have explained this practice of Vajramahabhairava himself, but it would seem unnecessary to stress this since all the practices detailed in the text are Vajramahabhairava's. But, reading kyis and translating accordingly implies that the text is being delivered not by Vajrabhairava himself but by some other emanation form (ninnanakaya; T sprul sktt), most likely Manjusri who is invoked at the end of each chapter.

This small emendation by the editor of A in an uncontroversial sentence results in a reappraisal of the identity of the speaker of the entire text. 43. 'There' is unexpressed in T, but a margosa tree is the probable location. 44.

Bezoar (rocand or rocana; T gi wang) is a general term for various kinds of concretion found in the entrails of animals. Das (1902: 218) says that there are two basic grades of bezoar according to Tibetan medical theory the highest is from an elephant and the second from a cow (go-rocand). Lesser forms come from other animals like sheep, goats and so on. 45. Whether T kyi or kyis is chosen, the sentence is problematic.

T mar me chen po (* mahddipa) is a lamp containing human oil, out of which it would seem difficult to make an image assuming that kyis is the correct reading. Kyi would imply that an image of such a lamp is to be made.

The translation chosen here involves an interpretation of mar me chen po as 'human oil' and retention of kyis. and vairocana. At its heart he places the wheel and goes to an ancestral forest. If the yogin. facing south with his body anointed with vairocana, cuts it up with a sharp knife and burns it in a cremation fire having placed the pieces across each other, that person will quickly die. Now this is how the rite of separating is done: if one takes the bones of a crow and an owl and writes the ten-syllable spell with the names of the subjects on them using an iron pin, and rubs one against the other while reciting [the spell] with their names in a place of solitude, they will be separated from each other.

Then, when he has drawn the wheel of Yama on birch bark with the names of a woman and a man and has put this in the belly of a frog, the limbs of that man and woman will be pierced by weapons if he hides it under their threshold.

Now the rite for immobilising a girl: writing the spell of Yama on a cemetery cloth using venom and other substances, he makes an image one span in size out of the ashes of a cremated corpse. When he has placed the wheel into its heart he tramples it under his left foot.

If, in union with the Buffalo-headed One, he recites the ten-syllable spell saying 'may such-and-such a girl be petrified', she will be immobilised. (139r) These deeds must not be spoken of to others.

Should the foolish devotee do this he will certainly fall into hell. In order to benefit people who harm the three jewels, treat the masters with contempt, do not keep the pledges, do not hold to the spell, revile the spell and the tantra and injure sentient beings, the devotee takes their evil upon himself with a compassionate and sympathetic mind. If he does otherwise his pledges will deteriorate and he will go to the Great Hot Hell.

I have also explained this in other tantras: one should strive to kill those who revile the masters, slander the Mahayana and deride the practice and wisdom of spell and tantra, or alternatively one should remove them from where they are.

If the uncompassionate yogin acts violently towards others, such actions will rebound on him. Whatever harm the yogin does to sentient beings for whatever reason will happen to him as well. > This is the second chapter, on success in the rituals, from the yoga-tantra of the glorious Vajramahabhairava, the highest manifestation of the gentle Manjusri.

46. T tsha ha chen po is mahatapana, the more usual form being pratapana (T rub tu tsha ha; Edgerton 1953: 422).

This hell is considered the specific destiny of offenders against spiritual practice — 'those who steal food from yogins, rape nuns or virtuous lay women, seduce monks or persuade people to disbelieve in karma' (Tatz and Kent 1977: 68). Tatz and Kent also provide a short account of the tortures of this hell.

Only the avlci hell (for those who destroy the doctrine and kill practitioners) and the specialised tantric vajra hell (for those breaking tantric vows and abusing the tantric path) are considered lower.

[Hi. Chapter 3: Assembling the Spells] What is explained next is the assembly order of the spells for the rites. Seated in a purified place the devotee assembles the spells. He does it like this:

He takes the first syllable of the sixth class,47 the fifth of the fifth, the second of the sixth with the second vowel,48 the third of the second with the second vowel, the third of the seventh, the third of the fourth with the thirteenth vowel, the fifth of the fifth with the eleventh vowel, the first of the sixth, and then the seed syllable of wind.49 He takes the fifth (139v) of the fifth with the eleventh, the third of the fourth with the thirteenth affixed, the second of the sixth with the fifth vowel, the fifth of the third and then adds the seed syllable of wind with the thirteenth vowel. 

He takes the first of the sixth, the third of the fourth, then the seed syllable of wind with the thirteenth vowel, the fifth of the fourth with the third vowel and then the seed syllable of fire and the seed syllable of wind just as it is.

Then he adds the final syllable with the eleventh vowel. The seed syllable of wind is best just as it is. He takes the first of the sixth and then the final syllable with the eleventh vowel. Then he takes the seed syllable of wind and the first of the second doubled. He takes the fifth of the fourth with the third vowel, the seed syllable of fire,50 the fifth of the fifth and then the seed syllable of wind. At the end he puts vairocana51 with the highest power added and the second of the fifth with the first of the third — the wise utter these twice.

This is the root spell52 of the Buffalo-headed One, the wheel of the tantra of Mahabhairava known as Manjusri. One who recites it a hundred thousand times can perform all rites. This is the king of spells and it is impossible for it not to work. 47. The syllables are specified according to the following (usual) scheme with the columns representing the seven classes (varga): 12 3 4 5 6 7 ka ca ta tu pa ya sa kha cha tha tha pha ra sa ga ja da da ba la sa gha jha dha dha bha vu ha ha па пи па та 48.

The sixteen Sanskrit vowels are aaiiuurrlle at oaumh. 49. YAM. 50. RAM. 51. In the root spell vairocana; T mam par snang mdzad seems to indicate the syllable HUM, and here A's reading thog mar supports this. This spell closes with the syllables HUM, and PHAT in versions in the other texts of this cycle ( Three Chapter Tantra) as well as in the standard grimoires {for example, in the Dge lugs pa Zhal 'don gees btus). If the reading dang par 'at first' (P, D) is chosen, mam par snang mdzad would be the syllable OM since this is the opening syllable of the spell.

The 'highest power[ful one]' (T mchog gi dbangphyug) is the bindu (°). 52. Vajrasiddha provides the following eqivalences (not all clear) for the syllables which make up this root speli. 'The syllable YA becomes hate, KSE speaks of stupidity, MA tells of calumny, MI is the slayer of the enemy desire, DA becomes [...],

YA CA are the hammer and staff, N1 is lotus in hand, RA is master of the sword, JA is the goddess Carcika, the sow is the syllable SA [-Vajravarahl], for DO there is SarasvatT, RU has the self-nature of Gauri and NA YO is the self-nature of Chaga (T ray (158v3-5).

He takes the fourth of the seventh with the fourth vowel, adding the seed syllable of fire beneath and then the lord at the end of the sixteen.53 He takes the second of the seventh with the fourth vowel and with the first of the third adding the seed syllable of fire beneath and the lord (140r) of the sixteen at the end.

He takes the fourth of the sixth with the third vowel, and then the first of the first with the seventh vowel.54 He takes the first of the fourth with the second vowel, and the fifth of the fourth which the wise repeat twice. At the beginning he adds vairocana.

He takes the seed syllable which is the eighth of the YA group with the sixth vowel and adorns it with the drop on top, and adds the second of the fifth with the first of the third. This is the king of spells, and through the yoga of the Buffalo-headed One it enables all rites.

It is known as the spell of rites, and all rites will succeed if it is recited three hundred thousand times. He takes the first of the sixth and the fifth of the fifth with the second vowel, and the first of the fourth with the fifth of that group before it. He adds the first of the first and puts vairocana at the beginning, and adds the seed syllable which is the eighth of the YA group with the sixth vowel adorned with the drop on top. He adds the second of the fifth with the first of the third.

This is known as the heart spell of the Buffalo-headed One. If each syllable is recited a hundred thousand times, any suitable rite in the three worlds can be performed. > When the ritual of assembling the spells is performed, offerings should be made.

This is the third chapter from the yoga-tantra of the glorious Vajramahabhairava, the highest form of ManjuSri, which explains spell construction. [iv. Chapter 4: Visualisation) Next the evocation of Vajrabhairava will be explained. One should visualise the deity by the prior understanding of the selflessness of all phenomena, so first one makes all phenomena selfless in nature (140v) by reciting the spell of intrinsic purity.55 One thinks of the smoke-coloured wind mandala arisen from the syllable YAM in the middle of space.

Above that one visualises the moon mandala arisen from the first vowel,56 and above it one thinks of the youthful Manjusri57 arisen from the syllable DHIH.58 There59 one thinks of the solar disc60 arisen from the syllable A. From that 53. H. 54. The omitted line T 'og tu me yi sa ban sbyin 'beneath add the seed syllable of fire' (=RA(M)) would result in a tautologous syllable (*KRR).

55. The spell of intrinsic purity is SVABHAVA SUDDHA SARVA DHARMA SVABHA- VA SUDDHO'HAM, 'intrinsically pure are all dharmas, intrinsically pure am Г.

56. A. 57. Vajrasiddha says that 'the Manjusri is blue [reading sngon, not mngon as PT], one-faced, two-handed with a sword and book in his hands and in vajra -posture. The causal Vajra- dhara is yourself (159v5). 58. 'The syllable DHIH is yellow' (Vajrasiddha 159v4).

59. A clarifies the location as de'i snying khar 'at [[[Manjusri's]]) heart'.

60. The solar disc (T nyi ma'i dkyii 'khor) at the heart is the source for the lights which emanate in order to generate the pledge being (samayasattva; practitioner as deity) and to summon the wisdom-being (jnanasattva; the actual deity), and to summon before one any assembly of buddhus, hodhisattvas, protectors and so forth. This solar disc is marked with a seed- solar disc lights emanate and invite the tathagatas, bodhisattvas, wisdom-goddesses and wrathful ones who reside in the ten directions. One thinks that they come and enter the solar disc.

As a result Manjusri and the tathagatas, etc., unite and one thinks of them in the solar disc.

61 The light which blazes from this illuminates fully for a hundred thousand leagues around. Above it one thinks of a black HUM endowed with five rays of light.

From that HUM the lights emanate and are reabsorbed as explained before.

One visualises that from that syllable a great black vajra arises in threatening form62 endowed with the five rays of light. One thinks that from that vajra minute buddhas, bodhisattvas, wrathful ones and wisdom goddesses seated on solar discs fill the sphere of space like unto a mass of sesame seeds and are in the solar disc. By means of these buddhas and so on one brings sentient beings to maturation and places them in the state of enlightenment. One then thinks that these gather together and reenter the vajra. One thinks that the vajra itself becomes the glorious Buffalo-headed Vajramahabhairava.

He is nine faced, Buffalo-(141r) headed,63 blazing like the fire of the age of destruction; he is the great Vajrabhairava able to devour the three worlds, grimacing, flicking his tongue uttering 'ha ha';64 the wrinkles on his forehead are terrifying, his eyebrows and eyes wrathful like the age of destruction.

65 He roars, devouring human fat, marrow, blood and oil, making the threatening gesture66 both towards the gods of this universe and towards those gods gone beyond this universe, devouring Indra, Brahma, Mahesvara, Visnu, the spirits and so on.

The top of his head with bared syllable HUM, and it is also on this disc that the syllables of the spells assembled in Chapter 3 revolve during recitation. 61. 'One thinks of them in the solar disc1 (T nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor du bsam par bya'o) seems redundant here since the deities summoned have been unified and absorbed into the solar disc.

The M translator may have sensed the problem: naran-u manual kemen sedkigdekui with the solar disc as the (implied) object, but all T versions retain the du. 62. 'A vajra in threatening form' is a vajra with the points opened out.

The usual form of the Indian Buddhist vajra has the points brought together, which change initially served to distinguish the yogic vajra (power directed inwards) from the regal vajra (power directed outwards, i.e. the double trident; Saunders 1960: 184-91).

63. 'The buffalo-face is because he is master of the three worlds' (Vajrasiddha 161r6). The association of Yama (and therefore Yamantaka) with the mahisa is a complex one demanding consideration of both Aryan and Dravidian evidence.

Mahisa as buffalo {Bubalus huhalis) is intimately connected with the cult of Durga and is thus Dravidian in origin, requiring another identification for the Aryan mahisa. It is noteworthy that it is goddesses of the Durga type who replace Yama's twin sister Yami as his consort in later treatises (Nebesky-Wojkowitz 1956: 83). The Tibetan Buddhist myths explaining the buffalo head (Pander 1890: 61) are unconvincing variants of the Dravidian myths.

64. There are four kinds of heroic laugh (vlrahasya). Ha ha is the frightening laugh, hi hi is the pleasing laugh, he he is the majestic laugh and ho ho is the subduing laugh (TD 249).

65. P reads 'jigs pa chen po'i dux ('time of great fear'), but all other versions agree on 'jigpa chen po'i dus ('time of great destruction'). This last refers to the great destruction by fire, water and wind at the end of an жоп {kalpa; T ska/ pa) in which the realms of desire are completely destroyed, and the realms of form partly so (Kloetzli 1983: 75). 66. The threatening gesture {tar/am; T sdigs mdzub/'dzub) is formed by extending the fore finger and fourth finger, and touching the tips of the curved middle and ring fingers to the tip of the curved thumb with the palm facing outwards.

The hand is turned up at the wrist. In European traditions of sorcery this same gesture represents the devil in horned form. teeth67 is ornamented with frightful skulls, and he is terrible indeed, roaring THAT', adorned with skull ornaments,68 with sixteen legs,69 naked.70 ithyphallic,71 left legs extended,72 with a great belly,73 with hair standing upright,74 causing great fear, roaring 'PHEM',75 with thirty four arms76 and holding a fresh elephant skin.

Making this visualisation firm the devotee who has meditatively equalised in this very yoga should continually meditate on this. In the first of his right hands there is a curved knife,

77 in the second a single-pointed javelin,78 in the third a pestle,79 in the fourth a small knife, 80 in the fifth a single-pointed vq/ra,81 in the sixth an axe,82 in the seventh a lance,83 in the eighth an arrow,84 in the ninth an iron hook,85 in the tenth a staff,86 in the eleventh a skull-

67. Literally 'the top of the grinning skull(s) are (/is) ornamented with frightful skulls'.

The implication of the translation chosen is that the first 'skull' means Vajrabhairava's head (with perhaps thodpa = thod'}). The Mongolian (M) ms. is the only version to imply that the thodpa gtsigs pa 'grinning skull' is not Vajrabhairava himself by reading kapala-yi dabc/urlaysan 'piled-up skulls'. T thod byas, not in the dictionaries (Jaschke 1888, Das 1902, TSD) must be *sekhari(< sekhara "crown of head, crest, diadem') + kr- 'make into a diadem', this interpretation confirmed by M titimlegsen 'ornamented'.

68. 'He is ornamented with skull ornaments because he is born from the sphere of dharmas1 (Vajrasiddha 160r5-6).

69. 'His sixteen legs are the complete ascertainment (T mam par dag pa) of the sixteen emptinesses' (Vajrasiddha 160r6).

70. 'He is naked because he understands without obscuration all dharmas' (Vajrasiddha 160r6).

71. 'He is ithyphallic because he becomes the great bliss' (Vajrasiddha 160r6-7).

72. 'His left legs are extended because all dharmas are individually penetrated by emptiness' (Vajrasiddha 160r7). 73. 'His belly is large on account of his anger and wrath' (Vajrasiddha 160r7).

74. 'His hair standing up is a sign of his freedom from suffering' (Vajrasiddha 160r8).

75. 'His terrifying utterance "PHEM" is for causing terror to those who are unsuitable' (Vajrasiddha 160r8).

76. 'The thirty-four arms are the complete ascertainment of the thirty-four aspects of bodhi' (Vajrasiddha 160r8-160vl).

77. 'The curved knife cuts ignorance' (Vajrasiddha 160v3). Kartari/karttrika; T gri gug) is sometimes translated as 'chopper', but its curved shape with the knife-edged point suggests flaying. 78. 'The single-pointed javelin pierces the distinction between subject and object' (Vajrasiddha 160v3).

79. 'The pestle is the destroyer of the degeneration of mindfulness' (smrti) (Vajrasiddha 160v3).

80. 'The small knife is the harmer of desire' (Vajrasiddha !60v3). T chu gri is a small knife with a wavy blade (equivalent to the Malayo-Indonesian kris).

81. "The single-pointed vajra is the destroyer of failings (dosa\ T «yes/w) of body, speech and mind' (Vajrasiddha 160v4). 82. 'The axe is the destroyer of the hardened latencies (vasana; T bag chugs) of the mind' (Vajrasiddha 160v4).

. 'The lance pierces wicked views' (Vajrasiddha 160v4). 84. 'The arrow pierces the pain of obscuration' (Vajrasiddha 160v4-5). 85. 'The hook is for summoning' (Vajrasiddha 160v5). 86. 'The staff is the destroyer of the defilements of action' (Vajrasiddha 160v5).

staff,87 in the twelfth a wheel,88 in the thirteenth a vajra,S9 in the fourteenth a vajra-hammer,90 in the fifteenth a sword,91 and in the sixteenth a skull-drum.92 In the first of his left hands (141 v) there is a skull,93 in the second a head,94 in the third a shield,95 in the fourth a leg,96 in the fifth a noose,97 in the sixth a bow,98 in the seventh intestines,99 in the eighth a bell, l0° in the ninth an arm,101 in the tenth a cemetery cloth,102 in the eleventh a man impaled on a stake,103 in the twelfth a hearth,104 in the thirteenth a skull-cup with hair,105 with the fourteenth he makes the threatening gesture,106 in the fifteenth a three-pointed pendant,107 in the sixteenth a 87. 'The skull-staff is the self-nature of the mind of enlightenment' {bodhicitta; T byang chub kyi sems) (Vajrasiddha 160v5).

The khatvanga is a tantric staff on which are represented three heads one above the other. In some interpretations the heads are those of a child, man and old man (Lessing 1942: 78); in others these are of a freshly severed head, a decaying head and a skull.

88. 'The wheel is the deed of turning the wheel of doctrine' {Vajrasiddha 160v5). 89. 'The vajra is the self-nature of the five wisdoms becoming of one flavour' {Vajrasiddha 160v6).

90. 'The hammer is the destroyer of avarice' (Vajrasiddha 160V6). 91. 'The sword bestows the power of the sword and so forth' (Vajrasiddha 160v6).

92. 'The drum is that which exhorts all the buddhas with its most delightful sound' (Vajrasiddha 160v6-7). 93. 'With the blood-filled skull cup he protects the pledges' (Vajrasiddha 160v7).

94. 'The brahmin's head means he liberates by means of great compassion' (Vajrasiddha 160v7).

95. The shield indicates victory over Mara' (Vajrasiddha !60v7). 96. 'The leg bestows the rank of the body of the buddha1 (Vajrasiddha 160v7-8). 97. 'The noose is what binds to the perfect wisdom'{Vajrasiddha 160v8).

98. 'The bow is victorious over the three fears' (Vajrasiddha 160v8). 99. 'The intestines are what distinguish the heart of emptiness' (Vajrasiddha 160v8). Intestines are regarded as a motif particularly connected with the cycle of Guhyasamaja.

100. 'The bell is to indicate the nature of the perfection of wisdom' (Vajrasiddha 160v8-

101. 'The arm is for accomplishing all virtuous activities' {Vajrasiddha 161rl). 102. The cemetery cloth is for eliminating the obscurations concerning the selflessness of dharmas' (Vajrasiddha 161rl). 'Shroud' is the usual meaning for a cemetery cloth, but it can also be identified with a human skin (dpu' bo'i ras; n. 117).

103. 'Impaled on a stake on account of his considering all things (vastu) to be impaled on emptiness' (Vajrasiddha 161r2). 104. The hearth shows that all dharmas blaze in the clear light' (Vajrasiddha 161 r2).

105. 'The decaying skull is filled with the ambrosia of compassion' (Vajrasiddha 16lr2). T thod tshal is a skull cup which differs from the usual one (T thod pa) in having the scalp with hair still attached. 106. The threatening gesture threatens the mams'1 (Vajrasiddha !61r3).

See n. 66 above for the threatening gesture. At this point in the text there is doubt as to whether the deity himself makes the threatening gesture or whether he holds a human arm making the threatening gesture. All versions hint at the former (by reading pas) except A (pa na), but many paintings show a severed arm displaying the threatening gesture held in the deity's fourteenth hand.

107. The three pointed ornament is for considering the three, body, speech and mind, as one' (Vajrasiddha 161r3). cemetery cloth billowing in the wind.108 With two of his arms he holds a fresh elephant skin.109 With the first of his right legs he tramples a human, with the second a buffalo, with the third an ox, with the fourth an ass, with the fifth a camel, with the sixth a dog, with the seventh a ram and with the eighth a jackal.'

l0 With the first of his left legs he tramples a vulture, with the second an owl, with the third a crow, with the fourth a parrot, with the fifth a hawk, with the sixth an eagle, with the seventh a myna and with the eighth a crane.

The first head of the glorious Mahabhairava is jet-black, in buffalo form and very wrathful. Of the three heads on the right-hand side, the first is blue, the second red and the third yellow — these three faces of the lord are very wrathful. Of the three faces on the left-hand side, the first is white, the second smoke-coloured and the third black and very wrathful.

The faces should be thought of with the teeth bared. The face in between the two horns112 should be thought of as red and very terrifying, with blood dripping from its mouth.'

13 Above it one should think of the face of Manjusri, small, yellow, slightly wrathful, adorned with the ornaments of youth and with the hair on his head in five locks.'l4 One should meditate on all the faces as having three eyes.115 One perpetually visualises like this single-pointedly.

(142r) When the yogin who is in a heroic location has meditated on himself as the glorious Buffalo-headed Vajrabhairava, he should then recite the spell.

When he recites he thinks that there is a solar disc in his heart, and he thinks that the syllables of his spell are on it. Once it is blazing the recitation should be done with an unwavering mind. < The devotee who is in this yoga always performs all the rites of Bhairava.

In the cemetery, meditating, he always eats the five ambrosias.'lf) There is no achievement without doing this. Then, consuming human fat, the yogin who wanders in the night 108. The wind cloth shows the illusoriness of all dharmas (Vajrasiddha 161 r3-4).

109. 'The elephant skin is that of the elephant of stupidity' (Vajrasiddha 161r4). HO. ' "With his left legs [he tramples] the eight, humans and so on" because of the purity (T dagpas) of his eight great powers {mahasiddhi)' (Vajrasiddha 161 r4). 111.' "With his right legs [he tramples] the eight, vulture, etc." on account of the purity {T dag pas) ofhis eight sovereign qualities' (Vajrasiddha 161r4-5).

The eight sovereign qualities (asta isvara; T dbang phyug brgyad) are those of body, speech, mind, miracles, free movement, abode, wish-fulfilling and qualities (TD 290-91). This list of birds is not entirely the same as that given in VBT 1, though only one bird, the parrot, appears solely in this list. 112. The two horns are for the two truths' (Vajrasiddha 161 гб). The two truths are conven tional and ultimate truths relating to samsara and nirvana respectively.

113. 'Because he is making offerings to those possessed of buddha-mind, the red head above drips blood in this way' (Vajrasiddha 161 r6—7). 114. The ninth yellow head is to show he is an emanation of Manjusri — adorned with ornaments of youth on account ofhis youthful appearance and adorned with five locks of hair on his crown on account of the purity of the five emancipations' (T byang chub pa - mukti; T tharpa; TSD 2635 (Vajrasiddha 161r7-8). 115. The three eyes show the three times' (Vajrasiddha 161r8). 116. Yoxpancamrta (T bdud rtsi inga) seep. 59 n. 51.

recites the root spell three hundred thousand times. The у о gin who recites thus succeeds in the rites.

This is the fourth chapter, on visualisation, from the tantra of the glorious Vajramahabhairava, the highest of ManjusrTs manifestations. [v. Chapter 5: Painting the Image] Next, the rite of painting the image, which was taught by the glorious Vajrabhairava will be explained. 

A painter who is good, undistracted, without anger, pure, wise honest, faithful, loving, and without desire should paint on a hero cloth117 or on a shroud or on a flower cloth118 or on a child's birth cloth,'19 or, if these are not available, on any suitable cloth. If accomplishments are desired, offerings to the heroes should be made. The rite for this: he who has entered meditative equalisation should paint the painting in a secret place.

The painter or the practitioner should paint the painting so that laymen do not see it.120 On the painting he has sixteen legs, thirty-four arms, nine heads; he is naked, black, with right (142v) [legs] extended, with a terrifying form since he is the Causer of Terror, and he is ithyphallic. He is to be painted with his first head as a buffalo head, and with three wrathful heads on the right side — blue, red and yellow.

On the left side his heads are white, smoke-coloured and black. In between these one should paint a very red head. Above that one should paint a yellow Manjusri head, slightly angry. In his right hands he has a curved knife, a single-pointed spear, a pestle, a small knife, a single-pointed vajra, an axe, a lance, an arrow, a hook, a staff, a skull-club, a wheel, a vajra, a vajra -hammer, a sword and a skull-drum.

In his left hands he has a skull, a head, a shield, a leg, a noose, a bow, intestines, a bell, an arm a cemetery cloth, a man impaled on a stake, a hearth, a skull-cup with hair, a threatening gesture, a three-pointed ornament and a cloth blown about by the wind.

He is to be drawn holding a fresh elephant skin in two hands. With his right legs [he treads on] a human, a buffalo, an ox, an ass, a camel, a dog, a ram and a jackal; and with his left legs a vulture, an owl, a crow, a parrot, a hawk, an eagle, a myna and a crane. Vajramahabhairava should be drawn standing like this. Around him121 the great cemeteries are to be 117.

A hero cloth (T dpa' bo'iras) is 'the skin of a hero slain in battle' (Lalitavajra 2. 121r6). 118. A flower cloth is a 'girl's garment' (Lalitavajra 2. 121r6). However puspa (T me tog) 'flower' is also a common word for menstruation, so 'menstrual cloth' is a possible meaning (Nebesky-Wojkowitz 1975: 347).

119. T bu skyes pa'i rets 'a child's birth cloth' is given by all versions except A and is confirmed by M kobegiin toriigsen-ii box. Lalitavajra's commentary definitely reads bu bcas pa'i ras (2. I21r6), this being not merely an error in Tenjur P, but a variant that can be confirmed by the commentarial gloss bud med kyi gos so 'it is a woman's garment' (ibid.), parallelling the 'girl's garment' mentioned in n. 118 above.

120. If T ri mo mkhan dang sgrub pa pos are taken as the subjects of the final bri bar bya, the mthong ha las seems suspended and lacking any obvious interpretation. M implies 'the practitioner draws the showing [of the deity] not showing to others who are laymen' (butugegcin-ber ujekii-yiyirtincu-deki busud-a ulu ujegiil-пп jiru-^daquibuyu). \2\ Л de'i 'ogtu here means 'after that' (Das 1902: 1117), though the expression is easy to misunderstand, and both the editor of A and the M translator did so. The editor of A corrected to de'iphyi rol 'outside him [= the deity]', which is where the cemeteries are located. drawn.

There one should see fearful things — ogres, field-guardians,122 ghouls, figures of people impaled on the points of lances. One should draw people hanging from the tops of fig trees and also people burning. One should also draw people run through by spears. One should also draw various birds, vultures, crows, dogs and jackals uttering lha ha'.

One should also draw practitioners (143r) in the cemeteries single-pointedly looking at the Lord, with hair dishevelled, adorned with the five symbols,123 holding skull-drums, skulls and skull-staffs, adorned with skulls on the tops of their heads and laughing.

This is the secret painting, and on putting it in a deserted place one should offer incense made from human flesh and over it one should recite using a rosary made from human skulls.124 The devotee who enters meditative equalisation and strives three times a day protects the painted image. Further, he does not put it anywhere else. Also he does not display it before anyone else.

Tasting, drinking and eating, he should always eat human flesh at midnight as his feast. If he wishes for the highest achievements, he should offer incense made from blood and vairocana three times a day before the painted image.

The fifth chapter, on the ritual of painting the image, from the yoga-tantra of the glorious Vajrabhairava, the highest manifestation of Manjusri. [vi. Chapter 6: Burnt Offerings] Next, the explanation of the ritual of burnt offering125 will be presented in the order previously given. Firstly, each devotee goes to a desolate place and undertakes all the ritual deeds of burnt offering at midnight.

All the rites are to be performed by one in union with the deity as explained previously. The rites are as follows. If he wants to kill he should mix up human bone, vairocana, ass dung, dog dung, thorns, hair and fingernails with melted butter. Entering meditative equipoise using the yoga of the Buffalo-Headed One, he faces south and, if he bums [those things] a hundred and eight times in a cremation fire126 with the subject's name, the subject will certainly die 122. The field-guardians (ksetrapala; T zhing skyong) are protective deities of cemeteries. Eight such guardians are described for the eight cemeteries.

They are elephant-headed, human - headed, sea-monster-headed, buffalo-headed, elephant-headed (again), ram-headed, ghoul- headed and stag-headed (Lessing 1942: 136). 123. The five symbols (mudra) are the five bone ornaments of the yogin (jewels, bracelets, earrings, belt, wheel (= pendant)).

The standard listing adds the ashes of a cremated corpse (TD: 265). 124. T dung chen gyi phreng ha is translated here as 'rosary made of human skulls' (confirmed by Das 1902: 628), and not as 'conch-shell rosary', the M equivalent. The construction dung chen parallels sha chen 'great flesh' (= human flesh, mahamamsa). 125. 'In order to accomplish the various functions we shall explain the function of the burnt offering.

It is said: in the mouth of Agni the burnt offering is very firm; by the burnt offering are the deities satisfied, and satisfied they grant the magical attainments. Every guarantee of the spell is fulfilled by the burnt offering' (Kongtrul; quoted by Beyer 1979: 264-65).

For further details see Beyer (1979: 264-75) and Skorupski (1983a), the latter utilising materials from the yoga-tantra Sarvadurgatiparisodhana cycle (the main text of which has been translated in Skorupski 1983b).

There is also a separate work on burnt offerings to Vajrabhairava preserved in the Tenjur (Amoghavajra 2). 126. Vajrasiddha comments 'the fire is the three-faced, six-armed black god of fire arisen from a RAM in the centre of a triangle [- triangular hearth; see the illustration in Skorupski within three days. Or alternatively he single-pointedly (143v) makes a triangular hearth127 and performs the burnt offering in a fierce128 fire using the items mentioned above.

Through this yoga he achieves success in the rite. Then, if he wants to separate, he puts together crow, owl and peacock feathers with snake-skin, hair, rice husks, buffalo flesh and horse flesh. If he bums these things in a cemetery fire using the ten-syllable spell along with the subjects' names they will be separated.

129 Or alternatively he kindles a fierce fire with cremation wood and if he burns the items previously mentioned in his own house even ones like Vajradhara will be made to separate.

Then, if he wants to drive someone away, he takes crow's flesh and camel dung along with drugs130 and kindles a fire in cremation wood in the centre of a wind mandala. Naked and with dishevelled hair he faces south and, if he makes a thousand burnt offerings with his left hand using the spell of Yama with the name of the person in question, that person will be driven away — no other outcome is possible.

Then, if he wants to immobilise, he makes a square mandala with orpiment, turmeric, ochre and bezoar, faces north and visualises the yoga which accords with the rite.131 If he performs the burnt offering with the subject's name, the subject will be immobilised in seven days.

Then, if he wants to cause the abandonment132 of a city, he kindles a fire in margosa wood and mixes together dog flesh, frog flesh, fowl flesh, camel dung and cat's blood. If, in meditative union with Yama,l33 he performs a thousand burnt offerings in the centre of a wind mandala using the ten-syllable spell with the name of the town, the town will be abandoned.

These activities should be performed in full meditative equipoise, or otherwise the devotee (144r) will bring the rites down on himself. Nor should he let anyone else see. 1983a: 412]. With his right hands he holds a rosary and makes the gesture of fearlessness, in his left hands he holds three wands (T dbyu gu)\ with the other two he holds a curved knife and skull-cup. He is adorned with the ornaments of the wrathful ones, has his left legs extended.

The seed syllable is in his heart' (I62r-I62v). 127.

There are four basic types of hearth corresponding to the four types of ritual deed (and to the four Vajrabhairavas spoken of by Vajrasiddha; n. 138 below). A triangular hearth is used for wrathful rites (killing, separating and driving away). 128 . M has doysin-u yal 'fire of the wrathful ones'. 129. The usual word used in this text for the rite of separating' is T 'bye/dbye ha (= bheda < bhid), but here the text has dbral ha (< 'phral ha) 'separate', 'cut'.

There might be some kind of technical distinction between the two.

130. T chang translates matta or muda, general words meaning any kind of (mind affecting) drug.

The Sanskrit words are recorded as meaning, amongst other things, soma. Datum, musk, elephant's rutting-fluid, and fermented drinks (but not 'spirits', despite SED: 777 who was unaware that distillation was unknown in traditional India).

Both words are connected with the verb mad- 'rejoice, be under the influence of a drug, enjoy heavenly bliss' (said of gods, etc.). 131. T Rjes su 'brangba is interpreted as unuvartana 'conformity to'.

132. T bskrad (= ucchatana), translated as 'driving away' when referring to persons, means 'causing to abandon' when referring to cities (SED 173), though 'ruination' is also a possible meaning. 133. This and similar rites are effective through the visualisation of Yama because Vajrabhairava can then command this Yama to realise the rite.

The primordial meeting between the two (described in the Myth) is in this way reenacted. I Then, if he wants to immobilise a woman he should mix up thorns, venom and mustard with his own blood.

If he performs a thousand burnt offerings in the cremation fire saying 'immobilise this woman' and the ten-syllable spell, she will be immobilised — no other outcome is possible. Then, if he wants to pacify,134 he takes butter, honey, milk and bermuda grass, and kindles the fire in palash wood.

Then, visualising what he wants to pacify he sits facing east, and if he performs a thousand and eight burnt offerings at the three times,135 that country will be pacified through this. Then, if he wants to increase, he takes sesame, rice, barley136 and butter and kindles a fire in gular wood.

Then, visualising the yoga which conforms to the rite and facing north in meditative equipoise, when he makes a thousand burnt offerings at the three times using the ten-syllable spell, there will be increase.

Then, if he wants to summon, he makes an image in black mustard.

If he burns it a hundred and eight times in a fire of acacia wood using the spell of Yama, he will accomplish what he has not accomplished.137 Within seven days whoever he wants will doubtless be summoned. Then, if he wants to drive someone insane, that person will become insane if he burns the nest of a vulture and human flesh.

If he bums these in a fire of rice-chaff he will be blessed with good fortune.

Then, if wanting to tum wealth into poverty, he performs a hundred and eight burnt offerings at night in a fire of cottonwood using thorn apple fruit, [that wealth] will indeed become trifling.

If he burns myrobalan that wealth will be restored. If he performs a hundred and eight burnt offerings at night in the sixth month with human flesh and drugs in front of the great Lord, he will become the ruler of all lands. If he performs a thousand burnt offerings with the flesh of an ox and blood with the name of the subject, then as long as that person lives there is no doubt he will be [the devotee's] slave.

If he performs a hundred and eight burnt offerings at night using dog flesh with va/ra-water with his self as it (144v) came into being and using the subject's name, that person along with his wealth will come into his power. If, visualising at night a king with single pointed concentration, he performs a hundred and eight burnt offerings with horse flesh and vairocana using the spell of Yamantaka, within seven days that king and his retinue will come into his power.

If he performs a thousand burnt offerings at night with the flesh and semen of an elephant using the ten-syllable spell and visualising all human worlds, within seven days they will come into his power. If he fearlessly performs a hundred and eight burnt offerings with fish, meat and drugs using the ten-syllable spell, all women will come into his power.

134. The technical meaning of the rite of pacification is the stopping of rites of others affecting oneself. 135. The three times are morning, noon and night.

136. For the vedic background to rice and barley as magical substances in India see Gonda 1987. 137. The editor of A was uncomfortable with this phrase and made a (tautologous) correction to des bgugs so 'by that [he is] summoned'. A also omits gshin rje'i sngags kyix , possibly feeling that Yama's spell is out of place here.

Then if, wanting to drive away, he performs a thousand burnt offerings with crow's flesh not mixed with anything else and using the ten-syllable spell with the subject's name, even one like Vajradhara will flee — not to mention a mere person.

Then, if he performs burnt offerings at midnight with a crow's nest and rice husks using the ten-syllable spell along with the subject's name after kindling the fire in thorn apple wood, [the subject] will be driven away within seven days.

Then, if the devotee, desirous of bringing [a woman] under his control, mixes up sesame, rice and menstrual blood with va/ra-water and, facing west, burns it in an acacia fire having visualised the red form of the yoga1^ and using the ten-syllable spell with the woman's name, she will come to him and not be parted from him for as long as he lives.

Then if, wanting to summon, he performs a hundred and eight burnt offerings in acacia wood with the five ambrosias and butter using the person's name, that person will instantly come. These activities are to be done by a devotee who has undertaken the preliminary propitiations. If he does {145r) otherwise, he will be derided by people.

Just as I shall not provide specifics so he should not provide specifics for others.

A devotee who does so will not attain the powers. I have also explained in other tantras how specific explanations should not arise.

Not even a Vajrasattva could succeed were he to speak of the specifics of what is to be done. On this account the devotee should not reveal the rites before anyone. Nor should he do them together with anyone else.

If the devotee wants to perform the rites he should do them by himself— through this the devotee succeeds in all rites.

This is the sixth great chapter, on the rites of burnt offering, from the yoga-tantra of Vajrabhairava, the highest manifestation of Manjusri. fvii.

Chapter 7: Meditation] Now the rites of meditation will be explained. By the practice of meditation and spells all aims are fulfilled. For the rites for this, firstly the yogin who is in the yoga of the Buffalo-headed One should perform the rites after purifying himself. He thinks that a fire mandala arisen from the syllable RAM blazes brightly all round.

Above it he visualises in front of himself the subject who is naked, with dishevelled hair and terrified. Then from his own body many wrathful forms are emanated. He should think that these wrathful ones stab [the subject] with their knives and drink his blood.

He thinks that they devour the flesh of the subject and rip out his entrails. At that moment he should say: 'Strike! Strike those who harm the Three Jewels and revile the master! Kill! Kill them!' Just by thinking this even a Vajradhara will die in seven days, not to mention a lesser being.

Next, the practice of this meditation (I45v): maintaining divine pride by means of the yoga of the Buffalo-headed One all rites will be successful. He thinks of the subject weeping in the centre of a fire mandala, and then he should think of many 138.

Vajrasiddha (162 v) speaks of four such forms:

i. black Vajrabhairava (for killing, driving away and separating); ii. white Vajrabhairava (for pacifying); iii. yellow Vajrabhairava (for increasing); and iv. red Vajrabhairava (for summoning). ghouls before him. He should think that these ghouls, in various forms and terrible, fiercely devour [the subject's] flesh and drink his blood.

Also he thinks that there are various types of birds — vultures, crows and owls, and also jackals and dogs, eating his flesh and drinking his blood. Through the practice of this meditation [the subject] will doubtless die.

When one undertakes this meditation even a man who is a hundred leagues away can be seized mentally.

l39 The devotee should be firm in the meditation.

Then, if he wants to separate, he thinks of one victim in the heart of a buffalo and the other victim in the heart of a horse. He thinks that the horse and buffalo fight each other for as long as the horse and buffalo are not reduced to dust. Then he thinks that the two hate each other, and merely by this thought those two will certainly fight each other — it cannot be otherwise.

Then, if he wants to drive away, he thinks of a camel arisen from the syllable YAM, and he thinks of a half-moon shaped wind mandala arisen from a YAM on its back.

On it he thinks of the subject who is naked, with dishevelled hair and frightened, and, in union with the Buffalo-headed One, he thinks of the form of Yama on [the subject's] back holding a staff in his right hand with his hair dishevelled, and then he makes that camel face south and releases it.

He thinks this reciting the spell of Yama with the subject's name (146r). Just by thinking this the yogin can even drive away a Vajradhara in seven days like this. Or otherwise in the practice of this meditation, he thinks of the naked victim with hair loose on the back of a crow or a vulture.

On [the subject's] back he thinks of Yama holding a hammer in his hand and grasping the victim's hair. He thinks of him [Yama] as being commanded by the Buffalo-headed One, as facing south and then as leaving. If he thinks this in single-pointed yoga, [the subject] will be driven away in seven days by that single-pointed yoga.

Then, if he wants to summon, he thinks of a wind mandala arisen from the syllable YAM and above it a moon mandala arisen from an A and above that the form ot Yama holding a hook and a noose in his hands. In the yoga of the Buffalo-headed One, he commands: 'Go. Yama, and quickly summon such-and-such a woman from such-and-such a land!'.

When he has exhorted him with these words, he thinks that [Yama] departs in the form of a YAM. A devotee who resides in the practice of this meditation summons women of the three realms and enjoys them. If his thoughts are firm, through these practices he can do these things. Now the method for reviving one bitten 14° by a snake: he thinks of an eight-petalled white lotus in [the subject's] heart.

Above it he thinks of the third vowel, and on the petals eight PHATs. Beneath it he should think of the form of a serpent, and he should think that ambrosia drips from a white syllable I on its head.

He should think that the ambrosia issues from the eyes of that serpent and (146v) is absorbed into the body of 139.

A tries to solve the problem of T has by correcting to dpag tshad hrgyu na gnus pa'i skyes hu yung sents kyis hzungs te bsam gtan hrtsam mo 'even a person a hundred leagues away is seized and one undertakes the meditation".

M implies a correction to hzungs ha'i resulting in 'he undertakes the meditation of seizing with the mind even a man who is a hundred leagues away'. '40. T sbrulgyis zin pa blang ba'i rub tu byedpa is 'the practice of raising one finished (zin) by a snake', though T zin (- upatta) is not recorded as meaning 'bitten' or 'affected'.

the subject. By means of the practice of this meditation even venom completely filling the three realms is annihilated. One can even eat a thousand doses of venom. Now the practice of the meditation of melting141 will be told. He thinks of the subject before him. He thinks of a wind mandala arisen from the syllable YAM on his two legs. Above those in his secret place he should think of a triangular red fire mandala blessed with a RAM.

Above that at the heart he should think of a square yellow earth mandala blessed with a LAM. Above that at the forehead he should think of a moon mandala. In its centre he thinks of the syllable РАМ facing downwards from which ambrosia trickles.

After he has contemplated these things well, he thinks that the fire is kindled by the wind, and that the fire burns the mandala of great power [= earth]. He should think that by the heat of the mandala of great power the mandala of ambrosia melts.

Merely by this practice that woman melts. Like the sacred fig tree142 it will doubtless melt.

Then, if he wants to bring a king or a royal minister into his power, the devotee who is in the yoga of the Buffalo-headed One thinks of himself as red. He should be above where the subject is, and he arises as Manjusri red in colour holding a hook and noose in his hands.

He should think that Manjusri binds the subject's heart and throatl43 and summons him. and then causes him to enter the body of Manjusri. He should think that the subject loses control of himself and should think of the ten-syllable spell in his heart.

Further, (147r) the practitioner who is red in colour should enter these syllables in his wisdom-form which he makes one with the subject. Through the practice of this meditation even a universal monarch would doubtless come into his power for the rest of his life.

The devotee who is in full meditative equipoise should do this by means of unwa-vering meditation. Also, he must not give this tantra to anyone.

He must not show the spell either. He must not provide the meditation of the glorious Buffalo-headed Vajrabhairava for anyone. He must not speak of it.

He must not give details about the spells. He must not display the painted form before anyone.

He must keep the painting secret. He must not speak of the practices nor the recitations, nor must he read this tantra aloud even to a few people. If he speaks of it he will be devoured by the glorious Vajrabhairava, the yoginis and the dakinis. Since the pledges become spoilt, the devotee must not give it to anyone.

He who is firm in the pledges, who is free of conceptualisation, who performs sacred acts of penance, who is meek and devoted to the heroic master, who holds truly to the doctrine of the tathagatas, who conceals the tantras, who is not wrathful, who is possessed of compassion, who adheres to recitation and meditation, who shrinks from actions leading to rebirth — one who is possessed of good qualities like these is a good disciple.

He who shows great reverence to the sacred mandala and the glorious Vajramahabhairava, whose mind is filled with great compassion, who is without conceptualisation, who has great reverence for the master, who contemplates the teachings — on such a disciple should the master bestow the tantra of the glorious Vajramahabhairava.

If the devotee bestows it on anyone else, he and the disciple will without a doubt fall into hell. In this world (147v) they will be afflicted with great fear, and beyond this world they will go to hell.

Even the pledges will be damaged. This is the seventh chapter, on success in the rites of meditation, from the yoga-tantra of the glorious Vajramahabhairava, the highest manifestation of Manjusri.

[Colophon] The end of these ritual procedures, on achieving powers by means of the glorious Buffalo-headed Vajramahabhairava, obtained by reading those sections which appeared after selection from the One Hundred Thousand Chapter Tantra of the cycle of the glorious Vajramahabhairava.

The end of the Vajramahabhairava-tantra, the great king of tantras, arisen from the Manjusri-tantra, revealed by the glorious Lalitavajra, the master of the mandala of the holy masters, from the great and glorious land of Oddiyana.

[Translators' colophons] [T] Translated by the Tibetan translator and monk Rdo rje grags in the presence of the Indian pandita Bha ro phyag rdum who is possessed of the highest attainments. [M] Translated into Mongolian by Toin corji.

141. 'Melting' refers to the process whereby the crown cakra (psychic nerve centre) is activated by the opening of the central channel. The Hevajra-tantra says (Sneligrove 1959: 50): 'Candali blazes up at the navel She bums the Five Buddhas. She burns Locana and the others. HAM is burnt and the Moon melts'.

142. T '<J ma yi shing ('milk tree1) can be ksirakastha or ksiradmma, (both types of fig tree) or ksiravrksa, a collective name for various trees including nyagrudhu (Ficus hengalensis), udumhara (Ficus glomerata) and madhuka (Bassia hutyracea, said to have an intoxicating shadow).

Their sap is here compared to the dripping hodhicitta. 143. A correction so as to mean 'Manjusri hooks his heart [with the hook] and binds his neck [with the noose]' is tempting given that an almost identical meditation in Kanha's commentary to the Hevajra-tantra phrases it in this way (Sneligrove 1959 (I): 55n), but no version of this text reads anything other than 'binds and summons'. -\

II The Ritual Procedure Tantra of Vajrabhairava (147v) The Ritual Procedure1 Tantra of the glorious Vajrabhairava. Salutations to the Lord of Speech! fi. Chapter 1: Meditation on Method and Wisdom] < Now, what is explained here is how to deplete2 sentient beings — the foremost method for the great accomplishment of turning suffering into liberation, which arises from these secret spells.

First is Vairocana, and with him is the Lord of Speech;3 they turn the wheel [of doctrine] by means of the vajra. 'He adorns the lord of the planets4 and the king of the spirits5 with two human seed syllables. [He provides] a reliquary along with the burnt relics, otherwise he will not attain knowledge.

6 If he who abides in the sphere of the ш/ra-wielder recites the syllables a hundred and ten thousand times, all defilements will be cleansed and he will doubtless obtain the ability to pacify, to increase, (148r) to control, to suppress, to kill, to drive away, to summon, to separate, to immobilise, to cause downfall and to obtain royal power. He undertakes the meditation wherever he wants — in a cemetery, in a thicket, by a spring, on a riverbank, in a wild place,7 by a single tree, in an abandoned house, in a desolate place with a single lingam\ >

1. Kalpa (T rtugpa; M onul) means 'that which lays down the ritual and prescribed rules for ceremonial and sacrificial acts' (Apte 1959: 388). 'Ritual procedure' is the translation used here. 2. The Mahavastu (i. 52.6) has ayuhksayaya ca karmaksayaya ca 'in order to exhaust their lives and karmic debts1 (Jones 1949). To 'exhaust' (ksaya\ T zad (byed)) [the karma of] beings means to liberate them from sarhsara.

3. 'The first' and 'near him' as attributes of the deities (Vairocana and the Lord of Speech (Vagisvara) who is Manjughosa) refer to their positions in the discussion (protagonist and deuteragonist). 4. Graha are spirits associated with the planets (graha; 1 gza'). The 'Lord of planet (-spirits)' can be the Sun (* grahaputi = *grahagramam), or possibly even the eclipsing planet-demon Rahu.

Siva is also known as 'the Lord of the Spirits' (T 'byung po rje = * bhutabhartr(7), also bhutesvara). 6. T gzhan dushesparmi 'gyur (e can also be taken to mean 'knowing it otherwise it will not come about'. '- T rtsub is taken here as a noun meaning 'wild place', though it is possible to interpret it here as an attribute of ngogs.

These uncertainties are unavoidable when translating T verse translations of Sanskrit. M avoids the issue with quduy-un kijayar 'at the edge of a well/spring'.

Then the lord penetrated all his emanations and entered the meditative concentration called 'the mirror-like',8 and for the sake of causing penetration into all bodies and wisdoms he made his body white with five faces, and observing all worldly beings he, by uttering the very syllables of his own lineage, turned his body, speech, mind, qualities, religious acts and wisdoms of one single nature into the emanation body.

'Ah, the victorious great vajra is that which brings about the dual aim. 9 Filling the sphere of the sky with light and endowed with the five colours, all the bodies of the sages on the tips of the light rays evoked by the seed syllable spell are born from the abode of the buddha. When they enter it [= the vajra), the deity's body is completed.

He is six-headed, frowning in wrath and very lustrous, with a buffalo head above which is the head of Manjusri smiling; the rest are red and yellow and blue and like the colour of smoke, with hair pointing upwards.

He is adorned with skulls and freshly severed heads, entrails and snakes, bones and vajra -garlands. Dressed in elephant and tiger skins, laughing he chants "HUM PHAT"; he is six armed and lustrous, and repeatedly emanates clouds of wrathful deities with etheric bodies.

In his right hands he holds in sequence a staff, hammer and pestle; in his left he holds in sequence a ghoul, an iron hook and a noose.

Standing on top of a lotus, solar disc, a buffalo and Yama, with six legs, the right ones extended in the attitude of dance (148v) he destroys the lords of the world. in this way whoever has faith, is wise, has renounced deception, and, having ob-tained the consecrations, gladdens his ш/ra-master — if he again and again recalls this he will attain great steadfastness. Listen to me, assembly of deities. 

If you delight in the words of the hero and constantly chew human flesh, you will rapidly succeed in the rituals thereby.

Emanate many bodies and absorb well these bodies into your own. By knowing that all is illusion itself you will bring about the end of your worldly existence.i0

The hollow channel11 is delight and causes the mind of enlightenment to drip continuously. The two red lotuses face to face are loosened by 8.

Since the emanations (nirmanakaya; T sprul sku) of a buddha arise from the non-dual "dharma body' (dharmakaya; T chos sku) each buddha can 'penetrate' or enter into any or all emanations since enlightened beings are the same in their dharma aspects.

At this point in the text this process of interpenetration is linked to the 'mirror-like' concentrative state entered by the lord, mirror-like since all realities or phenomena appear spontaneously and without effort in the mind. Into all these appearances penetration can take place. 9.

The 'goals' or 'purposes' (artha; T don) are traditionally thought of as twofold: one's own goal (svartha; T rang don) and that of others (prartha; T gzhan dun); TD 196. From here on the speaker is presumably Manjughosa.

10. Termination' or 'growing faint' (avasdda; Tyidgsadbyed) here seems to mean much the same as ksaya; T zad above (RPT n. 2) M interprets yirtincti-nu'gud-tur sedkil-i seriguluyti 'will wake up minds in the worlds', implying that others than the practitioner are awakened.

11. The hollow channel is the central nadi up which the yugin directs the 'winds' or psychic energy (prana; T Hung).

The prana in a non-enlightened human flows through the two channels on each side of the central channel, and it is only with the opening or loosening of a lower 'channel wheel' or knot (nddicakra; T rtsa 'khor) and the diversion of the prana usually in the two side channels up through this cakra that the central channel can come into operation initiating the dripping of the mind of enlightenment from the crown (VMT n 141).

For details of the procedure in step-by-step form see Geshe Kelsang's clear account (1982: 17-66), and for a different point of view see Guenther(1963: 158-74) who dismisses the channel and wind terminology. means of two features:

12 the fire and wind which increase knowledge. Know the sun and moon are possessed of method and perfect wisdom. If you abandon these pairs you will not fully comprehend.

Adhering to the union of the lotuses, in the threefold meditative concentration, method and wisdom which are sealed by the vo/ra-doctrine are the cause of liberation. The student will attain knowledge through endeavour — 1 for this reason he should devote himself to this.

By the inseparability of the dharmas and the dharmata, the wisdom of emptiness is great. It is undeteriorat-ing, free from conceptualisation and signless.

By means of13 the vajra-hody of wisdom and great jliss, wisdom becomes non-conceptual, apart from conceptualisation. All signs of conceptualisation are burnt away.

Know that the sign of extreme views, as many as lere may be, is that they are characterised by illusionknowing this very thing one Is liberated; not knowing it one wanders on. This highest method has been fully [understood by certain beings possessed of under-standing.

In fear of great suffering, Ihe who wishes for joy should devote himself to this'.

This is the first chapter explaining the meditation of wisdom and method from the Iking of tantras, the Tantra of the Ritual Procedure of the glorious Vajrabhairava. \[ii. Chapter 2: Yogaj |

'Now I shall explain the deeds (149r) which arise from success in spells — that is Iwhat is to be known here. For these one unites with the deity's body and, recognises lin the middle of the vajra on a sun and moon base the garland of syllables in the five colours arranged in recitation sequence for pacifying or whatever. One reads it not too quickly nor too slowly — this is the manner in which the wise recite.

For success in activities related to wrathful deities, one thinks that various lights emanate from the yellow ten-spoked wheel which cuts off afflictions. That man who wishes to pacify should enter meditative equipoise, and then the light of the spells will render others beneficent.

On palm-leaf, cloth or tree bark, and with saffron, bezoar and perfumes one should produce a five storied stupa with a parasol and a wheel.

The practitioner should write his name and lineage inside the receptacle [of the stupa). He writes the spell YE DHARMA, etc. ,14 clockwise around it. Having consecrated it he should place it on the body or throat or wherever he wishes.

Through that demons and curses, illnesses and diseases are cleansed. Whoever wishes to conquer a country [should write the syllables of its name adorned with the seed syllable HUM.

He kneads together vetiver, ochre, orpiment and buffalo blood. He makes images of two half-moons and in between them places the image [of its king), supine, eight fingers 12. The uncertainty in this sentence stems from the doubt about the exact meaning of T nges par hcun 'subdue, soften'.

M translates as qoyar iiyes-iyer mayadkinaju 'he investigates with his two features'. 13.M omits the instrumental (vcir-un hey-e) and D has a difficult locative rdo rje'i skur.


'Whatever dharmas arise from a cause, the tathagata has spoken of their causes; their cessation has also been taught by the great ascetic'.

tall.15 When he has recited the spell ten thousand times while in the yoga of the Buffalo-headed One, he chops it into pieces and, if he throws it into a river, instantly [the country] will come into his power.

He makes images of a crow and an owl from manumali16 and orpiment and writes the names of the two intended subjects [on these], and, facing Yama's direction,17 he recites the secret spell.

Having trampled them under his left foot he should stab them with a dagger made from a human leg-bone — and in an instant they will be separated. Now I shall explain here the procedure for the rite (149v) of killing.

While in the yoga of the Buffalo-headed One, in his six-faced, six-armed and six-legged form or his one-faced and four-armed form — even his one-faced and two-armed form is suitable — one makes an image of the subject by mixing together various different types of blood, dust from his footprint, various types of venom and the urine of a horse, a buffalo and an ass. One stabs thorns into the image and anoints it with sesame oil as well.

Further, on leaves or palm-leaf or on a cemetery cloth or on bark one undertakes the drawing of the wheel at midnight at the time of Saturn, naked, with hair dishevelled, with body anointed with ash, manifestly wrathful, eating human flesh and drinking delicious drugs. One should draw this wheel of twelve sections in white mustard, sesame and safflower juice and in the blood of a horse, a buffalo, a goat and a dog, using a raven quill or an owl's feather.

At the syllable YA which is its hub one writes the name and the lineage.

In four directions one writes the ten syllables along with the name. In accordance with the sequence of eight18 these syllables should be written:


19 Encircling the syllable YA [with these] one draws it with the subject's form.

Around its rim one writes the ten syllables along with the name and marks it with three-pointed vajras in the four directions20 Like this without any features missing one draws the wheel with a hub.

After drawing the form of Yama holding a knife and a staff, one puts these two [images] together front-to-front and puts them in a marked skull-cup filled with the three salts, black mustard, venom, sulphur and lead.

Then one places the wheel in the centre of the triangle.21 One recites the king of secret spells over mustard, buckwheat, rice and jabhibrapa22 etc., and one undistractedly holds to the meditation in which the subject amidst the heat and smoke produced drinks (150r) diseases and diseased blood23 and further one sees him devoured.

The deity will turn the wheel24 if one hides it at the foot of a solitary tree for immobilising, beneath a bed for pacification and stupefying, at a river confluence for separation, on a mountain peak for driving away, under the hearth for killing and for summoning, under the threshold.

By [hiding it] in pleasant places one will come to control. One should fill a skull with human fat and boil this up.

If one skims it and applies it to one's eyes one will quickly obtain superhuman perception. One summons secretly a youth of good complexion from a royal lineage and applies much sandalwood ointment. He will be bound by the practice of this ritual otherwise he will be tormented in fire.

25 OM VAJRA KRODHA YAMARAJA VAJRA KILI KILI HANA HANA MARAYA PHAT.26 On uttering this secret spell one stabs with a bone dagger and performs the visualisation holding to the object of a man impaled on a stake. One anoints [oneself] with sesame butter and scrapes this off with a [piece of] skull.

27 By means of the smoke made by a lamp one obtains sharp eyes. There is indeed much to obtain through reliance upon the unhindered king of secret spells — need more be said?

Then it is to be known like this: one devoted to spells and meditative absorption, greatly diligent and not wavering to other things accomplishes whatever he sets out to do. [Such a] one should draw well the wheel explained before using a prostitute's menstrual flow.

On placing it in the heart of the image one puts this above a half-moon of blood in front of one, above this [one] sprinkled with blood.

By means of the syllables for summoning and controlling, women of royal or human lineage will certainly become thus affected. One should leave it under their beds. One draws the wheel with the blood of a human, an elephant, a fox, a dog, a rhinoceros and a pig; then puts it into the throat of the image and, using crow's blood, writes the spell for vomiting blood (150v).

If one puts it marked with these syllables inside a skull and then, all the time reciting the secret spell, puts it beneath a cremation-hearth, there is no doubt that [the subject) will vomit blood, or otherwise will die of fever.

15. The association of the anthropomorphic (e.g. T gan rkyal) image with the country (T yul) to be subdued indicates conflation of two separate rites. 16. Manumali remains unidentified, and no T version reads anything else.

M transliterates similarly, but the word is not in the dictionaries (SED, THD, Edgerton 1953, Lessing 1960, Kowalewski 1844).

17. Yama's direction is south.

18. Q.v. the first eight mantras; p56-7. 19. 'OM Yama-King of dark form kill so-and-so HUM HUM PHAT PHAT SVAHA!'. 20. I.e. marked with the visvavajra (crossed vajras). 21. This triangle is the fire mandala. 22. Jabhibrapa (alternatively jubhibrapa) remains unidentified.

23. For T rims dang rims kyi khrag mams M has jerge kigedjerge-ber cisun-nuyud-i as if reading *rim dang rim kyis khrag rnams, etc.

The passage is obscure.

24. The sentence hinges upon the way T 'am (= va) is taken. To interpret as 'or' (= 'alternatively') needs an negative condition ('or [if he does not] the deity will turn the wheel [against him]') — which is not there. Taking 'am (- va) meaning eva (the emphatic enclitic) is preferable, resulting in a link with the previous lines (this being confirmed by the lack of punctuation in M between this and the previous sentence). 25.

This passage caused difficulties for many T editors and for M. I accept S gsang since the correction to gsar is too obvious. Majupuria & Joshi (1988: 162) mention the use of sandalwood ointment to cool down the excess heat produced by the sivalingam.

26. 'OM vajra wrath Yama-King vajra KILI KILI kill kill slay PHAT!'. 27. T versions all have the instrumental thodpas gzhar 'he scrapes it off with a skull'.

The ms. M (C) has the dative kapala-dur and the blockprint just kapala, implying 'he shaves his head'. Compare VMT 137v.

One draws this wheel using toad blood and bat brains and places it in the left armpit of the image, then sprinkles elephant and toad blood both to the left and to the right. In the direction of the image one presses down with the big toe of one's left foot.

At that time, reciting repeatedly, one tramples it and leaves it at a crossroads. If one draws it the other way around and hides it in a hole in a solitary tree, there will be immobilisation.

With the blood of old camels and crows one draws the wheel and puts it in between the two legs of the image, and in front of me one draws a figure of a camel in blood. One should place it on top,28 and if one is well endowed with the absorption of the air element29 there is no doubt [the subject) will be driven away.

One should leave it hidden on a mountain peak. One should make images eight fingers high from the blood of an ichneumon, a snake, a horse, a crow and an owl mixed with dust from the footprints of a couple. One puts the wheels drawn in that blood into the hearts of both.

One makes an image of an ichneumon and places it above them. One recites the secret spell while hitting these with the bones of a horse and a buffalo with both hands. If one rubs their points together and hides them30 in the roots of a tree, they will separate.

Having drawn it well in white sandalwood one should wrap precious things -— gold and so forth — in it, and place it on an image of the moon before one; as long as one performs a daily circumnambulation one is certain to be protected. If one binds it on one's head one will be victorious in battle; if one binds it to one's leg one will walk on water.

If one washes it in cow's milk and offers kusa grass and cow butter,31 etc., and prostrates, one will be protected against all diseases'.

Then the lord entered the absorption known as 'the truly victorious over all subtleties', and these spells linked to all the rituals proceeded from the body, speech and mind vajras:

'(151 r) M ARA Y A PHAT32 is for killing; BIDVESAYA33 is for separating; UCCHATAYA34 is for driving away;

MOHAYA35 is for making stupid; V AS YAM KURU 36 is for bringing under control; 28. On top of the assembled fire mandala.

29. If this meditative absorption is successfully accomplished the half-moon shaped wind mandala can come into operation.

30. The points of the bones are rubbed together and the image(s) are hidden, but there is nothing specific indicated in T, and it is possible that the bones rubbed together and hidden; 31. T ba mar, the reading inU and D means cow's butter.

P's reading ba dmar is not in the dictionaries, and caused problems for the Mongol translator who decided on the improbable ulayci Unigen-ii tosun 'red fox fat' as if reading *wa mar dmar. If the word ba dmar exists it may refer to some kind of mineral preparation (perhaps along the lines of ba dkar 'limestone').

32 'Kill PHAT!' 33.'Split!1 34.'Expel!' 35. 'Stupefy!' 36. 'Subjugate!' STAMBHAYA37 is for suppressing; AKARSAYA JAH38 is for summoning;



OM HUM STRIH HAH is for the water for the face; OM HUM PHAT PHAT is for the water for the feet;

OM SARVA DUSTA SATTVA DAMAKA GA GA43 is the spell for the perfume; OM KUMARA RUPINl JAH JAH HUM PHAT44 is the spell for offering flowers;



Then Vajradhara entered the meditative absorption known as 'the following and turning away from all the dharmas' and spoke of the service of full success in secret spells;

37. 'Suppress!' 38. 'Summon JAH!' 39. p, U and D have different spells from here on for the same purposes.

These are listed in the critical apparatus. 40. 'OM HRIH STRIH distorted face HUM trample on all enemies and destroy them PHAT PHAT SVAHA!'

41. 'OM HRIH blackish-blue form HUM KHAM'. 42. 'OM HRIH НА о great wrath, approach, approach, deign to accept this worship, think of me SVAHA!'.

43. 'OM tamer of all wicked beings GA GA'.

44. 'OM with a youthful form JAH JAH HUM PHAT'.

45. 'OM blackish-blue form, tamer of all evil beings, great lord of spirits, accept, accept this ritual cake SVAHA!'.

46. 'OM [you] with blazing eyes and distorted face great resounding [? Uttta < tan (= stan)] laughter at the blazing of the nadis SVAHA'.

47. 'OM victorious, victorious, greatly victorious, possessor of the complete form, go, go, return to your own abode, by that and the tathagathas [?] I dismiss you, perform my tasks SVAHA!'.

'One visualises Vajrabhairava fully transformed from a HUM in the sphere of space, red, one faced and two armed, in union with the wisdom female.

He holds a staff and a skull. One visualises him with his left leg drawn in on a buffalo, a lotus and a solar disk.

OM YAMANTAKRT HUM PHAT — if one recites this king of secret spells, whatever power one wishes for will be granted.

The wrathful Vajrabhairava arisen from a blue YA in the sphere of space is on a lotus and solar disk seat, and seated in the posture of the heroes holds in his four hands, in succession (151v), a curved knife, a short spear, an axe and a blood-filled skull-cup.

Above the black buffalo face, the face of Manjusri is yellow and smiling. One thinks that the great hero is oneself.

One takes delicious drugs and chews [human] flesh; at night one walks the cemeteries and continually recites the secret spell.

Now, in the yoga of drawing up the drop,4** one directs one's thoughts towards the object to be accomplished — the rituals will quickly succeed through this. Further, know it thus: for the yoga of the Buffalo-headed One one should know that his body comes in various colours.

In particular for killing, on visualising it as black with a buffalo face holding a three pointed hook and standing on the body of a buffalo, one repeats intently the [spell of] drawing blood, and at intervals emanates innumerable wrathful deities holding iron hooks from the body.

At the time when the wolf devours the moon, one mixes together the claws of a cat, a goat's heart, bird's blood and human bone. Whomever one casts this at will go insane'.49 > The second chapter, on yoga, from the king of tantras, the Ritual Procedure Tantra of the glorious Vajrabhairava. [Hi. Chapter 3: Painting the Image]

'Now this will be explained: the yogin performing the evocation should prime a cemetery cloth or a hero's garment or a weapon cover with vairocana, vq/ra-water, hero's blood, drugs, venom and bezoar. Pulling it taut, he should write the syllables OM AH HUM in the places for body, speech and mind in water with the five

48. The yoga of 'drawing the drop (upwards)' refers to the process whereby the white drop also known as the mind of enlightenment (bodhicitta; T byang chub sems) located at the centre of the crown cakra is 'melted' by the ignition of the inner heat in the central channel of the subtle body (i.e. by the opening of this central channel).

The drop moves down the central channel through the throat, heart and navel cab as to the sex organ, giving rise to the four joys {catvari mudita; T dga' ha bzhi), one at each point. At the throat, joy {mudita;! dga' ha) is experienced, at the heart great joy (pramudita; T rah tu dga' ba), at the navel extraordinary joy (visesamudita; T khyad par gyi dga' ba) and at the sex organ innate joy (.sahajamuditu; T lhan skyes kyi dga' ba).

At this point the yogin does not allow the drop to dissipate through the sex organ, but instead reverses the flow of the drop and moves it back up the central channel experiencing the four joys of the reverse order, and ending with the return of the drop to the crown cakra and the resultant experience of the innate joy of the reversed order, the highest joy of all (Geshe Kelsang 1982: 67-99).

It is taken for granted amongst Buddhist yogins that this practice is at all times undertaken conjointly with meditation on emptiness.

49. This section seems fragmentary, and the paragraph on the different coloured versions of the deitv seems incomolete (see p46 nl38). ambrosia;-.

50 Receiving the consecration and protecting the pledges this best of painters who in due secrecy exerts himself after becoming wise in the meaning of tantra, draws the victorious Vajrabhairava using strands of hair, cemetery charcoal, human blood, ochre and orpiment at the time of Saturn51 after entering a secret place.

The main head is [that of] a wrathful buffalo, above that is the face of Manjusri smiling, the rest are red, yellow, blue, {152r) and like the colour of smoke, with hair erect.

His great body with six lustrous wrathful heads is adorned with skulls, severed heads, entrails, snakes and bone vajra -garlands.

Wearing elephant and tiger skins and trampling on Yama atop a buffalo, solar disc and lotus with his six legs he expresses greatness in his dance with his right legs extended and his left drawn in.

One draws him with six hands holding in the first right one the single-pointed [[[vajra]]), in the second a hammer, the third a pestle held aloft; and in his left hands one draws an axe, a hook and a noose.

Many wrathful ones emanate from his body which is smeared with ash the colour of the heavens.

He is surrounded by various offering goddesses.

One should draw him like this — and behind him and in all directions one should draw the great cemeteries surrounding him in which creatures with deformed heads carry viscera into the sky. He draws these: creatures with deformed legs and arms, ghouls, fierce wolves and jackals, and an assembly of flesh-eating dakas and ddkinis, and various birds and beasts of prey. One draws terrifying clouds and draws the devotee there as well.

He holds a flaying knife and a skull and chews human flesh; clad in black he drinks human blood; holding a rosary of horse and buffalo bone he recites the secret spells. He should be drawn looking at the tathagata [-Vajrabhairava). Once one has drawn him in this way one offers drugs, blood, human flesh and bezoar.

If one continuously makes offerings at the three times one will quickly attain the state of Vajradhara52 by means of this assembly of deities [while] in meditative equipoise.

As for the divine form, one hides it well and keeps it secret — sacred blessings will come from that'. > The third chapter, on drawing the image, from the king of tantras, the Ritual Procedure Tantra of the glorious Vajrabhairava.

[iv. Chapter 4: Burnt Offerings)

'Now, this will be explained: the student who has done away with distractions of the mind and who wants to perform all the ritual activities should strive in the rites of burnt offering once he has renounced avarice and renounced any wavering of courage. (152v)

He kneads together vermillion, orpiment, ochre, butcher's ashes, soil from a cemetery, human blood and buffalo blood. On a two cubit square he sets up a circle of half a cubit.53 He adorns this with a crossed vajra.

Above that he adds the 50.

The five ambrosias (pancamrta; T bdud rtsi Inga) are: i. faeces (T dri cheri); ii. urine (T dri chu); iii. white bodhicitta (T byang sems dkar po = semen); iv. red bodhicitta (T byang sems dmar po - (menstrual) blood); and v. marrow (T rkang mar).

51. T nagpo chos (or nagpo'i tshes D) is presumably the equivalent of kalavela (SED 277), the time of Saturn at which usual religious actions are improper.

52. Vajradhara is the supreme tantric Buddha whose evolution from a spirit (yaksa; T gnod sbyin) to this exalted state has been traced by Snellgrove (1987: 134-41). 3. I.e. a two cubit square earth mandala is overlain by a one cubit round ether mandala.

six signs54 on the six spokes of the wheel. He makes the fire mandala at the hub one span in size, and anoints it well with buffalo blood. Facing south he himself should, using the yoga of the Buffalo-headed, clearly see seed syllables of fire in all the cardinal directions inside the hearth.

He visualises it as if it were the great fire at the end of an агоп. There he should think of the god of fire with three faces and four arms reviling the wicked.

With his right hands he provides protection for living beings and holds a rosary. With his left hands he strives to offer the sacred bowl.55 With two arms he embraces his consort who is like him.

With his six legs he treads on the signs of the six lineages. Fire issues from his mouth and he is adorned with various lights.

The goal one wishes for will be attained if, knowing it like this, one performs burnt offerings with the following things.

If one performs burnt offering three thousand times using the image of an enemy, human flesh, drugs and buffalo blood, the subject will vomit blood and die.

Three thousand times with the flesh of an elephant, horse, ass and dog, and one will bring people under one's control.

If one performs the burnt offering with the flesh and blood56 of a crow, owl and dog, the person one wants will definitely flee without looking [back].57 Whoever kindles it six thousand times with mustard, barley, wheat, rice, turmeric, bezoar and vetiver will obtain all pleasures.

Doing it a hundred and eight times with the flesh of a horse, camel and crow, and human flesh with vajra-water, and possessed of secret spell [and] yoga, one will certainly suceed in driving away. [Using] goat's flesh and dandotpala ,58 with drugs and buffalo urine, whoever one wants will be stupefied by one hundred and eight [burnings].

If one performs burnt offering a hundred and eight times mixing together venom, blood and garlic with human flesh and sesame oil, the spells of an outsider will be broken.

When, facing east one performs burnt offering a hundred and eight times [with] white sandalwood (153r), white rice, white sesame, cooked rice, mustard, white lily and camphor, one will be protected at all times.

Whoever is endowed with meditative concentration during the stages of the rite will achieve all his desires here if he is not apart from the mind of compassion. If it is otherwise, a fool such as this will by his stupidity nullify his wisdom.

If one who despises spells and pledges, who is clearly lazy in meditative concentration, who is of little endeavour and who lacks application performs the evocation even for a thousand seons he will not succeed; his mind will become tired and troubled. Some feeble-minded fools who desire a certain result are in error — as, for example, grain is never produced on beating chaff Just as clouds, the moon's reflection in water, and rainbows are not eternal, so even that deed of desiring liberation is the play of illusion in illusion itself.

The single wisdom is the cause of full liberation — who can fathom emptiness with the intellect? If one investigates it and expects to fathom it, there can 54. These could be the standard six mudras (sadmudra; T phyag rgya drug) which are the human bone ornaments of the devotee (TD 265) representing the six perfections.

55. Kundi; T Hi ha is probably a bowl or pitcher here, but in the neuter kunda it has the more specific meaning of 'a basin of water (especially consecrated to some holy purpose or person)' SED 289. 56. 'Water' is presumably 'blood' here. 57.1 mi Ita 'unseen' or 'not looking' is left untranslated in M presumably on account of this ambiguity. 

58. Dandotpala is a type of plant (literally 'stick-lily') of uncertain specific identity . be no basis for its comprehension. But if in this regard one does not establish any permanent entities59 there is no need to speak of other paths of accomplishment. Verily one must not tolerate marks distinguishing between subject and object.

One must not endure this divisive conception — it is worse than falling into a gully or ravine.

Permanence itself is without sequence, so how can any permanent entity really exist?

For example, a mother says to her children: "Stay here and I will get lots of fruit and happily give it to you1' — likewise I explain these things in order to lead people away from mistaken worldly views of various sorts.

60 In front of the victorious god of gods one should perpetually offer the highest delicious (153v) foodsdrugs, sesame oil and buffalo blood.

One should conti-nuously utter the ten syllables, the king of secret spells, and one should perpetually strive in meditation.

The wise person who knows it like this and performs the evocation will rapidly become a buddha — so what need is there to speak of the activities of pacifying and the rest?

If he is to stir up confusion in cities, the devotee should a thousand and eight times burn dog flesh, frog flesh, tortoise flesh and the flesh of a camel and a cat.

Mixing horse flesh and fasces he makes it into pellets, and when he has recited the king of spells he burns these a hundred and eight times in front of me and a king will come into his power.

If he wants to bring a woman into his power, he should mix up fish, drugs and human flesh with vajra -water and burn it a hundred and eight times.

If he wants an ordinary person to come into his power he mixes up human flesh with elephant flesh and semen and burns it a hundred and eight times.

For summoning on all occasions he makes pellets of equal parts of dog flesh, fish and the five ambrosias; then if he burns them a hundred and eight times — the summoning.

[For] all the activities of burnt offering by means of the yoga of the Buffalo-headed One he binds what he desires with the king of spells.

61 He should do this with an unwavering single-pointed mind. By means of what has been said and what has been left unsaid, in whatever order, he abides in the king of tantras and quickly attains the fruit of Buddhahood. For pacifying with a pacifying mind;

for increasing, like a king; apart from anger and loving for control; he does wrathful actions with a slaying mind, with an angry, hateful and very furious mind. If any man continually seeks rapid attainment, he will attain [the state of] Vajradhara through the purity of the self-nature of the mind. (154r) All phenomena 59. T dngos in a verse translation of this kind can easily mean dngos grub (siddhi) rather than dngos po (vastu).

M assumes the latter (bodas). Vastu is used here in a purely поп - Buddhist sense to mean '(permanent) property; abiding substance or essence'.

60. This incomplete analogy seems to refer to the 'skilful means' (upaya; T thabs) of buddhas whereby 'infants' (= disciples) are tempted into enlightenment by the offer of gifts (= magical attainments, in this case).

There is an elaborate passage in the Saddharmapundanka HI.70ff. reminiscent of this analogy (Kern 1884: 86ff).

M vaguely translates T de dag drang bar bya phyir hshad as tende Wile iiiledku-yin tula nomlamui '1 explain in order to make them perform these deeds'.

T gsang sngags rgyalpos 'dodpa sbyar 'he binds what he desires by (= using) the king °f spells' is translated by M as niyuca tarni-yin qayan-i kusel-iyer barildufiluydaqui 'binds the king of spells with desire' (reading *gsang sngags rgyal po 'dad pas sbyar).

work through their [[[objective]]) spheres-of-activity and their own self-nature62. Without letting meditative equipoise deteriorate, the yogin should continually enter equipoise. Those desired achievements which arise from this king of tantras are the cause of liberation.

This method free of difficulties gets rid of penances and those things which are hard to do; this is a method for accomplishing by means of true joy. Free of fear and suffering, the wise person should accept the flavour of this ambrosia, and through his endeavours he will succeed.

Certain ignorant people of little intelligence, when obscured by the web of misconceptions, distinguish the two factors of virtue and sin.

Yet since all that one desires emerges from this highest tantra, certain low people of little endeavour will succeed rapidly if they embark on this.

This tantra, wonderful on this account, is hard to obtain and is particularly great. If even the forms of its syllables are not usually displayed, how much less will its explanation or recitation be [demonstrated].

If one does not really obtain the consecrations and does not please the master, in such a case these teachings will not be given and one will circulate in samsara, the hot hells and so on. But when these words are displayed and explained, the spirit-families will be affected and one's triumph will be compromised — bowed down and with head lowered one will wander in this world.

[But] if one hears this tantra and, understanding it, keeps to it and recites continuously, all one's fears will be washed away in this lifetime and after death one will quickly reach paradise. If one expounds, teaches and clarifies this best of tantras to others one will experience much sorrow and after death will quickly go to hell.

If one truly holds to this as important63 and acts clearly in accordance with the powers, having expunged all sufferings one quickly attains (154v) the matchless'. > The fourth chapter, on the procedure of burnt offering, from the Ritual Procedure Tantra of the glorious Vajrabhairava. [Colophon]

The lasting ritual attainment of the Ritual Procedure Tantra of the glorious Vajra-bhairava is finished.

[[[Translators]]' colophons] [T] Translated by the capable great pandita Amoghapada and the Tibetan translator and monk Mar pa renowned as the Master of Dharma. [M] Translated into Mongolian by Toin corji.

62. T de is taken with spyodyul iyisaya). T de 'that' should refer to the purity of the self-nature of the mind if the grammar of M is used to supply the deficiencies of the verse T. Other interpretations are less satisfactory: 'every sphere of activity of phenomena proceeds by means of that and the mind's own self-nature' .

63. Reading T bcang byas 'makes it significant', with the meaning provided by M ciqula 'important, significant'. Bcang 'extensive' is given a questionmark in Jaschke (1888: 146), and the word seems little used in Classical Tibetan.

Bead (a definite reading in P) is possible ('if he cuts himself off), though less likely.

Ill The Myth Salutations to the glorious Vajrabhairava! <Now(158v) this will be told.

The great Vajrabhairava arisen from the vajras of the body, speech and mind of the lord crossed the Southern Ocean and went to Galava, the city of Yama.

With his unendurable sixteen feet he trod on its sixteen gateless iron dwellings.

With his single-pointed organ of wisdom he crushed the central great iron dwelling. Then he overpowered the great тага' by roaring 'Ha ha hi hi'. As his slave the Dharmaraja addressed him: 'For any great hero I shall undertake what that hero requires'; as his slaves the others addressed him:

'We offer our life essences as is our duty and may the hero accept them'.

The eight classes of gods offered their life essences — Yama offered YA, the divine mothers MA, the ghouls offered RA, the spirits KSE, the humans offered N1, the lords of the earth SA, the demons offered CCHA and the hell-beings offered DA.

Putting these together they pledged to serve him. On account of this great motive the mindful attitude and worship of the wisdom deity entered their minds, and through having embarked on the propitiation of the deity without breaking their oaths, their success became inevitable. >


Saying this Vajramahabhairava blessed the Dharmaraja and the others and all the messengers of Yama into the state of liberation.

To the mothers, sisters and daughters and their entourage he gave this command: 'at the end of five hundred Eeons when my teaching appears perform the deeds I have exhorted the yogins to do with their wisdom-women.'

When this was said they took the oath while subdued. > [Colophon] The end of the Myth.

1. T bdud is тага, a member of a class of demonic beings inimical to Buddhism. Were bdud also a translation of тага a simpler interpretation as 'hell-being' would be possible, but the TSD does not recognize this equivalence. 'Great тага' might be Yama himself here.

IV The Three Chapter Tantra of Vajrabhairava The Three Chapter Tantra of the glorious Vajrabhairava. Obeisance to the glorious Lord Yamantaka!

[i. Chapter 1; Drawing the Wheel) (2r)

I shall explain the wheel-turning rite of the one renowned as the enemy of Yama, the complete victory over the three worlds, the highest truth which is the tranquil dharmakaya.

A virtuous yogin (2v) who propitiates in accordance with die rites makes a mandala two cubits in size in a deserted place such as a cemetery, etc.

He cleanses it with scent, the five products of the cow,1 the sun and moon and so forth. After proper worship with the five sacred articles, the ox and so forth2 as well as with the circle of offerings and in particular with the outer and inner offerings, he undertakes to draw the wheel, gather, invite, merge and send away.

The devotee (3r) in union faces south and through the recollection of his pledges recalls the secret spell


and undertakes the drawing of the wheel. He encircles a central point with a circumference with a radius of sixteen inches— this is the inner wheel. Going around it thrice he makes sixteen doorless iron dwellings.

This is the city of Yama, (3v) the gateway to the three spheres of existence.

Its outer periphery has three enclosures surrounded by ramparts.

Inside each of these enclosures there are thirty-two houses. Having drawn such a wheel acting in accordance with the procedures and the doctrine 4, he arranges on the outermost enclosure the syllables К A, ere, up to DA,5 emphasising these two.6 Then he writes the syllables DHA, etc., up to KSA after that.7

In the inner two enclosures (4r) he arranges the sixteen vowels twice over.

1. The five products of the cow are urine, dung, milk, butter and curd (TD 274 erroneously has 'saliva' instead of urine).

2. T ba lung la sags dam rdzas Inga ('the five religious articles — ox and so forth1) refers to the 'five types of pledge-flesh', dam t.shig gi rdzas sha Inga. These are the flesh of humans, elephants, oxen, dogs and horses, all of which are (domestic animals) in classical Indian terms.

Part of the inner offering (T nang mchod) involves the offering of these five animals. 3. 'OM you are the vo/ra-pledge'.

4. P suggests 'a wheel for destroying living beings according to the dharmd". 5. These syllables are: ka kha ga gha ha ca chajajhaha ta thada dha na ta tha da. 6. P's reading de nyi gsal is preferable to A. The emphasis is to indicate opposite sides of the diameter of the structure. 7. These syllables are: dha napapha bahha mayara la va sa sa sa ha fact.

For undertaking the gathering, arranging and so forth these marks are to be known.

They are:

Element and Lunar Day.

8 When he has fixed the inner brahma line [= EW diameter] at the edge of the outer enclosure,9 he takes an Auspicious number of syllables (4v) from the Planet house counting anti-clockwise, and he puts two each to the sides of the brahma lines in the inner enclosure in the four directions. He takes a pair of syllables10 from the Direction house counting anti-clockwise placing them in the East to the left and right.

After he has taken them with the second vowel from the Direction house counting anti-clockwise he doubles them and puts one each to the sides.

He should take a pair endowed with the eleventh vowel from the Ocean house (5r) calculated from the western brahma line and should place them as before in the south to the left and right [of the brahma line].

From the Moon house determined by counting anti-clockwise from the West he takes a pair endowed with the thirteenth vowel and consequently should offer them in the South, He takes the same pair clear [of vowel marks] and offers them at the western sides [of the brahma line] as before.

When he has taken a pair endowed with the thirteenth vowel (5v) from the Auspicious house calculated from the west he offers them accordingly at the western sides.

When he has taken a pair endowed with the eleventh vowel from the Auspicious house calculated from the north, he offers them accordingly at the northern sides [of the brahma line]. He takes a pair of what is known as the wind seed-syllable and offers these next.

He takes one each of the following: one with a ball of light [[[bindu]]) from the Arrow house and one adorned with the third vowel from the Planet house (6r) counted from [the Arrow house] and he places each one in the north-east quarter.

After taking a single endowed with the second vowel from the Ocean house, and one from the reverse Quality house, he places them in the intermediate quarter of the south-east accordingly.

When he has taken one adorned with the fifth vowel from the Virtue house counting anti-clockwise and a single from the Element house (6v) he places them as before in the south-west quarter. He takes one adorned with the third vowel from the Lunar Day house counting anti-clockwise and takes a single one from the 8.

These signs (T mtshan ma) indicate numerical values from 1 to 14 (Doboom Tulku, personal communication).

The numerical values are standard, though there are 15 lunar days (tithi\ T tshes) per month rather than 14, and a list of 16 would be more appropriate to the syllabic arrangement.

It is perhaps deliberate that some of these signs can stand for deities. 'Sovereign' (T dbang po) is Indra. 'Quality' is Agni. 'Planet' is Rahu. 'Direction' (reconstructing T phyogs (pa) as *paksin 'the Winged') is Siva or Garuda. 'Fierce' is Rudra. 'The Sun' is also used of Siva, though the deity Vivasvat (Yama's father) has independent standing. 'Element' (reconstructing T yan lag (pa) as *angiras) is used for Agni.

9. Understanding this and the following paragraphs depends on the precise meaning of the phrase T rim (pa) min (pa) which qualifies the houses (T khangpu) in which the signs are (or which 'have' (T can) the signs ). A likely interpretation would be *akrama in the sense of 'in the reverse sequence', i.e. counting anti-clockwise around the wheel. 

10. Throughout this section the phrases T miggitshad 'as much as eyes' and zla ha'i tshad 'as much as a moon' occur repeatedly as attributes of the selected syllables.

Matra, the usual Sanskrit equivalent of tshad can indicate either a measure of size ('as big as') or of number ('as many as'); the latter has been chosen though a T translator might have preferred tsam for quantity rather than tshad. Auspicious house counting anti-clockwise. He then positions them as before in the north-west quarter.

When he has completed such a construction he should exert himself in the gathering [of the syllables]. Recollecting the pledges one possessed of ш/na-force draws out the paired syllables from the two sides (7r) of the brahma line in the East and places them into the central dwelling.

When he has similarly drawn out the pairs from the two sides [of the brahma lines] of the other directions he should likewise place them in the central house. Then, he draws out the second pair of eastern letters and places them in the house of the second sequence.

The procedure is similar in the other directions. He also places the third eastern pair (7v) in the house of the third sequence. It is also like that in the other directions. The separate syllables of the intermediate quarters are individually drawn out into the inner area.

The vowels are drawn into the empty houses from which these were issued. On a base of these vowels he draws out the syllables of the name. On a base of the syllables of the name he sets up the syllables appropriate for success in the various rites.

For killing, driving away and separating he puts the syllable PHAT there (8r); for subduing, the syllable LAM; for pacifying, the syllable SVA; for increasing, the syllable OM; and for summoning, the syllable JAH.

There are rays for these — for pacifying, water; for increase, earth; for control, wind, and for fierce activities, fire.

For separating, summoning and driving away it is the same as for control. For subduing it is as for increasing. When he has performed the yoga of gathering, he embarks on the yoga of mixing.l' Remaining non-dual and endowed with spells he should make the central (8v) auspicious syllable YA into a sphere of light like the moon.

He places the [[[Wikipedia:syllable|syllable]] for] the power he desires into the centre of that sphere of light.

At its centre he first places his name. At that time he also makes all the paired syllables which are positioned in the houses in the [various] directions into spheres of light.

He writes the ten-syllable king of spells linking the twelve houses together. Also pairs of the blessing syllable HUM adorn each of the four [remaining] houses. When he has set them up (9r) completely and has presented libations and food offerings he embarks on their dismissal.

He chooses the base cloth for the wheel to accord with the particular ritual. For pacifying and increasing he does it on a nice cloth. For controlling and summoning, on a prostitute['s cloth],12 etc.; for killing, separating, driving away and suppressing, on a cemetery cloth.

He draws it in bezoar and saffron for pacifying and increasing; in red sandalwood for consecration and summoning; in ochre (9v), etc., for suppressing; in crow's blood for driving away; in horse and buffalo [[[Wikipedia:blood|blood]]], etc., for separating; and in venom for killing. 11

This is the union of the devotee and deity rather than of the drawn wheel with the actual city of Yama (described later on Юг). '2. lAprostitute['s], at.' as a surface for the drawing of the wheel refers to the menstrual cloth (or used undergarments) of a prostitute (Nebesky-Wojkowitz 1975: 347).

For virtuous activities he draws it using deodar wood 13 and for non-virtuous ones human bone and iron, etc. For pacifying he faces east, for controlling west, for increasing north and for fierce activities south, while for the others he acts in any manner.

For pacifying, increasing, controlling and summoning he sets up the earth wheel in due order and the sky wheels in reverse (Юг) order; and for killing, driving away, separating and suppressing he draws the earth wheel in reverse order and the sky wheels in due order.

If he does not draw it properly like this the wheel will turn on him.

Therefore he should act with earnest application.

When he has finished drawing it properly he invites the wheel which is in the mandala to his cloth wheel and through the yoga of vajra-union he unites the mandala and (lOv) the wheel.

When he worships the cloth wheel he visualises the blessing of truth.14 In accordance with the rite of visualisation when he has dismissed the wheel he exerts himself in the recitation of spells:

OM VAJRA SAMAYAS TV AM15 is the spell of the pledge. OM VAJRA VEGA HUM16 is the spell of vajra -force.

OM VAJRA SAMAYA TRISAMAYE MAHASAMAYE SVAHA17 is the spell for mixing the syllables.

OM VAJRA SA-(1 lr)MAYA JAH18 is the spell for dismissing the wheel.


OM HRIH STRIH VIKRITANANA HUM PHAT — this is the spell for all activities, the one for all activities.

'9 SANTIM KURU SVAHA20 is for enjoining pacification. PUST1M KURU SVAHA21 (1 lv) is for increasing. VASYAM KURU SVAHA22 is for controlling.

MARAYA PHAT 23 is for killing. BHADISIYA PHAT24 is for separating. UCCHATAYA PHAT25 is for driving away.

13. 'Proper wood' (T bzangpo'i shing) is the equivalent of bhadrakastha, probably Cedrus deodara, the Deodar (a native of Afghanistan and the West Himalaya).

14. 'The blessing of truth' (satyddhisthana; T bden pa'i byin rlabs) is the first of four types of blessing. The others are the blessings of compassion, tranquility and wisdom (Das 1902:

15. 'OM you are the vajra -pledge'. 16. 'OM ш/га-force НСМЛ 17. 'OM vajra -pledge, triple pledge, great pledge SVAHA'.
18. 'OM w/ra-pledge JAH'.
19. 'OM HRIH STRIH distorted face HUM PHAT'- The definition is repeated.
20. 'Perform pacification SVAHA!'.
21. 'Perform increase SVAHA!'.
22. 'Bring under control SVAHA!.
23. LKillPHAT!' 24.'Separate PHAT!'
25. 'Drive away PHAJ!' STAMBHAYA HUM LAM
26 is for suppressing. AKARSAYA JAH27 is for summoning.

OM MUNCA28 is for liberating [from spells]. </poem>

The city of the syllables is the foundation for the arising of these spells.

It is also the pure enclosure in which the rites are set in motion.

If he [= the devotee) does not gather the syllables together the sound of the spells will turn on him. (12r) If he does not arrange the syllables clearly the sound of the secret spells will be flawed.

If he does not recite the spells with the incantation, the power of the spells will be nullified. If he does not perform the rite of summoning, it will not revolve properly.

If he does not perform the mixing of the syllables, the sixteen houses become useless.

If it turns in the opposite direction it is useless. In the case of reversal and damage of the lineage spell it will be as if lndra were slaying his enemies or as if one were being vanquished by the titans (12v). If he does not dismiss the wheel the rites will be spoilt.

He will succeed by being firm in motivation, yoga and faith. So, he should act with endeavour.

The first chapter of the Manjusri Ritual, the extensive rite of drawing the wheel. [ii. Chapter 2; Turning the Pledge-Substances into Potion Now, I shall explain other matters. The devotee should always be steadfast in these: tortoise milk, so-called, (13r) as well as leaves of light, dry mud and likewise the juice of fire —- these are his instruments and if he continually uses these things he will be without illness, his life will be long, his powers will increase, he will be continually youthful and he will be blessed by all the deities. He must not test this by reasoning — he just succeeds by means of power and intrinsic nature.

If blessed by meditative absorption and spells, (13v) he can bring29 his rites to fruition.

Since he is at the stage of the knowledge-holders30 he duly adheres to the rituals. On the first day of the month as dawn breaks, without touching the vessel he drinks the tortoise curd before its heat dissipates or otherwise he drinks it with a sun-straw.

On the first day of the waning moon, he squeezes out a leaf of light and takes whatever issues from it.

(14r) When the sun rises on the third day he cuts up that leaf and eats it, or he drinks [the juice] with the sun-straw. 26. 'Trample HUM LAM!' 27. 'Summon JAH!' 28. 'OM liberate!' 29. T sbyor bar byed is here translated as 'brings about' (assuming *prayujyate).

For 'unite with' one might expect * las rnam smin gyis sbyor bar byed since *prayujyate needs an instrumental to mean this. 30. The knowledge-holders (*vidyadhara; T rig pa 'dzinpa) of the Desire Realm (kamadhatu\ T 'dad khams) are familiar with the usual powers (siddhi) and are tantric adepts.

Taranatha writes: 'Shortly after the spread of the Mahayana doctrine there were a hundred thousand vidyadharas.

Most of them, like those of U rgyan [= Oddiyana) who attained the stage of vidhyadhara, attained it by the help of the anuttara path ... they attained rainbow-bodies and left nothing in the form of preaching' (Chattopadyaya (ed.) 1980: 151).

Knowledge - holders of the Form Realm {rupadhatu; T gzugs khams) are long-lived beings who can travel freely through all of space (Tatz and Kent 1978: 155).

For a discussion of the vidhyadhara in Buddhist literature and art see Liiders 1939. After he has acquired good earth he dries it in water for three days. The devotee then after drying it mixes it with a single small pinch of sand and cow's milk and ceaselessly drinks it. When he has covered new wood made of fire31 in butter made from earth, he puts it in two vessels with mouths joined together. Binding this with fire, water and earth (14v) he drinks the liquid with the sun-straw. The sound of salt dissolving is his musical instrument32 which he plays for three days. This takes the devotee into the heavens. He places three portions into a vessel for three days.

The top portion is for anointing, the middle portion is to be drunk and the bottom portion is to be discarded. His adherence to each of these things is ascertained by the three ordinary results.33 Whether he does or does not add a large pinch to (15r) each, there is no harm done. Keeping to the ritual substances is explained as food. Holding to each one no harm can come to him.

The second chapter of the Manjusri Ritual, the rite explaining the turning of the pledge-substances into potion. [iii. Chapter 3: Subsidiary Factors] < Next, what are explained here are the particulars of subsidiary ritual factors.

For rites of pacifying it is the Moon, for increasing it is known as Eyes, for separating it is called (15v) Auspicious, for controlling it is Veda, for rites of summoning it is likewise the Arrow, for expelling and suppressing it is the same as for control and for the rite of killing which follows suppressing it is asserted to be the Ocean.

In each of these rites, the highest offering for the exalted and the others is first.

On the second day he offers the ritual cake. On the third he exerts himself in recitation, on the fourth he executes the burnt offering, on the fifth (16r) it is the ritual wheel, on the sixth he meditates single-pointedly and on the seventh day he completes the ritual supplements.

For fierce deeds in particular, and for the highest of deeds34 the turning of the wheel for success is done on the fourth day.

Once he knows these ritual particulars, by means of pacifying he protects from the eight fears,35 by increasing he acquires the six qualities, by controlling he renders his 31.T me yi stodpus sar pa is P's unlikely reading. A reads 'a person's new turret /table of fire' (meyi stegs bu gsar pa).

T sdong po 'stem, stalk' would be an acceptable emendation on the basis of M which confirms with modun.

32. I take T sgra las as equivalent to sabdakurma (which means just sabda; SED 1052). T sgra snyan is sughosaka (Edgerton 1953: 597) and the use of T beings might be related to bandh- 'compose' (a verse, etc.) (MMW 720).

The M translation is tentative. 33. Phala; T bras bu 'results, fruits' are usually considered to be fivefold (TD 296): i. results in accordance with causes (T rgyu mthun gyi 'bras bu); ii. environmental results (i.e. one's experience of one's surroundings as the result of previous actions; T bdag po'i 'bras bu); iii. results caused by persons (T skyes bu'i byedpa'i 'bras bu); iv. ripened results (T mam par smin pa'i 'bras bu)\ and v. cessational results (T bral ba'i 'bras bu).

The 'three ordinary results' are the first three of these. 34. The highest of deeds is presumably slaying. T las kyi gtso tti could be interpreted here as 'the ritual (las) master'.

35. The eight fears are: i. fear of the lion of pride (T nga rgyal seng ge'i 'jigs pa); ii. of the elephant of ignorance (gti mug glang po'i); iii. of the fire of hatred (zhe sdang me'i); iv. of the snake of \ea\onsy (phrag dog sbrul gyi); v. of the thief of mistaken views (Ita ngan rkun devotion fourfold,36 by separating he maintains secrecy (16v) and avoids the eight categories [of demon].37 By suppressing he binds the six senses, and similarly for the other deeds.

If he analyses38 the union of spell and ritual he will not achieve success, and if he is beset with doubt39 or becomes anxious or is lacking faith, then even if attainment is imminent and near, it will doubtless be averted. If he overflows with steadfast faith it is impossible for him not to have success with the spells, (17r) even if the heavens were to disappear.

As it is impossible for the knowledge-spell taught by the gods and sages to be broken,40 the breaking of his union with the secret spells taught by those free from desire can not and will not occur. For the wise man who has no doubts concerning the significance41 of the dharma -nature which is unfathomable by thought, attainment is near.

For a fool whose faith is firm (17v) the attainment of yoga is close.

For a logician who observes and reasons, the attainment of yoga will take a long time. Even when the sacred instruction has been imparted, the attainment is said to take a long time if the disciple is beset by dualistic thinking.

But even if the quintessential teaching is concealed by the master, the disciple will succeed if, not beset by dualistic thinking, he holds thereby to the precious quintessential teachings of the masters.

For " that reason, in order to abandon dualistic thinking (18r) it is important for the devotee to please his master. 

His abilities and powers will be great if he dutifully serves him po'i); vi. of the iron fetters of avarice (ser sna'i Icags sgrog gi); vii. of the river of desire ('dad chugs chu bo'i); and viii. of the cannibal of doubt (the tshom sha za'i); cf. TD 118- 19. 36. The four stages of devotion (adhimukti; T mos pa ) are given as i. attainment of light (alokalabha; T snangba thub pa);

ii. increase of light (alokavrddhi; T snang ba mched pa); iii. entry upon the single direction of the significance of thusness (tattvarthadesanupravesa; T de kho na'i don gyiphyogs gcig la rjes su bzhugspa); and iv. uninterrupted concentration (anantaryasamadhi; T bar chad medpa'i ting nge 'dzin) (Das 1902: 977, from unspecified sources).

37. The eight classes of demon are specified in Das 1902: 718. The translation follows M which reads T sde not ste. 38. T dpyad 'investigate, analyse' could be amended to dbye 'separate' (both future). The former may again reflect the anti-rationalist stance of this text. 39. T yidgnyis za (ba) renders *kahhta, which in Buddhist texts nearly always means 'doubt' rather than 'wish' or 'desire', the standard Sanskrit meanings (Edgerton 1953: 175). Perhaps a better translation might be 'dualistic thinking' since it is dualistic thinking which causes doubt to arise.

A madhyamika philosopher would comment that any rational analysis of a situation leads to alternative impossibilities ('doubt'), while the earlier debate on whether or not the arhat experiences 'doubt' (this being one of the 'five points' of the Kathavatthu; Cousins 1988: 7ff.)

centred upon a strict division between doubt as dualistic thinking and everyday doubt. An arhat might be free of dualistic thinking, but might still not know, for example, which fork of a road were correct while buddhas are free of both types of doubt.

Doubt concerning the effectiveness of the practices is not what is meant, since this type of doubt is covered by T dad pa med 'faithlessness' in the following line. 40. T bslu (- *visamvaduna) 'break (an oath or promise)' should take an instrumental (i.e. * rig sngags kyis) or the T equivalent of suha (i.e. *rig sngags dang).

41. 'Meaning' is here an unsuitable translation for *artha; T don since it innately contradicts its own attribute 'mentally unfathomable' (T bsam gyis mi khyab pa'i) in the same line. A classical commentator might have glossed artha as tathata here, so the vaguer term 'significance' has been chosen.

and he will be without obstacles if he recites secretly. His own mind becomes the twofold jewel42 by his performing great offerings and it is from the twofold jewel that attainment arises. If it becomes hard to acquire he utters praises, and from those praises good qualities arise.

If he does not offer praises, it is just as in the case of the wish-fulfil ling gem — (18v) the desired treasure is not bestowed on someone who does not utter praises.

Devotion is the Buddha, devotion is the Dharma, devotion is the Sangha, devotion is the mother, devotion is the master, devotion is the father, devotion is the great path, devotion is the raft, devotion is the wish-granting jewel devotionisthe very achievement of secret spells and devotion is the jewel of merit.

It is on this account that the devotee, in order to generate devotion in his own mind should excel in respect towards others.

The third chapter from the (19r) Manjusri Ritual explaining the causes of and subsidiary factors for rituals. [Colophon] The Three Chapter Tantra of the glorious Vajrabhairava is finished.

[Translators' colophon] ГТ] Translated and edited by the Indian teacher Uyamadra and the Tibetan translator Rong zom chos kyi dbang po. V The Musk Shrew Rites (21 W) Salutations to the Lord Yamantaka! Now the profound rites of the musk shrew will be granted.


l Now the rites for this knowledge-spell: if you recite it eight thousand times after offering scent, flowers and incense day and night without sleeping and after offering a ritual cake, you will succeed.

Next, to perform the rituals, take a dead musk shrew, powder its skin, bone, flesh and hair and perform two thousand recitations over it. If you then apply that powder to your forehead you will not be visible to your enemies.


2 If you apply the powder to your hand, whomsoever you touch will come into your power.

If you apply this powder to your legs you can travel a hundred thousand miles and return.

If, after applying the same powder to your enemy's door, you recite eight thousand times beside that door, he will be driven away. If you cut up and hide a cemetery cloth and the powder at the base of your enemy's door, his family will be destroyed, or driven away if you prefer.

Take a musk shrew skin, and when you have recited eight thousand times fill it with earth from a latrine and tie it shut with a blue thread. (212r) If you hang it up the flow of [your enemy's] urine will be stopped, and if you untie it, it will be released.

When you have powdered the musk shrew skin, recite eight thousand times in front of the great god [Yamantaka] and also offer scent, flowers, incense and food. If you again recite eight thousand times, you will succeed. If you apply the powder to the tip of your nose all beings will be afflicted with misery.

If you put it on your head all your enemies will be captured when you fight them in battle. After applying that same powder to your heart, if you show this to your enemy his heart will be afflicted. If you make his image and sprinkle it with that powder, your enemy will be immobilised.3 If you make an image and sprinkle it with that powder he will be afflicted with leprosy. If you throw it together with cemetery

42. This could be understood as the 'twofold precious enlightened attitude' (T rin chen sems bskyed gnyis; Dorje& Kapstein 1991:11. 106, q.v. for further references) comprising either the aspiring and actua! stages of the enlightened attitude or the absolute and relative enlightened attitudes.

1- OM great lord Rudra, the efflorescence (prasalaya - 'Iprasala "spring") of Mahesvara's yoga; grant me success in yoga SVAHA HUM HUM HAH burn burn boil boil rise HUM PHAT.

2. Perhaps this spell can be interpreted as *mama huyam iti 'this is my invocation'; alternatively a derivation from ahu- 'to present a sacrifice1 might be possible. 3. At this point PT adds a rite for paralysing which is omitted by U presumably because there is no distinction in method between this and the following rite.

ash at a group of your enemies, those who stand near it or behold it will be struck down by sickness. After reciting a thousand times over this powder, the person on whose head you sprinkle it will be subject to your power.

If you place that powder together with a skull into the lintel of your enemies' door they will be parted.4 If you sprinkle this powder onto a woman's hand, she will die.

The person at whose door you hide this powder will be driven away. Mix this powder with human flesh, and whomever you give it to to drink will die in seven days.

If, after mixing this powder with fasces, you give it to your enemy, he will be afflicted with hunger, piles and fever, and you yourself will be delighted.

If you take a musk shrew bone and conceal it in somebody's house, he will die. When you have made offerings to the god with musk shrew flesh and fish oil, seated on a skull in a cemetery hold a skull and recite the spell. If you undertake a burnt offering by pouring a libation a thousand times onto cemetery ash you will be (212v) successful.

Now the ritual performance with the powder mixed with the three pungent substances:5 if you place this in someone's house fire will break out therein,

By mixing the powder with black mustard you will be able to perform acts of virility . If you make an image from the powder and from cemetery soil and hide it under the door, [your enemy] will immediately be kilted by heat. Having mixed the powder with salt, whomsoever you strike with it will become subject to your power.

If you scatter the powder mixed with white mustard at the king's gate, he will become subject to your power. All those who step on it will also become subject to your power.

To a ritual cup of soma add the excrement of a bull, and if you cover your enemy's fseces and urine with it before its heat has dissipated, his fasces and urine will be blocked.

After removing it he will recover. [Colophon] The end of the Musk Shrew Rites.

[Translator's colophon] [T] Translated by the Tibetan translator Rwa rdo rje grags from a manuscript belonging to Bha ro phyag rdum.

4. ].e victims of the rite of separation according to P which omits T dang. 'You will be separated from your enemy' is possible if dang is accepted.

5. T tsha bu gsum represents S * katukatraya rather than *trilavana.

The three pungent substances are black pepper (Piper nigrum), long pepper (Piper longum) and ginger (Zingiher qfficinale).

Dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i rgyud [The Tantra of Vajramahdbhairava] 5 rgya gar skad du | Sri-vajramahabhairava-nama-tantra || bod skad du | dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i rgyud ces bya ba | dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po khros pa'i rgyal po chen po la phyag 'tshal lo || 10 fi. dkyil 'khor bstan pa] de nas rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi || bsgrub pa yang dag rab bshad de || de yis lha rnams thams cad la || 15 drag shul che zhing 'jigs par byed || de la thog mar sngags pas yid du 'ong ba'i gnas gang yang rung ba'i gnas la dgos pa thams cad bsgrub par bya'o || de la gnas gsungs pa ni | dur khrod dam || chu klung gi 'gram mam | shing gcig gam | mtshan ma gcig pa 'am | 20 bzhi mdo 'am | ri'i rtse mo 'am \\ khang stong ngam 1 ma mo'i khyim mam lha'i khang pa 'am | thab mo'i gnas sam | grong khyer ram | nags khrod dam j grong la sogs pa'i gnas su sngags pa gnas te | rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i rdo rje'i 'khor lo'i ming gi rgyud 'dir dbang bskur ba'i rnal 'byor pas dbang dang 5 vajramahabhairava—tantra: vajrabhairava-tantra-krodha-raja-nama A. 6 chen po'i rgyud: kyi chen po rgyud P, kyi rgyud SR, khros pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po A; ces: zhes A; bya: byas U. 8 khros pa'i: khro bo'i A; DUA omit chen po. 13 bsgrub: sgrub A. 14 deyis: deni S, desni A, denas U. 17 thog: thogs P;ba'i: barDPUA. 18 dur: ru P. 19 mam: 'am S; gcig: cig S. 20 mam: 'am S. 22 DPUA add bar after grong; P adds dpal before rdo. 22-3 rdo—'dir: 'jigs byed chen po'i rgyud 'dir A; rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i DU.

dgug pa dang bsad pa dang skrad pa dang dbye ba dang rengs pa dang | ral gri dang mig sman dang sa 'og dang ril bu dang gser 'gyur dang bcud kyis len pa dang nor dang | 'byung po dang ro langs dang sha za dang gnod sbyin dang gnod sbyin mo dang klu la sogs pa cho ga 'dis bsgrub par bya'o jj de la 5 cho ga ni dang por re shig sngags pas ro bsregs pa'i thai chen gyis lus byugs te | mtshan phyed na gcer bu skra bsil ba byas la 'phags pa ma he'i gdong can gyi rnal 'byor gyis dur khrod la sogs par dkyil 'khor bris te | gru bzhi pa la sgo bzhi pa || [ 135r] rta babs bzhi yis mam par rgyan || 10 dril bu dar gyi 'phan la sogs j| me tog phreng bas rnam par klubs j[ grwa mams dag ni thams cad dang || sgo khyud kyi ni phugs dag tu || rdo rje rin chen gyis spras pa'i || 15 zla ba phyed pa de bzhin no || de dbus 'khor lo bri ba ni || re'u mig dgu ba zlum po'o || sgo gcig pa ni dbye bar bya || lhag ma yongs su gcad par bya || 20 de dbus mi ro bri bar bya || shar du mgo bo Ihor lag pa j nub tu rgyu ma byang du rkang pa | shar lho'i grwar thod pa | lho nub tu thod tshal | nub byang du dur khrod kyi ras [ byang shar du skyes bu gsal zhing la btsugs pa'o || de dag ni 'khor lo'i dbus su mtshan ma'i phyag rgya lnga'o || de 25 nas 'khor lo'i phyi rol gyi phyag rgya rnams ni shar phyogs kyi snam bu la gri gug dang mtshon rtse gcig pa dang | gtun shing dang| chu gri dang | rdo rje rtse gcig pa dang | lcags kyu la sogs pa rnams bri'o || lho phyogs kyi snam bu la sta re dang | mda' dang | kha twam ga dang | dbyig to dang | 'khor lo dang | rdo rje zhags 5 pa la sogs pa bri'o || nub phyogs kyi snam bu la rdo rje dang rde'u chung dang | phub dang | gzhu dang | dril bu dang | rlung gi ba dan la sogs pa bri'o Ц byang phyogs kyi snam bu la sdigs mdzub dang | 'phan rtse gsum pa dang j glang po'i lpags pa dang | rdo rje tho ba dang | mdung dang | me thab la sogs pa bri'o || sgo bzhi dang grwa rnams la ro langs chen po bri'o || gal te mchog 10 gi dngos grub 'dod na mar khu chen po'i mar me dbul lo || mi dang | bong bu dang | rnga mo dang | khyi dang | wa dang | ma he dang | glang po che dang | ba lang dang | ba men dang | lug dang | ri dags dang || phag pa la sogs pa'i sha rnams dbul bar bya'o Ц gzhan yang bya rgod dang | 'ug pa dang | bya rog dang | khra dang | chu skyar dang | mthing ril dang | bzhad dang | rma bya dang | 15 khyim bya dang | ri skegs dang | khyung chen [135v] po la sogs pa'i sha rnams dbul bar bya'o || shin tu mnyam par bzhag pas bza1 ba dang || ston mo dang | sbyin sreg dang | gtor ma'i las bya'o Ц dkyil 'khor gyi grwa thams cad du khrag gis chag chag bya'o || dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed ma he'i gdong gi sbyor ba la gnas pas lha bshos thams cad dbul bar bya'o || de nas sngags pas sngon 20 du spyad pa byas te | bdag zhi bar gyur ba'i shin tu mthun pa'i grogs sam j bdaggcig _■■.■,..

1 bsad: gsad DPUA; skrad: bskrad SUA. 2 ril bu: ri lu P; gser 'gyur: ro A; kyis: kyi S. 3 pa: pa'i SPU; A adds mi before ro. 6 bsil: gsil P, grol A; ba: bu DU; A omits 'phags pa; gyis: gyi kun tu spyod pas A. 7 bris te: bris ste S, bri ste A. 9 rgyan: brgyan DPUA. 11 klubs: bklubs DU, brgyan A. 13 phugs dag tu: mtshams rnams su SU, phugs mams su A. 14 pa'i: pa SP. 15 pa: pa'ang A. 17 re'u: re A; po'o: mo'o P. 19 gcad: bead SPA. 22 P adds gnyis afterpa; lho'i: gyi P; grwar: grar S; lho nub tu: Ihor SP. 23 A omits byang; A omits shar. 24 rgya lnga'o: rgya'o PA. 80 1 P omits rgya; snam bu: bu dag A. 3 A omits rnams. 5 A omits phyogs; rde'u chung: ral gri dang | gri chung dang PR. 6 ba dan: ras DUA. 7 A omits phyogs; kyi: gi A. 8 po'i: po che'i A. 9 grwa: sgra P; rnams la: bzhir A. 10 A omits lo. 11 A omits che. 12 lang: glang A; A omits ba men; A omits pa. 14 mthing: thing SR; thid PU; bzhad: gzhad P. 15 A omits khyim bya; skegs: skyegs SP. 19 khyung: Itas ngan DU; bya A. 16 bzhag: gzhag SR. 17 sreg: bsreg A. 18 gis: gi R; chag chag: phyag chag P; gi: gis P. 19 de; phyi A; pas: pa A. 20 spyad: bsnyen A; byas te: bya ste P, byas pas A; zhi---ba'i:

dang A; pa'i grogs sam: pa bzhi'am A. 81 10 15 20 pu rnam par snang mdzad kyis lus byugs te gcer bur phud nas skra bsil | mtshan phyed na cang te'u dkrol la ha ha zhes bya zhing mnyam par bzhag ste | rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i dkyil 'khor du dngos grub 'dod pas 'jug par bya'o || rab tu zhim pa'i chang la sogs pa btung ba dang | bza' ba'i ro rnams dbul lo ]| phyi nas dngos grub dang | dngos grub ma yin pa la dmigs la de'i steng du dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po ma he'i gdong can bsam par bya'o || de'i mdun du g.yas bskum du gnas la nga rgyal dang bcas pas | sems rtse gcig tu shin tu mnyam par bzhag pas yi ge bcu pa'i sngags bzla bar bya'o || de nas 'jigs byed chen po byung na | de la sngags pas 'jigs par mi bya ste | gal te 'jigs par gyur na | de la bgegs chen po'i bar chad 'byung ngo || bar chad byung na dngos grub mi 'grub bo || de bas na sngags pas 'jigs par mi bya ste | de la dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po dgyes so || dgyes nas khyod ci 'dod ces gsung pa dang | de la rig 'dzin gyis smra bar bya ste | ral gri dang | sa 'og dang | mig sman dang | gser 'gyur dang | bcud kyis len pa 'am | de las gzhan yang yid la 'dod pa'i dngos grub nges par bdag ta stsol cig ces brjod na | de la the tshom med par stsol lo || brgya zhig la sngags pas de dag ma grub na yang de'i 'phra mo'i [136r] las thams cad nges par 'grub bo || 'di ni 'jam dpal zhes bya ba'i ming dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i 'khor lo'i sbyor ba'i rgyud las dkyil 'khor bstan pa ste rtog pa dang po'o || fii. las thams cad grub pa] de nas las kyi tshogs kyi cho ga rab tu bshad de rim pa ji lta ba bzhin du bsad pa dang bskrad pa la sogs pa sngags pa khros pas dpai rdo rje 'jigs byed 5 chen po'i sbyor ba la gnas pas bya ste || dang po kho nar sngags pas re shig gnod mdzes su bya ste || de ci'i phyir zhe na | mal 'byor gtso bo yin pa'i phyir ro || mal 'byor gyi rgyud la lha'i sbyor ba dang ldan pas || thog mar ni de bya ste | de sbyor ba'i gtso bo yin pa'i phyir ro ]| de la 'di yi las ni ji Itar gsad par 'dod pa'i sngags pas dur khrod kyi ras la 1 dug dang j khrag dang | Ian tshwa Ю dang | ske tshe dang | nim ba dang | dha du ra'i khu ba yis rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i 'khor lo le tshe bcu drug pa bya rog chen po'i sgro rtse'i smyu gu 'am | mi'i rus pa'i smyu gus gcer bu skra bshig pas kha lhor bltas te | ma he'i gdong gi sbyor bas bri bar bya'o || me gnyis kyi dbus su bsgrub bya'i ming dang bcas par gzhag la de yi ge bcu pas bskor zhing hum brgyad bri || zur 15 mams su phat kyi yi ge mams bri || bdag nyid tsha ba'i mar gyis lus byugs la | thod pa gnyis kyi dbus su 'khrul 'khor rab tu bcug la sgyed bu gsum gyi steng du bzhag nas dur khrod kyi mgal pas me rab tu spar te | rkang pa g.yon pas mnan la yi ge bcu pa'i sngags bzlas so || de yis skad cig gis the tshom med par 'chi'o || gzhan yang rims kyis thebs

1 A omits te; A omits nas; bsil: gsil RP, gsil ba A. 2 na: nas DU; dkrol: bkrol S; la: bas A; A adds shin tu before mnyam; S omits bzhag; bzhag: gzhag D. 4 bza1: gzar S. 5 lo: bar bya'o A; dngos grub dang—pa la: de'i dbus su 'dod pa'i dngos grub A. 7 bskum du: bskums su A, 8 DP omit shin tu; bzhag: gzhag S; bzla bar: bzlas par A. 9 byed: pa DPURS. 10 P adds bar chen po'i after po'i; chad: chod P. 11 bo: bo'o A; de bas na: de'i phyir A. 12 ci 'dod ces: la mchog ci zhig sbyin zhes A; gsung: gsungs S. 13 smra—ste: smras pa A; mig: mi P. 14 gser 'gyur: ro A. 14 A omits de las. 15 nges—la: bdag la nges par A; stsol cig: gsol gcig RP. 16 brgya zhig la: gal te A; zhig: gzhig R; de dag: mchog A; na yang: na'ang R, kyang A; de'i: de yis A; 'phra: phra S . 19 zhes—dpal: mchog A. 20 sbyor ba'i: mal 'byor DU; pa: pa'i P. 3 kyi: kyis P; kyi tshogs—tu: kun gyi rjes su Vang ba'i dngos grub thams cad rab tu sbyin pa'i cho ga A; A adds de la before rim. 4 bsad: gsad A; bskrad: skrad RDP. 5 gnas pas: gnas pa'i rnal 'byor gyis SRP; po: por DUA; DUA omit kho nar. 5-6 sngags—su: re shig sngags pas gsad par DUA. 6-7 A omits rnal—ro. 7 rnal 'byor gyi— la: 'di la ni sngags dang A. 8 SR omit de—ro; de sbyor ba'i: de'i sbyor ba A; 'di yi: 'di'i DU; gsad: bsad S; P adds 'gyur after par, 10 ba yis: bas R. 11 rtse'i: rtsa'i RUA. 12 gcer bu: skyes bu P; bshig pas: bshigs pas S, bshig pa A. 14 S omits dang; gzhag: bzhag RPA; A omits zhing; A adds kyang after brgyad. 15 rnams su: du A; kyi—mams: brgyad A; nyid: gnyis R. 16 dbus—tu: bar du 'khor lo A; sgyed: skyed S. 17 nas: la A. 18 bzlas: bzlos P. 83

par 'dod na 'khor Io de nyid mi'i nya phyis gnyis kyi dbus su legs par bzhag la me thab kyi 'og tu khru phyed brkos la bcug nas me sbar na rims nad kyis 'dzin no || de la le tshe [136v] bcu drug pa'i rab tu sbyor ba 'di gsungs te | 'on kyang 'di'i khyad par ni yi ge sum bcu rtsa gnyis pa'i sngags dang Idan pa yi 5 ge bcu pa'i sngags bsgrub bya'i ming dang lhan cig tu yi ge dang sngags spel Io || sngon du gsungs pa'i rdzas dang lhan cig tu bya rog gis btogs pa'i lhag ma mi gtsang ba dang | rnam par snang mdzad dang lhan cig tu dur khrod kyi ras la byugs te | de la sngon du gsungs pa'i cho gas 'khor Io bris te || dur khrod du sbas na 'chi bar 'gyur ro || shing gcig gi drung du sbas na bskrad par 10 'gyur ro || mtshan ma gcig par sbas na dbye bar 'gyur ro || chu'i nang du sbas na rengs par 'gyur ro || khyim du bzhag na zhi bar 'gyur ro |j phyung nas legs par bkrus na grol bar 'gyur ro || gzhan yang rab tu sbyor ba gsungs pa gshin rje'i 'khor Io sngon gyi cho gas dur khrod kyi ras la bris te \ dur khrod dam lam bzhi mdo dang | shing gcig dang j grog mkhar dang chu 'gram dang 15 mtshan ma gcig pa dang | rgyal po'i sgo dang | rnam par snang mdzad dang rdo rje chu dang | dur khrod kyi sol bas bsgrub bya'i gzugs brnyan tshad sor brgyad pa byas la de'i snying khar 'khor lo'i sngags bcug ste || mi'i rus pa'i phur bus gnas lngar gdab par bya'o || tshigs thams cad la tsher ma rnon pos dgang bar bya'o || de thod pa gnyis kyi dbus su bcug ste | de grog mkhar dang 20 gnas bdun gyi sas gshin rje'i gzugs khru gang tsam zhal gtsigs pa | gsus pa che ba | zhal gcig pa | phyag gnyis pa | phyag na ral gri dang | zhags pa 'dzin pa 1 gcer bu skra gsil ba byas la | de'i snying khar thod pa gnyis bcug ste | nyi ma phyed dam nam phyed na dur khrod dam ro bsregs pa'i sar sbas te | shin tu ring bar mgo Ihor bstan la | kha thur du phub 5 la sba'o Ц khyim du 'ongs pa dang | mnyam par bzhag pas ma he'i gdong gi [ 137r] sbyor bas bsgrub bya'i ming dang bcas par yi ge bcu pa'i sngags bzlas pa byas na nyi ma gsum gyis 'chi'o || phyung nas bkrus na thar par 'gyur ro || de nas rengs pa'i rab tu sbyor ba gsungs te | rte'u lo'i lpags pa la dug la sogs pa'i rdzas kyis yi ge bcu pa'i sngags bris la | lpags pa de bsgrub bya'i rkang 10 nes кУ> rdul dane I gcinbtang ba'i shul gyi sas bkang la de'i skras being bar bya'o |] phyi nas bong bu'i gcin dang || rnam par snang mdzad dang lhan cig tu brdzis la kham phor dgang bar bya'o Ц der 'khor Io bcug la ro bsregs pa'i me la gzhag ste | rkang pa g.yon pas mnan la gshin rje'i sbyor bas yi ge bcu pa'i sngags bzlas pa byas na zhag gcig gis rengs par byed do || 'di ni phyis rjes su 15 bzung ba mi 'grub pa'i rab tu sbyor ba'o || sngags pa shin tu khros pas rab tu sbyor ba bya'o || gzhan yang dbye ba'i rab tu sbyor ba ni | gshin rje'i 'khor Io sngon gyi cho gas bris la | gnas bdun gyi sas | ma he dang rta byas te | de gnyis gcig gi steng du gcig gzhag la | de gnyis kyi snying khar 'khor Io bcug ste | nim ba'i shing drung du gzhag go || 'khor Io yang ma he dang | rta'i khrag 20 gis

1 Raddspn after 'dod; kyi: kyis SRPU; bzhag: gzhag SR. 2 thab: dur A; khru: gru DP; A omits khru—la; brkos: bsgos S; A omits nas me sbar. 3 no: to A; la le: le'u A; A adds 'khor lo'i before rab; 'di: gzhan A. 4 'di'i: 'di yi A. 4- 20 U missing. 4 bcu: btu SR. 5 A adds bcas pa before lhan; spel: srel P, spel ba dgod do A. 6 A adds zas before btogs; btogs: gtogs S, bstogs P. 7 A omits tu. 9 bskrad: skrod A. 14 grog: grogs P. 15 SP add ba after pa; A adds khang after sgo. 16 rje: rje'i A; A omits tshad. 17 A omits 'khor lo'i; bus: bu A. 18 lngar: Inga ru A. 19 dgang: gdab A. 19 de grog: der grog A. 20 sas: sa yis A; gzugs: 'khor S. 1-7 U missing. 2 gsil: bsil SD; ba: bur A; la: pa A. 4 sbas te: sba ste A; A adds brkos te after bar; thur: 'thur RA; phub: sbub A. 5 mnyam—pas: shin tu nga rgyal dang Idan pas A; bzhag: gzhag SD; par: pa D, pa'i A. 7 bkrus: bkus S. 8 rte'u lo'i: te'u Io pa'i SRA. 9 kyis: kyi P. 10 A adds bsgrub bya before de'i; skras: sbas U. 11 bong: bon A. 12 brdzis: rdzis P; kham por: blug ma yang dag par A; bya'o: bya ste A; der: de ru A; bsregs: sreg P. 13 gzhag: bzhag RPA. 15 bzung: gzung SR; mi: ma A; pa: pas SRDU. 16ba:barSRP;SRa^'difte/breni. 17te:laA. 18 gzhag: bzhag SDRP A. 19 yang: 'angR. 84 85

10 15 bris te 'di ni sngags kyi bye brag ste [ shin tu mnyam par bzhag pas byas na zhag gsum gyis 'byed par byed do || de nas sngags pas skrad par 'dod na gnas bdun gyi sas rnga mong byas la de yi rgyab tu yi ge yam yongs su gyur ba las rlung gi dkyil 'khor zla ba phyed pa'i rnam pa dmigs te | de'i steng du bsgrub bya dmigs la de'i rgyab tu gshin rje'i gzugs lag pas dbyug pa 'dzin par dmigs te | de'i dbyug pas rdeg cing kha lho ru bltas nas 'khrid par mam par bsam par bya'o || 'khor lo de de'i snying khar gong du gsungs pa'i cho gas bsgrub bya'i ming dang spel ba yang dag par bris f [137v] la bcug na zhag bdun gyis the tshom med par skrod par 'gyur ro || de nas gzhan yang rab tu sbyor ba gsungs te | nyi ma'i tshes la gtum po tsha ba'i mar khus byugs la nim ba'i shing la 'dzegs nas [ der gzhag la de'i lus kyi mar khu nya phyis kyis bzhar la der gnas par gzung ngo | mar khu de blangs nas lha chen po'i rgyal mtshan gyi ras blangs la de bsregs pa'i bar gyi du ba'i dreg pa de dang mar khu de gcig tu byas la bskrad par 'dod pa de'i mchil lham la de bsku'o j| de'i lag pa dang rkang pa gnyis la yang byugs na skad cig gis de skrod do || de nas gzhan yang rab tu sbyor ba gsungs pa ni dur khrod kyi ras sam | gro ga'i lo ma la rlung gi dkyil 'khor bya rog gi khrag dang | bya rog gi snyu gus bri bar bya ste j rlung gi dkyil 'khor gyi dbus su bsgrub bya'i ming dang spel te gtor ma za ba'i mgrin par beings la | bya rog bzung nas ma he'i gdong pa'i sbyor bar gnas pas kha lhor bltas la 'phang ste | de'i skad cig gis bya rog bzhin sa kun tu 'khor ro || gzhan yang bskrad pa ni tsha ba'i mar khus bskus la nim pa'i shing las gtor ma za ba'i tshang blangs la | tshang de'i shing pha'i nags kyi shing mes bsregs 5 pa'i thai ba de blangs la | gang gi mgor blugs pa de skrod par 'gyur ro || gzhan yang dbye ba'i rab tu sbyor ba ni bya rog dang 'ug pa'i gshog pa dang | bram ze dang gtum po mams kyi skra gcig tu byas la | dha du ra'i shing la me rab tu sbar te | du ba med pa'i mes bsregs la 1 de'i thai ba blangs la yi ge bcu pa'i sngags bzlas nas bud med dang skyes pa gnyis kyi bar du thai ba bzhag na Ю de skad cig gis 'byed par byed do || de nas dur khrod kyi ras blangs la dug la sogs pa'i rdzas kyis bran pa'i bar du bsgrub bya'i ming bris [138r] la zer mo'i dang sbrul gyi spu dang lpags pa blangs te | de la bcug nas sdong bu byas te gang gi khyim du sbar ba der phan tshun 'thab par 'gyur ro || de nas gsad par 'dod pa ni bshang gci la gzugs brnyan byas la | de'i steng du rus pa phye mas 15 rab tu byugs la | dur khrod kyi me la skra bshig pa byas la | kha lhor bltas te ma he'i gdong pa'i sbyor bas nam phyed na de gtubs la bsreg go | gang gi ming dang bcas par byas na de skad cig gis 'chi'o | rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po nyid kyis rab tu sbyor ba 'di gsungs so || de nas bskrad par 'dod pas rgyal mtshan gyi ras la le tshe bcu drug

1 A omits 'di—ste; ste: te DP. 1 bzhag: gzhag S; A omits byas na. 2 skrad: bskrad SRUA. 3 mong: mo'i gzugs A; de yi: de'i SRDUA; SR omit tu; ba: ba'i A. 4 las: la P. 5 la de'i: la de yi A; par: pa A. 6 rdeg: brdeg DUA; lho ru: lhor A; 'khrid par: khrid par SPU, khrid pa'i R. 7 A adds ste after lo; gas: ga las SR. 9 gyis: gyi S; tshom: tsom S. 10 te: pa A; SR omit la; po: po'i lus A. 11 gzhag: bzhag SRPA. 12 gzung: bzung SPU A. 13 gyi: sngon po'i A; A adds sam | de ma myed na dkar po before ras; A omits de; ba'i: bas P; dreg: drag A. 14 A omits mchil; bsku'o: bsku A. 15 la yang: la'ang R; skrod: bskrod P. 17 U omits lo; A adds dur khrod kyi sol ba dang after 'khor; DU add sgro'i after gi; A adds rkang gi after gi. 18 te: la A, P omits. I bzung: gzung S, bzungs R; pa'i: gi A; pas: pa'i P. 2 bltas: Has P; 'phang: btang A; de'i: de A; 'khor: skor A; tsha: tshe U. 4 de'i: de A; de'i shing: de'i A; pha'i: pa'i S; A adds gi before mes. 5 D omits de; skrod: bskrod P. 6 gshog: bshog SP. 7 po: po'i A; A omits rnams kyi; la: te A. 10 'byed par byed: dbye bar 'gyur ro A; la dug: te dug A. I1 bran: sbags A; A adds bcug la after du; la: pa U; zer: sre A; mo'i: mo SRDU. 12 A adds spu after mo'i; A omits spu dang; de la bcug: bsres A. 13 A adds gang dang after gang; gsad: bsad S. 14 gci: cig R; de'i: de yi A; rus pa: dug gi A, 15 A adds gcer \m before skra; bshig: gshig DPA. 16 gtubs: btubs S; A adds dur khrod kyi me la after la; bsreg: sreg SR. 18 kyis: kyi SRDPU; bskrad: skrad P. 19 ras: ral S; le: le'u A. 86 87

pa'i 'khor lo la yi ge bcu pa'i sngags sngon du gsungs pa'i rdzas dang dur khrod kyi sol bas gang gi ming dang bcas pa bris te | nim ba'i shing la rgyal mtshan bzhag na de skrod par 'gyur ro || de nas rengs par 'dod pas gshin rje'i 'khor lo g.yam pa 'am ras la ba bla dang yung bas gang gi ming dang bcas pa 5 legs par bris la bzhag na de rengs par 'gyur ro J| gal te sngags pas dbang du bya bar 'dod na | grog mkhar gyi sa dang gur gum dang gi wang dang ba bla dang yung ba rnams lhan cig tu byas te | bsgrub bya pho 'am j| gal te mo'i gzugs brnyan tshad sor bcu drug pa byas la | gi wang dang | srin lag gi khrag gis gro ga la gshin rje'i 'khor lo bris te | de'i snying khar bcug nas rang gi 10 khyim du bzhag la | me tog dmar pos dus gsum du dbul ba dang | kha nub tu bltas la yi ge bcu pa'i sngags bzlas pa byas na | zhag bdun gyis brgya byin yang dbang du 'gyur na yang phra mo'i mi lta ci smos || de nas yang dgug par 'dod na | de la thod pa la 'khor lo gi wang dang srin lag gi khrag gis bris te seng ldeng gi me la bsro zhing | gang bya ba'i ming dang bcas par bzlas na 15 de skad cig gis [138v] rlung gi shugs bzhin du 'gugs par 'gyur ro || de nas sngags pas smyo bar bya bar 'dod na dha du ra'i 'bras bu blangs la | sha chen dang lhan cig tu shing srin gyis zos pa'i phye ma dang bsres nas bza' ba dang btung ba la ni sbyin no || sngags kyang bzlas pa bya ste | de skad cig gis smyo bar 'gyur zhing zhag bdun gyis 'chi'o |[ de nas gzhan yang rab tu sbyor 20 ba gsungs pa | gshin rje'i sngags dur khrod kyi ras la dug la sogs pa'i rdzas kyis bris te j mar me chen po dang rnam par snang mdzad kyis gzugs brnyan byas la | de'i snying khar 'khor lo bcug nas pha'i nags su song la ro bsregs pa'i me la mtshon mon pos gtubs nas mam par brtsegs pa'i sbyor bas rnal 'byor pa gnas la j mam par snang mdzad kyis lus byugs te | kha lhor bltas nas bsregs na de myur du 'chi'o || de nas dbral ba'i rab tu sbyor ba 'byung ba ni bya rog dang 'ug pa'i rus pa blangs na de gnyis la Icags kyi tsher mas 5 bsgrub bya'i ming dang lhan cig tu yi ge bcu pa'i sngags bris la | gcig pu gnas su gnas te | gang gi ming dang bcas par bzlas shing | de cig la gcig drud na 'bral bar 'gyur ro |] de nas gshin rje'i 'khor lo gro ga'i 'dab ma la bud med dang skyes pa'i ming bris nas sbal pa'i gsus par bcug nas | gang gi ming dang bcas pa them pa'i 'og tu sbas na | de'i yan lag mtshon gyis 'bugs par 'gyur ro || de 10 nas bu mo rengs pa'i rab tu sbyor ba 'di gshin rje'i sngags dur khrod kyi ras la dug la sogs pas bris la ro bsregs pa'i sol bas gzugs bmyan mtho gang tsam gyi tshad brtsigs la | de'i snying khar 'khor lo bcug nas rkang pa g.yon pas mnan la | ma he'i sbyor bas che ge mo'i bu mo myur bar rengs par 'gyur cig ces yi ge bcu pa'i sngags bzlas na rengs par 'gyur ro || [139r] 'di yi las rnams 15 ni gzhan su la yang smra bar mi bya'o || gal te sngags pa rmongs pa'i bdag nyid can gyis byed na dmyal bar nges par Itung ngo || dkon mchog gsum la gnod par byed pa dang | bla ma la brnyas par byed pa dang | dam tshig dang bral ba dang | sngags dang bral ba dang | sngags dang rgyud la 'phya bar byed pa dang sems can la 'tshe ba 'di rnams la phan pa'i phyir sngags pas 20 snying rjes gdungs pa'i sems kyis gnod pa rab tu sbyor bar bya'o || gal te gzhan la byas na dam tshig nyams nas tsha ba chen por 'gro'o |j

1 A omits la—sngags; S omits dang. 3 bzhag: gzhag P. 4 la: nas A. 5 P adds sngags te before sngags. 6-7 A omits ba—rnams. 7 pho: po PU; mo'i: mi'i U. 10 pos: po DU. 12 na yang: na A. 12 dgug: 'gug R. 14 A adds la after gang. 15 A omits du; 'gugs: 'gug P. 16 smyo bar: smyos par S, myos par R; A omits bya bar. 18 SRA omit ni; DU omit la ni. 20 P adds su after sngags. 21 kyis: kyi SRP. 22 pha'i: pa'i RDPU; nags: gnas SRDU, P illegible. 3 de myur du: de'i mod la A; dbral: 'bral SRP; rab tu sbyor ba: cho ga A. 4 na: pa S, la D. 5 cig: gcig DA. 7 A omits de nas; rje'i: rje SRDP. 8 nas: na SP, la A. 9 pa: la P; 'bugs: gtub A. 10'di: ni A. 11 laro: tero. 12 brtsigs la: khagtsigs par byas te A. 13 A adds gdong gi after he'i; myur: khyur P. 14 'di yi: 'di'i RDPUA. 15 la yang: la'ang R. 16 can gyis: kyis A; byed na: ni SR. 17 gnod par: gnod pa SR; bmyas par byed: bmyas A. 18 SDA omit sngags dang bral ba dang. 19 'tshe: 'tsho DP. 20 pa: pa'i A; sbyor: sbyar S; bar: ba RDU, ba rab tu A. 89

10 15 ngas rgyud gzhan du 'ang bshad de slob dpon la ni smod byed dang | theg pa chen po skur pa dang sngags rgyud rab sbyor ye shes la j 'phya bar 'byed pa'i mi gang dag de ni 'bad la gsad par bya || yang na gnas nas g.yo bar bya || rnal 'byor snying rje med pa yis || gzhan la rung rung byas na ni || de la de bzhin las de ni || phyir Idog par ni 'byung bar 'gyur j| ci phyir sems can mtho btsam phyir || ma! 'byor pa ni 'di la'o || 'di la 'jam dpal 'jam pa'i mchog j dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i mal Ъуог gyi rgyud las las thams cad grub pa'i rtog pa ste gnyis pa'o || || [Hi. sngags btu ba bstan pa) de nas go rims ji lta ba'i cho gas sngags btu ba rab tu gsungs te | rab tu gtsang ba'i yul khams su sngags pas gnas la sngags btu bar bya ste | 5 ji ltar drug pa'i dang po dang || lnga pa yi ni Inga pa dang || drug pa yini gnyis pa la] | dbyangs yig gnyis pa dang ldan pa || gnyis pa yi ni gsum pa la Ц 10 yang ni dbyangs yig gnyis pa ldan | bdun pa yi yang gsum pa dang || bzhi pa yi yang gsum pa la Ц dbyangs yig bcu gsum dang ldan pa || lnga pa yi yang lnga pa la || 15 dbyangs yig bcu gcig dang ldan pa || drug pa yi ni dang po dang || yang ni rlung gi sa bon sbyin || lnga pa yi [139v] yang lnga pa la || bcu dang gcig gis mnan ldan pa || 20 bzhi pa yi ni gsum pa la || bcu gsum pa yis mnyam mnan pa || drug pa yi ni gnyis pa la || dbyangs yig lnga pa dang ldan pa || gsum pa yi ni lnga pa dang \\ 25 rlung gi sa bon de nas sbyin || dbyangs yig bcu gsum yang dag ldan || bzhi pa yi ni gsum pa dang || de nas rlung gi sa bon sbyin || drug pa yi yang dang po dang j| 30 bzhi pa yi ni gsum pa dang || de la rlung gi sa bon ni ||

1 ngas: nges DP, A omits; du—de: las kyang gsungs pa A. 3 po: por A. 5 dag: ni A. 6 la: pas A; gsad: bsad S. 11 Idog: bzlog A. 12 sems: sem P; mtho btsam: tho brtsam P, tho bstam DU. 15 'jam pa'i mchog: zhes bya ba DU, A omits; A omits dpal before rdo. 16 P omits las before thams. 90 3 A omits go rims; btu: gtu S. 4 yul khams: gnas A; bya ste: bya'o A. 6 ni: yang A. 10 pa: par DU. 14-27 A unavailable. 16 SPU add drug pa'i dang po gnyis 'gyur dang after po dang. 19 gis: gi S; mnan: gnan P. 22 ni: yang SDU. 25 gi: gis S. 29 yang: ni A. 31 la: nas A. 01

dbyangs yig bcu gsum pa dang ldan |j bzhi pa yi ni lnga pa la || dbyangs yig gsum pa dang ldan pa || de nas me yi sa bon sbyin || 5 rtung gi sa bon de bzhin no || de nas yi ge tha ma sbyin || dbyangs yig bcu gcig pa dang ldan || rlung gi sa bon de bzhin mchog | drug pa yi ni dang po dang |[ 10 de nas yi ge tha ma sbyin || dbyangs yig bcu gcig pa dang ldan || yang ni rlung gi sa bon dang [| gnyis pa yi ni dang po dang j| de ni gnyis 'gyur ldan par bya || 15 bzhi pa yi ni lnga pa la || dbyangs yig gsum pa dang ldan pa || de nas me yi sa bon la || dbyangs yig gnyis pa ldan pa dang || lnga pa yi ni lnga pa dang || 20 de nas rlung gi sa bon sbyin || dang por mam par snang mdzad sbyin || mchog gi dbang phyug dang sbyar ba || lnga pa yi ni gnyis pa dang || gsum pa yi ni dang po ni || 25 mkhas pas Ian gnyis brjod par bya || 'di ni 'jam dpal zhes bya ba'i || 'jigs byed chen po rgyud 'khor lo || ma he gdong can rtsa sngags te || 'bum bzlas pa yis las kun byed || 30 'di ni sngags kyi rgyal po ste || ma byung 'byung bar mi 'gyur ro |j bdun pa yi ni bzhi pa la || dbyangs yig bzhi pa dang ldan pa || me yi sa bon 'og tu sbyin || de nas mnga' bdag bcu drug mtha' || bdun pa yi ni gnyis pa la || 5 dbyangs yig bzhi pa dang ldan zhing || gsum pa yi ni dang po la || 'og tu me yi sa bon gdags || mnga' [140r] bdag bcu drug mtha' ma ste drug pa yi ni bzhi pa la || 10 dbyangs yig gsum pa dang ldan pa || dang po yi yang dang po dang || dbyangs yig bdun pa dang ldan pa || 'og tu me yi sa bon sbyin )| bzhi pa yi ni dang po la || 15 dbyangs yig gnyis pa dang ldan pa || bzhi pa yi ni lnga pa ni || mkhas pa yis ni Ian gnyis brjod || dang por mam par snang mdzad sbyin || ya tshogs brgyad pa'i sa bon la || 20 dbyangs yig drug pa dang ldan la || spyi bo ru ni thig les brgyan || lnga pa yi ni gnyis pa dang [j gsum pa yi ni dang po'o j 'di ni sngags kyi rgyal po ste || 25 ma he'i gdong can sbyor ba yis || thams cad las ni byed pa'o || las kyi sngags su grags pa ste || sum 'bum bzlas na las kun byed || drug pa yi ni dang po dang || 30 lnga pa yi yang lnga pa la ||

4 me: mi U. 14 A corrupt. 17 la: dang SDPUA. 18 SDPU omit dbyangs—dang. 21 dang por: thogs mar A. 22 A adds steng du sa bon stod pas brgyan after ba ||. 25 A omits Ian; A adds su after gnyis. 26 A adds dpal ldan after ni; dpal—ba'i: pa'i mchog A. 27 po: po'i A. 28 he: he'i A. 29 pa yis: pas ni A. 2 A adds 'og tu before me; A omits 'og tu before sbyin. 5 zhing: pa A. 7 'og—bon: me yi sa bon 'og tu A; me yi: me'i SUA. 9 R omits pa. 10 pa: pa'o A. 11 yang: ni A; dang: la A. 12 bdun: gsum A; pa: te A. 15 ldan pa: ldan pa'o A. 16 lnga: snga U. 17 yis: yi PU. 18 dang por: thog mar A; por: po S. 19 ya tshogs brgyad pa'i: sde tshan bdun gyi A. 21 brgyan: rgyan S. 23 dang: dbang S. 25 yis: yin RDU. 27 su grags: pa grogs P. 28 sum: gsum A. 30 la: lnga S. 92 93

dbyangs yig gnyis pa dang Idan pa |j bzhi pa yi ni dang po ste |[ de yi lnga pa glad du gzhag || dang po yi ni dang po dang || 5 dang por rnam par snang mdzad sbyin ]| ya tshogs brgyad pa'i sa bon la || dbyangs yig drug pa dang Idan la || spyi bo ru ni thig les brgyan || lnga pa yi ni gnyis pa dang || 10 gsum pa yi ni dang po'o || 'di ni ma he gdong can gyi || snying po'i sngags su rab tu grags |J yi ge re re 'bum bzlas na || 'jig rten gsum gyi las ni gang || 15 ci yang rung ba thams cad byed || ■} ■, sngags btu ba'i cho ga'i dus 'dir mchod par bya'o || 'di ni 'jam dpal zhes bya ba || dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i mal 'byor gyi 20 rgyud las sngags btu ba bstan pa'i le'u ste gsum pa'o || || [iv. sgompaj de nas rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi bsgrub pa yang dag par bshad de | sngon du chos thams cad la bdag med pa mngon du 'gro bas || lhar dmigs par bya ste | dang 5 por re shig rang bzhin gyis dag pa'i sngags brjod pas | chos thams cad [140v] bdag med pa'i ngo bor byas nas 1 nam mkha'i dkyil du yam gi rnam pa las grub pa'i rlung gi dkyil 'khor mdog du ba'i rnam pa bsam mo || de'i steng du dang po'i dbyangs yig las gyur pa'i zla ba'i dkyil 'khor dmigs te | de'i steng du dhih'i rnam pa las 'jam dpal gzhon nu'i gzugs su gyur par bsam par bya'o || 10 der a'i rnam pa las grub pa'i nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor bsam ste || nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor de las 'od zer 'phros pas phyogs bcu na bzhugs pa'i de bzhin gshegs pa rnams dang byang chub sems dpa' dang rig pa'i Iha mo dang khro bo la sogs pa shin tu bskul te || yang 'ongs nas nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor la bzhugs par bsam mo || de nas yang 'jam dpal dang de bzhin gshegs pa la sogs pa de rnams gcig 15 tu gyur nas | nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor du bsam par bya'o || 'od zer 'bar ba'i mam pas dpag tshad stong phrag brgyar khyab par gsal bar bya'o || de'i steng du hum mdog nag po'i 'od zer lnga dang yang dag par Idan par bsam ste | hum de las 'od zer gyi rnam par 'phros pas || sngon du gsungs pa bzhin du yang zhugs te | yi ge de las rdo rje chen po mam par gdengs pa kha dog nag po'i 20 'od zer lnga dang Idan pa mam par dmigs par bya ste | rdo rje de las phra mo'i rnam pa sangs rgyas dang byang chub sems dpa' dang khro bo dang rig pa'i Iha

1 Idan: sbyar A. 2 pa—ste: pa'i lnga pas brten par bya A. 3 de—gzhag: bzhi bi га [?] dang po 'og tu A; gzhag: bzhag SPA. 5 dang por: thog mar A. 6-8 ya— brgyan: dran pa de bzhin mthar phyin no [na R] | stong pa'i Iha yis mnyam mnan pa SRA. 11 can gyi: pa yi A. 13 na: pas A. 17 dus: skabs A; par: pa DP. 19 zhes bya ba: mchog A. 19 A omits mal Ъуог gyi. 20 ba bstan pa'i le'u: ba'i rtog pa A; ba bstan pa'i rtog pa DU. 3 bsgrub: sgrub A; 3-4 yang—ste: chos thams cad bdag med pa sngon du song bas lha'i dmigs pa yang dag par bshad par bya ste A. 3 SDU omit sngon du. 4 mngon: sngon SRD. 5 por: po A; A omits re shig; sngags: bsngags A; pas: par bya'o A; P omits cad. 6 bdag: kyi R; pa: par P. 8 pa: par A. 9 A omits bsam par. 10 der: de'i snying khar; bsam ste: bsgoms te A. 1! na bzhugs: A illegible; pa: pa'i DP. 13 bzhugs: zhugs AU. 14 nas yang: las A. 16 gsal bar: bsam par A. 17 po'i: po UA; S omits Idan par; A omits ste. 18 par: pa A. 19 po'i: po UA. 20 pa: pa'i A. 94

10 15 mos nam mkha' til gyi gong bu ltar gang ba nyi ma la gnas pa mam par bsam par bya'o || de sangs rgyas la sogs pa mams kyis ni sems can yongs su smin par btul nas byang chub la rab tu bkod de || yang de nyid lhan cig tu bsdus nas rdo rje'i gzugs brnyan la rab tu zhugs par bsam mo |j rdo rje'i gzugs de nyidzhal dgupa | ma he'i [ 141 r] gdong can 'jig pa'i dus kyi me ltar 'bar ba | rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po khams gsum za bar nus pa || zhal gtsigs pa | ha ha zhes ljags 'dril ba | mam par gtsigs pa'i khro gnyer 'jigs pa | khro gnyer gyi 'gram nas smin ma dang spyan 'jig pa chen po'i dus ltar khro bas sgra sgrogs pa | mi'i khrag dang tshil dang | zhag dang rkang za ba | 'jig rten dang 'jig rten las 'das pa'i lha la sogs pa la sdigs mdzub byed pa || brgya byin dang tshangs pa dang dbang phyug chen po dang khyab 'jug dang gnod sbyin la sogs pa za ba || thod pa gtsigs pa'i rtse mo 'jig su rung ba'i thod pas thod byas pa f 'jigs pa chen po can | phat ces sgra sgrogs shing thod pa'i 'phyang 'phrul gyi rgyan gyis brgyan pa j zhabs bcu drug pa | gcer bu'i gzugs mtshan ma gyen du 'greng ba | g.yon brkyang pa | gsus pa che ba | skra gyen du brdzes pa | 'jigs pa chen por byed pa phem ces sgra sgrogs pa | phyag sum cu rtsa bzhi dang Man pa | glang po che'i pags pa rlon pa 'dzin pa | dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po | ma he'i gdong can mam par bsam par bya ste ] de ltar shin 10 15 20 tu bsam pa brtan par byas te | de kho na nyid kyi sbyor ba la shin tu mnyam par gzhag pa'i sngags pas rtag tu bsgom par bya ste 1 g.yas dang po na gri gug | gnyis pa na mtshon rtse gcig pa | gsum pa na gtun shing | bzhi pa na chu gri | lnga pa na rdo rje rtse gcig pa | drug pa na sta re | bdun pa na mdung thung | brgyad pa na mda' | dgu pa na lcags kyu | bcu pa na dbyig to | bcu gcig pa na kha tvam ga 1 bcu gnyis pa na 'khor lo | bcu gsum pa na rdo rje | bcu bzhi pa na rdo rje tho ba 1 bco lnga pa na ral gri | bcu drug pa na cang te'u'o || g.yon pa'i dang po na [141v] thod pa | gnyis pa na mgo bo | gsum pa na phub | bzhi pa na rkang pa | lnga pa na zhags pa | drug pa na gzhu | bdun pa na rgyu ma | brgyad pa na dril bu | dgu pa na lag pa 1 bcu pa na dur khrod kyi ras | bcu gcig pa na skyes bu gsal shing la btsugs pa | bcu gnyis pa na me thab | bcu gsum pa na thod tshal | bcu bzhi pas sdigs mdzub | bco lnga pa na 'phan rtse gsum pa | bcu drug pa na rlung gis 'phyar ba'i dur khrod kyi ras | phyag gnyis kyis glang po che'i lpags pa rlon pa 'dzin pa'o Ц zhabs g.yas pa'i dang pos mi | gnyis pas ma he | gsum pas glang | bzhi pas bong bu | lnga pas rnga mo | drug pas khyi | bdun pas lug | brgyad pas wa | zhabs g.yas pas 'di dag la zhon pa'o || zhabs g.yon pa'i dang pos bya rgod | gnyis pas 'ug pa | gsum pas bya rog | bzhi pas ne tsho | lnga pas khra | drug pas khyung chen po | bdun pas ri skegs brgyad pas bzhad | zhabs g.yon pas 'di dag mnan pa'o || dpal 'jigs byed chen po'i dang po'i zhal ni rab tu gnag pa ma he'i rnam pa shin tu khros pa can | rwa g.yas kyi

1 mkha': mkha'i dbus A; P omits ba. 2 A adds nas after de; A omits ni. 3 bkod de: bkod do SR; A adds de before yang; nyid: dang A. 4 A adds bmyan after gzugs. 5 gdong: gzugs SRA; 'jig: 'jigs PU; ba: ba'i DU. 6 gtsigs pa: cig pa S. 8 nas: na A; 'jig: 'jigs SDPA. 8-9 khro—pa: drag pa SR. 8 'khro: 'phro A; bas: pa'i D, ba U; sgrogs: grogs P. 9 rten dang: rten U. 11-12 gnod—ba: gzhon nu mams kha sbub tu byas nas zhabs kyi 'og tu mnan pa | 'jigs su rung ba'i thod pas thod byas pa A. 12 A omits 'jig---byas pa. 13 phat ces: phem zhes A, phed ces P; SRA omit sgra; sgrogs shing: sgrog cing R, A omits; A omits gyi rgyan. 14 gyen: gyed PU. 15 'greng: dgreng P; brkyang: brkyangs A; brdzes: rdzes P. 16 phem: phed P, phat A; sgrogs: sgrog A. 1 par: pos A; te: S omits, ste RDP. 2 gzhag: bzhag RA; D omits na; gri: rdo rje phri A. 3 mtshon: mdung A. 4 drug pa: drug A. 5 A omits thung; dbyig: dbyug A; to: tho RDPU. 8 pa'i: pa yi S, gyi A; po na: po SRP. 9 rgyu: sgyu S. 11 btsugs: gtsugs S. 12 pas: pa na A. 13 'phyar: phyar SRDPU. 14 R omits kyis; pa'i: kyi A. 16 wa: Ice spyang A; la zhon: mnan A. 18 A omits po; skegs: skyegs SRP. 19 A omits zhabs; dag: rnams P; A adds rdo rje before 'jigs. 20 A omits dang po'i; gnag: nag DPA; khros: khrod S. 21 rwa: rwa'i A; kyi: su A. 97

10 zhal gsum pa dang po sngon po || gnyis pa dmar po | gsum pa ser po ste | mnga' bdag gi zhal gsum shin tu khros pa || rwa g.yon par zhal gsum la | dang po dkar po | gnyis pa dud kha | gsum pa nag po rab tu khros pa j gtsigs pa'i zhal rab tu bsam par bya'o || rwa gnyis kyi bar du dbus kyi zhal dmar po rab tu 'jigs pa zhal nas khrag 'dzag pa bsam par bya'o || steng du 'jam dpal gyi zhal cung zad ser ba yud tsam khro bo byis pa'i rgyan gyis brgyan pa spyi bor ral pa lnga dang ldan pa mam par bsams te | zhal mams thams cad spyan gsum par bsgom ste | 'di Itar bdag nyid rtag tu rtse gcig tu dmigs so | [142r] de nyid dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po ma he'i gdong can de bdag nyid yin par bsgoms nas | dpa' bo'i gnas la gnas pa'i rnal 'byor pas de nas phyi nas sngags bzla bar bya ste j bzlas pa'i dus su rang gi snying khar | nyi ma'i dkyil 'khor bsams te | de'i steng du rang gi sngags kyi yi ge dgod par bya'o || 'bar ba dang phyi nas ma yengs pa'i yid kyis bzlas par bya'o || sum 'bum rtsa ba'i sngags bzlas bya || 'di zlos pa yi sngags pa yis || thams cad las ni byed par 'gyur Ц 5 -di ni 'jam dpal 'jam pa'i mchog dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i rgyud las sgom pa'i rtog pa ste | bzhi pa'o || 15 sbyor la gnas pa'i sngags pa yis |j rtag tu 'jigs byed las kun bya || dur khrod gnas la bsgom bya zhing || rtag tu bdud rtsi lnga mams bza' || de yis bsgrub las bsgrub gzhan med || 20 gzhan yang mar me che za zhing || mtshan mo rgyu ba'i mal 'byor pas || 1 gsum pa: gsum la P. 2 A adds po after khros pa. 2 rwa: rwa'i A; par: du A. 2-3 A omits la | dang po. 3 A adds dang after dkar po; A omits gnyis pa; A adds dang after kha; A omits gsum pa; A omits rab tu. 4 dbus kyi: dbus kyis PU. 5 'dzag pa: 'dzag par A. 6 yud: yid SUA; bo byis: ba byas S; byis pa'i: gzhon nu'i A. 7 ldan pa: ldan par DP; bsams: bsam U; RA omit mams; bsgom: sgom te SP. 8 A omits rtag tu. 8-9 nyid dpal: Itar A. 9 po: po'i PA; bdag: dag R. 10 A adds shin tu mnyam par bzhag pas before dpa' bo'i; A omits de nas. 12 A omits bsams te; yi ge dgod par bya'o: mam pa bsams te A; par: pa SRUA. 15 A adds 'di before sbyor; SRDPU add ba 'di after sbyor; A omits pa'i. 18 bdud: btud S. 19 de yis bsgrub: 'di [yi] sgrub A; med: min A. 20 za: bza' A. 1 sum: gsum A. 2 zlos: bzlos SP; yis: yi DPA, kyis R. 5 A omits 'jam dpa'i; 'jam dpa'i mchog: zhes bya ba DU. 6 A adds mal Ъуог gyi after po'i. 6 sgom: bsgom U. 98 99

10 15 20 [v. bris sku'i cho ga] de nas dpal 'jigs byed chen pos bstan pa'i bris sku'i cho ga rab tu gsungs pa dpa' bo'i ras sam j ro la bkab pa'i ras sam | me tog can gyi ras sam | bu skyes pa'i ras sam | de ma myed na ras gang yang rung ba la | ri mo mkhan bzang po rnam rtog med pa mi khro ba | gtsang ba | mkhas pa | yid gzhungs pa | dad pa dang ldan pa | brtse ba can | sred pa dang bral ba | 'di ltar yon tan dang ldan pa'o |t de lta bu'i ri mo mkhan gyi lag pas dpa' bo'i ras la bri bar bya'o || gal te dngos grub 'dod pas dpa' bo'i yon sbyin no || de la cho ga ni gsang ba'i gnas su gnas la | shin tu mnyam par gzhag pas bri bar bya ste | ri mo mkhan dang sgrub pa pos mthong ba las 'jig rten pa gzhan gyis mi mthong bar bri bar bya ste | zhabs bcu drug pa | phyag sum cu rtsa bzhi pa || zhal dgu pa | gcer bu kha dog nag po g.yon [142v] brkyang pa | 'jigs pa chen po yang 'jigs par byed pa'i rnam pa can | mtshan ma gyen du 'greng ba'i thang ka bri bar bya'o || zhal dang po ma he | rwa'i g.yas su zhal gsum pa ste | sngon po dang | dmar po dang | ser po shin tu khros pa bri bar bya'o || g.yon du dkar po dang | dud kha dang | nag po'o || de gnyis kyi dbus su rab tu dmar po bri bar bya'o || de'i steng du 'jam dpal gyi zhal ser po cung zad khro bo bri bar bya'o |[ phyag g.yas par gri gug dang | mtshon rtse gcig pa dang | gtun shing dang | chu gri dang | rdo rje rtse gcig pa dang [ sta re dang | mdung dang | mda' dang j Icags kyu dang | dbyig to dang | kha twam ga dang | 'khor lo dang | rdo 10 15 rje dang | rdo rje tho ba dang | ral gri dang | cang te'u'o Ц phyag g.yon pa na thod pa dang | mgo bo dang | phub dang 1 rkang pa dang 1 zhags pa dang | gzhu dang | rgyu ma dang | dril bu dang | lag pa dang | dur khrod kyi ras dang 1 skyes bu gsal shing gis phug pa dang | me thab dang | thod tshal dang \ sdigs mdzub dang | 'phan rtse gsum pa dang 1 rlung gis bskyod pa'i ras so || phyag gnyis kyis glang po che'i lpags pa rlon pa 'dzin pa bri'o Ц zhabs g.yas pas mi dang | ma he dang 1 glang dang | bong bu dang j rnga mo dang | khyi dang | lug dang | wa rnams so || zhabs g.yon pas bya rgod dang | 'ug pa dang | bya rog dang | ne tso dang | khra dang | bya chen dang | ri skegs dang | bzhad rnams so || 'di lta bur 'dug pa'i rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po bri bar bya'o || de'i 'og tu dur khrod chen po yang bri bar bya'o || 'jigs pa chen po byed pa | srin po dang | zhing skyong pa dang | ro langs dang | ldan pa skyes bu mdung rtser btsugs pa'i gzugs der mthong bar bya'o || n.ya gro dha'i shing dag gi steng du skyes bu 'phyang ba bri bar bya'o || skyes bu bsregs bzhin yang bri | mdung gis phug pa'i skyes bu yang bri | bya sna tshogs dang bya rgod dang bya rog dang | khyi dang Ice spyang dang | ha ha 'byin pa bri | sgrub pa po rnams kyang [143r] bri ste | bcom ldan 'das la rtse gcig tu lta ba gcer bu skra bshig pa | phyag rgya lngas brgyan 3 bstan: gsungs A; gsungs: bshad A. 4 ro: zhi [ba] A; bkab pa'i: bka' ba'i A; A adds rab tu 'dzag pa'i ras sam before bu; skyes: A illegible. 5 A adds gzhan before gang; A adds blangs after ba. 5-6 ri—po: 'dir dngos pa kun gyi mos pa A. 6 A adds par after mam; A adds pa after nog; A omits yid. 8 pa'o: pa A; de lta bu'i: shin tu A; mkhan gyi: mkhas pa'i A; A omits dpa'—la. 10 gzhag: bzhag PA. 11 las: la R. 13 brkyang: rkyang P, brkyangs A. 14 ba'i: bar SRP, ba'i rnam pa can gyi A. 15 he: he'i A; A omits pa. 17 po: ba SRD, pa U; bya'o: bya A. 19 par: pa na rdo rje A. 21 kyu: skyu RDP; dbyig: dbyug A. 4 gis: gi S, la A; phug pa: phub ma P, btsugs pa A. 8 wa: Ice spyang A; mams: rnam P. 9 tso: tsho SRP; bya: khyung A; skegs: skyegs SP. 10 rnams: rnam P; 'og: phyi ro] A. 11 po yang: po'ang R; bar bya'o: ste A. 11 chen po: chen рог А. 14 byed pa: pa'i gnod sbyin dang A. 12 skyong pa: skyong A; pa dang: pa S; rtser: rtse SRDP. 13 btsugs: gtsugs S; der: de SR; mthong bar bya'o: bstan par bya A; n.ya gro dha'i: rgya gro ta'i A; A omits dag gi; du: nas A. 14 bri bar bya'o: bstan par bya A, bri bar bya S. 14 bsregs: sregsR, bsregPU; A omits bzhin; DPA add pa after bzhin. 15 phug—bu: phub pa A; bu yang: bu'ang R; A adds pa after tshogs; SRDPU omit bya rgod dang. 16 spyang dang: spyang dag U, spyang A. 17 gcig: cig S; bshig: gshig PUA. 18 brgyan:rgyan S. 100 101

10 pa | cang te'u dang | thod pa dang | kha twam ga 'dzin pa | thod pas spyi bor brgyan pa | dgod cing dur khrod der 'jug pa bri | 'di ni gsang ba'i bris sku ste I gnas gcig tu legs par gzhag la j sha chen gyi spos dbul | de'i mdun du dung chen gyi 'phreng bas bzlas pa bya | sngags pa mnyam par gzhag pas dus gsum du 'bad pas bris sku bsrung ngo || gzhan gang yang mi gzhag g0 I gzhan gang gi mdun du yang mi dgram mo || klog pa dang btung ba dang bza' ba dang | ston mo ni sha chen rtag tu mtshan mo bza'o | gal te mchog gi dngos grub 'dod na dus gsum du rnam par snang mdzad dang khrag gi spos bris sku'i mdun du dbul lo j| 'di ni 'jam dpal 'jam pa'i mchog rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po mal 'byor gyi rgyud las bris sku'i cho ga'i rtog pa ste Inga pa'o || j| 10 15 20 fvi. sbyin sreg gi las kyi cho ga] de nas sbyin sreg gi las kyi cho ga gsungs pa ji ltar sngon gyi rim pa ste | dang por re shig sngags pas dben pa'i gnas su phyin la | mtshan phyed na sbyin sreg gi las kun byas te \ gong du gsungs pa'i lha'i mal 'byor la gnas pa yis las thams cad bya'o Ц de la las ni 'di mams yin no || gal te gsad par 'dod na der mi'i rus pa dang | rnam par snang mdzad dang | bong bu'i sbangs dang | khyi'i sbangs | tsher ma dang skra dang sen mo dang de dag thams cad tsha ba'i mar khus sbrus la | ma he'i zhal gyi sbyor bas | shin tu mnyam par gzhag la | kha lhor bltas te ro bsregs pa'i me la | gang gi ming dang bcas par brgya rtsa brgyad bsregs na the tshom med par de zhag gsum gyis 'chi'o || yang na phyogs gcig tu gnas [H3v] la me thab gru gsum byas nas 1 der sngon du gsungs pa'i rdzas kyis gtum po'i me la sbyin sreg bya ste ] sbyor ba des ni las de nyid 'grub bo || de nas dbral bar 'dod na bya rog dang 'ug pa dang rma bya dang sbrul dang skra dang 'bras phub dang ma he dang | rta'i sha dang | lhan cig tu gang gi ming dang bcas par yi ge bcu pa'i sngags kyis dur khrod kyi me la sregs na des 'bral bar 'gyur ro || yang na dur khrod kyi shing la gtum po'i me rab tu sbar la khyim du gnas te | gong gi rdzas de bsregs na | rdo rje 'dzin pa lta bu yang nyi ma bdun gyis 'bral lo || de nas bskrad par 'dod na bya rog gi sha dang | mga mo'i 2 brgyan: rgyan S; dgod: rgod A; bri: bri'o A. 3 gzhag: bzhag SRPA; chen gyi: chen gyis P; bas: ba P. 4 gzhag: bzhag R. 5 'bad pas: la RPU; bsrung: srung S; A adds du after gzhan gang; gzhag: bzhag S. 6 du yang: du'ang R; klog: glag S, klag RP, ldag A. 6-7 bza' ba: bzab pa A. 7 mo: ma SDPU. 11 'jam pa'i mchog: zhes bya ba DU, mchog dpal A; po: po'i A. 3 sreg: bsreg RDPUA; gsungs: gsum P. 4 shig: zhig U; pas: pa D; dben pa'i gnas: gnas S, pha'i gnas R, pha'. nags A. 5 sreg: bsreg RPA; byas te: bya ste A; mal 'byor: sbyor ba A. 5-6 pa yis: pas RDUA. 6 la: las R; no: te A; gsad: bsad S; A omits par. 8 A omits khyi'i sbangs. 8-9 A omits tsha ba'i. 9 gzhag: bzhag A. 10 bltas: Has P; bsregs: bsreg S; gang: gong D; par brgya: pa brgya A. 11 A omits the-par. 11 gsum: bdun A. 12 gru: grwa gug R; nas: la A; der: de ru A. 13 sreg: bsreg SRDPA; bya ste: bya'o A; A adds ni after las. 14 dbral: 'bral PA; rma bya: rma bya'i sgro A. 15 A adds gyi shun pa after sbrul; A omits dang after sha. 16 cig: gcig U; par—kyis: pa A. 17 sregs: bsregs SRUA; des: de dang A. 18 sbar: sbyar R. 19 bu yang: bu'ang R. 103

10 15 rtug pa dang lhan cig tu chang dang yang dag par ldan pa rlung gi dkyil 'khor gyi dbus su | dur khrod kyi shing la me rab tu sbar la | gcer bu skra bshig par bsgyur nas | kha Iho phyogs su bltas te | gshin rje'i sngags kyis che ge mo'i ming dang bcas par lag pa g.yon pas sbyin sreg stong byas na skrod pa las gzhan du ma yin no |[ de nas rengs par 'dod na | ba bla dang yung ba dang Idong ros dang gi wang dang bcas pas dkyil 'khor gru bzhi pa byas la kha byang du bltas te las kyi rjes su 'brang ba'i sbyor ba dmigs nas | gang gi ming dang bcas par sbyin sreg byas na | de nyi ma bdun gyis rengs par 'gyur ro j| de nas grong bskrad par 'dod na | nim ba'i shing la me rab tu sbar la | khyi'i sha dang sbal ba'i sha dang khyim bya'i sha dang rnga mo'i rtug pa dang byi la'i khrag gcig tu sbrus la | gshin rje'i sbyor ba la gnas pas | grong gi ming dang bcas par yi ge bcu pa'i sngags kyis rlung gi dkyil 'khor gyi dbus su sbyin sreg stong phrag bcu byas na grong skrod par 'gyur ro || las de mams ni shin tu yang mnyam par gzhag par bya ste | gzhan du na sngags pa [144r] rang nyid la 'bab par 'gyur ro |[ gzhan gang la yang mi bstan no | de nas bu mo rengs par 'dod na | tsher ma dang | dug dang | ske tshe dang bcas par rang gi khrag gis sbrus nas yi ge bcu pa'i sngags dang bcas par bu mo rengs par gyur cig ces dur khrod kyi me la sbyin sreg stong byas na rengs pa la gzhan ma yin no || de nas zhi bar bya bar 'dod na mar dang sbrang rtsi dang 'o ma dang dur ba dang bcas par ba la sha'i shing la me rab tu sbar na zhi bar 'dod par dmigs nas yul gyi shar phyogs su kha bltas te gnas pas dus gsum du sbyin sreg stong rtsa brgyad byas na des yul zhi bar byas par 'gyur ro || de nas rgyas par 'dod na til dang 'bras dang nas dang mar dang bcas pas u du mba 5 ra'i shing la me rab tu sbar na las kyi rjes su 'brang ba'i lha'i sbyor ba dmigs te kha byang du bltas nas mnyam par bzhag pas yi ge bcu pa'i sngags kyis dus gsum du sbyin sreg stong byas na rgyas par 'gyur ro || de nas dgug par 'dod na ske tshes gzugs bmyan byas la | de nas seng ldeng gi me'i dbus su gshin rje'i sngags kyis brgya rtsa brgyad du bsregs na ma grub pa yang grub par 10 'gyur ro || nyi ma bdun gyis gang 'dod pa the tshom med par dgugs so || de nas smyo bar bya bar 'dod na | bya rgod chen po'i tshang dang j sha chen bsregs na smyo bar 'gyur ro || de phub ma'i me la bsregs na bde legs su 'gyur ro || de nas nor nor ma yin par bya bar 'dod na || ras bal gyi me la dha du ra'i 'bras bu dang bcas par mtshan mo yi ge bcu pa'i sngags brgya rtsa brgyad 15 sbyin sreg byas na shin tu chud zos par 'gyur ro || a ru ra bsregs na slar rdzas de nyid du 'gyur ro || rje btsun gyi mdun du sha chen chang dang bcas pa zla ba drug du mtshan mo sbyin sreg brgya rtsa brgyad byas na yul thams cad kyi bdag por 'gyur ro || ba lang sha dang khrag tu bcas par gang gi ming dang bcas par sbyin bsreg stong byas na de ji srid 'tsho'i bar du bran du gnas par 20 the

1 rtug pa: sbangs A. 2 A omits shing la. 3 A omits gshin—kyis. 4 par: pa A; sreg: bsreg S. 5 du ma yin: min A. 6 pas: par P. 8 par: pas A; sreg: bsreg RDPA; A omits de. 9 S omits par; la: gi A. 10 A omits khyim bya'i sha dang; rtug pa: sbangs A. 11 A adds dang after khrag; sbrus la: sbrus te A. 12 ge bcu pa'i: ge'i A. 13 sreg: bsreg SRDPUA. 14 tu yang: tu'ang R; A omits yang; gzhag par: gzhag pas SU, bzhag pas RDA; ste: ba 'am A; gzhan du: yang A. 15 A omits rang; la 'bab—ro: kyis kyang las de dag mi bya A;R omits ro; gang: su A; la yang: la'ang R; bstan: sten P. 15-19 SR omit de—no. 16 gi: gis P. 17 gis: gi P; A adds che ge mo after bu mo. 18 sreg: bsregs SRP, bsreg A; pa la: par las A; la: las DPU. 18-19 ma yin no: min A. 1 na: nas A; bar: ba'i A. 2 nas: pas A. 3 sreg: bsreg RPA; stong: brgya A; A omits byas par. 5 na: nas RA. 6 S omits par bzhag; A omits yi—kyis. 7 sreg: bsreg A; dgug: 'gugs R. 8 tshes: tshe S; A omits de nas. 8-9 A omits gshin—kyis. 9 na: te A. 9-10 ma—ro: des bgugs so A. 9 pa yang: pa'ang R. 10 dgugs so: 'gugs so SRDU, 'gyur ro A. 11 bya bar: byed par A. 13 A omits bya bar; ras: shing A. 14 DU omit dang;8 A omits yi—sngags. 15 sreg: bsreg RDPA, bsregs U. 16 pa: par U. 17 du: tu SRA; sreg: bsreg RDPA. 18 lang: lang gi D, glang gi A; sha dang: sha A; tu bcas par: dang bcas pa A. 19 A omits de. 104 105 10 15 20 tshom med do || khyi sha rdo rje chu dang bcas par skyes pa'i [144v] bdag nyid kyis mtshan mo gang gi ming dang bcas par sbyin sreg brgya rtsa brgyad byas na bdag nyid kyi nor dang bcas pa dbang du 'gyur ro || rta'i sha rnam par snang mdzad dang bcas pa gshin rje gshed kyi sngags kyis sbyin sreg brgya rtsa brgyad gnas gcig tu gnas la | mtshan mo rgyal po la dmigs nas byas na zhag bdun gyis 'khor dang bcas pa dbang du 'gyur ro || glang po'i sha khu ba dang bcas pas mi'i 'jig rten kun la dmigs la yi ge bcu pa'i sngags kyis mtshan mo sbyin sreg stong byas na zhag bdun gyis dbang du 'gyur ro || nya dang sha dang chang dang bcas pas 'jigs pa med par yi ge bcu pa'i sngags kyis sbyin sreg brgya rtsa brgyad byas na bud med thams cad dbang du 'gyur ro || de nas skrad par 'dod na | bya rog gi sha ma 'dres par yi ge bcu pa'i sngags kyis gang gi ming dang bcas par sbyin sreg stong byas na nyi ma bdun gyis rdo rje 'dzin pa lta bu yang rab tu 'bros na | phra mo'i mi Ita ci smos || de nas bya rog gi tshang dang 'bras kyi phub ma dang lhan cig tu dha du ra'i shing gis me rab tu sbar nas | yi ge bcu pa'i sngags gang gi ming dang bcas par nam phyed na sbyin sreg byas na | nyi ma bdun gyis skrod par 'gyur ro j| de nas dbang du bya bar 'dod na seng ldeng gi me la til dang 'bras dang bud med kyi me tog dang lhan cig tu rdo rje'i chu dang bsres te | rnal 'byor gyi gzugs dmar po dmigs nas kha nub tu bltas te | yi ge bcu pa gang gi ming dang bcas par sngags pas bsregs na | nyi ma bdun gyis dbang du 'dus te ji srid 'tsho'i bar du mi 'bral lo || de nas 'gugs par 'dod na ЩКг 10 15 20 bdud rtsi lnga mar dang bcas par seng ldeng gi me la gang gi ming dang bcas par yang sbyin sreg brgya rtsa brgyad byas na de skad cig gis 'ong bar 'gyur ro || las 'di mams ni sngon du bsnyen pa byas pa'i sngags pas bya'o || gzhan [145r] pas byas na sngags pa 'jig rten pas dbyes par 'gyur ro ]| ji ltar bye brag mi bya ste || gang la'ang bye brag sbyin mi bya'o || bye brag phye na sngags pa yis || dngos grub 'grub pa ma yin no || ngas rgyud gzhan las kyang bshad de || ji ltar bye brag ma skyes pa || de bzhin bya ba'i bye brag smras [| rdo rje sems dpas kyang mi 'grub || gang gi mdun du'ang sngags pa yis || de phyir las rnams mthong mi bya || gzhan dang lhan cig tu mi bya j| gal te sngags pas las bya 'dod || de dag gcig pu zhig gis bya j| sngags pa de yis las kun byed || 'di ni 'jam dpal 'jam pa'i mchog rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rnal 'byor gyi rgyud las sbyin sreg gi las kyi cho ga rgya che ba'i rtog pa ste drug pa'o || 1 rje: rje'i DA. 1-2 A omits skyes—kyis. 2 par: pa S, 3 kyi: kyis SRA; pa: par SA. 4 A omits gshin—kyis; rje: rje'i U. 5 la: pas A. 7 A omits mi'i; dmigs la: dmigs te A; A omits yi—kyis. 8 gyis: gyi PA. 9-10 A omits yi—kyis. 11 skrad: bskrad SA; A adds gzhandang after sha; 'dres: dras P. 11-12 A omits yi—kyis. 13 bu yang: bu'ang R; Tjros: 'phros U; A adds par 'gyur after 'bros; mo'i mi: mo gzhan A. 15 gis: la RA; nas: te A. 19 po: por A; pa: pa'i sngags. 20 par: pa A; 'dus: 'gyur A. 21 'tsho'i: 'tsho ba'i R; 'gugs: dgug A. 106 I SR omit lnga; A omits mar. 2 par yang: par U, pa A; sreg: bsreg SRPA; A adds gcig after cig. 4 dbyes par: 'phya bar A. 7 la'ang: la yang SPU; SRDPU add par after sbyin; bya'o: bya A. 8 na: nas S; pa yis: pas SRDPU. 9 'grub—no: mi 'grub bo SRDPU. 10 A omits ngas; A adds dag after gzhan; bshad de: gsungs te A; de: pa P. II pa: na A. 16 dang: du'ang DU. 18 zhig gis: nyid kyis A. 19 A omits byed. 21 S omits ni; 'jam pa'i: 'grub A; 'jam—mchog: zhes bya ba dpal DU, mchog A; kyi: chen po'i A. 22 sreg: bsreg A. 107

[vii. bsam gtan gyi las bsgrub pa] de nas bsam gtan gyi las kyi cho ga ji lta bu yang dag par gsungs te | bsam gtan dang sngags kyi rab tu sbyor ba las dgos pa thams cad rab tu bsgrub par 5 bya ste ] de'i cho ga'i dang por re shig rnal 'byor pa ma he'i gdong pa'i sbyor ba la gnas pa'i sngon du sbyang ba byas pas las thams cad bya'o || || ram las yongs su gyur pa'i me'i dkyil 'khor kun tu gsal bar 'bar bar rnam par bsams la | de'i steng du bsgrub bya gcer bur skra bshig pa | bred par gyur ba bdag gi mdun du rnam par bsam mo || de nas rang gi lus las khro bo'i gzugs mang po 10 mam par spros te | khro bo de mams kyis ral gri btab cing khrag 'thung bar bsam par bya'o || bsgrub bya de'i sha za ba dang | rgyu ma drangs par bsam par bya'o j| 'di skad smra bar bya ste | dkon mchog gsum la gnod pa byed pa dang | bla ma la skur pa 'debs pa la rgyob cig rgyob cig | sod cig sod cig bsams pa tsam gyis rdo rje 'dzin pa yang zhag bdun gyis 'chi na j phra mo'i 15 srog chags gzhan lta ci smos | de nas gzhan yang bsam gtan gyi rab tu sbyor ba [145v] 'byung ba ni ma he'i gdong pa'i sbyor bas nga rgyal la gnas te las thams cad bsgrub par bya'o || me'i dkyil 'khor kyi dbus su bsgrub bya ngu bar bsams la | de'i mdun du srin po mang po bsam par bya ste | srin po de dag tha dad pa'i lus can ma rungs pa | shin tu gtum par sha za ba dang | khrag 'thung 20 bar rnam par bsam par bya'o || gzhan yang mam pa sna tshogs pa'i bya mams te | bya rgod dag dang | bya rog dang 'ug pa dang wa rnams dang khyi rnams kyis sha za ba dang | khrag 'thung bar rnam par bsam par bya ste \ bsam gtan 'di'i rab tu sbyor bas the tshom med par 'chi'o || dpag tshad brgya na gnas pa'i skyes bu yang sems kyis bzung bas bsam gtan brtsam mo || sngags pas bsam 5 gtan brtan par bya'o || de nas 'bral bar 'dod na ma he'i snying khar bsgrub bya bsam par bya ste ] bsgrub bya gzhan rta'i snying khar rnam par bsam par bya'o || rta dang ma he gnyis phan tshun 'thab par byed par bsam ste j ji srid du rta dang ma he gnyis phye bar ma gyur gyi bar du'o || phyi nas bsgrub bya de gnyis rab tu mi mdza' bar bsam par bya ste 1 bsams pa tsam gyis nyi ma 10 bdun gyi bar nges par 'thab par 'gyur te gzhan du ma yin no || de nas bskrad par 'dod na de ru yam las yongs su gyur ba'i rnga mo bsam par bya ste 1 yang de'i rgyab tu yam gyi rnam pa las gyur ba'i rlung gi dkyil 'khor | zla ba phyed pa'i rnam par bsam par bya'o || de'i steng du bsgrub bya gcer bu skra bshig pa bred par gyur bar bsam par bya ste | ma he'i gdong can gyi sbyor ba la gnas 15 pas de'i rgyab tu gshin rje'i gzugs lag pa g.yas pas dbyug pa 'dzin pa skra gsil ba mam par bsam par bya ste | rnga mo de kha lhor bstan la gtang ngo || de'i ming dang bcas par gshin rje'i sngags brjod pas rnam par [146r] bsam par bya'o || rnal 'byor pas 'di bsams pa tsam gyis zhag bdun na 'di ltar rdo rje 'dzin pa yang skrod par 'gyur ro || gzhan yang bsam gtan gyi rab tu sbyor ba ni bya 20 rog gam | bya rgod kyi rgyab tu bsgrub bya skra grol ba gcer bu mam par bsam mo || de'i rgyab

3 bu: ba PUA. 4 dang—tu: tsam gyi A; ba las: bas A; A omits rab tu; bsgrub: sgrub R. 5 de'i: 'di'i U; ga'i: ga ni A. 6 gnas pa'i: gnas pa A; sbyang ba: bsnyen pa A; ram: re pha SRDPU. 7 bar 'bar bar: zhing 'bar ba A. 8 bur: bu SUA; bshig: shig S. 9 DP omit las; A adds bmyan after gzugs. 10 par: por U; kyis: gyis U; gri: gris S; btab: brgyab A; 'thung: 'thungs S. 12 'di: de P; smra—ste: smras te A; gnod pa: gnod par D. 13 skur: bskur S. 14 A adds shing brjod after bsams; pa yang: pa'ang R; mo'i: mo SRA. 16 'byung ba: 'gyur ba U, A omits; he'i: he PU; pa'i sbyor bas: can gyi A; bas: ba'i DU; bas—la: bagsangba S, gsangbaR. 17 ngu: A illegible. 19 par sha: pas sha A; A omits ba. 20 bsam: bsams DPU. 108 1 SA omit dag; wa rnams: Ice spyang A. 3 A omits rab tu. 4 bu yang: bu'ang R; sems—bas: bzungs te A; bzung; gzung R. 5 gtan: pa A. 'bral: 'bras S, dbral A. 6 A omits rnam par. 8 A omits du; bar: mar A; gyi: gyis P; du'o: du bya'o A. 9 bya ste: byas nas A; bsams: bsam RP; tsam; btsam P. 10 gyi bar: gyis SRDUA; 'thab: mtha' S; ma yin: min A. 11 A omits las; bsam: bsams S; yang: yam SRDP, U illegible. 12 gyi: gi A. 13 bsam: bsams R; par bya'o: mo A. 14 bar: ba A. 15 A omits pa g.yas; gsil: bsil S. 16 de: de'i A; gtang: btang SA. 17-18 pas—bya'o: par byas na A. 19 pa yang: pa'ang R. 20 gam: gi'am A. 109

10 15 tu gshin rje rnam par bsam par bya ste | lag pa tho ba thogs pa bsgrub bya'i skra bzung ba de ma he'i gdong can gyis bka' bsgo ste | kha lho ru bltas nas song bar bsam par bya ste j rtse gcig pa'i sbyor bas bsam par byas na | rtse gcig pa'i sbyor ba des zhag bdun gyis skrod par 'gyur ro || de nas 'gug par byed par 'dod na | yi ge yam las byung ba'i rlung gi dkyil 'khor | de'i steng du a las zla ba'i dkyil 'khor de'i steng du gshin rje'i gzugs Icags kyu dang | zhags pa lag tu thogs pa mam par bsam mo || ma he'i gdong pa'i rnal 'byor la gnas pas de la bka' bsgo j gshin rje song la yul che ge mo nas bu mo che ge mo myur bar khug cig j de skad bskul bas yam gyi rnam par bskyod de song bar rnam par bsam par bya'o || bsam gtan 'di'i rab tu sbyor ba la gnas pa'i sngags pas | khams gsum du gtogs pa'i bud med bkug la rol par bya'o || ji ltar bsam pa brtan par gyur na 'di'i rab tu sbyor bas de dag bya'i gzhan gyis mi bya'o || de nas sbrul gyis zin pa bslang ba'i rab tu byed pa gsungs te j rang gi snying khar pad ma dkar po 'dab ma brgyad pa rnam par bsam mo || de'i steng du dbyangs yig gsum pa 'dab mar phat brgyad pa rnam par bsam mo || de yis ni 'og gi klu'i gzugs rnam par bsam par bya ste || de'i spyi bor yi ge i kha dog dkar po las bdud rtsi 'dzag pa bsam par bya'o || klu de'i mig rnams nas bdud rtsi 'phros nas bsgrub bya de'i lus la [146v] thim par bsam par bya ste | bsam gtan 'di'i sbyor bas khams gsum yongs su gang ba'i dug kyang med par 'gyur ro || dug khur stong yang za nus so || de nas zhu ba'i bsam gtan gyi rab tu sbyor ba 'byung ste | bsgrub bya mdun du bsam ste j de'i rkang pa gnyis la yi ge yam las gyur ba'i rlung gi dkyil 'khor bsam par bya | de'i steng du gsang ba'i gnas su me'i dkyil 'khor gru gsum kha dog dmar po ram gyis byin gyis 5 rlabs pa bsam par bya'o || de'i steng du snying khar sa'i dkyil 'khor gru bzhi pa mdog ser po lam gyis byin gyis brlabs pa bsam par bya'o || de'i steng du dpral bar zla ba'i dkyil 'khor mam par bsam par bya'o || de'i dbus su yi ge bam mgo thur du gnas pa las bdud rtsi 'dzag par bsam ste | 'di ni legs par rnam par bsams nas rlung gis me rab tu spar te | me des dbang chen gyi dkyil 'khor 10 bsregs par rnam par bsam | dbang chen gyi dkyil 'khor gyi drod kyis bdud rtsi'i dkyil 'khor de zhu bar bsam par bya'o \\ 'di yis sbyor ba tsam gyis ni | de yi bud med zhu gyur te | 15 'o ma yi ni shing bzhin du | zhu bar byed par the tshom med | de nas rgyal po 'am 1 rgyal po'i blon po dbang du bya bar 'dod na sngags pa ma he'i gdong can gyi mal 'byor la rab tu gnas la | de nyid mdog dmar por 20 bsams te | bsgrub bya gang du gnas pa de'i steng du gnas la | phyi nas rang gi lus 'jam dpal mdog dmar po phyag na Icags kyu dang zhags pa can phyung ste | 'jam dpal des bsgrub bya'i snying kha

1 pa: na A. 2 bzung ba: gzung ba S, bzungs te A; DA add la after de; lho ru: Ihor R. 3 bsam—ste: bsams te A; A omits rtse—na; bas: ba S. 4 ba des: bas A; 'gug: 'gugs SRDU, dgug A. 5 A omits par 'dod; A omits byung ba'i. 6 SDUA add byung ba'i after a las. 7 tu: na A; pa'i: gi A. 8 bsgo; bsgo ba DU, bsgos A; rje: rje'i RP; R omits nas—mo. 9 bar: du A; gyi—bskyod: yig gis bskyed A. 10 'di'i: 'di yi A. 11 pa'i: pas A. 12 pa: gtan SRU; na: nas A; bas: ba S. 13 sbrul gyis: [dug] gis A; bslang: blang SDPU, A illegible.; rab tu byed pa: sbyor ba A. 14 bsam mo: bsams la A; A adds [...] dkar po dang before rnam. 15 mar phat: ma SR; D omits pa after brgyad; A omits pa rnam par; mo: par bya A. 15-16 yis—gi: las lhag ma zhes bya ba'i A. 16 A omits par bya. 17 pa: par A. 110 1 zhu: bzhu A; A omits rab tu. 2 Ъуш^ ste: gsungs pa ni A; bsam ste: bsams te A. 3 gyur ba'i: byung ba'i A. 5 A omits par bya'o. 6 mdog: kha dog A; A omits par bya'o. 7 A omits rnam par; A omits par bya'o. 8 thur: 'thur RA; 'dzag: 'dzags P; bsam ste: bsams te A; 'di: de A. 11 bar: ba'i mam par A; bya'o: bya ste A. 13 'di yis: 'di'i SA; yis: yiRD. 13-14 ni | deyi: de'i A. 14 gyur: 'gyur S, bar byung A. 15 ma yi ni: ma'i A. 16 A adds do after med. 19 de: bdag A; P adds la after de. 20 phyi: phyin P. 21 A adds rab tu after can. 22 kha: khar R. Ill

10 15 dang mgrin pa beings nas bkug par bsam ste | 'jam dpal gyi sku la rab tu gzhug go | bsgrub bya de myos par bsam par bya ste |[ de'i snying khar yi ge bcu pa'i sngags rnam par bsam par bya'o || yang [147r] kha dog dmar po sgrub pa pos ye shes kyi gzugs kyis yi ge la gzhug par bya'o || de dang bsgrub bya gcig tu gyur bar bya'o j| bsam gtan 'di'i rab tu sbyor bas nyi ma bdun gyis 'khor los sgyur ba yang dbang du 'gyur te j ji srid mtsho'i bar du the tshom med do || rab tu mnyam par bzhag pa'i sngags pas mi g.yo ba'i bsam gtan gyis bya'o || rgyud gang la yang mi sbyin no || gal te sngags kyang mi bstan | dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po ma he'i gdong can gyi bsam gtan gang la yang mi sbyin | smra bar yang mi bya | sngags kyi dbye ba yang mi bya | bris sku yang gang gi mdun du yang mi dgram ste | thang ka yang gsang bar gzhag go | rgyud 'di'i rab tu sbyor ba dang | bzlas pa dang smra ba gzhan su la 'ga' tsam yang mi smra | gal te smras na dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed dang | gzhan yang rnal 'byor ma mams dang | mkha' 'gro ma mams kyis za'o j| dam tshig nyams par 'gyur bas | de'i phyir sngags pas su la yang mi sbyin no [| de nas dam tshig mnyam pa dang | mam par rtog pa med pa dang | dam pa'i brtul zhugs can dpa' bo bla ma la gus pa dul ba can | de bzhin gshegs pa'i bstan pa la nges par 'dzin pa | rgyud sbas pa | mi khro 10 15 20 ba | snying rje dang ldan pa | bzlas pa dang j bsam gtan la phyogs pa \ rnam par smin pa la 'dzem pa | 'di lta bu'i yon tan khyad par can ni slob ma bzang po ste | dkyil 'khor dam pa dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po la mchog tu gus pa | snying rje chen pos yid brlan pa | mam par rtog pa med pa | mchog tu bla ma la gus pa | rab tu brtag pa la shin tu mam par bsams te | bla mas de lta bu'i slob ma la dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i rgyud sbyin no || sngags pas gzhan la byin na de dang slob mar bcas nas | dmyal bar 'gro bar the tshom med do || 'jig rten [148r] 'dir ni 'jigs pa chen por 'gyur ro || 'jig rten pha rol tu ni dmyal bar 'gro'o || dam tshig kyang nyams par 'gyur ro || 'di ni 'jam dpal 'jam dpa'i mchog | dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i rnal 'byor gyi rgyud las bsam gtan gyi las sgrub pa'i brtag pa'i rtog pa ste bdun pa'o || [Colophon] \\ dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i 'khor lo rgyud 'bum pa nas btus nas phyung ba rtog pa'i phyogs bklags pas 'grub pa | dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po ma he'i gdong can gyi | dngos grub 'grub pa'i rtog pa rdzogs s.ho || || dpal u rgyan gyi gnas chen po nas dpal 'jam dpal gyi rgyud las phyung ba rgyud kyi rgyal po chen po || dpal

1 pa: par PA; beings: cings A; bkug: gdug A; bsam ste: bsams te DA. 2 P omits de; myos: mos S; bya ste: bya'o P; A adds bsam gtan 'di'i sbyor bas before de'i. 3 po: po'i A. 4 A adds de after ge; gzhug: zhugs RP; dang: nas A. 5 bsgrub: sgrub RP; A adds dang sngags after bya; gyur: sgyur PU. 6 los: lo A; sgyur: bsgyur S; ba yang: ba'i yang P, ba'ang R; mtsho'i: 'tsho'i A. 7 bzhag: gzhag S. 8 la yang: la'ang R. 10 la yang: la'ang R; A adds no after sbyin; ba yang: ba'ang R. 11 sku yang: sku'ang R; gi: gis P; du yang: du'ang R; A omits ste; ka yang: kha'ang R. 12 gzhag: bzhag A; 'di'i: 'di SRDPU; bzlas: zlas P; 13 la: la yang SDUA, la'ang R; smra: bzla A; smras: yang bzlas A; A adds dam tshig nyams par 'gyur bas before dpal. 15 A omits dam—bas; la yang: la'ang R. 16 P adds [dper na] after nas; mnyam: mnyams A. 18 A omits la. 1-2 A adds dang after phyogs pa and after 'dzem pa. 2 A adds gyi after tan; can: dang ldan pa A. 4 A omits chen po. 4-5 A omits mchog—pa. 5 brtag: rtag R, rtog A. 6-9 sngags—'gro'o also repeated by A previous page tine 16 before || de nas. 7 A omits dmyal—do (not previous page). 8 'jigs: 'jig R; A omits ro; A omits ni (previous page only). 9 'gro'o: 'gro bar the tshom med do A (previous page only); A adds zer rgyud sbyin no ces pa'i rdzas la yod | kha cig tu'o || after ro. 11 'jam dpa'i mchog: zhes bya ba DU, mchog A; A omits dpal. 12 gyi: gyis A; sgrub: bsgrub A; pa'i: pa D; brtag pa'i: brtag pa S, rtags pa'i RP, brtags pa'i U, A omits; pa'o: po'o PA. 15 lo: lo'i SRDPU; btus nas: gtusnas P, A omits. 16 bklags: klags P;'grub: grub A; po: po'i P. 17 gyi: gyis RP; 'grub: bsgrub A; A omits rdzogs s.ho. 19 phyung: 'byung PU. 112 113

rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po zhes bya ba bla ma dam pa'i dkyil 'khor chen po'i slob dpon dpal la li ta va jras bton nas mdzad pa rdzogs s.ho || [[[Translators]]' colophon] 5 II rgya gar gyi pa ndi ta mchog gi dngos grub myed pa ba ro phyag rdum gyi zhal snga nas dang | bod kyi lo ttsha ba dge slong rdo rje grags kyis bsgyur ba'o II II Dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rtogpa'i rgyud [The Ritual Procedure Tantra of Vajrabhairava) [147v] || rgya gar skad du 1 sri-vajrabhairavakalpa-tantraraja | bod skad du dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rtog pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po || 5 ngag gi dbang phyug la phyag 'tshal lo || [i. thabs dang shes rab kyi bsam gtan) de nas 'dir ni bshad bya ba || 10 ji ltar 'gro rnams zad byed cing || sdug bsngal rnam thar byed pa yi || sgrub pa'i thabs chen mchog gyur pa || gsang sngags 'di las 'byung bar 'gyur || dang por mam par snang mdzad ste || 15 de dang nye bar ngag dbang phyug | rdo rje 'khor lo sgyur ba'o \\ gdon gyi bdag dang 'byung po rje \\ mi yi sa bon gnyis Idan bya || mchod rten bsreg byed mtha' dang bcas || 20 gzhan du shes par mi 'gyur ro || rdo rje can gyi mkha' la gnas || yi ge 'bum phrag khri brjod na || nyams pa thams cad sel byed cing || zhi dang rgyas [148r] dang dbang mngon spyod |[ 25 gsod dang skrod dgug dbye rengs dang || 1 pa'i: pa A. 2 bton: bston P, phyung A. 5-7 A omits rgya—ba'o. 5 rnyed: brnyes SDU. 6 snga: Inga P. 11 rnam thar: mams mthar S. 13 'di: de DS. 14 por: po S; ste: de SU. 16 rje: rjes PD; sgyur: bsgyur PSD. 17 po: po'i S. 18 mi yi sabon: mgo dang mtha' maS; yi: yisP. 19 bsreg: sreg S. 20 ro: te PDU. 21 mkha': mtha' S. 114

10 15 20 25 30 dman par byed cing rgyal srid sogs j| thob pa nyid la the tshom med || dur khrod tshang tshing khrod ngogs rtsub || shing gcig khang stong mtshan gcig dben || gang 'dod gnas su bsam gtan brtsam || de nas bcom ldan 'das 'phrul pa thams cad la khyab pa | me long lta bu zhes bya ba'i ting nge 'dzin la snyoms par zhugs te || sku dang ye shes thams cad la khyab par bya ba'i phyir | sku mdog dkar po zhal lnga dang ldan par byas nas | 'jig rten pa thams cad la gzigs nas j rang gi rigs kyi yi ge nyid brjod pas [j sku dang gsung dang thugs dang yon tan dang 'phrin las dang | ye shes kyang gcig gi ngo bor sprul pa'i skur gyur to || kye ma bcom ldan rdo rje che || don rnams bskyed pa yang nyid do [| mkha' dkyil 'od kyis 'gengs 'gyur pa || slar zhing kha dog lnga ldan pa j| sa bon sngags kyis bskul ba yi || 'od kyi rtse phrag thub pa'i sku jj kun kyang sangs rgyas gnas las skyes || rang la zhugs pas sku rdzogs 'gyur || zhal drug khro gnyer rab brjid pa || ma he'i zhal ldan steng gnas pa || 'jam dpal zhal ni 'dzum bcas bzhugs || lhag ma dmar dang ser dang sngo || du ba'i mdog mtshungs gyen skrar ldan || thod pa skam rlon sgyu ma sbrul |j rus pa rdo rje'i phreng bas brgyan || glang chen stag lpags gyon nas ni || hum phat glur len gad mo can |j nam mkha'i lus can khro bo'i sprin || 10 15 20 25 30 yang dang yang du spro byed pa'i || phyag drug rab tu brjid pa ste \\ dbyug pa tho ba gtun shing dang || g.yas pa'i phyag gis rim bzhin 'dzin || dgra sta dang ni lcags kyu dang || zhags pa g.yon pa'i phyag gis 'dzin || pad ma nyi ma ma he dang \\ gshin rje'i steng na 'gying bag can || zhabs drug g.yon brkyang gar gyis gnas || [I48v] 'jig rten bdag po mthar mdzad pa'o || de Itar gang zhig dad pa dang || bio ldan g.yo sgyu rab spangs shing || legs par dbang mams thob byas nas || rdo rje slob dpon mnyes byed pas || yang nas yang du dran byed na || brtan pa chen po thob par 'gyur || lha'i dge 'dun nga la nyon || dpa' bo mchid la rab dga' shing || sha chen rtag tu mur byed na || las mams de yis myur du 'grub || sku ni du ma 'phro byed cing || sku la sku ni rnam nges thim || thams cad sgyu ma nyid shes pas \\ 'jig rten rnams su yid gsad byed || khong stong rtsa ni dga' ba ste || rgyun du byang chub sems 'dzag byed || chu skyes dmar po kha sbyar gnyis || yan lag gnyis kyis nges par bcun |[ shes pa 'phel ba me dang rlung || nyi ma zla ba thabs ldan dang || shes rab ldan par shes par bya || gnyis po de rnams rab spangs na ||

I cing: dang D. 3 khrod ngogs: khron ngogs PD. 4-5 shing—brtsam lines repeated S. 7 'phrul pa: chos S. 12 gcig: cigPU; bor: bo S. 14 P adds 'das after ldan. 15 bskyed: skyed P. 16 'gengs: dgengs P. 25 dmar: dkar S; sngo: dmar S. 26 du: dur S. 2 ste: yi S. 3 dang: dag S. 5 dgra sta: be ta li P; P omits ni. 9 g.yon brkyang: g.yas rkyangP, g.yon kyang U; gyis; gyi S. 12 sgyu: sgyur S, rgyu PD. 16 brtan: bstan S. 18 dpa' bo mchid: dang po chang S; mchid: chang [< chad] U, 'chang D. 20 bsgrub PU. 22 DSU omit ni; mam: rnams DSU; DSU add byed after thim. 24 gsad: sad DSU. 25 rtsa ni dga' ba: kha dog dkar ba S; dga': ka DU. 26 byang chub sems: rlung ni S; S adds par after 'dzag. 28-32 SU readings unavailable. 28 nges: legs D; bcun: btsun P. 32 mams rab: nyid rnam D. 116 117

khong du chud par mi 'gyur ro || chu skyes kha sbyor la rten te || gsum gnas pa yi ting 'dzin la j| rdo rje chos kyis rgyas btab pa'i || 5 thabs dang shes rab grol ba'i rgyu || bio Idan 'bad pas shes par 'gyur || de phyir de la brtson par bya || chos rnams chos nyid dbyer med pas || stong pa nyid kyi ye shes che || 10 mi shigs rtog bral mtshan ma med || . bde chen ye shes rdo rje skus || ye shes mi rtog rtog pa bral || rtog pa'i mtshan ma thams cad sreg || spros pa'i mtshan ma mtha' dag ni || 15 ji snyed sgyu ma'i rnam pa shes || ] de nyid shes nas grol ba'o |] ma shes pas ni phyir zhing 'khor || 'jig rten skye bo bio Idan 'gas || nges par rtog pa thabs kyi mchog | 20 sdug bsngal chen por rab 'jigs nas || bde ba 'dod pas nan tan bya j| dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rtog pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po las thabs dang shes kyi bsam gtan bstan pa'i le'u ste dang po'o || || [ii. sbyor ba] de nas yang dag bshad bya ba || sngags grub pa las byung ba yi || las mams [149r] 'dir ni shes bya ste || der ni lha yi sku yang sbyar || zhi sogs bzlas pa'i rim pa la || rdo rje'i dbus su rdo rje ni || nyizlalabrtenyigeyiH phreng ba kha dog Ingar shes pa \\ skyen bul spangs nas klag pa ni || mkhas pas bzlas pa'i rim pa'o || drag po'i las rnams bsgrub pa la || nyon mongs gcod pa'i 'khor lo ni Ц ser po rtse rtsibs bcu pa la || rod zer sna tshogs 'phro ba bsam || zhi bar 'dod pa'i skyes bu des || sems ni yang dag mnyam gzhag nas || sngags kyi 'od kyang 'gro gzhan la || phan pa'i yid dang Idan par bya || gro ga ras dang shing shun la || gur gum gi wang dri rnams kyis || mchod rten rim pa lnga Idan zhing || gdugs dang 'khor lo Idan par bya || sgrub pa po yi ming dang rus || de yi bum pa'i nang du bri |] rten 'brel snying po la sogs pa'i || sngags kyi g.yon nas bskor bar bri || rab tu gnas par byas nas kyang || lus sam mgul lam gang bder bzhag |

1 -9 U unavailable. 2 rten: brten D. 4 kyis: kyi P. 5 rgyu: sgyu P. 11 rje skus: rje'i si DU, rje sku S. 15 ma'i: yi P; pa: par S. 17 ma: mi U. 18 'gas: 'ga' S. 19 rtog: rtogs 20 por: po D, pos S. 21 ba: bar P. 118 5 yi: yis PU. 7 lha yi: lha'i P. 10 brten: rten DP. 12 klag: bklag DU. 13 pas: pa'i P. 14 bsgrub: bsgrubs P, sgrub SD. 15 gcod: bcod PU. 16 ser: sngon S. 17 bsam: bsams P. 24 lnga: Ingar DU. 28 rten-po: ye dha rma PU; pa'i: pa yi PU. 29 kyi g.yon: kyis g.yas P; bar: ba S. 30 before rab SDU add cig shos g.yas nas g.yon du bri ]| de la spel tshigmang [med SU] pa'am || yang na 'khor lo'i bar du gzhag [bzhag SU] || 'khor lo kun la kha sbyor gnad Ц. 31 bzhag: gzhag SP. 119

des ni gdon dang byad stems dang || rims dang yams mams sel bar byed || gang zhig yul rnams gzhom 'dod na || hum gi sa bon dang Idan par j| 5 ming yig tsam po bri bar bya || so phag phye ma Idong ros dang || ba bla ma he'i khrag gis rdzis || zla gam gnyis pa'i gzugs byas te || bar du gang 'dod bsgrub bya yi || 10 gzugs bmyan sor brgyad pa yi tshad || byas la gan rkyal du bzhag la || ma he gdong gi sbyor ba yis || khri phrag gcig tu sngags bzlas nas || dum bu dum bur gtubs byas te || 15 chu bo'i gzhung du dor byas na || skad cig de la de dbang 'gyur || bya rog 'ug pa'i gzugs byas te || ma nu ma li ro tsa nas || khyo shug bsgrub bya'i ming bris te || 20 gshin rje'i phyogs bltas gsang sngags gdon |j rkang pa g.yon pas mnan nas ni || mi yi rje ngar phur pas gdab || skad cig tsam la de dag dbye || de nas 'dir ni bsad pa yi || 25 cho [149v] ga'i rim pa bshad par bya || zhal drug phyag drug zhabs drug gam || yang na zhal gcig phyag bzhi 'am || zhal gcig phyag gnyis pa yang rung || ma he gdong gi sbyor ba yis || 30 khrag mams sna tshogs tha dad dang || bsgrub bya'i rjes dang dug gi rigs || rta dang ma he bong bu'i chus || sbrus pa'i bsgrub bya'i ling ga bya \\ lus la tsher mas gzugs bya shing || til mar gyis kyang bsku bar bya || 5 yang ni shing lo gro ga 'am || dur khrod ras sam shun pa la || rang nyid gcer bu skra bshig nas || lus ni thai bas byugs byas te || mngon sum khros nas sha chen bza' || Ю rab tu zhim pa'i chang 'thung zhing || nag po'i chos kyi mtshan phyed dus || 'khor lo bri ba brtsam par bya || le tshe bcu gnyis 'khor lo ni || hum dang hrih strih dbus su dgod Ц 15 na yo ni ra rtsibs mtshan la || yungs kar til dang skar chu dang || rta dang ma he ra khyi khrag | bya rog 'ug pa'i sgro yis bri || yi ge ya yi lte bar yang || 20 ming dang rus su Idan par bri || phyogs bzhir yi ge bcu pa ni || ming dang bcas pa bri bar bya || brgyad po dag la rim pa bzhin Ц yi ge 'di dag bri bar bya || 25 om ya ma ra ja ka la ru pa a mu ka ma ra ya hum hum phat phat svaha || yi ge ya la bskor nas ni || bsgrub bya gzugs dang Idan par bri || de yi mu khyud dag la ni || 30 yi ge bcu pa ming bcas bri || phyogs bzhir rtse gsum rdo rjes mtshan || de bzhin rdzas rnams ma lus pas || 'khor lo lte bar Idan pa bri || gshin rje'i gzugs ni ral gri dang ||

1 stems: stem P, stims D. 7 he'i: he DP; rdzis: brdzis SD. 9 bsgrub bya yi: sgrub pa yis S. 11 bzhag: gzhag DU. 14 gtubs: btubs S. 15 dor: gtor S. 18 tsa: rtsa P. khyo shug: khyod shug P, khyo shugs S. 20 rje'i: rje DP. 21 mnan: gnan P. 22 pas: bus S. 23 dbye: 'bye P. 25 pa: pa'i P. 26 gam: 'am P, pa'am S. 29 he: he'i DU; gi: pa'i S. 1 bu'i: bu P. 5 ni: na S; ga: ba P. 6 pa: pas P. 7 bu: bur P. 8 byas te: bya ste S. 10 'thung: mthung P, btung S. 11 po'i: po P; chos: tshes SU; kyi: kyis P. 12 brtsam: btsamP. 13 le: ling P. 14-15 P omits hum— la. 16 skar chu: skags khu DPU. 17 S omits ra; Sudds-phag after khyi. 19 yi: yisP; lte: Ito SDPUAR. 20 par bri: pa bris S. 25-6 om—ha: om mu sa le cu ma ra ga car na cu sa na hum hum hum phat phat phat SDU. 27 ya: mams S. 28 par: pa S. 33 lie: Ito PU. 121

dbyug pa 'dzin pa bris nas ni || de dang de gnyis Ito sbyar la |( mtshan ldan thod pa'i nang du gzhug | tsha gsum ske tshe dug mu zi || 5 ro nyes bkang nas dkyil 'khor ni || gru gsum dbus su gzhag par bya || yungs dang bra bo sa lu nag || dza bhi bra pa sogs rnams la || gsang sngags rgyal po brjod byas te || 10 dro 'am du ba 'thul bar du |j rims dang rims kyi khrag mams ni |J ma lus zad [150r] par 'thung ba yi [| ma yengs par ni bsam gtan bya || yang na bsgrub bya za bar mthong j| 15 shing gcig rtsar ni rengs pa dang J| mal gyi 'og tu zhi zhing lkugs || chu mdor 'byang zhing ri rtser bskrad || gsad pa me thab 'og tu sba || dgug pa la ni sgo khang 'og || 20 lha 'am 'khor lo sgyur ba'o [[bde gnas rnams kyis dbang du 'gyur |) mar khu chen po thod pa yi J| nang du blugs nas bskol byas te || bzhar bas mig la byugs byed na |J 25 mngon shes de nyid myur du 'thob || rigs ldan rgyal po las rnyed cing || mdog ldan lang tsho gsar bkug la || tsan dan Ide gu mang byas te || las kyi sbyor bas de nyid being || 30 yang na me la gdungs par 'gyur J| om vajra kro dha ya ma raja vajra ki li ki li [ ha na ha na ma ra ya phat | ces bya'i gsang sngags brjod byas la || rus pa'i phur pas gdab par bya || gsal shing la btsugs skyes bu yi || 35 rdzas la brtan te bsgrub par bya || til mar byugs la thod pas gzhar || mar me byas pa'i dud pa yis || mig rnon dag ni 'grub par 'gyur Ц gsang sngags rgyal po thogs med la || 5 bsten pas thob bya mang mod kyang || 'dir ni brjod pa ci zhig dgos || yang na 'di Itar shes bya ste || rang nyid sngags dang ting 'dzin ldan || brtson chen gzhan du ma yengs pas || 10 gang du brtsams pa de 'grub 'gyur || smad 'tshong rang 'byung nyid kyis ni || sngon bstan tsa kra legs bris te | ling ga'i snying khar bcug byas la || rang mdun khrag gi zla gam steng || 15 khrag gis byugs pa'i steng du gzhag | mi 'am rgyal po'i bu mo dag dgug dang dbang gi yi ge yis || de nyid du ni nges par 'gyur || nyal sa'i 'og tu mnan pa bya || 20 mi glang ra khyi gse phag khrag | 'khor lo bris nas ling ga yi Ц mgrin par bcug nas bya rog gi Ц khrag gis khrag skyug sngags bris [ 150v] nas || yi ge de ldan thod pa ru || 25 bcug nas gsang sngags mang bzlas te || dur khrod me thab 'og bzhag na || khrag skyug pa la the tshom med || bsros na tsha ba'i nad kyis 'chi || sbal khrag pha wang glad pa yis || 30 'khor lo de nyid legs bris nas || ling ga'i mchan khung g.yon bcug la ||

1 dbyug: dbyig S. 2 sbyar: sbyor P. 3 ldan: ngan SDU; gzhug: bzhug P. 6 gzhag: bzhag SP. 7 dang: kar S. 8 bo: pa SP. 10 'thul: thul P. 12 yi: yis DU. 15 rengs: rangs P. 16 S omits gyi; tu zhi: dunizha S; lkugs: ltugs U. 17 'byang zhing: 'byed cing D, 'byed zhing SU; rtser: rtse S. 18 gsad: bsad S. 19 S omits la. 24 byugs: byug SU. 27 gsar: gsang S. 28 Ide: 'de P. 30 gdungs par 'gyur: gdung bas 'grub S; par: pas DU. 32 bya'i: bya ba'i P. 33 pas: pa S. 35 brtan: brten SD. 1 gzhar: bzhar SD. 2 me: mer DU. 5 bsten: bstan P; thob: thog S; mod: yod S. 6 'dir; 'di S. 7 na: ni P. 15 steng: ste S. gzhag: bzhag SP. 19 sa'i: ba'i S; mnan: gnan P. 20 gse: bse S. 23 gis: gi P. 27 skyug: skyugs S. 29 wang: bang DP; glad: klad SU. 122 123

dbyug pa 'dzin pa bris nas ni || de dang de gnyis Ito sbyar la j| mtshan ldan thod pa'i nang du gzhug | tsha gsum ske tshe dug mu zi |j 5 ro nyes bkang nas dkyil 'khor ni || gru gsum dbus su gzhag par bya || yungs dang bra bo sa lu nag j dza bhi bra pa sogs rnams la |j gsang sngags rgyal po brjod byas te || 10 dro 'am du ba 'thul bar du || , rims dang rims kyi khrag rnams ni || ma lus zad [ 150r] par 'thung ba yi \\ ma yengs par ni bsam gtan bya |j yang na bsgrub bya za bar mthong j| 15 shing gcig rtsar ni rengs pa dang |] mal gyi 'og tu zhi zhing lkugs || chu mdor 'byang zhing ri rtser bskrad j| gsad pa me thab 'og tu sba || dgug pa la ni sgo khang 'og || 20 lha 'am 'khor lo sgyur ba'o || bde gnas mams kyis dbang du 'gyur || mar khu chen po thod pa yi || nang du blugs nas bskol byas te |j bzhar bas mig la byugs byed na || 25 mngon shes de nyid myur du 'thob || rigs ldan rgyal po las rnyed cing || mdog ldan lang tsho gsar bkug la |J tsan dan lde gu mang byas te || las kyi sbyor bas de nyid being || 30 yang na me la gdungs par 'gyur |[ om va jra kro dha ya ma raja va jra ki li ki li | ha na ha na ma ra ya phat ces bya'i gsang sngags brjod byas la || rus pa'i phur pas gdab par bya || gsal shing la btsugs skyes bu yi j| 35 rdzas la brtan te bsgrub par bya || til mar byugs la thod pas gzhar Ц mar me byas pa'i dud pa yis || mig rnon dag ni 'grub par 'gyur || gsang sngags rgyal po thogs med la || 5 bsten pas thob bya mang mod kyang || 'dir ni brjod pa ci zhig dgos || yang na 'di ltar shes bya ste || rang nyid sngags dang ting 'dzin ldan || brtson chen gzhan du ma yengs pas || ]0 gang du brtsams pa de 'grub 'gyur || smad 'tshong rang 'byung nyid kyis ni || sngon bstan tsa kra legs bris te | ling ga'i snying khar bcug byas la || rang mdun khrag gi zla gam steng || 15 khrag gis byugs pa'i steng du gzhag mi 'am rgyal po'i bu mo dag dgug dang dbang gi yi ge yis || de nyid du ni nges par 'gyur Ц nyal sa'i 'og tu mnan pa bya || 20 mi glang ra khyi gse phag khrag | 'khor lo bris nas ling ga yi || mgrin par bcug nas bya rog gi || khrag gis khrag skyug sngags bris [150V] nas yi ge de ldan thod pa ru || 25 bcug nas gsang sngags mang bzlas te |] dur khrod me thab 'og bzhag na || khrag skyug pa la the tshom med || bsros na tsha ba'i nad kyis 'chi || sbal khrag pha wang glad pa yis || 30 'khor lo de nyid legs bris nas || ling ga'i mchan khung g.yon bcug la ||

1 dbyug: dbyig S. 2 sbyar: sbyor P. 3 ldan: ngan SDU; gzhug: bzhug P. 6 gzhag: bzhag SP. 7 dang: kar S. 8 bo: pa SP. 10 'thul: thul P. 12 yi: yis DU. 15 rengs: rangs P. 16 S omits gyi; tu zhi: dunizha S; lkugs: ltugs U. 17 'byang zhing: 'byed cing D, 'byed zhing SU; rtser: rtse S. 18 gsad: bsad S. 19 S omits la. 24 byugs: byug SU. 27 gsar: gsang S. 28 lde: 'de P. 30 gdungs par 'gyur: gdung bas 'grub S; par: pas DU. 32 bya'i: bya ba'i P. 33 pas: pa S. 35 brtan: brten SD. 1 gzhar: bzhar SD. 2 me: mer DU. 5 bsten: bstan P; thob: thog S; mod: yod S. 6 'dir: 'di S. 7 na: ni P. 15 steng: ste S. gzhag: bzhag SP. 19 sa'i: ba'i S; mnan: gnan P. 20 gse: bse S. 23 gis: gi P. 27 skyug: skyugs S. 29 wang: bang DP; glad: klad SU.

122 123 g.yas g.yon glang khrag sbal khrag byug ling ga'i phyogs su rang nyid kyi || rkang pa g.yon pa'i mthe bos mnan || de tshe bzlas pa mang byas nas || ;, - 5 rgya gram lam du mnan la bzhag j| de las zlog pa bris nas ni || shing gcig khong par sbas na rengs || rnga mong bya rog rgan po'i khrag | 'khor lo bris nas ling kha yi || 10 rkang gnyis bar bcug rang mdun du || khrag gis rnga mong gzugs bris te || de yi steng gzhag rang nyid kyis || rlung gi bsam gtan nges ldan na |[ bskrad pa nyid du the tshom med || 15 ri bo rtse la 'dzegs te sba || ne'u le sbrul rta ma he dang || bya rog 'ug pa'i khrag gis ni || khyo shug rkang pa'i rjes sbrus pa'i || ling ga sor brgyad par byas te || 20 khrag des bris pa'i 'khor lo dag | snying khar bcug pa gnyis byas te || ne'u le gzugs byas steng du gzhag | lag gnyis rta dang ma he yi || rus pas rdung zhing gsang sngags zlos |j ■25 rtse 'drud shing rtsar sbas na 'byed || tsan dan dkar pos legs bris nas || gser sogs rin chen rjes su dril || mdun du zla ba'i gzugs steng du |j gzhag la nyin re'i bskor ba ni || 30 ji srid byas na srung bar nges || spyi bor btags na g.yul las rgyal || rkang par btags na chu steng 'gro || ba yi 'o mas khrus byas te || ku sha ba mar sogs mchod na || gsol btab nad rnams thams cad srung || de nas bcom ldan 'das phra ba thams cad las rnam par rgyal ba zhes bya ba'i 5 ting nge 'dzin la snyoms par zhugs nas || las thams cad kyi rjes su 'gro ba'i sngags 'di sku dang J gsung dang thugs rdo rje las phyung ngo || [151r] ma ra ya phat ces gsad pa'i'o || bi dve sa ya dbye ba'i'o || u ccha ta ya bskrad pa'i'o || 10 mo ha ya rmongs pa'i'o || va syam ku ru dbang du bya ba'i'o || stam bha ya gnan pa'i'o || a kar sa ya jah dgug pa'i'o |j om hrih sva ha j mchod pa'i'o || 15 om hrih strih vi kri ta na na hum sarva sa trunna sa ya ' ? sta mbha ya phat phat sva ha || snying po'i sngags so || om hrih ka la ru pa hum kham | nye ba'i snying po'o ]| om hrih krum brum srum jrum hum ga | snying po dam pa'o | om hrih ha j bho ma ha kro dha ga ccha ga ccha sma tpu ja pra ti grhna pra sa 20 dam de vi mam kuru sva ha]| spyan drang pa'o || om hum strih hah yon chab po || om hum phat phat zhabs bsil lo || om sa rva dus ta sa tva da ma ka ga ga | ces pa dri chab kyi sngags so Ц om ku тага ru pi ni jah jah hum phat | me tog 'bul ba'i sngags so || 25 om hrih hah he phat | bdug pa'i'o || om ka la ru pa sa rva dus ta sa tva da ma kam ma ha bhu ta pa ti i mam ba lim gr hna gr hna paya sva ha | gtor ma'i sngags so || om dhi pta lo ca na vi kri ta na na ma ha tta tta ha sa na di nam di pta ya sva ha | mar me'i sngags so || 30 om ja ya ja ya su ja ya vi sva ru pa dha ri ga ccha ga ccha sva stha ni kr tam te na ta tha ga ta sea vi sa rja ya ma ma ka ryam ku ru sva ha || ces pa gshegs su gsol ba'i sngags so j|

1 glang—byug: sbal khrag glang khrag byugs S. 3 mthe: the PU; mnan: gnan P. 15 mnan: gnan P; bzhag: gzhag DU. 6 las zlog: nas bzlog S. 7 gcig: cig S. 10 bar: par PU; mdun: bdun PU. 12 gzhag: zhag SDP. 15 bo: bo'i D. 18 shug: shugs S; pa'i: ya'i P. 22 gzhag: bzhag SP. 23 yi: yis P. 24 pas: pa D; rdung: brdung SD. 25 'drud: dud S; rtsar: khar S; 'byed: 'byer DPU. 27 rjes: rdzas SD; dril: gril P. 28 steng du: stengs su S. 29 gzhag la: bzhag pa S; re'i: re S. 30 srung: bsrung DU. 32 steng: stengs S. 2 mar: dmar PU; na: nas S. 4 S adds las after 'das; S omits rnam par. 7 gsad: pa bsad S, bsad D. 12 gnan: mnan SD. 14 mchod pa'i'o: kha dang lag pa bshal ba'i sngags so S. 15-17 om—po'o: om i dam gha sva ha zhal bsil [gsil P] gyi'o j| om du sta sva ha dri'i'o || DPU. 13-31 om—ces pa: ombho yam jah jah | me tog gi'o || om sti ha he phat phat | bdug pa'i'o || om dhi po dha na ma ya sva ha | mar me'i'o || om va jra nai vi dhya ah hum hum sva ha j zhal zas kyi'o || om ka la ru pa sa tva da ma ka ma ha bhu ta pa ti i dam ba li gr hna pa ya [repeated: gr hna pa ya D] sva ha | gtor ma'i'o || om hrih ya ma raja e hya [hye D] hi a ga ccha a ga ccha bha ga van sa rva mam sa me da ma jja ru dhi ra pri ye bha ksa bha ksa ma ma sa rva sa tva da ma ka ka rma ku ru si ddhi me sva ha lha spyan drang ba'i'o || om hrih va jra ja ye su ja ye ma ha va jra ja ye mu ni va jra muh | lha la sogs pa DPU. 32 ba'i sngags so: ba'i'o DPU. 124 de nas rdo rje 'dzin pa nyid chos thams cad kyi rjes su 'gro ba dang | ldog pa zhes bya ba'i ting nge 'dzin la snyoms par zhugs nas | gsang sngags yongs su rdzogs pa'i phrin las 'di nyid bka' stsal to || 5 nam mkha'i dbyings kyi dbus gnas par || hum las yong su rdzogs pa yi || rdo rje 'jigs byed bsam par bya || dmar po zhal gcig phyag gnyis pa || s; , shes rab mo dang mnyam du sbyor || , M. 10 dbyug pa thod khrag phyag na 'dzin || , ;iM ma he pad ma nyi ma la || ■ s, g.yon brkyang ba yi tshul gyis bsgom (| ;i-;. om ya ma nta krt hum phat || ; , gsang sngags rgyai po 'di bzlas na || 15 'dod pa'i dngos grub thams cad 'byung || nam mkha'i dbyings su dbus gnas par || ya yig sngon po las skyes pa'i [| khro bo rdo rje 'jigs byed ni || pad ma nyi ma'i gdan stengs na || 20 sems dpa'i skyil krungs kyis gnas pa'i || gri gug bi dhi pa la dang | dgra sta dang ni thod khrag dang || phyag bzhi po na rim pas [ 151 v] 'dzin || ma he nag po zhal steng na || 25 'jam dpal zhal ni ser zhing 'dzum || dpa' bo chen po rang nyid sgom || rab tu zhim pa'i chang btung zhing || sha chen dag kyang mur bar bya || mtshan mo dur khrod rgyu byed cing || 30 rtag par gsang sngags bzlas par bya || thig le 'dren pa'i rnal 'byor ni || bsgrub bya'i phyogs su bsam par bya || las rnams myur du 'dis 'grub bo || yang na 'di Itar shes bya ste || 10 15 ma he gdong gi sbyor ba yis || sku yi kha dog so sor shes || khyad par du yang gsad pa la )| nag po ma he'i zhal can ni || rtse gsum lcags kyu 'dzin pa te || ma he sha steng bsam byas na || khrag 'dren pa yi mchog tu gsungs || res 'ga' sku la khro bo ni || lcags kyu 'dzin pa grangs med spro Ц zla ba spyang gis zin dus su || byi la'i sder mo ra snying dang || bya yi khrag dang mi rus bsres || gang la phog pa smyo bar 'gyur || dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rtog pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po las | sbyor ba'i le'u ste gnyis pa'o || 1|

9 shes—sbyor: srin po rab tu khros pa 'dra S. 12 gyis bsgom: gyi sgom S. 19 stengs: steng DU. 20 skyil khrungs kyis: skyil krung gis DU, dkyil 'khor gyis P. 23 na: ni S. 26 sgom: bsgom D. 30 bzlas: bzla D. 3 yang gsad: ni bsad S. 4 nag: dmar P. 5 te: ste SD. 10 gis: kis SD. 12 bsres: bsre S. 15 byed kyi: byed kyis P. 127 [iii. bris sku] de nas yang dag bshad bya ba || 5 sgrub par byed pa'i rnal 'byor pas || dur khrod ras sam dpa' bo'i gos || yang na mtshon gyi khab ma la || mam snang mdzad dang rdo rje chus || dpa' bo'i khrag dang chang dang dug | 10 go ro tsa nas ras tshos bya || legs par dam por drud byas te || lus ngag yid kyi gnas su ni | bdud rtsi lnga dang ldan pa'i chus || yi ge om dang ah hum bri || 15 skra phye dur khrod sol ba dang |[ khrag chen ldong ros bab la yis || dbang thob dam tshig srung byed cing jj shin tu gsang la dam pa yi || ri mo mkhan ni brtson ldan des || 20 rgyud kyi don la mkhas byas nas |] nag po tshes kyi mtshan phyed dus || gsang ba'i gnas su zhugs nas ni || bcom ldan rdo rje 'jigs mdzad bri || rtsa ba ma he khros pa'i zhal || 25 de steng 'jam dpal 'dzum pa'i zhal || Ihag ma dmar dang ser dang sngo || [152r] du ba'i mdog mtshungs gyen skra can | rab tu brjid cing khro bo'i zhal || drug dang ldan pa'i sku lus che || 30 thod pa skam rlon sgyu ma sbrul || rus pa rdo rje phreng bas rgyan || glang chen stag lpags gyon nas ni || pad ma nyi ma ma he la || gshin rje mnan nas zhabs drug gis || 35 gyon brkyang g.yas bskum gar gyis 'gying || phyag drug g.yas kyi dang po na \\ rtse gcig gnyis pa tho ba ste Ц gsum pa gtun shing mkha' la 'phyar || dgra sta lcags kyu zhags pa ni || 5 g.yon pa'i phyag gis 'dzin pa bri || nam mkha'i mdog can thai bas byugs || sku la khro bo du ma 'phro || sna tshogs mchod pa'i lha mos bskor || legs par de ltar bris pa yis || 10 rgyab dang phyogs rnams thams cad du || dur khrod chen pos bskor bar bri || mgo rdum sgyu ma mkha' la khyer || rkang rdum lag rdum ro langs dang \\ wa dang spyang kyi turn po dang || 15 mkha' 'gro pho mo sha za'i tshogs || bya dang gcan zan sna tshogs bri || skyi bung rab tu 'jigs bris nas |( der ni bsgrub pa po yang bri Ц gri thod bzung nas sha chen mur Ц 20 gos nag gyon nas khrag chen 'thung Ц rta dang ma he rus pa yi \\ 'phreng ba bzung nas gsang sngags 'don |j bcom ldan 'das la Ita ba bri || de ltar bris nas chang dang khrag || 25 sha chen go ro tsa nas mchod \\ К mnyam gzhag lha yi dge 'dun des || dus gsum rgyun tu mchod byed na \\ rdo rje 'dzin pa myur du 'thob Ц sku ni rab tu sba zhing gsang || 30 phan yon dam pa 'di las 'byung || dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rtog pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po las | bri sku'i le'u ste gsumpa'oH || 7 mtshon: mtshan S; khab: kheb DU. 8 rje chus: rje'i chu S. 9 dug: 'dug U. 10 tshos: chos S. 15 phye: phyed S. 21 po tshes: po chos PU, po'i dus S, po'i tshes D. 22 SDU add rab after su; SDU omit ni. 25 steng: stengs S. 26 dmar: dkar S; sngo: dmar S. 27 du: dur S. 30 rlon: brlon P. 31 rje: rje'i S; rgyan: brgyan U. 32 gyon: gon P. 35 g.yon-—bskum: g.yas brkyang g.yon bskum P; bskum: skum S, bskums U. 2 gcig- cig 9 yis: yi SDU. 11 bar: ba S. 12 rdum: dum S, sdum P. 13 rdum-rdum: dum lag gtum S, sdum lag sdum P. 14 kyi: ki SDPU; turn: gtum S. 16 zan: gzan U. 18 bsgrub: sgrub S. 20 gyon: gon P. 23 ba: bar D. 26 gzhag: bzhag PU. 128 129

fiv, sbyin sreggi rim par phye ba] de nas yang dag bshad bya ba || 5 rtog pa ma lus zad byed cing || las mams thams cad sgrub 'dod pas || bio Idan ser sna mam spangs te || rtul phod gyeng ba mam spangs nas || sbyin sreg las la rab brtson bya || 10 [ 152v] mtshal dang ba bla ldong ros dang || shan pa'i go thai dur khrod sa || mi dang ma he khrag gis brdzi \\ khru do pa la khru phyed rtsig gru bzhi'i steng du zlum po ni || 15 rdo rje rgya gram Idan byas la || de steng 'khor lo rtsibs drug la || mtshan ma drug ni dgod par bya || lte bar me yi dkyil 'khor ni || mtho gang tshad du byas pa la j| 20 ma he'i khrag gis legs par byug | bdag nyid lho yi phyogs bltas te || ma he zhal gyi sbyor ba yis || thab kyi nang gi phyogs mtshams su || me yi sa bon mngon bltas la || 25 bskal pa'i me chen lta bur bsgom || der ni me lha'ang bsgom bya ste || zhal gsum phyag bzhi gnag la rtsub || phyag gnyis rang 'dra'i yum la 'khyud || g.yas pa'i phyag gis 'gro mams la || 30 skyabs sbyin mdzad cing bgrang phreng 'dzin g.yon pas ril ba mchog stsol brtson || zhabs drug rigs drug mtshan ma brdzis || zhal nas me mams rab 'phro zhing || 'od mams sna tshogs kyis brgyan pa || 35 de ltar shes nas rab bsregs na || 'dod pa'i don mams rab tu 'byung || dgra bo'i gzugs dang sha chen dang || chang dang ma he'i khrag bcas pa \\ stong phrag gsum du bsregs byas na || 5 bsgrub bya khrag tu skyugs nas 'chi || glang po rta bong khyi sha la || stong phrag gsum gis dbang du byed || bya rog 'ug pa khyi sha chu [| bsregs na mi lta 'byer bar nges || 10 til dang nas dang gro sa lu || yung ba gi wang so phag mams || stong phrag drug tu gang bsregs pa || longs spyod thams cad rnyed par 'gyur || rta dang mga mong bya rog sha || 15 mi sha rdo rje chur bcas pa || gsang sngags rnal 'byor Idan byas te || brgya rtsa brgyad kyis nges par skrod || ra sha dan da u tpa la || chang dang ma he chur bcas pa || 20 gang 'dod brgya rtsa brgyad kyis lkugs || dug dang khrag dang sgog pa dang || sha chen til mar rab sbags te || brgya rtsa brgyad du bsregs byas na || pha rol gzhan gyi rig sngags gcod || 25 tsan dan [ 153r] dkar po 'bras dkar dang || til dkar 'bras chan yungs kar dang || u tpa la dkar ga bur dag | shar du bltas te brgya rtsa brgyad || bsregs nas dus rnams kun tu srung Ц 30 gang zhig bya ba'i rim sogs dang \\ sngags mams bsam gtan nges Idan pas |j snying rje yid ni ma bral na || 'dod pa thams cad 'dir bsgrub bya ||

6 sgrub: 'grub S. 8 rtul: brtul S. 11 thai: thab P. 13 rtsig: brtsig U. 22 he: he'i U. 23 phyog mtshams su: lte ba la S. 25 bsgom: sgom S. 26 lha'ang: lha S. 27 bzhi: drug S; gnag: nag S. 28 P omits phyag—'khyud; 'dra'i: 'dril SU. 30 skyabs: bskyabs P. 31 stsol: rtsol S. 32 P omits zhabs—brdzis. 34 kyis brgyan pa: mams kyis rgyan S. 130 2 gzugs dang: gzugs mams S. 3 bcas: byas PU. 4 bsregs: sreg P. 7 gis: gyis D. 9 bsregs na mi: bsreg na me S, bsregs nas mi P; Ъуег: 'phye S; nges: 'gyur S. IIS adds su after rnams [sic; despite number of syllables]. 24 rig: gsang S. 26 dkar: can S; chan: can S, chen P; kar: dkar P. 27 dkar: ka ra S, dmar U, dkar dmar D [SD sic; despite number of syllables]. 29 srung: bsrung DU. 30 rim: rigs S, rims P. 32 rje: rje'i U. 131

gzhan du rmongs pa'i byis pa 'ga' |j bio gros med gang shes rab 'chal || sngags dang dam tshig dman gyur zhing || ting nge 'dzin la mngon g.yel ba || 5 brtson pa chung zhing Ihod pa 'gas || bskal pa stong du bsgrubs byas kyang || 'bras bu yod pa ma yin te | sha thang chad pa nyid du 'gyur |j dper na bio zhan byis pa mams || 10 'gar zhig 'bras 'dod 'khrul gyur nas || phub ma rdung bar byed pa la || 'bras yod nam yang mi 'gyur zhing || ji Itar sprin dang chu zla dang || dbang po gzhu rnams rtag min te |[ 15 thar pa 'dod pa'i bya ba'ang de || sgyu ma nyid la sgyu ma rol || ye shes gcig pa mam grol rgyu || stong pa dpag par bios ci nus }| de la dpyad cing gzhal bzod na || 20 brtags pa'i snying po de la med j| de la dngos mams ma grub na || bsgrub pa'i rim gzhan smos ci dgos || bya ba dang ni byed pa dag | nges par de la brtag mi bzod || 25 dam grog g.yang sar lhung yang bla'i || chad par rtog pa 'di mi bzod || rtag pa nyid kyang rim min te || dngos po yod par ga la 'gyur || dper na byis pa mams la mas || 30 sa 'dir sdod dang ma nyid kyis || 'bras bu shing tog mang blangs la [| khyod la bde bas sbyin zhes brjod || || de bzhin mam pa du ma yang || 'jig rten rtog pa tha dad pas || 10 15 20 25 30 35 de dag drang bar bya phyir bshad || bcom Idan lha yi lha mdun du || sha chen po yi zhal zas dang \\ chang dang til mar ma he khrag | rab tu zhim [153v] pa'i zas mchog mams || dus mams rtag tu dbul bar bya || gsang sngags rgyal po yi ge bcu || bdag gis rgyun du gdon bya zhing || bsam gtan rtag tu brtson par bya || de Itar shes shing sgrub byed pa'i Ц skyes bu bio Idan de yis ni || sangs rgyas nyid kyang myur 'grub 'gyur || zhi sogs las rnams smos ci dgos || grong khyer dkrug na sngags pa des || khyi sha sbal sha rus sbal sha (| rnga mong byi la'i sha rnams la || stong rtsa brgyad du bsreg par bya |[ rta sha dri chen rab sbyar bas |j ril bu byas te bdag mdun du || gsang sngags rgyal po bzlas byas nas || brgya rtsa brgyad du bsregs pas ni \\ rgyal po dbang du byed par 'gyur || bud med dbang du byed 'dod na Ц nya sha chang dang sha chen mams || rdo rje chu yis sbag byas te || brgya rtsa brgyad du bsregs par bya || tha mal dbang du byed 'dod na || sha chen glang po sha dang bcas || byang chub sems dang bsres byas te j| stong phrag brgyad du bsreg par bya || dgug pa dus mams thams cad du || khyi sha nya sha bdud rtsi Inga || cha mnyam ril bu byas nas ni || brgya rtsa brgyad du bsregs na 'gugs || sbyin bsreg las mams thams cad kyang ||

1 rmongs: smongs S; byis pa 'ga': byas pa bslu S. 3 dman: sman PU; zhing: cing D. 5 'gas: 'gags S. 8 'gyur: zad S. 9 zhan: zhal S. 11 rdung bar: rlung khar SDU. 12 zhing: bzhin SDU. 14 po: po'i S. 15 ba'ang: ba yang S. 17 pa: pu SD. 18 ci: mi S. 19 dpyad: spyad S. 22 bsgrub: sgrub S; rim: rims PU. 24 brtag: rtag S, rtags P. 25 grog: grogs U; g.yang: g.yangs P, yang U. 27 rim: rig D. 28 par: pa D; ga la: gal te DP. 132 1 drang: grang P. 14 dkrug: dgug U. 16 byi la'i: byis pa'i S. 18 bas: las S. 19 ril bu: ri lu P; te: nas S. 20 P adds brjod after bzlas. 25 sbag: sbags UD, sngags U. 26 bsregs: bsreg S. 28 po: po'i DU. 30 bsreg: bsregs U, 33 mnyam ril bu: smyams ri lu P. 133

ma he zhal gyi sbyor bas ni || gsang sngags rgyal pos 'dod pa sbyar || ma yengs rtse gcig sems kyis bya j| gsungs dang ma gsungs mtha' dag kyang || 5 ji Itabayirimpayis j| rgyud kyi rgyal po nyid nyer gnas || sangs rgyas 'bras bu myur du 'thob || zhi la zhi ba'i yid kyis te || rgyal po Ita bur rgyas pa la || 10 sdang bral chags pas dbang la'o || drag po'i las la khro zhing rtsub | rab tu turn po'i yid kyis ni || gsod pa'i sems dang ldan par bya || gang zhig ltos pa med pa'i mi |J 15 grub pa myur du tshol byed na || sems kyi rang bzhin rnam dag pas || rdo rje 'dzin par de 'grub 'gyur || [ 154r] dngos po gang dang gang spyod yul || de dang de yi rang bzhin 'gro || 20 mnyam gzhag nyams par mi bya la || dus mams rtag tu rnal 'byor pas || shin tu mnyam par gzhag par bya j| de ni thar pa nyid kyi rgyu |j rgyud kyi rgyal po 'di las ni || 25 'dod pa'i dngos grub myur byung de || dka' ba med pa'i thabs 'di ni || dka' spyod brtul zhugs rnams spangs te || shin tu bde bar sgrub pa'i thabs j| sdug bsngal 'jigs med bdud rtsi'i ro || 30 bio ldan legs par blang bya ste || shin tu 'bad pas sgrub par bya [| mi shes bio gros rmongs pa 'ga' || rtog pa'i dra bas bsgribs pa'i tshe || bsod nams dang ni sdig pa yi || pbung po mam pa gnyis su brtags || 'on kyang 'dod pa thams cad ni \\ rgyud mchog 'di las 'byung 'gyur phyir || dman zhing brtson pa chung ba 'ga' || | 5 'di la zhugs na myur du 'grub \\ de bas ngo mtshar rgyud 'di ni \\ myed dka' khyad par mchog gyur pa \\ yi ge'i dbyibs kyang mi bstan na || bshad cing 'khrol pa smos ci dgos || ) dbang mams nges par ma blangs shing || bla ma mnyes par ma byas tshe || bstan kyang thos par mi 'gyur te || tsha ba la sogs 'khor bar 'khor || de skad ston pas bshad pa'i tshe || 5 sde rnams myos shing rgyal rmongs te || kun kyang 'dud cing mgo bo smad || 'jig rten 'di ni shin tu g.yos || gang zhig rgyud 'di nyan pa dang || shes nas 'chang bar byed pa dang || JO dus mams kun tu 'don byed na || tshe 'dir 'jigs pa kun gsal te || shi nas mtho ris myur du 'thob || gal te gzhan du rgyud mchog 'di || bstan nam bshad dam gsal phye na \\ 25 de ni sdug bsngal mang myong nas || shi nas myur du dmyal bar 'gro || rang gis shin tu bead byas shing || dngos grub nyid bzhin mngon byas na || sdug bsngal mtha' dag nges zad nas \\ 30 myur du bla med thob par [154v] 'gyur || dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rtog pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po las || sbyin bsreg gi rim par phye ba'i le'u ste bzhi pa'o ||

4 kyang: dang DP. 7 'thob: thob S. 8 yid: sems S. 11 rtsub: rtsug P. 12 turn po'i: gtum pa'i S, turn pa'i U. 16 rnam: rnams P. 17 par: pa DPU. 19 de yi: de'i P. 20 gzhag: bzhag P. 22 gzhag: bzhag P. 23 de: des DPU. 24 las: la S. 25 byung: byed DPU. 27 brtul: rtul U. 29 sdug bsngal: du kha S. 31 sgrub: bsgrub S. 134 1 brtags: rtags P. 8 ge'i: ge P. 9 'khrol: 'grol SD, 'gro U. 158 rgyal'. brgyal SD. 17 shin: gshin P. 21 gsal: bsal SD. 25 myong: myos S. 27 byas: bya S. 135

[Colophon] || dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rtog pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po'i las kyi dngos grub rtag pa zhes bya ba rdzogs s.ho || || [Translators' colophon] pa ndi ta chen po a mo gha'i zhabs nus pa can dang | bod kyi lo ttsha ba mar pa ban dhe chos kyi dbang phyug grags pas sgyur cing zhus pa'o || || [The Myth] III Gtam rgyud kyi rtog pa 3 po'i: po S. 4 rtag: brtag DU. 8 R adds slad kyis grub thob chen po karnasri'i zhal snga nas mnyam te | thar pa lo tsa ba nyi ma rgyal mtshan gyis bsgyur cing zhus te gtan la phab pa'o | after zhus pa'o || ||. dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed la phyag 'tshal lo || [158r] denasyang[158v] dag bshad bya ba || bcom ldan nyid kyi sku gsung thugs || 5 rdo rje rnams las byung ba yi Ц rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po yis \\ iho phyogs rgya mtsho'i phar rgal na \\ de nas gshin rje'i grong khyer ni || ga la ba yi gnas su byon \\ 10 mi bzad zhabs ni bcu drug gis || lcags mkhar sgo med bcu drug brdzis \\ ye shes rtse gcig mtshan ma yis || dbus kyi lcags mkhar chen po brdzis || de tshe bdud chen las rgyal nas || 15 ha ha hi hi'i sgra sgrogs pas || chos kyi rgyal po la sogs pa || gzir bzhin du ni rab smras pa || dpa' bo chen po ga la ci || dpa' bo'i dgos pa bdag gis bgyi Ц 20 bdag cag srog gi snying po mams || tshul bzhin dbul gyis dpa1 bo bzhes || lha ma srin ni sde brgyad kyis |[ srog gi yang snying phul ba ni || gshin rjes ya phul ma mos ma || 25 srin pos та phul gnod sbyin kse || mi yis ni phul sa bdag sa \\ btsan gyis tsa phul bdud kyis da \\ de mams cig du dril ba ni \\ bran du yang ni khas blangs so || 30 gtan tshigs chen po de yi phyir || 1 Pom/ts dpal—lo. 6yis: yi S. 7 mtsho'i—na: mtshopabsgalnas S. lObzad: bzodP. 14 rgyal: brgyad S; nas: nam P. 19 bo'i: bo U; dgos: dgongs S. 20 srog: sro P. 21 dbul: 'bul SD, dbus P; bo: bos DU. 22 srin ni: yin S; kyis: kyi S. 23 yang: mang U. 26 ni: na S, ni U. 27 tsa: ttsha P; kyis: kyi S. 28 cig du: gcig tu U. 136

ye shes lha yi dgongs pa dang || bsnyen pa nyams 'og rab chud nas j| lha yi bsnyen pa la chud nas | sngon gyi thugs dam las mi 'da' || 5 mi 'grub pa ni mi srid do || ya ma raja sa do me ya || ya me do ru na yo da ya || ya da yo ni ra ya kse ya || ya kse ya ccha ni ra ma ya || 10 de skad ces ni smras pa dang || rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po yis j| chos kyi rgyal po la sogs pa || gshin rje pho nya thams cad kun || sgroi ba'i zhing du byin gyis brlabs || 15 ma dang sring mo bu mo mams || 'khor bcas rnams la bka' bsgo ba || lnga brgya dus kyi tha ma la || nga yi bstan pa 'byung ba'i tshe || rnal 'byor rigs 'dzin mar ldan la |J 20 bka' bsgo'i las rnams tshul bzhin gyis || ces pas dam bcas pa dang mnan bzhin du mna' bor ro [Colophon] gtam gyud kyi rtog pa rdzog s.ho f| IV Dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rgyud rtogpa gsum pa [The Three Chapter Tantra of Vajrabhairava] dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rgyud kyi rgyal po rtog pa gsum pa zhes bya ba bzhugs so I [lr] rgya gar skad du 1 sri-vajrabhairava-tantraraja-nama | bod skad du | dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rgyud kyi rgyal po zhes bya ba I 5 bcom ldan 'das dpal gshin rje gshed la phyag [2r] 'tshal lo || [i. 'khor to bri ba] don dam chos sku zhi ba nyid || 10 gang 'di khams gsum rnam rgyal te |j gshin rje'i dgra zhes grags pa yi || 'khor lo skor ba'i cho ga bshad || yon tan ldan [2v] pa'i sngags pa ni || cho ga bzhin du bsnyen pa yis Ц 15 dur khrod la sogs dben sa ru \\ ma nda la khru do'i tshad du bya || dri dang ba yi mam lnga dang || nyi zla sogs pas byi dor bya || ba lang la sogs dam rdzas lnga \\ 20 gzhan yang tshogs kyi 'khor lo dang || phyi nang mchod pa'i bye brag gis || legs par mchod pa byas nas ni || 'khor lo bri dang btu ba dang \\ drang dang bsre dang spo ba brtsam || 25 sngags pa [3r] mal 'byor ldan pa yis || lho yi phyogs su kha ltas te \\

1 ye: yi U. 4 gyi: gyis U. 6 me: med S. 8 yo ni: ro ni S. 9 S adds hum hum phat phat after maya. 10 S omits ces ni. 12 rje: rje'i SD; thams cad: la sogs S. 14 zhing: ging SD. 15 rnams: dag S. 16 mams: kun S. 18-23 SU missing. 19 rigs: rig D; D omits mar; D adds pa after ldan. 21 pa: pas D. 138 1 -2 P omits dpal—so. 2 sri—tantraraja: sri-krsnayamari-tantraraja-trikalpa P. 4 rdo— ba: gshin rje'i gshed nag po'i rgyud kyi rgyal po rtog pa gsum P. 10 'di:'dir P. 11 rje'i: rje P. 12 skor: bskor A. P, 13 ni: yi A. 15 la—ru: dben pa la sogs par P. 26 ltas: bltas A.

dam tshig rjes su dran pa yis || om vajra samayas tvam | gsang sngags 'di ni dran byed cing || 'khor lo bri ba brtsam par bya || 5 dbus nas sor tshad bcu drug par || ■'■*■■■ kun tu zlum por skor ba ni j| 'di ni nang gi 'khor lo ste || rim pa gsum du bskor ba la || sgo med lcags mkhar bcu drug bya || 10 'di ni gshin rje'i grong khyer ste |j [3v] srid pa gsum gyi 'jug pa yin || de yi phyi rim mu khyud gsum || kun tu lcags ris bskor ba ste || mu khyud de dag re re la || 15 khang pa sum cu gnyis dang ldan || 'gro ba chos bzhin spyod pa yis |J 'khor lo 'di ltar bris nas ni || phyi rol mu khyud tha ma la || yi ge ka sogs da yig mtha' || 20 de nyi bsal nas dgod par bya || yi ge dha sogs ksa yig mtha' || de yi rjes su bri bar bya || mu khyud dbus ma [4r] dag la ni || dbyangs yig bcu drug nyis 'gyur dgod || 25 btu dang dgod sogs rtsom pa ni || mtshan ma 'di dag shes par bya || zla ba mig dang yon tan dang || rig byed mda' dang dbang po dang \\ rgya mtsho bkra shis gza' dang phyogs || 30 drag po nyi ma yan lag pa || tshes zhes bya bar rab tu grags || phyi rol mu khyud tha ma la || shar gyi tshangs thig nas brtsams nas || rim min gza' can khang pa nas || 35 [4v] yi ge bkra shis tsam blangs te || nang gi ngos kyi mu khyud kyi || tshangs thig gi ni ngos dag la |J phyogs bzhir mig gi tshad du byin || rim min phyogs can khang pa nas || yi ge mig gi tshad blangs te \\ shar du de yi g.yas g.yon gzhag || 5 rim min bkra shis khang pa nas || dbyangs yig gnyis pa can blangs nas || mig gi tshad du byas nas ni || de yi ngos la re re bzhag | nub kyi tshangs thig nas bgrangs pa'i || 10 [5r] rgya mtsho can gyi khang pa nas || dbyangs yig bcu gcig dang ldan pa || mig gi tshad du blangs nas ni || Iho phyogs de yi g.yas g.yon bzhag || nub nas rirn pa min pa yi || 15 zla ba can gyi khang pa nas || dbyangs yig bcu gsum dang ldan pa \\ mig gi tshad du blangs nas ni \\ Iho ru de rjes sbyin par bya || de nyid dbyangs yig gsal ba ni \\ 20 mig gi tshad du blangs nas ni || sngon bzhin nub kyi ngos su sbyin || nub nas [5v] bkra shis khang pa nas || dbyangs yig bcu gsum par ldan pa || mig gi tshad du blangs nas ni || 25 nub kyi ngos la de bzhin sbyin || byang nas bkra shis khang pa nas || dbyangs yig bcu gcig dang ldan pa || mig gi tshad du blangs nas ni || byang gi ngos la de bzhin sbyin \\ 30 rlung gi sa bon zhes bya ba || mig gi tshad blangs de rjes sbyin || mda' can khang pa nang gnas pa || 'od kyi gong bur byas pa dang || de nyid nas ni [6r] bgrangs pa yi \\ 35 gza' can khang pa la gnas pa |[ dbyangs yig gsum par ldan pa dag |

6 tu: nas P; skor: bskor A. 10 ste: te P. 14 la: la'ang P. 15 cu—ldan: bcu rtsa gnyis mdzes P. 16 ba: ba'i P; spyod: gcod P; yis: yi P. IS rol: rim P. 19 da: de P. 20 denyi gsal: da nya bsal A. 21 mtha': mthar P. 25 ni: na P. 29 gza': bza' P. 30 pa: sa P. 33 thig: thigs A; nas brtsams: pa rtsis A. 36 nang gi : shar gyi A. 2 rim: rims P, 4 gzhag: bzhag A. 6 nas: te P. 8 bzhag: sbyin A. 9 bgrangs: grangs A. 11 dang: par A. 13 phyogs—bzhag: yi ngos la de bzhin sbyin A. 25 la: su A. 27 dang: par A. 29 la: su A; rjes: bzhin A. 35 gza': sa A; la: nang A. 36 par. pa P.

140 141 zla ba'i tshad du blangs nas ni || byang shar mtshams su re re sbyin || rgya mtsho khang pa nang gnas pa || dbyangs yig gnyis par Idan pa dang || 5 rim min yon tan khang pa nas || zla ba'i tshad du blangs nas ni || shar Iho'i mtshams su de bzhin sbyin j| rim min bkra shis khang pa nas || dbyangs yig lnga pa dang Idan pa || 10 [6v] yan lag can gyi khang pa nas || zla ba'i tshad du blangs nas ni |] lho nub mtshams su de bzhin sbyin || rim min tshes can khang pa nas || dbyangs yig gsum pa dang Idan pa || 15 rim min bkra shis khang pa nas J| zla ba'i tshad du blangs nas ni j| nub byang mtshams su de bzhin sbyin [| de ltar dgod par byas nas ni || de nas drang pa brtsom par bya || 20 dam tshig rjes su dran byed cing || rdo rje shugs dang Idan pa yis || shar gyi [7r] tshangs thig ngos gnyis nas || yi ge zung Idan grangs nas ni || dbus kyi khang par bzhag par bya || phyogs gzhan tshangs thig ngos gnyis nas de bzhin zung Idan grangs nas ni || de bzhin dbus kyi khang par bzhag | de nas shar gyi yi ge yang || zung Idan gnyis pa grangs nas ni |J 30 rim pa gnyis pa'i khang par bzhag | phyogs gzhan du yang de bzhin no [| shar gyi zung Idan gsum pa yang || [7v] rim pa gsum pa'i khang par bzhag | phyogs gzhan du yang de bzhin no f| 35 mtshams kyi yi ge ya bral ni j| ngang rang nang gi mtshams su drang || de dag phyung ba'i khang stong du || 3 mtsho: mtsho'i P; nang: na A. 4 par: pa P. 6 blangs: gzung P. 14 P omits pa before dang; P adds dang after Idan pa. 19 drang: dad A. 22 tshangs: mtshams P. 23 zung: gzung P; grangs: drangs P. 25 gnyis: dag P. 26 zung: gzung P; grangs: drangs P. 29 grangs: drangs P. 142 10 15 20 25 30 35 dbyangs kyi yi ge grangs par bya || dbyangs kyi yi ge'i gzhi la ni \\ ming gi yi ge grang par bya || ming gi yi ge gzhi la ni \\ so so'i las dang mthun pa yi \\ bskul ba'i yi ge dgod par bya || gsad dang bskrad dang dbye ba la || yi ge phat [8r] ni bzhag par bya \\ mnan pa la ni yi ge lam || zhi ba la ni yi ge om \\ rgyas pa la ni yi ge sva || dbang la bam gis rgyan pa ste Ц dgug pa la ni yi ge jah || de dag la ni 'od zer ni || zhi ba chu ste rgyas pa sa || dbang ni rlung ste drag po me \\ dbye dgug bskrad pa dbang dang mthun Ц mnan pa dag ni rgyas pa bzhin || drang ba'i sbyor ba byas nas ni \\ bsre ba'i sbyor ba rtsoms par bya || gnyis med sngags dang Idan pa yis || dbus [8v] kyi bkra shis yi ge ya || zla ltar 'od kyi gong bur bya \\ 'od kyi gong bu de nang du || 'dod pa'i bsgrub bya gzhag par bya || de dkyil rang ming dang por bzhag \ phyogs kyi khyim na gnas pa yi || yi ge zung Idan thams cad kyang || de tshe 'od kyi gong bur bya || sngags kyi rgyal po bcu pa yang || bcu gnyis khyim du spel te bri || byin rlabs hum zhes bya ba yang || khang pa bzhi la zung re mdzes || yongs su dag par bkod [9r] byas nas || mchod dang gtor ma byas nas ni || spo ba dag kyang rtsoms par bya || las kyi bye ba ji lta bar || 1 grangs: drang P. 2 gzhi: bzhi P. 4 gzhi: bzhi P. 5 so'i: sor P. 8 bzhag: gzhag P. 9: mnan: gnan P. 10 om: sva A. 11 la ni: de bzhin P; sva: om A. 12 A omits dbang—ste. 14 dag la: la las P. 15 chu ste: chus te P. 17 mthun: 'thun P. 18 mnan: gnan P. 20 rtsoms: brtsom A brtsam P. 25 gzhag: bzhag A. 26 рог: po A. 28 zung Idan: gzung ba P. 32 rlabs: rlob P. 33 la: pa P. 36 rtsoms: brtsom A brtsam P. 37 bye: dbye P. 143

25 'khor lo'i ras gzhi blangs byas la || zhi ba dang ni rgyas pa la || shin tu dge ba'i ras la bya j dbang dang dgug la smad 'tshong sogs 5 gsad dang dbye dang bskrad pa dang || mnan pa la ni dur khrod ras || gi wang gur gum zhi rgyas la || dbang dang dgug pa tsan dan dmar | mnan pa la ni ldong [9v] ros sogs || 10 bskrad pa bya rog khrag gis te j| dbye ba rta dang ma he sogs || gsad pa dug la sogs pas bri || dge ba'i las la bzang po'i shing || dge min la ni rus pa dang |j 15 Icags la sogs pas bri bar bya || zhi ba shar Itas dbang la nub |j rgyas pa byang ste drag po lho || gzhan la ci rigs sbyar bar bya || zhi rgyas dbang dang dgug pa la || 20 sa 'khor rim bzhin dgod bya ste J| gnam 'khor dag ni rim las [ 1 Or] bzlog | gsad bskrad dbye dang mnan pa la |j sa 'khor rim pas bzlog pa ste || gnam 'khor dag ni rim bzhin bri || 25 de Uar legs par ma bris na || 'khor lo rang la bzlog par 'gyur JJ de bas nan tan skyed de bya || 'khor lo legs par bris zin nas || ma ndal la gnas 'khor lo de || 30 ras kyi 'khor lor spyan drangs te || rdo rje bsdu ba'i sbyor ba yis j| ma ndal 'khor lo [lOv] bsdu bar bya |[ ras kyi 'khor lo mchod nas ni |j bden pa'i byin rlabs dmigs par bya j| 35 ji ltar dmigs pa'i cho ga bzhin || 'khor lo sba ba byas nas ni \\ gsang sngags bzlas pa rtsom par bya || om va jra sa ma yas tvam | dam tshig gi sngags so \\ om va jra ve ga hum 1 rdo rje shugs kyi sngags so || om va jra sa ma ya tri sa ma ye ma ha sa ma ye sva ha | yi ge bsre ba'i sngags so [| om vajrasa-[llr]mayajah| 'khor lo sbo ba'i sngags so || om ya ma ra ja sa do me ya | ya me do ru na yo da ya | ya da yo ni ra ya kse ya | ya kse ya ccha ni ra ma ya hum hum phat phat | 'di rtsa ba'i sngags te las thams cad pa'o || om hrih strih vi kri ta na na hum phat 15 'di ni las thams cad kyi sngags te las thams cad pa'o || sa ntim ku ru sva ha zhi bar bskul ba'o \\ pu stim ku ru sva ha || [llv] rgyas pa'o О 20 va syam ku ru svaha 1 dbang gi'o 11 ma ra ya phat | gsadpa'i'oH bha di si ya phat | 25 dbye ba'o || :; ■ u ccha ta ya phat 1 '....' bskrad pa'o || ' , . ,; ■ sta mbha ya hum lam | mnan pa'o || 30 akar sa yajahl dgug pa'i'o |1 om muh 1 slar dgrol ba'o || a li ka li'i grong khyer ni \\ 35 gsang sngags 'byung ba'i rtsa ba ste || las kyi btson ra dag kyang yin Ц yi ge btu ba med na ni || sngags kyi sgra ni log par 'gyur || 1 gzhi: niP. 6 mnan: gnanP. 9 mnan: gnan P. 11 barta: laltaP. 12 pa: la P. 14 rus pa dang: mi rus yang A. 16 Itas: lta P. 18 la ci: yang spyi P. 20 'khor: skor P; bya: pas P. 21 'khor: skor P; bzlog: zlog P. 22 mnan: gnan P. 23 pas bzlog: las zlog P. 24 'khor: skor P. 25 de: 'di P. 26 bzlog: ldog P. 28 P adds ras gi [sic] before 'khor; lo: lo'i P; P omits par bris. 30 drangs te: drang ste P. 31 yis: las P. 1 sbaba: spobar A. 2 rtsoms: rtsom AbrtsamP. 7 vajra—tri samaye: a sa me tri sa me P. 11 yada: dayaP. 12 ya: la A;P omits hum burn. 13 P adds ni after 'di; P adds gsang after ba'i. 14 P adds hum after hum. 15 thams cad kyi: kyi gsang P. 19 pa'o: par bskul ba'o P. 21 gi'o: gi go P. 23 gsad: sad P. 25 ba'o: ba'i'o P. 27 pa'o: pa'i'o P. 29 mnan: gnan P. 30 P adds hum after ya. 32 muh: mu da A. 33 slar dgrol ba'o: grol ba'i'o A. 38 P adds gsang before sngags; P omits kyi. 144 145

ю 15 20 [12г] yi ge tshang par ma bkod na || gsang sngags sgra ni nyams par 'gyur || gsang sngags brda yis ma bijod na || sngags kyi dngos grub med par gyur || drang ba dag ni ma byas na || shin tu 'khor bar mi 'gyur ro || yi ge bsre bar ma byas na [| bcu drug khang pa don med 'gyur || skor phyogs log na don mi 'grub || rigs sngags nyams dang log pa ni || lha min g.yul las pham pa dang || [12v] dbang po'i dgra yis dgra bsad bzhin || 'khor lo sbo ba ma byas na || cho ga dag ni nyams par 'gyur || rgyu yin pa dang sbyor ba dang || dad pa brtan pas 'grub par 'gyur || de nas nan tan bskyed de bya || 'jam dpal gyi rtog pa las 'khor lo bri ba'i cho ga rgyas pa ste rtog pa dang po'o 7 bsre: sreP, bse A. 12 po'i: po P. 13 sbo: sdoP. 16 pa brtan: pas bstan P. 17 nas: bas P. 19 'jam—pa: dpal gshin rje nag po'i [sic] P; pa ste: pa'i P. fii. dam tshig rdzas sman bsgyur] de nas gzhan yang bshad par bya \\ 5 sngags pas rtag tu bsten pa ni || rus sbal 'o ma zhes bya [13r] dang || de bzhin 'od kyi lo ma dang || 'jim pa skam po nyid dang ni || de bzhin me yi khu ba dang || 10 sgra snyan gyi ni rdzas dag ste || 'di dag rtag tu sbyad na ni || rang bzhin gyis ni nad med cing || tshe ring dbang po rgyas pa dang || rtag tu lang tsho dar la bab || 15 lha rnams kun gyis byin gyis rlobs || 'di la dpyad pa mi bya ste || mthu dang ngo bo nyid kyis 'grub || ting 'dzin sngags [13v] kyis byin rlabs na || las kyi mam smin sbyor bar byed || 20 rig pa 'dzin pa'i sa la gnas || de phyir cho ga bzbin du bsten || tshes gcig skya rengs shar tsam na || snod la ma reg rus sbal zho \\ drod ma yal bar btung ba 'am || 25 yang na nyi ma'i sbu gus btung || mar gyi ngo yi tshes gcig la || 'od kyi lo ma btsal nas ni || de nyid nas ni bzung nas kyang || zhag gsum skya rengs shar pa na Ц 30 [ 14r] lo ma de bead bza' bar bya || yang na nyi ma'i sbu gus bya \\ 'jim pa bzang po sbyar nas ni \\ zhag gsum chu yi nang du skam || de blangs nas ni bskam nas ni || 35 bye ma byi la'i spar tshad re || ba yi 'o ma dang sbyar nas \\ sngags pas rtag tu btung bar bya || 5 pa ni: par bya A. 10 snyan: brnyan P. 11 dag: rnams P. 12 gyis: gyi P. 14 tsho: mtsho P. 15 rlobs: rlob P. 16 dpyad pa: spyad par A. 18 A adds nge after ting; na: nas A. 19 sbyor: spyod P. 22 tsam: pa A. 23 P omite la; P adds\a after Kg. 24 ba 'am: bar bya P. 27 btsal: btsir P. 28 bzung: gzung P. 33 skam: sbang P. 34 P adds yang after nas ni; bskam: skam P; P omits ni after bskam nas. 35 la'i: ba'i A. 146 147

me yi stong bu gsar pa ni || sa yi mar gyis dril nas ni |j kha sbyor snod dang ldan byas nas )| me chu sa yis being [14v] nas ni || ,,, 5 btung ba nyi ma'i sbu gus btung || Ian tshwa bral ba'i sgra las ni || zhag gsum beings pa'i sgra snyan rdzas || nam gyi gung la sngags pa blang || cha gsum snod du zhag gsum bzhag | 10 rtse mo'i cha ni byug pa ste || dbu ma'i cha ni bdud rtsi yin || rtsa ba'i cha ni dor bar bya || 'di rnams so sor sten pa na || tha mal 'bras bu gsum gyis phye || 15 byi la'i spartshadre dang [15r] sbyar|| ma sbyar na yang nyes pa med jj tshogs par sten pa bzang par bshad || re re bsten kyang nyes pa med || 20 'jam dpal gyi rtog pa las dam tshig rdzas sman du sgyur te bstan pa'i cho ga'i rtog pa gnyis pa'o || || 1 me: mi P; stong: sdegs A stod P; bu: pos P; gsar: sar P. 3 ni: kyang A. 4 chu sa: chus P; P adds ni after yis. 5 ba: ngam P. 8 sngags pa blang: mkhas pas blangs A. 11 dbu: dbus P; bdud rtsi yin: btung bar bya A. 13 sten: bsten A; na: ni A. 14 mal: mar P. 15 re: ra P. 17 tshogs: 'tshogs A; sten: bsten A; bzang [< MP]: bza' PA. 18 kyang: yang P. 20 P omits tshig; du sgyur: bsgyur A. 20 bstan: bsten P; ga'i: ga ste A. I [Hi. las kyi rgyu dang grogs] de nas gzhan yang bshad pa ni || 5 las kyi grogs gyi bye brag ste || zhi ba'i las ni zla ba yin || rgyas pa de ni mig tu grags || dbye ba yon tan [ 15v] zhes bya ste || dbang du bya ba rig byed yin |j 10 dgug pa la ni de bzhin mda' || bskrad dang mnan pa dbang po bzhin || mnan pa rjes su 'brang ba yi || gsad pa'i las ni rgya mtshor 'dod || las mams de dag re re yang Ц 15 'phags sogs mchog sbyin dang po ste || nyi ma gnyis pa gtor ma sbyin || gsum pa bzlas pa rnam par 'bad || bzhi pa sbyin sreg tshad par bya || lnga pa [16r] las kyi 'khor lo skor || 20 drug pa bsam gtan rtse gcig bya || bdun pa las kyi lhag chad bskang || grogs kyi las la khyad par du || las kyi gtso ni gang sgrub de'i || 'khor lo bskor ba nyi ma bzhi || 25 las kyi bye brag 'di shes nas || zhi bas 'jigs pa brgyad las skyob || rgyas pas yon tan drug dang sbyor || dbang gis mos pa rnam bzhi bsgyur || dbye bas gsang ste [16v] brgyad dang 'byed || 30 mnan pas dbang po drug 'ching byed |j gzhan ni las ni ji bzhin no || sngags dang las kyi sbyor ba las || dpyad na dngos grub mi 'grub ste || gal te yid gnyis za 'gyur tarn || 35 bsam par 'gyur ram dad pa nyams || de tshe dngos grub myur nye ba'ang || phyir bzlog 'gyur bar gdon mi za || 7 ni: bzhin P. 10 pa la: pa'i las A. 11 mnan: gnan P; po bzhin: dang mthun A. 12 pa: pa'i A. 14 yang: la A. 15 sogs: stsogs P. 19 lo skor: lo'o A. 21 bskang: bkang A. 22 grogs kyi: drag po'i A; la: las P. 23 gtso: gtsor P; sgrub: bsgrub P. 24 bzhin: bzhi A. 25 nas: na P. 26 brgyad: rgyad P. 28 bzhir: bzhi P. 30 mnan pas: gnan pa P; 'ching byed: chad ste P. 31 las ni ji: ji Itar deP. 32 las: rdzas P. 35 nyams: med A. 36 P omits myur; ba'ang: ba yang P. 37 bzlog: ldog P. 148 149

dad pa brtan pas bsgrub pa na || nam mkha' med par gyur na yang |j [17r] sngags kyi dngos 'grub med mi srid | lha dang drang srong gis bshad pa'i |j 5 rig sngags slu ba mi srid na || 'dod chags bral bas bshad pa yi || gsang sngags sbyor bas slu ba ni || ma byung 'byung bar mi 'gyur ro || chos nyid bsam gyis mi khyab pas || 10 don la the tshom med pa yi Ц mkhas pa la ni dngos grub nye || yang na blun po dad pa brtan || de la sbyor ba'i [ 17v] dngos grub nye [| rtog cing dbyad pa'i rtog ge ba || 15 de la sbyor ba'i dngos grub ring || bla mas man ngag bstan nas kyang || slob ma yid gnyis yod pa na || de la dngos grub ring bar bshad || bla mas man ngag mi byin kyang || 20 slob ma yid gnyis mi za zhing || bla ma'i man ngag dam pa zhes || gees par 'dzin na 'grub par nges || de yi phyir na sngags pa yis || rang gi yid gnyis spang [18r] ba'i phyir || 25 bla ma mnyes par bya ba bcas || bsnyen bkur byas na nus mthu che |j gsang ste brjod pas bar chad med || yon che phul ba byas pas ni || rang sems rin chen mam gnyis 'gyur || 30 rin chen gnyis las grub pa 'byung || dkon bar gyur na bsngags pa brjod || bsngags na yon tan 'byung 'gyur te || bsngags pa dag ni ma byas na || ji ltar yid bzhin nor bu yang || 35 [ 18v] gang gis bsngags par ma byas par || de la nor 'dod mi ster ro |] dad pa sangs rgyas dad pa chos || P 10 15 20 dad pa dge 'dun dad pa ma || dad pa bla ma dad pa pha || dad pa lam chen dad pa gru || dad pa yid bzhin nor bu ste || dad pa gsang sngags dngos grub nyid || dad pa bsod nams nor yin te || de yi phyir na sngags pa yis || rang sems dad pa bskyed pa'i phyir || gzhan la gus pas mchog tu 'gyur || ■jam dpal [19r] gyi rtog pa las | las kyi rgyu dang grogs bstan pa ste rtog pa gsum pa'o || [Colophon] || dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rgyud kyi rgyal po rtog pa gsum pa zhes bya ba rdzogs so У [Translators' colophon] rgya gar gyi mkhan po u ya ma dra dang | bod kyi lo ttsha ba rong zom chos kyi bzang pos bsgyur te gtan la phab pa'o || manggalam || 1 pas bsgrub: pos 'brub A. 5 slu: bslu A. 6 bas: ba P. 7 slu: bslu A. 9 pas: pa'i A. 16 bla mas man ngag: gdams ngag dam pa A. 19 mi byin: sbas byas A. 22 nges: 'gyur A. 27 gsang ste: gsangs te A. 28 che: chen P; ba: bar P. 36 P omits nor; P adds don after 'dod. 9 'gyur: bkur P. 11 'jam—pa las: dpal gshin rje nag po'i [sic] 'khor lo bskor ba'i cho ga las P; bstan pa: bstan pa'i rtog P: P omits rtog pa. 15 rdo—kyi: gshin rje gshed nag po'i P; P omits kyi rgyal po; P omits zhes bya ba. 19-20 P omits rgya—manggalam. 150 151

V Chu cchu nda ra'i rtogpa [The Musk Shrew Rites] [21 Iv] rgya gar skad du | chucchundara kalpa | bod skad du | chu cchu nda ra'i rtogpa 5 bcom ldan 'das gshin rje'i gshed la phyag 'tshal lo || de nas chu cchu nda ra'i cho ga zhib mo bshad par bya ste | om ru dro ya ma he sva ra yo ga pra sa la ya 1 yo ga si ddham | da da hi me sva ha | hum hum hah da ha da ha | pa ca pa ca u rdhve ya hum phat | 10 rig sngags 'di'i bya ba'i cho ga ni 1 nyin mtshan du ni mi nyal bar dri dang me tog dang bdud spos phul nas gtor ma btang ste | stong phrag brgyad bzlas na | 'grub par 'gyur ro || de nas las su gyur ba ni chu cchu nda ra shi ba blangs la | pags pa dang rus pa dang sha dang spu mams phye mar btags te | stong phrag gnyis bzlas nas phye ma de dbral ba la bskus na bdag nyid dgra yis mi 15 mthong ngo || om ma ma hu yam ti phye ma de lag pa la bskus nas gang la reg pa de dbang du 'gyur ro || phye ma de nyid rkang pa la bskus na dpag tshad brgya stong du phyin nas Idog go phye ma de nyid kyis dgra'i sgo logs la bskus nas khyim gyi sgor stong phrag 20 brgyad bzlas na skrod par 'gyur ro Ц phye ma de dang dur khrod kyi ras dgra bo'i sgo rtsar bead cing sbas na dgra bo'i rigs mams 'joms par 'gyur ro || yang na dgra bo'i rigs skrod par 'dod na \ chu cchu nda ra'i pags pa blangs la stong phrag brgyad yongs su bzlas nas gcin shul gyi sas bkang nas skud pa sngon pos beings [212r] te nam mkhar btags na gcin 'gag par 'gyur ro Ц bkrol na thar 25 ro | chu cchu nda ra'i pags pa phye mar btags nas lha chen po'i mdun du stong phrag brgyad bzlas la Ц yang dri dang me tog dang bdug spos dang 1 gtor ma btang ste | slar yang stong phrag brgyad bzlas na de nas 'grub par 'gyur ro || 2 DU add namah after kalpa. 2-3 chu—pa: te'u lo pa'i cho ga zhes bya ba DU. 5 DU omit bcom ldan 'das; DUucWpo after gshed. 9 hum hum: hum D. 10duni:duU. 12 DU addmaxus after las; gyur: 'gyur DU. 14 ba la bskus: bar byugs DU; dgra yis: dgrasDU. 15 DU omit ngo. 16huyamtj: hupa ti D. 18 DU omit nyid; na: nas DU; brgya—nas: brgyar song na yang DU. 20 brgyad: brgyar D; 'gyur ro: byed do P; P adds khrod after khrod; ras: sas P. 22 blangs: phye mar btags DU. 24 btags: bteg D; 'gag: 'gags D; DU add ni after na. 26 bdug: dgug P. 27 brgyad: brgyar U; de nas: des DU.

phye ma de sna'i rtse mor bskus na skye 'gro thams cad sdug par 'gyur ro |( mgo bor gzhag na dgra thams cad dang 'gyed pa'i Ian thebs par 'gyur ro |j phye ma de nyid rang gi snying gar bskus nas gal te dgra la bstan na snying na bar 'gyur ro | sa lu'i phye ma la gzugs byas nas phye ma des bskus na dgra bo de 5 rengs par 'gyur ro || sa lu'i phye ma la gzugs byas te phye ma de bskus na mdzes thebs par 'gyur ro | dur khrod gyi thai ba dang bcas pas dgra'i tshogs la gtor na gang gis mnan pa dang mthong pa de dag nad kyis thebs par 'gyur ro |j phye ma de la Ian stong bzlas nas gang gi mgo bor blugs pa de dbang du 'gyur ro || phye ma de thod pa dang lhan cig tu sgo glegs su bzhag na dgra bo dang 10 dbye bar 'gyur ro j| phye ma de bud med gyi lag pa la bskus na bud med de 'chi bar 'gyur ro || phye ma de gang gi sgor sbas na skrod par 'gyur ro || phye ma de dang sha chen po bsres nas gang gis btung bar byin na | nyi ma bdun na 'chi'o || phye ma de dag bshang pa dang bsres nas dgra la byin na || dgra bo bkres pa dang J gzhang 'brum dang tshad pas thebs nas phyi nas ni rang nyid 15 dga' bar 'gyur ro || chu cchu nda ra'i rus pa blangs nas gang gi khyim du sbas na 'chi'o || chu cchu nda ra'i sha dang nya'i zhag dang bcas pas lha la mchod pa byas nas |j dur khrod du thod pa'i steng du 'dug la thod pa bzung la bzlas pa bya ste | yang dur khrod kyi thai ba la Ian stong du blugs shing sbyin sregs byas na 'grub [212v] par 'gyur ro | phye ma de tsha ba gsum dang bsres pas 20 las su 'gyur ba ni | gang gi khyim du bzhag na de la me'i tsha ba 'byung bar 'gyur ro || phye ma de ske tshe dang bsres pas gyad las de nyid du 'grub par 'gyur ro || phye ma de dang dur khrod kyi sas gzugs byas te sgo rtsar sbas na 'phral nas 'phral du na tshas gsod par 'gyur ro || phye ma de Ian tshar bsres nas gang la brdegs pa de dbang du 'gyur ro || phye ma de yungs kar dang bsres 25 nas rgyal po'i sgo la gtor na | rgyal po de dbang du 'gyur ro || gang gis mnan pa de dag thams cad kyang dbang du 'gyur ro || kham phor so ma btang pa la ba glang brun gyis byugs la | dgra'i dri chen dri chu drod ma yal ba la bkab na | dri chen dri chu 'gag go | 'phyung nas slar 'tsho'o j| [Colophon] chu cchu nda ra'i rtog pa rdzogs so

1 DU add\a after cad. 2 gzhag: bzhag DU. 3 DU omit gal te; na bar: ngan bar P. 4 P omits ro. 5 DU omit phye—te. 6 dgra'i: dgra bo'i DU. 8 P adds gang before gang; DU omit tu. 9 glegs: gleg P, logs DU; P omits dang. 12 DU omit dang; U adds dang after po; gis: gi DU; byin: sbyin DU; bdun na: bdun gyis DU. 13 DU omit dag—nas; U omits byin na; na: la D. 14 pas: pa DU. 17 bzung la: bzung nas DU. 18 DU omit ste; DU omit yang; thai: sol DU; shing: cing DU. 19 ro: te P. 20 DU add gsum dang after ba; ro: ba ni P. 21 P adds gang gi khyim du bzhag na de la me'i tsha ba 'byung bar 'gyur ro before phye. 21 gyad: kyang D; DU omit 'grub par. 22 sas: sa la P; DU add bmyan after gzugs. 23 'phral nas 'phral: phral DU; tshas: tsha dang P; P adds dang after de; tshar: tshwa dang DU. 24 brdegs: brdeg DU; DU omit de. 25-28 DU omit gang—'tsho'o. 3 DU add zh.b mo after Pa. 6 bha-las: rgya gar gyi mkhan po di pam ka ra dang bod kyi lo ttsha ba rwa DU; DU omit phyis. 154 155


Coytu yeke vcir ayuyuluyci-yin tantr-a [The Tantra of Vajramahabhairava] [170v] enedkeg-un keleber : Sri-vajramahabhairava-nama-tantra : tobed-un keleber : dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed chen po'i rgyud ces bya ba : mongvol-un keleber : coytu yeke vcir ayuyuluyci-yin tantr-a neretii - 5 coytu yeke vcir-iyar ayuyuhiyci kilinglegsed-iin yeke qa7an-a morgumii: fi. mandal-i uqayuluysan] tendece ayu-yuluyci vcir-un : 10 biitugel-i iineker saitur nomlasu^ai: tere kemebesu qamuYtngri-ner-tur: yeke qatayu doysin ayiryul-un uiledugci: tegun-dur urida tarnicin ber sedkil jokistu : yambar bugesu orun-dur aju :: 15 qamuykereg-ud-i bi butiigegdekui : tegun-dur orun-i nomlaTsan kemebesu : ukeger ba moren-u kijayar-a ber : татса modun-u dergede ba : nigen belge-tu ba : dcirbeljin belcir ba : ayulan-u iijiigur ba : qoTusun ger ba : mataris-un ger ba : tngris-un ger ba : keregur-un orun ba : qota balyad ba : oin dotura ba : bal7ad-un ja7ur-a terigiiten orun-dur tarnicin aju btir-iin : coytu yeke vcir-iyar 20 ayuyuluyci vcir-un kiirdun-u nere tantr-a egun-iyer abisig ogtegsen yogacari erkesigulkui kiged iregulkui nitulqui uldekui qa^acaTulqui kosiregulkiii kiged : ildun nidiin-u em yajar-un dour-a mokulig altan qubilyaqui rasiyan-i abqui kiged ed : bhuti bitar biSaci yakS-a em-e yakS-a kiged : luu teriguten-i ene jang iiile-ber butugegdekui: tegun-dur jang iiile kemebesu urida nigen tediii tarnicin 6 С omits yeke. 11 С omits -ner. 15 С omits orun-. 16 С omits -a; ber: ba C; dergede ba: dergede C. 18 orun: ger C; qota: orun ba С 19 P omits coytu yeke; 20 vcir—egun-iyer: yin С 21 erkesigulkui: erke С 22 rasiyan-i abqui: rasayan-a С 23 em-e: em C; luu: luus C; teriguten-i: terigiiten С

tiktidel-i [ 171 r] tulegsen yeke tinesun beye-dur-iyen surciju : suni dtili usun-iyen sandarayulju obedegsi mahi niyur-tu-yin yogacari ber uktiger teriguten-dtir mandal-i jiruyad : dorbeljinboluyad dorben qayaly-a-tu: ' /Vм' ■' 'f^.1 > 5 dorben torana-bar tein buged cimegsen : [ qongq-akiib-udmanjily-a kiged: .............. " erdeni erikes-iyer tein buged quci ysan :: qamuy oncug tutum kiged-tur :: ' qayalyan-u orcin jobkis-tur: 10 erdeni vcir-iyar cimegsen : jarimduy saran ber tegiincilen bolai:: tegun-u dumda kurdun jiruqui kemebesu : togurig yisiin jiruy-un nidu-tu bolai: nigen qayalyan-u btiged negegdekui 15 tilegsed-i oyuyata qayaydaqui :: tegiin-ii dumda ktimiin-u kegtir-i jiruydaqui:: doruna terigun emtin-e yar ortine gedestin : umar-a qoyar kol doruna emtine-yin jobkis-tur kapala :: emiine ortine-yin jabsar-tur keseg kapala : 6riin-e umar-a-yin jabsar-tur ukeger-tin bos : umar-a doruna-yin jabsar-tur siruy-tur 20 qadquysan kumun bolai: tedeger kemebesu ktirdtin-ti dumda belges-un mutur tabun bolai :: tendece kurdun-u yadayur mutur-nuyud kemebesu : doruna jug -tin degtu-dur tongyuray: nigen ujugtir-tti mes-e : nidugiir : usun kituy-a : nigen ujugur-tti vcir : yoq-a teriguten-i jiruydaqui: emun-e jug-un degtti-dtir siike : sumun : khatvangga beriy-e kurdun kiged : vcir-tu salm-a terigtiten-i jiruydaqui 25 : ortine jug-tin degtu-dur vcir : ildu damaru bambai : numun qongq-a : kei-yin bos teriguten-i jiruydaqui : umar-a jug-un degtu-dtir ayuyuluyci mutur : yurban ujugur-tti manjily-a : jayan-u arasun : vcir-tu aluq-a jida : yal-tu [ 171 v] tuly-a teriguten-i jiruydaqui : dorben qayaly-a kiged jobkis-tur : ma ha-a bitali-yi jiruydaqui : ker be degedti siddhi-yi kiisebesu ele yeke tosun-u jula-yi ogdekui 30 : kumtin eljige : temegen : noqai: unege : mahi ; jayan : uker : bamin : qonin : gortigesun : yaqai: teriguten-i miqas-i ber ogdektii: 10 15 20 25 busu ber tas sir-a sibayun keriy-e qarcayai : uqar nuyusun : qun tayus : ger-iin sibayun : sarika yeke mayui iru-a-tu : teriguten-й miqan-i ber ogdekui : masi tegsi ayulqui ber idegen : qurim yal mandal baling-un iiiles-i uileddekui : mandal-un qamuy jobkis-tur cisun-iyar sacuju arcin uileddekui : coytu vcir ayuyuluyci mahi niyur-tu-yin jabdul-dur ayci qamuy naividi-yi ber ogktin uileddekui : tendece tarnici urida sinjilen uiledcu : ober-iyen amurlingqui boluysan masi jokilduqui nokur ba : ober-iyen yaycaYarbairocan-a-barbey-e-dur-iyen tiisurcti nicugun usun sandarayulun : soni duli damaru kodolgeju : ha ha kemen tegsi ayulju : vcir-tu yeke ayuYuluyci-yin mandal-dur siddhi kusegcm oruydaqui : masi amta-tu arikin teriguten-i umdayan kiged : amta-tu idegen -nugud-i ogdekui: qoinaysi siddhi kiged : siddhi busu-yi jiruyad tegun-u deger-e coytu vcir yeke ayuyuluyci mahi niyur-tu-yi sedkigdektii : tegun-u emun-e baraYun-iyan qumbiju ayad omuy-luy-a selte : nigen ujtigtir-tti sedkil-iyer masi tegsi ayulju arban usug-tu tarni-yi uriydaqui : tendece yeke ayul bolbasu : tegun-dur tarnici iilu ayuydaqui buyu : ker be ayubasu ele : yeke [172r] todqar-unjedker boluyu : jedker bolbasu siddhi ulti buttiyu : tegtiber tarnicin iilu ayuydaqui buyu : tegun-dur coytu vcir yeke ayuyuluyci bayasuyu : bayasuyad ci yayun kusemtii kemen jarliy boluyu : tegun-dur vidy-a dari ogulegdektii buyu : ildun : yajar-un dour-a : nidtin-u em altan qubilyaqui kiged : rasiyan-i abqui : tegiin-ece busu ber sedkil-dur kusegsen siddhi-yi ber ma yad nadur soyurq-a : kemen ogulebesu : tegun-dur sesig ugegui-e soyurqayu : qamiy-a jayun-a tarnicin tedeger-i ese btitubesti ber : tegun-ti qamuy narin iiiles mayad butuku boluyu: ene kemebesu manjuSri kemeku neretii coytu vcir yeke ayuyuluyci-yin ktirdun-ti yoga-yin tantr-a-aca mandal-i uqayuluysan eng terigun onul bolai:::::

1 С omits iikiidel-i tulegsen. 2 obedegsi: baysi C. 13 jiruy-un: jiruy P. 17 С omits qoyar; P omits emun-e. 18 P omits orune; jabsar-tur keseg: jabsar-tur jabsar keseg С 21 С omits tabun. 21-22 jug-un: jug-eceC. 22 usun: usun С 24 sumun: numun C. 25 С omits ildu. 22, 23, 25, 26 degtii [= degdiir]: degedu С 30 kumim: kumun-й C; bamin: gavaya; С adds uker after bamin. 1 nuyusun: nuyud С; С omits qun. 3 mandal: mandal-un P. 4 jobkis-tur: jobkis C. 10 oruydaqui: uriydaquiC. 11 jiruyad: joriyadC. 13 ayad omuy-luy-a: ayunomuy kiged С 16 jedker bolbasu: jedker-i bolbasu C; siddhi: sidi-yi С; С omits teguber. 19 rasiyan-i abqui: rasayan-a ba С 22 butiibesii: biitugebesu P. 161

[it. qamuy uiles-i butugekuij 5 tendece uiles-un ciyulyan-u jang iiile-yi saitur nomlasuyai : jerge yambar biikii yosuyar : nitulqui iildekui teriguten tamici kilinglegsen-iyer coytu vcir yeke ayuyuluyci-yinjabdul-dur orusin bisilyan uileddektii buyu : urida imayta ber nigen tedui sumba [ranca] boluydaqui : tere yayun-u tulada kemebesii: yoga -yin erkin biikii-yin tula bolai: ene tantr-a-dur burqan-u jabdul tegustigsen-iyer 10 urida tegiin-i tildekii buyu : tere jabdul-un erkin buku-yin tula bolai : tegiin-dur egun-ii iiiles kemebesu : yambar nitul-un tayalayci tarnicin ukeger-iin bos-tur : qour-a cisun dabusun sketshe nimba kiged datur-a-yin sigusun-iyer vcir yeke ayuyuluyci-yin kurdun-i arban jiryuyanjiruy-un nidu-tu-yi yeke qong keriyen-ii erkin odun-u usiig ba kumun-ii yasun-u iisug-iyer aran usun-iyen [I72v] 15 cucaljuemune qanduyadmahi niyur-tu-yin jabdul-iyarjiruydaqui : qoyar yal-un dumda biitiigegdekun-ii ner-e selte-yi talbi ydaqui : tegun-u arban usug-tii ber kiiriyelegul-un naiman hum-i jiruydaqui : jobkis-nuyud-tur phat usug-iid-i jiruydaqui: ober-iyen qalayun tosun-i bey-e-dur-iyen surciju : qoyar kapala-yin dumda yantr-a-yi saitur oruyulju yurban nocuy-un deger-e talbiyad : ukeger-iin 20 cucal-i ber yal-i saitur sitayaju : jegun kol-iyer daruju arban usiig-tu tarni-yi uriydaqui bolai: tegiiber nigen k5an-ujayur-a sesigiigei iikiiyu: busu berkejig ebedcin-e kurtegiil-un kusebesu mon tere kurdun-i kiimun-ii qoyar kisuyan-u dumda saitur talbiju : yal-un tuly-a dour-a nigen toqai jarim eriiju oruyuluyad yal-i sitayabasu kejig ebedcin-e bariydayu : tegiin-diir arban jiryuyan jiruy-un 25 nidiin-i saitur jabduqui egtin-i nomlabai : tein kemebesu dokiyan-u ilyal inu yucin qoyar usiig-tii tarni-yi butiigegdekiin-ii ner-e-luge nigen-e usiig kiged tarni-yi selgtigdekui: urida nomlaysan ed kiged 10 15 20 25 nigen-e qong keriyen-u idegsen ulingqai ariyun busu bairocan-a-luy-a nigen-e ukeger-iin bos-tur tusiircu tegun-diir urida nomlaysan jang uile-yin ed-iyer kurdim-i jiruju : iikeger-tur ni yubasu iikukii boluyu : yayca modun-u dergede niyubasu iildekui boluyu : nigen belge-tii-de ni yubasu qayacayulqui boluyu : usun-u dotur-a niyubasu kosiregiilkii boluyu : ger-tiir talbibasu amurliyulqu boluyu : yaryaju saitur ugiyabasu tonilqu boluyu : busu ber saitur jabduqu-yi nomlaysan :: erlig-iin kiirdiin-i uridu jang uile ber tikeger-un [173r] bos-tur jiruju : iikeger ba : jam-un dorben belcir-un tergegur : yayca modun : siryuljin-u iilei : usun-u kijayar : nigen belge-tu kiged : qayan-u qayaly-a ba : bairocan-a kiged : vcir-un usun kiged : ukeger-un negiiresiin-iyer butiigegdekiin-u korug-i : naiman quruyun-u tedui eguduged : tegun-u jiruken-dur kurdun-ii tarni-yi oruyulju : kumun-ii yasun yadasun-iyar tabun orud-tur qadquydaqui : qamuy uyes-tiir qurca orgesiin-iyer diigurgegdekui : tegiin-i qoyar kapala-yin dumda oruyulju : siryuljin-u iilei kiged doluyan orud-un sirui ber nigen toqui tumy erlig-un bey-e aman-iyan irjaiysan : yeke kebeli-Ш nigen niyur-tu qoyar yar-tu : yar-tayan ildu calm-a bariysan niciigiin usun-iyen salburiyuluysan-i egudcii : tegun-u jiriiken-diir qoyar kapala oruyuluyad : ediir dtili ba soni diili iikeger ba : ukudel tulegsen-u yajar-tur niyuju masi yayaran terigun-i emiin-e qanduyulju : tiirugule qanduyul-un niyuydaqui: ger-tegen iregedtegsi ayulju : mahi niyur-tu-yin jabdul-iyarbtitiigegdektin-i ner-e selte-luge arban usiig-tii tarni-yi uribasu : yurban qonuy-un jayur-a ukuyu : yaryaju ugiyabasu tonilqu boluyu : tendece kosiregulkiii jabdul-i saitur nomlaju kurene-yin arasun-dur qour-a teriguten ed-iyer : arban iisiig-tii tarni-yi biciju : tere arasun-i biitiigegdekun-u kol-iyer gickigsen-ii sirui kiged sigesun-u orum sirui ber dtigiirgeju tegiin-u iisiin-iyer oriyaydaqui : qoina eljigen-ii sigesun kiged bairocan-a-luy-a nigen-e oyuyata sibar ayay-a-yi diigurgegdekui : tende [173r] kurdiin-i oruyulju : iikiidel-tin tiilegsen yal-dur talbiju: jegun kol-iyer daruyad : erlig-un jabdul-iyar

6 kilinglegsen-iyer: kiling-iyer C. 7 С omits bisilyan; С omits imayta ber. 8 nigen---boluydaqui: nigen-e tarnicin nitulun uiledekiii buyu C; [ranca]: reading uncertain. 8-9 С omits yoga—bolai. 9 С adds tarni kiged after tantr-a-dur. 11 egun-ii: egun-i C. 14 kiimun-u: kiimun С 15 mahi niyur-tu-yin: mahi-yin niyur-un С 18 tosun-i: tosun-u С 19 yantr-a-yi: yantr-a С; Р omits yurban. 22 kurdun-i: kiirdiin-u PC; kumiin-ii: kiimiin-i P; eke-yin С 23 С omits saitur; oruyuiuyad: oruyuluysan С 24 kejig: kesig C; bariydayu: bariydaqu С 26 qoyar: qoyar-tu C; tarni-yi: tarni С 162 1 nigen-e: qoyar C; keriyen-u—ulingqai: ebdegsen С; С adds kesig kiged after busu. 2 С omits ed-iyer. 9 С omits ba. 10 С omits kiged. 11 quruyun-u: imayu-yin C. 12 kumun-ii: kumun C. 13 uyes-Шг qurca: yucin C; tegiin-i: tegun-u С 14 siryuljin-u: siryuljin-i С; С adds toqai after-un. 15 irjaiysan: solbicayuluysan С 17 oruyuluyad: orciyuluyad С 22 С omits -yin. 24 gickigsen-ii: gickigsen C; sigesun-u: singgegsen C; tegiin-ii: tegun-i P. 25 oriyaydaqui: uriydaqui C. 26 sibar: sir-a C. 163 arban usiig-tu tami-yi uribasu ele : nigen qomry-un jayur-a kosiregiilkui boluyu : ene kemebesii qoinaysi dayan bariyul-un iilii butiikii-yin rnasi jabdul bolai : tarnicin masida kiling-iyer saitur qabsuru ydaqui : busu ber qayacayulqu masi jabdul kemebesii : erlig-iin kiirdun-i urida jang iiile-yi jiruju : dolu-yan orun-u 5 sirui-ber mahi kiged morin egiidcu : tere qoyar-un nigen-ii deger-e nigen-i talbiyad : tere qoyar-un jiriiken-dtir kurdiin-i oruyulju : nimba modun-u dergede talbiydaqui : kurdun-i ber mahi kiged morin-u cisun-iyar jiruyad : ene kemebesii tarni-yin ilyal buyu : masi tegsi ayulqui-ber uileddektii : yurban qonuy-iyar qayacayulqu : tendece tarnicin uldekui kemen kusebesu doluyan 10 orud-un sirui-bar temegen egudcu : tegun-u niruyun-a yam iisiig о yuyata qubiluysan-aca kei-yin mandal jarimduy saran-u dtiri-tu-yi sedkiged : tegun-ii deger-e biitugegdekun-i joriju tegun-ii qoina erlig-iin bey-e yar-tayan beriy-e bariysan-i sedkiju : tegun-ii beriy-e ber-iyer-iyen gobsin emiine jiig qanduyulju kotul-iin oduysan-i joriju sedkigdekui bolai : tere kurdiin-ii jiriiken-diir urida 15 nomlaysan jang uile-ber butugegdekun-u ner-e-luge selte mayad jiruju oruyulbasu doluyan qonuy-un jayur-a sesig iigei iildekii boluyu : tendece busu ber saitur jabdul-i nomlasuyai : ediir-un sin-e-dtir kiling-tu qalayun tosun-iyar siircijii : nimba-yin modun-dur abariju : tende talbiju tegun-ii bey-e tosun-i kisuy-a-ber kisuju [174r] tende orusin bariyu : tere tosun-i abcu yeke tngri-yin 20 ilayuysan belge-yin bos-i abcu tegiin-i tulegsen jabsar-un unin-u koge-liige tere tosun-i nigedkeju uldesiigei kemen kusegcid : tegun-ii yutus-un-dur stircigdekiii bolai: tegun-ii yar kiged qoyar kol-dur ber surcibesii: nigen kSan-dur tegiin-i iildeyti : tendece busu ber saitur jabdul-i nomlaysan inu : ukeger-iin bos ba : iiisun-ii nabcin-dur kei-yin mandal qong keriyen-u odun usug-iyer 25 bicigdekiii buyu : kei-yin mandal dumda btitugegdekun-u ner-e-luge qolban selgiijii baling idegci-yin qoyulai-dur 10 15 20 25 30 kiiliged : qong keriyen-i bariju : mahi ni-yur-un jabdul-iyar emiine aju : emun-e qanduju oyuruyad : tegun-u nigen kSan-dur qong keriyen metii qotal-a yajar-tur ergijii ■. busu ber uldekui kemebesii : qalayun tosun-iyar siircijii nimba-yin modun-dur baling idegci-yin egtiri abuyad : modun ecige-yin oi-yin modun : yal-a tiilegdegsen unesun-i abcu : alin-u terigiin-dtir tusurbesu : tegiin-i uldekui bolai: busu ber qayacayulqui masi jabdul kemebesii: qong keriy-e kiged sir-a sibayun-u jigiir : biraman kiged kiling-tu-yin usiin-i nigen-e bolyayad : dhatur-a-yin modun-dur yal-i saitur sitayaju : unin iigei yal-dur tiileged : tegiin-ii tinesun-i abcu : arban usug-tii tami-yi uriju : er-e em-e qoyar-un jabsar-tur unesun-i talbibasu : tegun-i nigen kgan-a qayacayulqu boluyu ; tendece ukeger-un bos-i abcu : qour-a teriguten ed-iyer tustirkui jayur-a butugegdekiin-ii ner-e -yi bicijii: zer mo kiged moyai-yin usun arasun-i abcu : tegun-i oruyul-un youl egudcii : alin-u ger-te [174v] sitayabasu tede esergii tesergii kereldukii boluyu : tendece nitul-un alasuyai kemen kusegcid odken singgen burtay-iyar : bey-e-yi egudcu tegiin-ii deger-e yasun-u talq-a-yi saitur tiisiiruged : iikeger-un yal-dur iistin-iyen cucalju emiine qanduyad mahi niyur-tu-yin jabdul-iyar soni dtili tegun-u oytaciju tiilegdekiii; alin-u ner-e selte iiiledbesu : tere nigen kSan-dur ukuyu : vcir yeke ayuyuluyci-yin ober-iyen ene masi jabdul-i nomlabai : tendece uldesiigei kemen kusegcid : ilayuysan belge-yin bos-tur arban jiryuyan jiruy-un nidii-tii kurdun-dur arban iisug-tu tami-yi urida nomlaysan ed kiged : tikeger-iin neguresiin-iyer alin-u ner-e-luge selte biciju : nimba modun-dur ilayuysan belge-yi talbibasu : tegiin-i iildekti boluyu : tendece kosiregulsugei kemen kiisegcin erlig-un kurdiin-ti qabtayai giirii : bos-tur siracu kiged moga-bar alin-u ner-e selte saitur j iruju talbibasu tegiin-i kosiregiilku boluyu ; ker be tarnicin егке-ber bolvasuyai kemen kusebesu : siryuljin-u ulei-yin sirui kiged gurgum givang siracu moga-nuyud-i nigen-e bolyayad : biitiigegdekim-u ner-e ba : ked ber qatud-un ongge bey-e-yi arban jiryuyan quruyun-u cinege-ber egiidcu givang-luy-a ner-e iigei quruyun-u cisun-iyar uisun-diir erlig-un kurdiin-i jiruju : tegun-u jiraken-dur oruyuluyad : ober-un ger-tegen talbiju : yurban cay-tur ulayan ceceg-i ogegiiged : orune jiig qanduyad arban usug-tii tarni-yi uribasu: doluyan 1 tarni-yi: tarni-bar С 3 С omits masida. 5 С omits nigen-ii. 8 masi: mahi C. 10 niruyun-a: degere С 12 qoina: degereC. 13 sedkiju: joriju C; tegun-ii: tegiin-i C. 16 CP omit sesig ugei. 18 abariju: dabariju С 19 bariyu: bariju C; tosun-i: tosun С 26 -yin: jug P. 164 3 ergijii: ergiyii C. 5 С omits yal-a; alin-u: ali C. 12 С omits -ii; tegiin-i: tegiin-ii C. 14 kusegcid: kiisegcin С 19 kusegcid: kiisegcin C. 21 С omits selte. 23 kurdun-u: kurdiin-i C. 25 sirui: sinryai C. 27 С omits ba; ked ber: ker be C; jiryuyan quruyun-u: jiryuyan imayu-yin С 28 givang-luy-a: givang C. 165

10 15 20 25 30 qonuy-iyar qurmusda-yi ber erke-ber bol yaqu ele bogesti : iicuken kiimun-deki [175r] ya-yun oguletele : tendece basa iregiilsiigei kemen kusebesu : tegun-e kapala-dur kurdiin-u givang kiged ner-e tigei quruyun-u cisun-iyar jiruju : khadira modun-u yal-dur egejii ali uiledkun-u ner-e selte uribasu tere nigen kgan-dur kei-yin kiiciin metii iregiilkiii boluyu : tendece tarnicin Yaljayurayulsuyai kemen kusebesu datur-a-yin ur-e-yi abcu : yeke miq-a-luy-a nigen-e qoruqai idegsen modun-u talq-a-luy-a qoiiju idegen kiged umdayan-dur ogdekiii : tarni-yi uriydaqui buyu : tere nigen k§an-dur yaljayuraju doluyan qonuy-tur ukuyu : tendece busu ber saitur jabdul-i nomlar-un : erlig-iin tarni-yi ukeger-iin bos-tur qour-a teriguten ed-iyer jiruju yeke jula kiged bairocan-a-bar koriig-i egtidcu : tegun-u jiruken-dur kurdun-i oruyulju : ecige-yin oi-dur odcu ukiidel-i tulegsen yal-dur qurca mes-e-ber oytal-un tein btiged solbicayulqui jabdul-iyar yogacari-yin orun-dur : bairocan-a-yi bey-e-diir-iyen surcijii : emiine jug qanduyad : tulebesu tere mon darui-dur tikuyii: tendece qayacayulqu saitur jabdul bolqu kemebesu qong keriyen kiged sir-a sibayun-u yasun abcu tere qoyar-tur temiir orgesiin-iyer butugegdekun-u ner-e-luge nigen-e arban "^usiig-tu tarni-yi biciju : yaycayar orun-dur aju alin-u ner-e selte uriju : tere nigen nigen-iyen udtirbesti qayacaqu boluyu : tendece erlig-un kurdun-i iiisun nabcin-dur er-e em-e-yin ner-e-yi biciju menekei-yin kebeli-diir oruyulju : alin-u ner-e [175v] selte bosuyan-u dour-a niyubasu tegun-u iiyes mes-e-diir qadquydaqui boluyu : tendece okin-i kosiregulkui ene masi jabdul-i erlig-un tarni-yi ukeger-iin bos-tur qour-a terigtiten-iyer jiruju : iikudel-i tulegsen neguresun-iyer korug-i nigen togen-u cinege-ber dabqurlaju : tegun-u jiriiken-dur kurdun-i oruyulju : jegun kol-iyerdaruju : mahi-yin jabdul-iyar eimti ner-e-tii 6kin-i mon darui-dur kosiregulku boltuyai : kemen arban iisiig-tu tarni-yi uribasu : kosiregulku boluyu : egiin-ii tiiles-nugiid-i busu ken-dur ber ulu ogiilegdeku boluyu : ker be mungqay cinar-tu tarnicin iiiledbesu : tamu-dur mayad unayu : yurban erdeni-dur qour iiiledugci kiged : blam-a-yuyan mayusiyayci: tarni kiged tangyariy-aca anggijiraysan : tami-aca qayacaysan ba : tarni kiged tantr-a-yi sonjiycin : amitan-i gudkegcin : edeger-tur tusa bolqu-yin tula : tarnicin nigiilesun enerikiii sedkil-iyer qour-i saitur barilduyuldaqui bolai : ker be busucar iiiledbesu : tangyariy ebdereju yeke qalayun tamu-dur oduyu : bi busu tantr-a-dur ber nomlabai: baysi-yuyan mayusiyayci kiged: yeke kolgen-i utegerugci: tami tantr-a-yin sain jabdul-un beige bilig-i sonjin iiiledugci ali tere kumim-i biiged kiciyennituluydaqui : |l0 ese bugesii orun-aca yegudkegdekui: niguleskui iigei yogacari : busud-a balamud-iyar iiiledbesu ele : tegiin-dur teguncilen tere metu iiiles : qarin nicuyu bolqu boluyu : 115 yayun-u tula amitan-i koniigegci-yin tula: yogacari kemebesu egun-dur bolai: ene kemebesu manjuSri degedu [176r] jogelen coytu vcir yeke ayuyuluyci yoga-yintantr-a-acaqamuyuiles-i biitugekui nogiige onul bolai:: : ::

1 bolyaqu: bolyaqu-yin C. 7 qoiiju: soliju P. 11 -bar: -yin C; tegiin-u: tegiin-i С 13 С omits orun-dur. 18 iiisun: iiisim-uC. 23 korng-i: korugC. 24eimu: teimiiC. 27 ker be: ked be PC. 28 erdeni-dur: erdeni С; С adds tantr-a-yi sonjiycin after kiged. 28-29 С omits blam-a—kiged. 29 С omits tarni-aca—ba. 1 edeger-Шг. edeger С 2 barilduyuldaqui: barilduyulqui C; ker be: ked be PC. 3 С omits tamu. 7 С omits jabdul-un. 14 qarin: sarinP. 18 degedu jogelen: neretu С 19 С omits uiles-i. 166 167

[in. tami-yi tegukui uqayuluysan] 5 tendece yambar jergeber jang uile-yin tarni-yi tegukui saitur nomlaju : masi ariYim el ulus-tur tarnicin aju tarni-yi tegiigdekui buyu : yambar jiryuduyar-un eng terigun kiged : tabdayar-un buged tabdayar: jiryuduyar-un nbgiige-dur 10 egesig usug-un noguge-luge tegusugsen : nogiige aimay-un yutayar-tur:: basa egesig usug-un nogiige tegusugsen : doluduyar-aca yutayar kiged: dotiiger-un buged yutayar-tur: 15 egesig usiig-un arban yutayar tegusugsen :: tabdayar-un ber tabdayar-tur egesig usug-un arban nigeduger tegusugsen : jiryuduyar-un eng urida kiged : basa kei-yin korungge-yi ogdekui:: 20 tabdayar-un tabdayar-tur: arban nigeduger-i nemen tegusugsen : dotiiger-im yutayar-tur: arban yutayar-iyar saca daruysan :: jiryuduyar-un ber noguge-dur: 25 egesig usug-un tabdayar tegusugsen : yutayar-un ber tabdayar kiged : kei-yin koriingge-yi tendece ogdekui:: egesig-tin arban yutayar iineker tegusugsen : dotiiger-un yutayar kiged: 30 tendece kei-yin koriingge-yi ogdekui: jiryuduyar ber eng urida kiged :: dotiiger-un buged yutayar: tegiin-dtir kei-yin koriingge-yi inu : egesig usug-un arban yutayar tegusugsen: 35 dotiiger-un ber tabdayar-tur :: egesig usiig-iin yutayar tegusugsen : tendece yal-un koriingge-yi ogdekui: kei-yin koriingge tegiincilen bolai: aday-un tendece aday-un usug-i [176v] ogdekui:: egesig iisug-un arban nigeduger tegusugsen : 5 kei-yin koriingge teguncilen degedu : jiryuduyar-un eng terigun kiged : tendece ecus-tin iisiig ogdekui:: egesig usug-un arban nigeduger tegusugsen : basa kei-yin korungge-yi Ю nogiige aimay-un eng terigun kiged : qoyaduyar-un noguge-dur tegusugsen-dur:: dotiiger~un tabdayar-tur egesig usug-un yutayar-luy-a tegusugsen : tendece yal-un koriingge-diir: 15 egesig iisug-un nogiige-luge tegusugsen : tabdayar aimay-un tabdayar kiged : tendece kei-yin korungge-yi ogdekui: eng urida bairocan-a-yi ogdekui: degedu erketu-liige qabsuruysan:: 120 tabdayar aimay-un nogiige kiged : yutayar-un eng terigiin-i: merged qoyar-ta ogiilegdekui: ene kemebesu manjuSri neretii:: yeke ayuyuluyci-yin tantr-a kiirdiin : 25 mahi niyur-tu-yin iindiisiin tarni buyu : lakS-a uriysan-iyar qamuy uiles-i uileduyu: ene kemebesu tarnis-un qayan buyu :; ese boluysan bolqu iilu boluyu : doluduyar aimay-un dotuger-tiir: 30 egesig usiig-iin dotiiger tegusugsen : yal-un korungge-yi dour-a ogdekui:: tendece auy-a ejen-ii arban jiryuyan-u kijayar: doluduyar aimay-un noguge-dur:

5 tegukui: tiigekiii C. 19 koriingge-yi: iir-e-yi С 23 daruysan: nemegsen P. 27 koriingge-yi: йг-e-yi C. 28 egesig-un: egesig С 30 korungge-yi: iir-e-yi С 31 jiryuduyar: jiryuduyar-un C; urida: uridu С 168 1 koriingge-yi: ur-e-yi С. 2 koriingge: ur-e С 3 С omits aday-un. 5 korungge: ur-e C. 9 С adds kuafter kei; koriingge-yi: ur-e ogdekui C. 10 kiged: dur С 14 korungge-diir: iir-e-durC. 15 P omits egesig—tegusugsen. 16 tabdayar: tabdayar-un C. 17 kdrungge-yi: iir-e-yi С 31 koriingge-yi: ur-e-yi С 33 aimay-un: buged С 169 egesig usug-un dotuger tegusugsen : yutayar aimay-un eng uridu-dur :: dour-a inu yal-un korungge-yi jegugdekui: auy-aejen-u arbanjiryuduyar-unkijayarbuyu: 5 jiryuduyar aimay-un dotuger-tur : egesig usug-un yutayar tegusugsen :: uridu aimay-un eng terigun kiged : egesig usug-un doluduyar tegusugsen : dour-a yal-un koriingge-yi ogdekui : 10 dotuger aimay-un angq-a uridu-dur :: [177r] egesig usug-un noguge tegusugsen : dotuger aimay-un tabdayar anu : merged buged qoyar-ta ogulegdektii: eng urida bairocan-a-yi ogdekui:: 15 ciyuluysan ya terigun naimaduyar-un korungge-dur: egesig usug-un jiryuduyar tegusugsen : orui-dur bindu-bar cimegsen : tabdayar aimay-un noguge kiged :: yutayar-un biiged angq-a uridu botai: 20 ene kemebesii tarnis-un qayan buyu : mahi niyur-tu-yin jabdul-iyar: qamuyiiiles-i iiiledku bolai:: uiles-un tarni kemen aldarsiysan buyu : yucin tumen-te uribasu qamuyuiles-i uilediiyu : 25 jiryuduyar aimay-un eng terigun : tabdayar aimay-un tabdayar-tur:: egesig usug-un noguge tegusugsen : dotuger aimay-un eng terigun buyu : tegun-ii tabdayar ekin-dur talbi ydaqui: 30 eng terigun aimay-un uridu kiged :: angq-a urida bairocan-a-yi ogdekui: ciquluysan naimaduyar-un ure-dur egesig usug-un jiryuduyar tegusugsen : terigiin-diir inu bindu-bar cimegsen : tabdayar aimay-un noguge kiged :: yutayar aimay-un uridu bolai: ene kemebesu mahi niyur-tu-yin jiruken tami kemen saitur aldarsibai: usug-un toy-a ber arban tumen-te uribasu ele : yurban yirtincu-yin ali ba uile-yin yayun-i ber bugesu qamuy-i uileduyu : teguku ene Jang uile-yin cay-tur takil uileddekui: tami ene kemebesu manjusri neretli: coytu vcir yeke ayuyuluyc, yoga-ym tantr-a-aca : tami-yi tegukui uqayuluysan yutayar onul bolai:: : ..

3 koriingge-yi: ur-e-yi C. 9 С omits dour-a—ogdekui. 10 uridu-dur: uridu С 11 usug-un: iisiig C. 15 С omits ya terigun; korungge-dur: ur-e-diir C. 18 PC omit -un. 26 tabdayar-tur: tabdayar C. 28 terigun: terigiiten C. 32-4 ciquluysan---cimegsen: teguncilen duradqu-yin ecus uiledbesu ele: qoyusun-i burqan-luy-a saca daruyu P. 170 usug-un: usug С 11 yoga-ym: yogacari-ym С 12 tegukui: teguber С 171 5usiig'

[iv. bisibfal] 5 tendece vcir ayuyuluyci-yin biitiigel-i iineker ogiilesiigei: qamuy nom-ud-tur bi ugei-yi urida yabuyuluyad : burqan-i jorin uiledku buyu : [177v] eng uridu nigen tedui mon cinar ariluysan tarni-yi ogulegsen-iyer : qamuy nom-ud-i bi ugei-yin mon cinar-tu bolyaqu bur-un oyiaryu-yin tob-dur yam usug-un duri-ece boluYsan : kei-yin mandal unin-u ongge metii-yi tein buged sedkigdekui : 10 tegiin-u deger-e uridu egesig usug-ece boluysan saran mandal-i joriyad tegun-u deger-e dhih usug-un duri-ece ori manju§ri-yin bey-e bolun qubiluysan kemen sedkigdekui: tende a-a-yin duri-ece buttigsen naran-u mandal-i sedkiged : tere naran-u mandal-aca gerel yaruysan-iyar : arban jiig-tur sayuysan teguncilen iregsed kiged : bodhi saduva-nar uqayan-u okin tngri : kiling-ten teriguten masi 15 duradqaydaju : jici ireju : naran-u mandal-dur orusibai kemen sedkigdekui : tendece basa manjuSri kiged teguncilen iregsen teriguten : tede-niigud nigen bolju : naran-u mandal kemen sedkigdekui : badaran biikii gerel-un duri-ber : jayun mingyan ber-e-diir tugemel-e geiguliigdekui : tegun-u deger-e qar-a ongge-tu hum tabun gerel-liige tegusugsen-i uneker sedkigdekui buyu : tere 20 hum-аса gerel-un juil yaruysan-iyar : urida nomlaysan metii basa oruyad : tere usug-ece qarabtur ongge-tu sirbeigsen yeke vcir gerel tegusugsen-i tein bilged sedkigdekui buyu : tere vcir-aca narin duri-tu burqan kiged bodhi saduva kiling-tu uqayan-u okin tngris-iyer : oytaryu-yin tob gtinjid-tin qayurcay metu dugiircii : naran-dur orusiysan-i tein buged sedkigdekui bolai : tere burqan 25 teriguten-nugiid amitan-i oyuyata bolbasun bolyan nomuyadqaju bodhi qutuy-tur saitur jokiyayad : [178r] basa nigen-e ciyulyaju vcir-un korug-tiir saitur oruysan-i sedkigdekui: vcir-un tere bey-e buged yisun terigutii: mahi niyur-tu : ebderekiii cay-un yal metii badarangqui: vcir yeke ayuyuliigci yurban yirtincu-yi idencidayci : aman-iyan irjaiysan : ha ha kemen kelen-iyen orumuylaysan : 30 tein buged irjaiysan ayuril kiling-tu : ayuril-un eriigiin-ece komiisge kiged nidtin yeke ayul-un cay metu kilinglekiii dayun dayurisqayci : kumiin-u cisun kiged ogekiin : tosun cimtigen idegci: yirtincii kiged yirtincii-ece nogcigsen tngri-ner teriguten-e ayuyulqui mutur jaiduyci : qormusda esrua mane wva,. ,.„.._ .__„ teriguten-i idegci: irjaiysan kapala-yi ujugiir ayuqu metu kapala-ber titimlegsen : yeke ayul-tu : phem kemen dayun-i dayurisqan : kapala-ber cikin-iyen cimegsen : arban jiryuyan kol-tu : nicugun bey-e-tu belge-ben degegsi-de bosqaysan : jegun-iyen jigeigsen yeke kebeli-tu iisiiben degegsi-de sirbeilgegsen yeke ayuyuluyci phem kemen dayun-i dayurisqayci :; yucin dorben yar tegiisugsen : jayan-u noitan arasun-i bariysan : coytu vcir yeke ayuyuluyci : ma hi niyur-tu-yi tein buged sedkigdekui: tere metu masi sedkil-iyen cing batu bolyan buyu : tere mon cinar-un jabdul-dur masi tegsi ayulqui tarnicin-barnasudabisilyaydaqui buyu : barayun eng uridu-dur tongyuruy : nogiige-diir nigen ujugur-tu mes-e : yutayar-tur nidiigur : dotuger-tiir usun kituy-a: tabdayar-tur nigen ujugur-tu vcir: jiryuduyar-tur tomuge : doluduyar-tur oqur jida : naimaduyar-tur [178v] sumun : yisudiiger-tiir yoq-a : arbaduyar-tur beriy-e : arban nigeduger-tur khatvangga ; arban qoyaduyar-tur kurdun : arban yutayar-tur vcir: arban dotuger-tiir vcir-tu aluq-a: arban tabdayar-tur ildu : arban jiryuduyar-tur damaru bolai :: jegun eng uridu-dur kapala : nogiige-dur terigun: yutayar-tur bambai: dotiiger-tur kol: tabdayar-tur calm-a : jiryuduyar-tur numun : doluduyar-tur gedesun : naimaduyar-tur qongq-a : yisuduger-tur yar : arbaduyar-tur iikeger-un bos : arban nigeduger-tur siruy-tur qadquysan kumiin: arban qoyaduyar-tur yal-un tuly-a: arban yutayar-tur jarimduy kapala : arban dotuger-iyer ayuyuluyci mutur : arban tabdayar-tur yurban ujugur-tu manjily-a: arban jiryuduyar-tur kei-e keisdegsen iikeger-un bos : qoyar yar-iyar jayan-u noitan arasun bariysan bolai:: barayun angq-a uridu kol-iyer kiimiin : noguge-ber ma Ы : yutayar-iyar uker: dotuger-iyer eljige : tabdayar-iyar temege : jiryuduyar-iyar noqai ; doluduyar-iyar qonin : naimadu yar-iyar unegen : barayun kol-iyer edeger-i kolgelegsen bolai: jegun angq-a uridu kol-iyer qajir tas : nogiige-ber sir-a sibayun : yutayar-iyar qong keriy-e : dotuger-iyer toti: tabdayar-iyar qarcayai . jiryuduyar-iyar yeke sibayun : doluduyar-iyar yeke sarika : naimaduyar-iyar qun: jegiin kol-iyer edeger-

6 burqan-i jorin: burqan-durjoriydaqui С 9 sedkigdekui: tebcigdekiii C. 10 usug-ece: usug-un C; joriyad: jiruyad С 11 duri-ece: jiiil-ece С 14 kiling-ten: kiling С; С omits teriguten masi. 16 tede-: tende-P. 17 duri-ber: jiiil-iyer C. 18 jayun mingyan: naiman toyatan. 20 juil: jiiil-i gerel С 22 vcir-aca: vcir С 29 irjaiysan: solbicaysan С 30 tein: tere С 30 irjaiysan: solbicaysan C; ayuril: ayuqu PC. 32 cimugen: cimugen-i С 172 1 mutur: mutUT-i С 2 С omits irjaiysan; С adds dabqurlaysan after kapala-yi. 9-10 ayulqui tamicin-bar: ayulqui-yin C. 11 usun: usun С 14 qoyaduyar-tur: nogiige-dur C. 20 qoyaduyar-tur: nogiige-dur С 21 dotuger-iyer: dotuger-diir PC. 24 noguge-ber: nogiige-dur P. 28 jiryuduyar-iyar: jiryuduyar P. 173 15 20 25

i daruysan bolai: coytu yeke ayuyuluyci-yin angq-a uridu niyur masi qar-a : ma hi-yin duri-tu : asuru kilinglegsen [179r] barayun eber-un yurban niyur-un angq-a uridu koke : noguge ulayan : yutayar sir-a buyu : аи y-a ejen-ii yurban niyurmasi kilinglegsen :jegun eber-un yurban niyur inu : angq-a uridu cayan : 5 noguge unin ongge-tii: yutayar inu qar-a masi kilinglegsen : irjaiysan niyur-j saitur sedkigdektii bolai : qoyar eber-йп jayur-a dumda-tu niyur ulayan : masi ayuyuluyci aman-aca cisun cuburiysan-i sedkigdekui bolai : deger-e manju§ri-yin niyur sirabtur arayan kilinglegsen : jalayus-un cimeg-iyer cimegsen : orui-dur tabun j aiduysan usun-luge tegusugsen-i tein bilged sedkiged : qamuy ni yur- 10 ud yurbayad nidu-ten-i bisilyaydaqui buyu : ene metii ober-iyen nasuda nigen iijugur-tu-ber joriydaqui bolai : tere buged coytu vcir yekede ayuyuluyci ma hi niyur-tu : tegun-i buged ober-un bey-e bolyan bisilyaju bayatud-un orun-dur ayci yogacari-nar : tendece qoinaysi tarni-yi uriydaqui bolai : uriqui cay-tur ober-unjiruken-durnaran-u mandal-i sedkiged : tegun-u deger-e ober-un tarni- 15 yin usug-i jokiyaydaqui bolai: badarayuluyad qoinaysi ulu alyasaqui sedkil-iyer uriydaqui bolai: ene jabdul-dur ayci tarnicin : '«) nasuda ayuyuluyci-yin uiles-i uileddekui : 20 ukeger-un orun-dur bisilyaydaqui: ! nasuda tabun rasiyan-i idegdekui: teguber biitiigekiii-ece anggida butiigel tigei: busu ber yeke jula-yi ideged : soni bitiigci yogacari-bar: 25 yucin tumen-te undusun tarni-yi uriydaqui: egun-i uriysan tarnicin: qamuyuiles-i uiledkii boluyu:: ene kemebesu mafiju5ri degedii jogelen coytu [179v] yeke vcir ayuyuluyci 30 yogacari-yin tantr-a-aca: bisilyal-un dotiiger onul bolai:: : :: !:■ 5 10 15 20 25 30 [v. jiruy bey-e-yin uitesj tendece coytu yekede ayuyuluyci-yin uqayuluysanjiruy-un bey-e-yin jangtiile-yi saitur nomlar-un : bayatud-un bos ba : ceceg-tu-yin bos ba : kobegun torilgsen-u bos ba tedeger-i ese olbasu yambar bugesii ber bos-tur sain jiruyacinadqayugegukiling tigei ariyun : merged tob sedkil-tu : bisirel-luge tegusugsen nigulesktii-tu quricaqui-aca anggijiraysan ene metu erdem-tid tegusugsen bolai: tere metu jiruyacin yar-iyar : bayatud-un bos-tur jiruydaqui bolai : ker be : siddhi-yi kusegcid bayatud-un lab-i ogdekui bolai : tegun-dur jang uile kemebesu : niyuca-yin orun-dur orusiyad : masi tegsi ayulqui-ber jiruydaqui buyu : jiruyacin kiged: butugegcin-ber iijeku-yi yirtincu-deki busud-a ulu ujegul-un jiruydaqui buyu : arban jiryuyan kol-tii: yucin dorben yar-tu : yisun niyur-tu : niciigun qar-a 6ngge-tu : jegun-iyen jigiigsen : yeke ayuyuluyci ber ayuyulqui duri-tu : belge-ben degegsi bosqaysan-u koriig-i jiruydaqui bolai : angq-a uridu ni yur ma hi: eber-un barayun eteged yurban niyur buged : koke ulayan sir-a masi kilinglegsen-i jiruydaqui bolai : jegun eteged cayan : unin ongge-tu qar-a bolai : tere qoyar-un dumda masi ulayan-i jiruydaqui bolai : tegun-й deger-e manjuSri-yin sirabtur niyur octiken kilinglegsen-i jiruydaqui bolai: barayun yar-tur tongyuruy: nigen tijugur-tii mese : nidugur usun kitu y-a : nigen ujugur-tu vcir : tomuge : jida : [180r] sumun : yoq-a : beriy-e khatvangga : kurdun : vcir: vcir-tu aluq-a : ildu kiged damaru bolai: jegun yar-tur kapala : terigun : bambai: kol : calm-a : numun : gedesun : qongq-a : yar : ukeger-un bos : siruy-tur qadquysan kumun : yal-tu tuly-a : keseg kapala : ayuyuluyci mutur : yurban ujugur-tu manjily-a kiged : kei-e kodelgegdegsen bos bolai : qoyar yar-iyar jayan-u noitan arasun bariysan-i jiruydaqui bolai : barayun kol-iyer kumun : mahi : uker : eljige : temege : noqai : qonin kiged : unege-migud bolai : jegun kol-iyer tas : sir-a sibayun : qong keriy-e : toti : qarcayai: yeke sibayun : sarika kiged : qun-nuyud bolai : ene metii bukiii vcir yeke ayuyuluyci-yi jiruydaqui bolai: tegun-ti dour-a

5 irjaiysan: solbicayuluysan С 13 uriydaqui bolai: urilyaqui buyu С 19 ayuyuluyci-yin: ayul iigei qotola [sic] С 29 degedii jogelen: neretu С; С omits yeke. 30 bisil yal-un: bisilyal C. 174 6 ceceg-tu-yin: ceceg-tu С 8 jiruyacin: jiruju С; С omits kiling ugei; merged: mergen С 10 jiruyacin: joriycin С. 11 siddhi-yi kusegcid: sidikiisegcinC. \2 С omits uile;niyuca-yin:niyucaC. 13 jiruyacin: arban jiryuyan kol-tu jiruyacin С 17 buged: buyu С 19 ongge-tii: ongge C. 24 numun: sumun C. 24 yar: qara C. 175

yeke tikeger ber jiruydaqui bolai : yekede ayuyuluyci : mangyus : ulus-i sakiyci: vitar-lu7-a tegusugsen : kumun-i jidan-u ujugur-tu qadquysan ongge-yi tede ujuguldekui bolai : ny-a grodha modun-u deger-e kiimiin degujilegsen-i jiruydaqui : kiimiin tiiimeridun biiku-yi ber jiruydaqui : jidan-iyar coyuluysan 5 kumun-i ber jiruydaqui: eldeb sibayun : qong keriy-e : noqai kiged : cinu-a terigiiten-i ha ha da тип yaryaqu-yi jiruydaqui : biitiigegcin-i ber jiruidaqui: ilaju tegiis nogcigsen-i nigen ujugur-tu ber tijen biikiii nicugiin usiin-iyen cucaluysan : tabun mutur-iyar cimegsen : damaru kapala kiged khatvangga bariysan : kapalas-iyar orui-ban cirnegsen inigeldun tere iikeger-tiir oruqu-yi 10 jiruydaqui : ene kemebesu niyuca-yin jiruy bey-e buyu : nigen orun-dur saitur talbiju : yeke miqan-u ktijis-i ogdekui : tegun-й emun-e yeke labai-yin erike-yi uri-ydaqui : tamici tegsi ayuluysayar kiciyeju [180v] уигЬап cay-tur jiruy bey-e-yi sakiydaqui bolai: busu yayun-i ber iilii talbiydaqui: busu alin-u emiin-e ber iilii delgegdekui : doliyaqui uyuqui idegen kiged : qurim kemebesu nasuda yeke 15 miqan-i soni nasuda idegdektii: ker be degedu siddhi-yi kusebesu ele : -/urban cay-tur bairocan-a kiged cisun-u kiiji-yi jiruybey-e-yin emiine ogdekui: ene kemebesu manjuSri neretu vcir yeke ayuyuluyci yogacari-yin tantr-a-aca jiruybey-e-yin uiles-un tabdayaronul bolai:: : :: 10 15 20 25 30 [vi. yal mandal~un ayuiyeke jang iiile] tendece yal-un mandal-un jang uile-yi nomlar-un yambar uridu jerge buyu : urida yambar nigen tediii tarnici aylay orun-dur oruju : soni diili bolbasu yal mandal-un qamuyiiiles-i iiileddekiii buyu : urida nomlaysan burqan-u yogacari-dur aysad : qamuy uiles-i uileddekiii bolai : tegun-dur uile kemebesu edeger bolai: ker be alasuyai kemen kusebesu ele : tende kumiin-u yasun : bairocan-a : eljigen-й aryal : noqai-yin bayasu orgesiin kiged : usiin kimusun tedeger-i tosun-dur niquju mahi niyur-tu-yinjabdul-iyar : masi tegsi ayulju : emiin-e jug qanduyad ukudel-i tulegsen yal-dur: alin-u ner-e selte jayun naiman-ta tulebesii ele : sesig iigegui-ti yurban qonuy-tur йкйуй : ese biigesu nigen jiig-tiir aju : yurbaljin yal-tu tuly-a-yi egiidcii: tendece urida nomlaysan ed-iyer : doysin-u yal-dur yal mandal-i iiileddekui buyu : tere jabdul-iyar mon tere iiile butiikii bolai: tendece qayacayulsuyai kemen kusebesu qong keriy-e sir-a sibayun tayus moyai : usiin kiged tuturyan-u kebeg ma hi : morin-u miq-a-luy-a nigen-e : [18 lr] alin-u ner-e selte arban usug-tu tarnis-iyar ; iikeger-iin yal-dur tulebesii tegiiber qayacayulqu bolai : ese biigesu iikeger-iin modun-dur doysin-u yal-i saitur sitayaju : ger-tegen tere ed-i tulebesii ele ; vcir bariyci metii-yi ber doluyan ediir-tiir qayacayulqui bolai : tendece iildesugei kemen kusebesu : qong keriyen-й miq-a kiged : temegen-ii qoryul-luy-a nigen-e : arikin-i iineker tegusken kei-yin mandal-un dumda : iikeger-iin modun-dur : yal-i saitur sitayaju : nicugun usiiben cucal-un qubilyaju : emiine jug qanduju erlig-un tarni-ber eimii neretu ner-e-luge selte ber : jegun yar-iyar : yal mandal-i mingvan-ta iiiledbesu uldekiii-ece busucar busu bolai: tendece kosiregiilsiigei kemen kusebesu ele : siracu kiged moga mansila : givang selte-ber dorbeljin mandal egiidcii: umar-a jug qanduyad : uiles-un qoin-a-acadayaqujabdul joriju : alin-u ner-e-yi selte-ber yal mandal tulebesii : tegiin-i doluyan qonuy-tur kosiregiilkti boluyu : tendece balyad-i iildesugei kemen kusebesu nimba modun-iyar yal-i saitur sitayaju : noqai-yin miq-a : menekei-yin miq-a : takiyan -и miq-a : temegen-u qoryul kiged : miyui-yin cisun-luy-a nigen-e niquju :

1 iikeger: ukeger-i С 3 tede ujugiildekiii: tende ujekii С 4 coyuluysan: ciquluysan С 6 yaryaqu-yi: yarqu-yi C; butugegcin-i: butugegcin P. 8 P omits damaru. 9 inigeldun: inigeldun-diirC. 11 yeke labai: labai P. 14 uyuqui: uuyui С; С omits nasuda. 16 bey-e-yin: bey-e C, 5 jang uile-yi: iiile jang-yi [sic] C. 6 oruju: odcu C. 8 edeger: iineker С 10 noqai-yin bayasu: yin aryal С 14 ed-iyer: ed-йп sang-iyarC; С omits doysin-u. 17 kiged—kebeg: tir-e C. 23 tegusken: tegusugsen C. 25 С omits ner-e. 29 tulebesii: egudbesu C; tegiin-i: tegiin-u P.

176 177 erlig-un jabdul-dur aysad : balyad-un ner-e-liige selte arban usug-tu tarni-ber kei-yin mandal-un dumda : tiimen-te yal mandal tiiledbesti ele : balyad-i tildeku boluyu : tedeger uiles-niigiid-i masi tegsi ayulqui ber uileddekui buyu : anggida bolbasu tarnici ober-tur kurteku boluyu : busu ken-diir ber iilti iijegulugdekui 5 bolai : tendece 6kin-i kosiregiilstigei kemen kiisebesu ele : orgesun qour-a sketshe-ltige selte ber ner-e-yi ober-un cisun-iyar niquju : arban tistig-tii [ 181 v] tarni-luy-a selte-ber okin kosireku boltuyai kemen iikeger-un yal-dur yal mandal-i mingyan-ta uiledbesu kosiregulkiii-ece bosuyar busu bolai : tendece amurliyulsuyai kemen kusebesu ele : tosun bal sundurba-luy-a selte-ber balasa- 10 yin modun-dur yal-i saitur sitayaju : amurliyul-un kusekui ber joriju : orun-u dorun-a jug qanduju aysan-iyar yurban cay-tur yal mandal-i ming yan naiman-ta uiledbesu ele : teguber orun-i amurliyul-un iiiledkii boluyu : tendece delgeregiilsiigei kemen kusebesu ele : gunjid tutury-a arbai : tosun-luy-a selte-ber : udumbar-a modun-dur yal-i saitur sitayaju : uile-yin qoina-aca da yaqui-ber 15 : burqan-u jabdul-i joriyad umar-a jug qanduju tegsi ayulqui-ber arban usug-tu tarnis-iyar yurban cay-tur yal mandal-i mingqan-ta uiledbesu delgerekii boluyu : tendece iregulsugei kemen kusebesu ele : sketshe-ber koriig egtidcu : tendece khadir-a-yin yal-un dumda erlig-un tarni-ber jayun naiman-ta tuimeridbesu ese buttigsen ber butiikii boluyu doluyan edur-tur ali kusegsen sesig ugei 20 iregtiliiyii: tendece yaljayurayulsuyai kemen kusebesu ele : yeke qajir tas-un egiir kiged : yeke miq-a-yi tulebesu yaljayuraqu boluyu : tegun-i kebeg-un yal-dur tulebesu sain jiryalang-tu boluyu : tendece ed-i ed busu bolyasuyai: kemen kusebesu : kdbeng-un yal-dur dhatur-a-yin ur-e-liige selte soni arban usug-tu tarni-ber jayun naiman-ta yal mandal uiledbesu : masi qour qomsa bolqu boluyu 25 : arur-a tulebesu ele : jici qarin tere ed boluyu : getiilgegci-yin emun-e : yeke miq-a ariki-luy-a selte-ber : jiryuyan sara-dur soni yal [182r] mandal-i jayun naiman-ta uiledbesu ele : qamuy orud-un ejen boluyu : uker-un miq-a kiged cisun selte alin-u ner-e-liige selte-ber mingyan-ta yal mandal uiledbesu : kejiy-e amidu atala jarudasun bolun aqui sesig ugei bolai: noqai-yin miq-a vcir-un usun-luy-a selte-ber eres-un mon cinar-iyar : soni alin-u ner-e selte-ber jayun naiman-ta yal mandal uiledbesu : ober-un biiged ed selte-ber : erke-dur oruqu boluyu : morin-u miq-a bairocan-a-luy-a selte-ber yamantaka-yin tarni-ber : jayun naiman-ta yal mandal-i nigen orun-dur 5 aju : soni qayan-dur jorin uiledbesu : doluyan qonuy-tur nokiir selte-ber : erke-dur oruyulqui boluyu : jayan-u miq-a sukr-a-luy-a selte-ber kumiin-u qamuy yirtincu-diir joriju arban usug-tti tarnis-iyar soni mingyan-ta yal mandal uiledbesu doluyan qonuy-tur erke-dur oruyulqu boluyu : jiyasun kiged miq-a darasun-luy-a selte-ber : ayul iigegui-e arban tistig-tii tarni-bar : jayun naiman-ta 10 yal mandal uiledbesu : qamuy qatud-i erke-dur-iyen oruyulqu boluyu : tendece uldesiigei kemen kusebesu ele : qong keriyen-u miqan-i iilii qolicayul-un : arban usug-tu tamis-iyar : alin-u ner-e-liige selte-ber : mingyan-ta yal mandal uiledbesu : doluyan edur-tur vcir bariyci metii ber : masi duta yaqu ele bugesii: ocuken kiimun-daki yayun oguletele : tendece qong keriyen-ii egiir kiged 15 tuturyan-u kebeg-liige nigen-e datur-a-yin modun-u yal-i saitur sitayaju : arban usiig-tti tarni alin-u ner-e-liige selte-ber : soni duli yal mandal tiiledbesu : doluyan edur-tur iildeku boluyu : tendece erke-dur-iyen oruyulsuyai [182v] kemen kusebesu khadir-a modun-u yal-dur gunjid kiged tutury-a qatud-un ceceg-liige nigen-e vcir-un usun-i qoliju : yogacari-yin bey-e ulayan kemen 20 joriju : oruna jug qanduyad : arban usug-tii tarni alin-u ner-e selte-ber tarnici tulebesu ele : doluyan ediir-tur erke-dur-iyen oruyulqu boluyu : tere kejiy-e amidu atala iilti qayacayulqu bolai : tendece iregulsugei kemen kusebesu tabun rasiyan tosun-luy-a selte-ber : khadir-a-yin yal-dur alin-u ner-e-luge selte-ber : jayun naiman-ta yal mandal uiledbesu : tere nigen kSan-dur ireku boluyu : 25 edeger uiles-i urida sarid tiiledugsen tarnici iiileddeku bolai : busu-ber uiledbesu tarnici-yi yirtincii-dekis sonjiqu boluyu : yambar obermice ulti bolyaydaqui alin-dur ber obermice ogkun ulii iiileddeku: 30 obermice ilyabasu tarnici

2 mandal-un: mandal С 5 orgesun: iregsed С 6 niquju: uyuju С 7 kosireku: bisireku С 8 bosuyar: busucar С; С omits tendece. 12 С omits tendece. 15 burqan-u—joriyad: burqan jabdul-iyar jiruyad С 20 yaljayurayulsuyai: qayacayulsuyai С; С omits qajir. 22 С omits busu. 26 mandal-i: mandal C. 2 С adds ali kiged after soni; С adds ken-u nere after ner-e. 4 С omits jayun. 9 С omits jayun naiman-ta. 11 iildesugei: uiledsugei C; miqan-i: miqan-u C. 13 С omits masi. 15 yal-i: yal С 18 tutury-a: iir-e C; qatud-un: qatud С 179 10 siddhi iilti btitiiyii: bi busu tantras-tur nomlaju amui: yambar obermice ese toriigsen : tegiincilen iiiledku-yi obermice ogulebesu : vcir saduva ber iilii butukii:: alin-u emun-e ber tarnicin : tegiin-u tula iiiles-niigiid-i ulii ujegdekiii: busud-tur ber nigen-e ulii iiileddekui: ker be tarnicin uiledun kiisebesu :: tedeger yaycayar biiged uiled : tarnicin tegiiberqamu у iiiles-i uiledduyu: ene kemebesu manjuSri neretu vcir ayuyuluyci-yin yoga-yin tantr-a-aca : 7a! mandal-un ayui yeke jang iiile-yin jiryuduyar onul bolai :: fvii. Шуап-i biitiige/ai-yi onirfsanj 5 tendece diyan-u iiile-yin jang yambar btikti uneker nomlasuyai : diyan kiged tarni-yin masi jabdul-iyar : qamuy kereg-iid-i saitur butiigegdekiii buyu : tegiin-ii jang uile urida nigen tedui yogacari ma hi [183r] niyur-tu-yin jabdul-dur aysayar : urida arilyan uiledcu qamuy iiiles-i iiileddeku bolai : ra usug-ece oyuyata qubiluysan yai mandal-un qotala gegegen badaran bukui tein biiged Ю sedkiju : tegiin-u deger-e butugegdekun niciigiin iisiin-iyen cucaluysan amturiqui-tu boluysan : ober-iin emiin-e duri-ber sedkigdekui bolai : tendece ober-iin bey-e-dece olan kiling-ten-ii bey-e tein biiged yaruyad : tedeger kiling-ten ildun-iyar delediiged cisun uuyuysan-i sedkigdekui bolai : biitugegdekiin-u miq-a idekui kiged : gedesiin tataysan-i sedkigdekui bolai : ein kemen 15 ogulegdekiii buyu : yurban erdeni-dtir qour iiiledugcid kiged : blam-a-yuyan utegeregcid-i deled deled : nitul nitul: sedkigsen-u teduiken-iyer vcir bariycid ber doluyan qonuy-tur iikukii ele biigesii : busu ucuken amitan-i yayun oguletele : tendece busu ber diyan-i masi jabdul yarqui kemebesu : ma hi niyur-tu-yin jabdul-un omuy-tur aju : qamuy iiiles-i butugegdekui: yal-un mandal-un 20 dumda butugegdekun ukilan bukti-yi sedkiju : tegiin-u emtine olan mangyus sedkigdekui buyu : tedeger mangyus 6ber-e-dece joriguti doysin bey-e-ten : masi doysin : miqan-i iden : cisun-i uuyuysan-i tein biiged sedkigdekui bolai : busu ber eldeb jiiil sibayun-nuyud tas : qong keriy-e : sir-a sibayun iineged kiged noqas-iyar miqan-i ideged cisun-i uuyuysan-i tein biiged sedkigdekui 25 buyu : ene diyan-u masi jabdul-iyar sesig ugegui-e iikiiyu bolai :: jayun ber-e-dur aysan arad-i ber sedkil-iyer bariqui diyan-i tuyurbiydaqui bolai : [183v] tarnici diyan-i cing batu bolyaydaqui : tendece qayacayulsuyai: kemen kusebesii ma hi-yin jiriiken-dur butugegdekun-i tein buged sedkigdeku buyu : busu biitiigegcin-i morin-u jiruken-diir tein biiged sedkigdekui buyu : morin kiged 30 mahi qoyar esergii tesergii kereldiin uiledku-yi sedkigdeku buyu : kejiy-e-de morin-luy-a mahi qoyar-i ese qayacayultala bolai: qoinaysi- 2 С omits bi. 10 tedegerуаусауаг: tedeger-un nigen-iyer С 14 ayui—iiile-yin: uile jang ayuiC. 180 8 qamuy uiles-i: qamuy-i C. 9 tein biiged: jiiil-iyer C. 10 tegiin-ii: tegiiber C. 11 amturiqui-tu boluysan: amiduraqui-tu boluysan-i C. 13 cisun: cisun-i C. 14 miq-a: edegerC; gedesun: gedesun-i C. 19 С omits yal-un. 21 mangyus: mangyus-i C; dber-e-dece: 6ber-e bey-e-dece С 24 noqas-iyar: nuyud С 28 ma hi-yin: mahi С; С omits butugegdekun-i. 29 С omits morin-u. 30 PC add niyur after mahi. 181

da tere btitugegdekiis-i tere qoyar masi iilii amaraylaqu-yi ber sedkigdeku buyu : sedkigsen-u teduiken-iyer doluyan edur-tur mayad kereldukii boluyad ; busucar busu bolai : tendece iildesiigei kemen kusebesu : tende yam iisug oyuyata qubiluysan-aca temegen-i sedkigdekiii buyu : basa tegun-u deger-e yam 5 usug-un duri-ece qubiluysan kei-yin mandal : jarimduy saran-u diiri-yi sedkigdeku buyu : tegun-u deger-e butugegdekun nicugun usiin-iyen aldarayuluysan : amturiqui-tu boluysan-i sedkigdekiii buyu : mahi niyur-tu-yin jabdul-dur aysayar : tegun-u deger-e erlig-iin bey-e barayun yar-tayan beriy-e bariysan : tisun-iyen salburaysan duri-ber sedkin uileddekii buyu : tere 10 temegen-i emune jug qanduyulju : tegun-й ner-e selte erlig-un tarni ogulekui juil-iyer sedkigdekui boluyu yogacari egun-i sedkigsen-u teduiken-iyer doluyan qonuy-tur ene metii vcir bariyci-yi ber iildekii boluyu : busu ber diyan-u masi jabdul kemebesti qong keriy-e ba : tas-un deger-e butugegdekun iisiin-iyen aldarayuluysan nicugun dtiri-ber sedkigdekui bolai: tegiin-ii deger-e erlig - 15 iin duri-ber sedkigdekui buyu : yar-tayan aluq-a bariysan biitugegdekiin-ii usun-i bariysan : tegiin-diir mahi niyur-tu jakiju jarliy boluyad : emiin-e jug qanduju oduysan-i sedkigdekui buyu : nigen ujiigiir-tii jabdul-iyar sedkibesu ele : nigen iijugiir-tu tere jabdul-iyar doluyan qonuy-tur iildekii boluyu : tendece iregiilsiigei kemen kusebesu ele : yam-аса kei-yin mandal : tegiin-ii deger-e a 20 tisiig-ece boluysan saran mandal: tegun-ii deger-e erlig-un bey-e yar-tayan yoq-acalm-a bariysan-i tein biiged sedkigdekui bolai : mahi niyur-tu-yin yogacari-dur aysayar tegtin-dtir jakir-un jarliy : erlig odcu eimii neretii orun-aca eimii neretu dkin-i turgen-e iregiil: tein kemen duradqaysan-iyar : yam iisug-un duri-ber kodelju oduysan-i juil-iyer sedkigdekui bolai : ene diyan-u masi jabdul-dur 25 aysayar tamicin yurban yirtincii-de qariyatu qatud-i iregiiljii cenggegdeku bolai: yambar-iyar sedkil cing batu bolbasu : egtin-u masi jabdul-iyar tedeger-i iiiledduyii : busu ber iilii bolai :: tendece moyai-a erustegsen-i bosqaqui jiiil-i nomlar-un : ober-unjiriiken-diircayan lingqu-a naiman nabci-tu-yin duri-ber sedkigdeku bolai: tegiin- 10 15 20 25 ii deger-e yutayar egesig-tti iisiig nabci-dur naiman phat-i tein biiged sedkigdekui : tegun-u dour-a luus-un beyes-i tein buged sedkigdeku buyu : tegun-ii orui-dur cayabir ongge-tu i usug-ece rasiyan cuburiysan-i sedkigdeku bolai : tere luus-un nidud-ece rasiyan yarcu : tere butiigegdekiin-u bey-e-diir singgebei kemen sedkigdeku buyu : tere diyan-u jabdul-iyar yurban yirtincii-duroyuyatadugurugsen qour-a-yi ber ugei bolyayu :: mingyan iigiirge qour-a-yi iden cidayu : tendece singgekii diyan-u masi [184v] jabdul-i yaryaydaqu buyu : butiigegdekiin-i emiine-ben sedkiju : tegiin-ii qoyar kol-dur : yam usug-ece qubiluysan kei-yin mandal-i sedkigdekui: tegun-u deger-e niyuca orun-dur yal-un yurbaljin mandal ulabir ongge-tii ram usug-iyer oyuyata adistidlaysan-i sedkigdekui bolai : tegun-ii deger-e jiruken-dur yajar-un mandal dorbeljin sirabir ongge-tii : lam usug-iyer adistidlaysan-i sedkigdeku bolai : tegun-u deger-e manglai-dur saran-u mandal-i tein buged sedkigdeku bolai : tegun-u dumdaturugule qanduysan pam usiig-ece rasiyan cuburin buku-yi sedkigdeku buyu : egun-i saitur tein biiged sedkiju : kei-ber yal-i saitur sitayayad : tere yal ber yeke erketii-yin mandal-i tulegsen-i tein buged sedkigdekui: yeke erketii-yin mandal-un dulayan-iyar rasiyan-u tere mandal gesugsen-i tein biiged sedkigdekui bolai: egiin-u jabdul-un teduiken-iyer tegiin-u qatud-i geskeku boluyad: sun kiged modun metii geskekiii-e sesig ugei: tendece qayan ba : qayan-u tusimed-i erke-diir-iyen oruyulsuyai kemen kusebesu : tarnicin mahi niyur-tu-yin yogacari-dur saitur aysayar: tegun-i ulabir ongge-tii: kemen sedkiged : butugegdekun qamiy-a aysan tegun-ii deger-e aju : qoinaysi ober-iin bey-e-ben manjuSri ulabir 6ngge-tu yar-tayan yoq-a kiged calm-a bariysan-i yaryaju : tere manjuSri biitugegdekun-ujiruken

4 tegun-u: tegun-i P. 7 amturiqui-tu: amiduraqui-tu С 9 С omits sedkin. 10 С omits tegun-u. 11 boluyu: bolai C. 12-13 diyan-u: diyan С 15 biitiigegdekun-u: butiigegdekiin-i PC. 18 PC omit tere; PC add mayad before doluyan [ reading T nges not des]. 19 yam-аса: yam usiig-ece С 22 erlig: erlig-un P. 24 P omits masi. 25 aysayar tamicin: aysayar-iyar tami С 26 egun-ii: egun-i PC. 27 eriistegsen-i; erustegsen C; jiiil-i nomlar-un: jiiil С . 28 С omits ober-un. 182 1 nabci-dur—phat-i: naiman nabci-tu-yi P, nabci-dur sedkiged naiman-i С 2 tegun-ii: tegun-i C. 4 nidud-ece: nidun-ece C; P omits tere. 5 С omits singgebei kemen; diyan-u: diyan-i C. 15 kei-ber: kei С 17 dulayan-iyar: dulayan-dur P; rasiyan-u: rasiyan-iyar PC; P omits tere mandal. 17 gesiigsen-i tein buged: tein buged gesiigsen-i [gesugsen C] PC. 21 geskeku: gesktii С 23 geskekui-e: gesun uiledkui-e C; ugei: ugegui-e C. 25 tusimed-i: orun-i С 27 ongge-tii: ongge C. 29 PC omit -u. 183

kiged qoYulai-yi kuliju : iregiiliigsen-i sedkiged : manju5ri-yin bey-e-dur saitur oruyuluydaqui bolai: tere biitugegdekun-i tencirebe kemen sedkigdekui : diyan-i saitur barilduyulqui-ber : tegun-ii jiriiken-diir [185r] arban usug-tii tarni-yi tein biiged-i sedkigdekui bolai: basa ulabir ongge-ber biitiigelci beige bilig-un 5 ongge-ber iisug-tur oruyuluydaqui : tegiin-liige biitugegdekun-i nigen-e bolyaydaqui bolai : ene diyan-u masi jabdul-iyar doluvan qonuy-tur kurdtin orciyuluyci-yi ber erke-dur-iyen oruyuluyad : kejiy-e amitu aqui jayur-a sesig iigei bolai : masi tegsi ayulqui tarnici : iilti kodelkui diyan-iyar iiileddekiii : tantr-a-yi ken-dur ber ulu ogdekui : ker be tarni-yi iilu iijegiilugdekui : С07Ш 10 vcir yeke ayuyuluyci mahi niyur-tu-yin diyan-i ken-dur ber ulu ogdekui : ulu ber ogulegdekiii : tarni-yin ilyal-i ber ulu uileddekiii : jiruy bey-e-yi ber ken-ii emtine ber tilii delgegdekui buyu : korug-i ber niyuca talbiydaqui : ene tantr-a-aca masi jabdul kiged : uriqui kiged ogiilekui busu ken-dur ber nigen nigen-ii tediiiken-i iilu ogiilegdekui: ker be ogiilebesu COYUI vcir ayuyuluyci kiged : 15 busu ber yoginis kiged dakinis-iyar idegdeyti : tangyariy ebderekui bolqui-ber : tegiin-u tula tarnici : ken-diir ber ulu ogdekui bolai : tendece tangyariy ese ebderegsen : tein btiged adqay iigegiii-e : degedu torn yabudal-tan bayatur blam-a-yuyan kiindiilegci nomuyaduysan : teguncilen iregsed-un sasin-i mayad bariyci : tantr-a-yi niyuysan : ulii kilinglegci : nigiileskui-liige tegusugsen : 20 uriqui kiged : diyan-dur kelteigsen bolburi aci tir-e-yi seregci ene metii tilemji erdem-tu sain tidsi buyu : degedu mandal kiged coytu vcir yeke-de ayuyuluyci-yi masi kundiilegci : yeke niguleskiii-ber sedkil-iyen jukiduysan : tein buged : adqayiigei : masi blam-a-[185v] yuyan kundulegci : saitur onuysan-dur masi tein buged sedkiged : blam-a tere metii tidsi-dtir : coytu vcir yeke ayuyuluyci- 25 yin tantr-a-yi ogdekui bolai : tarnici busud-tur (igbesii: tegiin-luge tidsi selte tamu-dur odqui-a sesig iigei bolai : ene yirtincti-diir yeke ayul-tu boluyu : cinadu nogiige yirtincu-diir tamu-dur oduyu : tangyariyber ebderekti boluyu : ene kemebesu manjuSri degedu : coytu vcir yekede ayuyuluyci yoga tantr-a-aca : diyan-i biitiigeku-yi onuysan doluduyar onul bolai:: : :: [Colophon] 5 coytu vcir yeke-de ayuyuluyci-yin kiirdun-u arban tumen-tii tantr-a-aca qunyaju yaryaysan onuqu-yin jug ungsiysan-iyar butugegci : coytu vcir yekede ayuyuluyci mahi niyur-tu-yin siddhi-yin onul tegiisbe :: : : : coytu odrayan-a-yin yeke orun-aca coytu manjusri-yin tantr-a-aca yaruysan 10 tantr-a-yin qayan : coytu yekede ayuyuluyci neretii : degedu blam-a yeke mandal-un baysi Sri lalita bajar yaryaju jokiyaysan tegiisbe :: : : : [[[Translators]]' colophons] enedkeg-un pandida degedu siddhi-yi oluysan ba-a ro phyag rdum-un niyur-un J5 emiin-e-ece tobed-un kelemurci aldarsiysan vcir ayay-ategimlig orciyulbai :: : : mongyol-unkelen-durtoincorji orciyulbai:: : ::

2-3 С omits diyan-i—ber. 4 С omits ulabir; butiigelci: biitugegdekun-i С 9 be: ber CP. 10 С omits yeke. 12 korug-i: koriig С 13 uriqui kiged: uriqui С 13 nigen-ii: nigen-e C. 14 ayuyuluyci kiged: ayuyuluyci PC;. 15 dakinis-iyar idegdeyii: dakinis miqan-i ideyii P; С omits -iyar; P adds miqan-i before ideyii. 20 diyan-dur: duran-dur С 26-7 yirtincu—cinadu: kemebesu manjuSri C. 184 1 P adds yeke before yoga. 2 diyan-i: diyan-iyar С 9 С omits yeke. 14-15 phyag---emiin-e-ece: cay dum pita kiged С 185

II Coytu vcir ayuyuluyci~yin onul-un tantr-a [The Ritual Procedure Tantra of Vajrabhairava) [186r] enedkeg-un keleber : Sri-vajrabhairava-kalpa-tantra-raja :: tobed-un keleber : dpal rdo rje 'jigs byed kyi rtog pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po :: mongvol-un keleber: coytu vcir ayuyuluyci-yin onul-un tantr-a-yin qayan :: 5 kelen-u erketu-te morgiimu : [i. ary-a kiged bilig-un diyan] tendece egiin-i nomlasu-yai: 10 yambar-iyar amitan-i baravdaTul-un iiiledcu : jobalang-ud-aca tein bilged tonilTaTci: yeke biitiigekui ary-a-yin manglai aqu boluTsan :: ene ruTuca tami-aca ^arqu boluyu : eng urida bairocan-a buyu : 15 tegun-luge ciqula kelen-ii erketu :: vcirkurdiin-i orciTuluYci bolai: adas-un ejen kiged bhuti-yin ejen : kumun-u ur-e-yi qoyar-ta teguskegdekui: suburyan-i tiilegci kijaTar selte : 20 busud-a uqaju iilu boluyu :: vcir-tu biiged OTtarvui-dur a"jci: usug ur-e-yin toy-a-ber tumen-te ogulebesii ele : qamuyebderegsed-i arilTaju amurliyulqui delgeregulkui erkesigulkui doysin :: 25 nitulqui iildekui iregulkui qaTacayulqui kosiregulkui 17 ejen kiged: kiged С doruitayulqui kiged qan ijayur orun teriguten olqui egun-diir sesig ugei: ukeger-un oi serigiin quduy-un kijayar:: yayca modun qoyusun ger yayca belge-tu aylay: 5 ali kiisegsen orun-dur diyan-i tuyurbiydaqui: tendece ilaju tegiis nogcigsen qamuy qubilyan-dur tugegsen : toli metii neretu samadi-dur tegsi orulduYad : bey-e kiged qamuy beige bilig-tur tugegui-un iiiledkii-yin tula : cayabir ongge-tii tabun niyur [186v] tegiisiigsen-i uileddekiii : qamuy yirtincu-dekin-i qaraju : ober-iin ijayur-un usug-un cinar-i ogiilegsen-iyer : bey-e kelen sedkil erdem iiiles kiged beige bilig-i ber nigen cinar-iyar qubilYan-u bey-e bolju qubilbai: yaiqamsiy ilaju tegus nogcigsen vcir yeke udq-a-nuyud-i egtiskegci berbolai: oytaryu-yin tob-i gerel-iyer dugiirgeju : jici qarin tabun ongge tegiisiigsen :: iir-e iisug-un tarni-ber duradqaydaysan : gerel-un iijiigtir toyatan cidaycin-u bey-e : qotala ber burqan orun-aca toriigsen : dber-tiir oruysan-iyer bey-e teguskeku boluyu :: jiryuyan niyur-tu kilinglegsen masi jibqulang-tu : ma hi-yin deger-e ayci: manjuSri-yin niyur inu masi mosiyen sayuysan : tilegsen anu ulayan sir-a koke :: unin-u ongge-dur adali iisun-iyen degegsi-de sirbeilgegsen qokimai noitan kapala bariysan gedesiin moyas : yasun vcir-un erike-ber cimegsen : jayan bars-un arasun-i emuscii:: hum phat kemen dayulan inegegci : oytaryu-yin bey-e-tu kiling-ten-u egulen-i basa basa уагуап uilediigci: masi jibqulang-tu jiryuyan yar-tubuyu :: beriy-e aluq-a nidugiir ba : barayun yar-iyarjerge-berbariysan : 5 bitali kiged yoq-a : calm-a-yi jegunyar-iyarbariysan:: lingqu-a naran mahi kiged : erlig-un deger-e kelbeikiii diiri-tu : jiryuYankol-tubaraYun-iyanjigiikuibujig-iyerorusiYsan: 10 yirtincu-yin ejen-i eculgen uilediigci bolai: tere metii ked ber bisiregcin kiged : oyutan ary-ajali-yi saitur tebcigsen : saitur abisig-nuyud-i ogtejii biir-un : vcir-tubaysi-yuyan bayasqan iiilediigcin:: 15 basa basa [187r] duradbasu ele : masi cing batu-yi olqu boluyu : tngri-yin quvaray namayi sonus : bayatur arikin-dur masi bayasuyad:: yeke miqan-i nasuda jajilbasu ele : 20 uiles tegiiber turgen-e butiiyii: eng olan bey-e-yi уагуап iiiledcu : bey-e-diir beyes-i mayad singgegiiluged:: qamuy-i jalii kemen medegsen-iyer : yirtincu-niigud-tur sedkil-i seriguliiyu: 25 qoyusun cegecin-u sudal bayasqayci buyu : iirguljide bodhi sedkil-i cuburiyuluyci:: ulayan Hngqu-a aman qabsuruysan qoyar : qoyar tiyes-iyer mayad kinaju : medekii-yi nemegiilugci yal kiged kei: 30 naran saran-u ary-a-luy-a tegusiigsen :: tegus bilig-ten medegdekiii: tere qoyar-i tein buged tebcibesii:

3 oi: tiilegsen С 4 С omits yayca. 7 С omits toli. 20 burqan: burqan-u C. 22 riyur-tu— jibqulang-tu: niyur-tu-yin C. 23 С omits ma hi-yin. 24 С omits masi. 26 С omits iisun-iyen; sirbeilgegsen: sirbeigsen tegusugsen С 31 bey-e-tu kiling-ten-u: uile-tii kiling-tu С 1-2 С omits basa—jibqulang-tu. 3 aluq-a: luy-a С; С omits ba. 8 erlig-un: kiling-ii С 16 С omits masi; batu-yi: batu C. 18 arikin-dur: erkin-dur C. 20 iiiles: uiles-i С 21 eng: ang С 27 aman—qoyar: ongge qubiluysan C. 188 189 10 15 20 25 30

dotor-a-ban oruyulqui iilu boluyu : lingqu-a-yin qabsurqui-dur sitiiged:: yurban-dur aysan samadi-dur: vcirnom-iyartamayalaYsan : 5 ary-a bilig-iyer tonilyaqui siltayan : oyutan kiciyen medekui boluyu :: tegiin-u tula tegun-dur kiciyegdekiii nom-nuyud-un nom-un cinar ilyal iigei-ber : qoyusun cinar-un yeke beige bilig : 10 tilti ebderegci adqay-aca qayacaysan beige iigei:: , yeke jiryalang-tu beige bilig-iin vcir-un bey-e : adqayiigei beige bilig adqay-aca qayacaysan : adqay-un qamuybelges-i tulegci: tuyurbiqui beiges btigiide-yin: 15 kediii toyatan siltayan-u juil-i medegcin :: i tegun-i medeju tonilqu bolai: ese medegsen-iyer jici orciyad : yirtincu-deki nigen nigen oyutan aran : mayad uqaysan aryas-un degedti : 20 yeke jobalang-iyarmasi ayuju: jiryalang-i kusegcin kiciyen uileddekui: coytu vcir ayuyuluyci-yin onul-un tantr-a-yin qaTan-aca [187v] ary-a kiged bilig-un diyan-i uqayulqui eng terigun bulug :: [ii. barilduYulqui] tendece uneker nomlaydaqui: 5 tarni biitiigegsen-ece boluysan : uiles-i ende medegdekui buyu : tende burqan-u bey-e ber barilduyuldaqui: amurliyulqui teriguten uriqui jerge-dur :: vcir-un dumda vcir kemebesu : 10 naran saran-dur sitiigsen usiig-un : erike tabun ongge-tii kemen medegci: tiirgen bidayu-yi tebcijii todurqai-a uriqui inu : merged-un uriqui jerge bolai: doysid-un iiiles-i butugekui-dur 15 nisvanis-i oytaluyci kiirdun-iyer inu : sirabtur arban ujugur gegesutii-te :: eldeb gerel yarun buku-yi sedkigdekui: amuruYul-1111 kiisegci aran kiged : sedkil-iyer uneker tegsi ayulju : 20 tarni-yin gerel ber busu amitan-dur :: tusa-tu sedkil-liige tegusken uiledkui: iiisun bos modun-u durusun-dur : gurgum givang unur-nugud-iyer: tabun dabqur tegiisugsen suburyan-i:: 25 sikiir kurdun tegiisugsen-i kigdekui: butugelcin-ii ner-e kiged obuy: tegun-i qomq-a-yin dotur-a bicigdekui: ye dharma teriguten-iyer:: tarnis-i barayun-aca toyurin jiruydaqui: 30 saitur orusiyul-un uiledcu : bey-e ba qoyulai-dur ali amuyulang-iyar talbiTdaqui

I С omits tilu. 3 samadi-dur: samadi С 11 bilig-un: bilig C. 14 tuyurbiqui: tcytayatpti С; С omits biigiide-yin. 20 С omits yeke. 23 С omits onul-un. 8 jerge-dur: jerge-ber P. 12 С omits uriqui inu. 13 С omits uriqui. 18 amurliyul-un: amurliyuluYad С 26 biitugelcin-u: biitugegdekui C; obuy: yasun PC. 27 tegun-i: tegun-ii P. 28 dharma: dharma PC. 28-29 rma—jiruydaqui: rma-tan-u tarni-bar barayun-aca bicigdekui C. 31 amuyulang-iyar: amuyulang-dur С 190 191

tegiiber ada kiged iijel jasal:: qaltarin kesig ebecin kiged-i arilyaju: ked ba ulus-i ebden kusebesu : hum tisug-liige tegiisiigsen-e : 5 ner-e-yin ustig-ud-i bicigdekui:: toyusun-u talq-a masila : siracu mahi-yin cisun-iyar uyuju : qoyar jarimduY saran-u dursu-ber egiidcu : jabsar-tu ali kusegcid-i butiigegdekun :: 10 naiman quruYun imayu-yin cinege-tu koriig egiidcu gedergii ayuldaqui: mahi niyur-tu-yin jabdul-iyar: nigen [188r] tiimen toyatan tarni uriju :: keseg keseg oytacin uileddekui: 15 moren-ii youl-dur oyurbasu ele nigen kSan-dur tegiin-u erke-dur oruyuluyu : qong keriy-e sir-a sibayun-u bey-e-yi egiidcu :: manu mali-a rocan-a-ber: er-e em-e butugegdekun-ii ner-e-yi bicijii: 20 erlig-tin jug qanduju niyuca tami ungsiydaqui: jegiin kol-iyer daruju ele :: kumun-u silbin yadasun-iyar qadaydaqui: nigen k§an-dur tedeger qayacayuluyu : tendece egun-iyer nitulqu-yin: 25 jangiiile-yinjerge-yi nomlasuyai :: jiryuyan niyur-tu jiryuyan mutur-tu jiryuyan kol-tiiba: ese bugesii nigen niyur-tu dorben mutur-tu ba : nigen niyur-tu qoyar yar-tu ber boluyu : mahi