The 9th International Conference Buddhism & Australia
Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia Illustrations
|Articles by alphabetic order|
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I. The 3 liberations are:
- 1. "Whosoever being filled with determination (adhimokkha, q.v.), considers all formations as impermanent (anicca), such a one attains the conditionless liberation.
- 2. Whosoever being filled with tranquillity, considers all formations as painful (dukkha), such a one attains the desireless liberation.
- 3. Whosoever being filled with wisdom, considers all formations as without a self (anattā), such a one attains the emptiness liberation" (Vis.M. XXI, 70 = Pts.M. II, p. 58).
(1) and (2) are mentioned and explained in M. 43, under the name of deliverances of mind (ceto-vimutti, q.v.). - (2) and (3) appear in Dhs. (344ff, 353ff) in the section on supermundane consciousness (see Atthasālini Tr., p. 299ff).
- (1) Whilst remaining in the fine-material sphere (rūpī), one perceives corporeal forms: this is the first liberation.
- (2) "Not perceiving corporcal forms on one's own person, one perceives corporcal forms externally: this is the 2nd liberation.
- (4) "Through the total ovcrcoming of the corporeality-perceptions, the vanishing of the reflex-perceptions, and the non-attention to the multiformity-perceptions, with the idea 'Unbounded is space', one reaches the sphere of unbounded space (ākāsānañcāyatana) and abides therein: this is the 4th liberation.
- (5) "Through the total ovcrcoming of the sphere of unbounded space, and with the idea 'Unbounded is consciousness', one reaches the sphere of unbounded consciousness (viññānañcāyatana) and abides therein: this is the 5th liberation.
- (6) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of unbounded consciousness, and with the idea 'Nothing is there', one reaches the sphere of nothingness (ākiñeaññāyatana) and abides therein: this is the 6th liberation.
- (7) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of nothingness, one reaches the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception (n'eva-saññā-nāsaññāyatana) and abides therein: this is the 7th liberation .
- (8) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, one reaches the extinction of perception and feeling (s. nirodha-samāpatti): this is the 8th liberation.
According to Pts.M. this mental state is produced also by concentrating the mind on the 4 sublime states, i.e. all-embracing kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity, in consequence of which all beings appear perfectly pure and glorified, and thus the mind turns to the beautiful.